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The difference in grains of moisture between the outdoor air and indoor air design condition. (See Table Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;1)

In this manual, a value of 230 Btuh per person is used to estimate the latent loads that are associated with occupants, appliances and plumbing fixtures. 

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Duct heat gain depends on duct CFM, duct size and shape, insulation, velocity, length of the run, tightness of the duct construction, and temperature difference across duct wall. Since none of these are known until after the system has been designed, the following procedure is recommended. a.

Ignore heat gains for ducts located within the conditioned space.

b.

Use Table Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;7B to estimate the duct gains for ducts which run in unconditioned spaces.



Unconditioned R4 R4 Basement In or Under ** ** Concrete Slab **Refer to ACCA Manual J For geographic locations having winter design temperatures below 5EF, increase above insulation levels.

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State or local energy codes or utility standards may specify duct insulation requirements or they may refer to ASHRAE Standard 90.2; otherwise refer to Section 2.3.17 of this manual to determine when duct insulation is required for heating. Note that the duct insulation requirements for cooling are similar except that duct insulation is required for: a.

Cooling ducts which are located in unconditioned (insulated or uninsulated) basements.

b.

Cooling ducts located in any crawl space (whether vented or unvented, insulated or uninsulated).

Use the Table 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1 to determine the amount of insulation that should be installed on ducts which do require insulation. Duct Location Totally Exposed to Outdoors Attics and Garages Open or Uninsulated Crawl Space Exterior Walls, No Wall Insulation Enclosed, Insulated Crawl Space

Recommended Level

Minimum Level

R6

R4

R6

R4

R6

R4

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R4

R2

NOTE: A suitable vapor barrier should be installed over all external duct installation.



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Ventilation is defined as outdoor air that is introduced into the conditioned space. Mechanical ventilation may be required to introduce â&#x20AC;&#x153;freshâ&#x20AC;? outdoor air into an unusually tight house to dilute odors and to control possible toxic gas buildup. In some cases, mechanical ventilation may be required to provide make up air for appliance exhaust fans, and kitchen or toilet exhaust fans. Refer to Table Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;9 for a procedure which will help determine if ventilation is required. Also note the minimum ventilation requirements of ASHRAE in Section 2.2.2. If mechanical ventilation is used, the sensible and latent loads associated with the ventilation cfm become a load on the cooling equipment and should be calculated using Equations 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 and 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3. Use Calculation Procedure â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dâ&#x20AC;? in Appendix B to estimate the sensible and latent loads produced by ventilation. 

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Cooling equipment size should be based on the calculated sensible and the calculated latent cooling loads as indicated by Calculation Procedure â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dâ&#x20AC;?. Note that when the cooling equipment is operating at the outdoor design temperature, its sensible capacity must be at least equal to the calculated sensible load and its latent capacity must be equal to or greater than the calculated latent load. Since central air conditioning systems can only provide dehumidification when their cooling coil is chilled below the return air dew point temperature, this is the only time dehumidification can take place. An extremely overâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;sized air conditioning system will usually cycle on and off based on the sensible heat temperature sensed by the room thermostat. Spaces experiencing high internal humidity increases while

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Homes now have much tighter construction. Duct leakage will have an impact on system performance and utility consumption. In addition, duct leakage can cause undesirable room air pressure differences. Duct leakage in return air ducts passing through an unconditioned attic or crawl space causes a positive pressure throughout the entire house, with air exfiltration through envelope cracks. Leakage in supply ducts passing through an unconditioned attic or crawl space can cause a negative pressure throughout the house with a reverse infiltration effect. Duct leakage from ductwork located in the conditioned space may not cause infiltration problems, but can cause zone to zone air balance and temperature control problems. Insulation Types Mechanically Cooled

Duct Location

A leaking duct system operating in combination with kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans, a fireplace, and with the added air buoyancy forces caused by wind and building height, can result in a significant system performance loss. A room under high pressurization may not allow conditioned supply air flow to enter from a supply register, while a negative pressure in a room may not allow an exhaust fan to exhaust odors or contaminates. 

