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– Review of the basics of Physical Fitness – Training the energy systems – Principles of Fitness Development – The FITT Principles – Training Systems and Training Methods – The training session – Seasonal training

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Review of the basics of Physical Fitness Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of health and well-being) and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations). Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, and enough rest. In previous years, fitness was commonly defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, as automation increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution rendered this definition insufficient. These days, physical fitness is considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations. Components of Physical Fitness Health related • • • •

Metabolic Morphological Bone integrity Other

• Body composition • Cardiovascular fitness • Flexibility • Muscular endurance • Muscle strength

Skill related • • • • • • •

Agility Balance Coordination Power Speed Reaction time Other

Sports • Team sport • Individual sport • Lifetime • Other

Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles, often with a view to peaking at a particular time. Some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness. General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. A regular moderate workout regimen and healthy diet can improve general appearance markers of good health such as muscle tone, healthy skin, hair and nails, while preventing age or lifestyle-related reductions in health and the series of heart and organ failures that accompany inactivity and poor diet.

Training the energy systems Muscles have two systems for getting energy. – The aerobic systems uses oxygen. – The anaerobic systems does use oxygen When you play a sport, your muscles use the aerobic system most of the time. They switch to the anaerobic system for all-out effort (like a tennis volley). Training makes both systems work better. But the training is different for each.

The aerobic system Glucose + Oxygen (from lungs)

energy carbon dioxide water

The anaerobic system energy Glucose

For aerobic training........ - Choose a rhythmic activity like swiming, cycling, running, tracking or jumping rope, that uses large muscles. - Work in your aerobic training zone. That means, at least 60% of your maximum heart rate, unless you are very unfit. As you get fitter, you can move up to 75%. - For best results: At least 15 to 20 minutes. At least three times a week.

lactic acid Lactic acid causes pain and fatigue in muscles,so you can't continue.

For anaerobic training........ Use all-out effort for any of the above activities - Short bursts of all-out effort, then lighter effort or rest. This gives the body time to remove lactic acid. - Take care. Anaerobic training puts extra stress on your heart. If you are unfit, do several weeks of aerobic training before you start anaerobic.

Principles of Fitness Development

Training is a program of exercise designed to help you reach your fitness goals or targets. In order to ensure that a fitness training or exercise program is safe and effective, it is vital that certain guiding principles are applied. image 2

The keys to selecting the right kinds of exercises for developing and maintaining each of the basic components of fitness are found in the principles of specificity, overload, reversibility, progression, diminishing returns, and individual differences.

Specificity The type of training in which individuals engage should be directed specifically at improving their abilities in life. Therefore, choose the right kind of activities to improve each physical fitness component, and the right combination of physical fitness components to help in activities of daily living. Every form of exercise or training has a different effect on your body. For example, a bicep curl with a weight will develop strength in the arms; it wil not affect any other part of the body or component of fitness. Marathon runners wil undertake mainly endurance work during their training and Weight Lifters will undertake mainly strength work during their work. “ The specificity effect each type of training has on the body�

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Overload If a person works often (frequency) enough, hard (intensity) enough, and long (duration) enough to load the body above its resting level, physical fitness will improve. If this is done regularly over a period of time, the body will gradually adapt to the increase in demands. The term overload does not refer to the idea that one needs to overexert or exert at high intensities to obtain gains in fitness; it simply means that one needs to load the body more than it is usually accustomed to. To make the body fitter,you must make it

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work harder than normal, over a prolonged period of time. As a result, it will adapt to the extra demand placed upon it by getting fitter.

Reversibility Physical fitness or the effects of a physical activity program or an exercise program cannot be stored. If a person stops training for a period of time (three to five days, in some cases) a process of detraining will begin. The gains in fitness that were made begin to reverse themselves.

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At least three balanced workouts a week (three hours minimum) are necessary to maintain a good level of fitness.

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Progression Increasing the frequency, intensity, and/or duration of an activity over periods of time is necessary for continued improvement in physical fitness. Improvements in physical fitness are realized fairly rapidly at the onset of an exercise or training program. The rate of improvement will gradually slow down and level off (adaptation) if an overload is present (meaning that the load is increasing and that there is progress). At high levels of physical fitness it may even be necessary to change the type(s) of exercise(s) being performed.

•Gradually building up the level of exercise or training to ensure that fitness continues to be developed. image 8

Individual differences Every person has a unique physical and psychological makeup that requires a unique training program. Factors that may play a role are current fitness level, gender, age, heredity, susceptibility to injury, rest and recovery needs, and diet. Two people working out with the same program could experience completely different results.

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The FITT Principles A well-designed personal physical activity plan will outline how often, how long, and how hard a person exercises, and what kinds of exercises are selected. The exercise frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT principle) are key components of any fitness plan or routine. •Frequency - How often you train? Once, twice, three times per week?

• Intensity – How hard do you train? 50%, 65%, 75% of maximum ability? •Time - How long do you train for each session? 35Mins, 1hr, 1'30 hrs?

Type - What type of trainning are you doing? Weights, cardio-vascular, Flexibility workout?

Fitness and/or Health Benefits F frequency I intensity

T time

T type

moderate to vigorous Cardiorespiratory Endurance (CRE) (Aerobic)

3 to 5 times per week

intensity (60% to 85% of

running minimum of 20 minutes


cycling crosscountry skiing

heart rate) 2 or 3 times per week, Muscular Strength

with rest days in between bouts

Muscular Endurance

high resistance (sets to maximum capability)

3 sets of 16 to 20 repetitions

per week,

20 minutes

with rest days in

low to moderate resistance


controlled movement


per session 3 sets of 16 to 20 repetitions

Slow and


per session

minimum of


Active Daily Living /

20 minutes

2 or 3 times



minimum of

10 to 12 minutes

free weights universal gym tubing body weight free weights universal gym tubing body weight


Low to

30 to 60





Training Systems and Training Methods The Training System defines the general idea of the work that we will develop. The Training Methods provide the specifics of the training. Physical Fitness and Training Systems:

Endurance Training Systems – Continuous Systems –

Fractional Systems

Strength Training Systems – Maximum load Systems –

Sub-maximum load Systems

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Muscular Endurance Training Systems – Isometric System –

Isocinetic System

Plyometric System


Flexibility Training Systems

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– Static – Dynamic

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The training session Every training session should have three parts: The Warm-Up, The Training Activity and The Cool-Down.

The Warm-Up - Start with a little jogging - Next, stretch all the main joints - Then do a little practice for the training activity. At least 20-30 minutes. Move to the main activity as soon as you can.

The Training Activity It could be any of these... - a session of continous, fartlek, interval or circuit training. - a skills training session - a practice match. What it does Depending on the activity, it can.. - improve your fitness - sharpen your skills - improve teamwork Time depends on the activity.

The Cool-Down - First, do some jogging and other gentle exercise. - Then do some stretching. Pay special attention to the main joints you used. - At least 20-30 minutes.(It's just as important as the warm-up.

Seasonal Training Many sports are seasonal. Football and rugby are played in winter, beachvolley in summer. For the player, the year is divided into stages. The length of each stage may vary from sport to sport.

The player's year

Preparation - out-of-season (6 weeks) - pre-season (6 weeks)

Out-of-season Aim: a high level of general fitness, through ... - continuous training for aerobic fitness - strength training for major muscle groups - a healthy diet Pre-season preparation Aim: peak fitness for the sport, through... - anaerobic training (short fast sprints) - extra strength and power training for key muscles - skills training,with training circuits ans practice matches

Competition (32 weeks)

Competition Aims: to win! Through... - playing a couple of matches a week - training to maintain fitness - care to avoid injury and fatigue

Recuperation (8 weeks)

Recuperation Aim: complete recovery from competition, through... - rest, relaxation and other sports to maintain a level of fitness

All athletes divide their year into stages like these, based around the main events they want to enter. Players and athletes may have to travel abroad to train and compete. This means.... – extra expense – time needed to acclimatise to a new environment.

Bibliography Gallagher R., Fountain S., Gee L. Physical Education, through diagrams. Oxford Revision Guides Kleinman I. Complete Physical Education Plans for grades 7-12. Human Kinetics. United States, 2001. McCracken B. It's Not Just Gym Anymore, Human Kinetics. United States, 2001.

Web References Ppt:

www: Images •Image 1: •Image 2: •Image 3: •Image 4: •Image 5: •Image 6: •Image 7: •Image 8: •Image 9: •Image 10: •Image 11: •Image 12: •Image 13: e+commons+licencias.jpg

Note: This material was prepared by Victor E. Rodríguez Rodríguez for the BilingualSection of Physical Education (English) of the IES. A Guía, Vigo. I used images from of and http:// sites, and in all the images I have added their reference. In this work, I have also included portions of the text of the different sites, which are reflected in the bibliography at the end of the text . This material was elaborated for exclusively educational purposes and non-commercial uses.

Nota: Este material foi elaborado por Víctor E. Rodríguez Rodríguez para a Sección Bilingüe deEducación Física (inglés) do IES. A Guía de Vigo. Utiliceí imáxenes de lugares web ( e ) e en todas elas engadín a súa referencia. Neste traballo, tamén incluín porcións de texto de diferentes páxinas web, reflectidas na bibliografía ao final do texto. Este material foi elaborado con fins exclusivamente didácticos e sen uso comercial.

Training Notes