Long term air infiltration or exfiltration driven by a significant duct leakage problem, may cause permanent mold and mildew damage to the structure when moisture migration is not properly controlled. Heating Zone3 I II III I II III I II III

C, V2, and W

Exterior of Building Unconditioned Attics, Crawl Spaces, and Garages

A and V2

In Walls, within Floor–Ceiling Spaces1

A and V2

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None Required

None Required

None Required

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Insulation may be omitted on that portion of a duct which is located within a wall or a floor–ceiling space where both sides of this space are exposed to conditioned air and where this space is not ventilated or otherwise exposed to unconditioned air. Vapor Barrier shall be required on conditioned air supply ducts only. Heating Degree Days Zone I – Below 4500 Degree Days Zone II – 4501 to 8000 Degree Days Zone III – Over 8000 Degree Days

Type A–B C

NOTE: When design temperature indicates a dew point temperature less than 60EF (16EC) vapor barrier will not be required. INSULATION TYPES: A B C V

1” thick 0.75 lb./cu. ft. fiber blanket. 2” thick 0.75 lb./cu. ft. mineral fiber blanket. 3” thick 0.75 lb./cu. ft. Mineral fiber blanket. Vapor Barrier with perm rating not greater than 0.05 perms. W Weather Proof.

Description 1” thick 1.5 to 3 lb./cu. ft. Mineral blanket (duct liner) 1–1/2” thick 3 to 10 lb./cu. ft. Mineral fiber board

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In the liquid line, if the pressure on the liquid refrigerant decreases while its temperature remains the same or is increased, some of this refrigerant will eventually flash into a gas. If this occurs, the expansion valve or capillary tube operates inefficiently and the system therefore will lose some of its capacity.

velocity normally should not be less than 1,500 fpm on vertical piping. 

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The refrigerant sizing charts found in Appendix A are based on values normally used in HVAC systems.

The pressure drop caused by friction in the liquid line should not exceed 3 psi. Horizontal lines can usually be sized well within this limit. Difficulty may be encountered in long vertical risers, as the pressure at the bottom of the riser is greater than at the top of the riser.

Equations and correction factor tables may be used to size systems for other conditions.

This is important to remember, because the pressure on the liquid refrigerant determines the temperature at which it will boil or change to a gas. If refrigerant at the bottom of this riser happens to be just at the balance point between liquid and gas, it will boil into a gas instantly if the pressure on it is decreased. Therefore, the refrigerant must be subcooled enough to ensure it will not change to a gas when its pressure decreases to that which exists at the top of the riser.

Maximum care in handling refrigeration tubing, fittings and accessories shall be exercised and all components shall be internally clean, dry and free from any foreign substance. Dehydrated and sealed copper tubing Type L or K (seamless) shall be properly dehydrated and annealed for proper forming. Soft drawn tubing shall be formed with the aid of appropriate bending tools and without kinks or reductions in the tubing diameter.

Valves, sight glasses, strainers, and driers also are a source of additional pressure drop. Subcooling of 10EF (5.6EC) is generally sufficient for elevations up to 25 feet. Check on the equipment being installed for the liquid line size and the degree of subcooling provided to verify that there is enough lifting capacity to prevent refrigerant flashing. 

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The suction line carries cool refrigerant vapor or gas and compressor oil from the evaporator to the inlet of the compressor. Because the refrigerant in this line is a gas, which does not mix with oil, the piping must be designed so that oil will not return in large quantities which may cause broken valves. The system also should be designed and installed so that liquid refrigerant can not return to the compressor. Although it is important to prevent liquid refrigerant from draining from the evaporator to the compressor during shutdown, it is just as important to avoid unnecessary traps in the suction line near the compressor. Such traps would collect oil, which on startup might be carried to the compressor causing serious damage. In general, the pressure drop for the suction line should be a maximum of 2EF (1.1EC) for 1 psi (pound per square inch) to avoid loss of system capacity. The 



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a.

Hard drawn tubing must be joined by means of wrought copper fittings or nonâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;porous brass fittings. A phosphorus bearing alloy which does not require flux is recommended. An inert gas such as dry nitrogen should be vented through the tubing during the brazing or hard soldering operation to prevent formation of oxide scale on the piping interior.

b.

Soft drawn tubing may be joined by means of soldered fittings or flare or compression fittings suitable for refrigerant lines.

c.

Tubing length should be selected as close as possible to the job requirements. Excess tubing should be coiled carefully and the loop supported with the coils in a horizontal plane.

d.

Since both refrigerant lines serve as hot gas discharge piping on heat pumps, a phosphorous bearing alloy which does not require flux should be used in all heat pump applications.

e.

Refrigerant pipelines must be properly supported in order to prevent sagging. Vibration isolation must be provided to avoid noise transmission into the structure. If necessary, flexible connections should be added to the tubing to avoid transmission vibration.

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Smacna residential comfort system installation standards manual seventh edition