Map the ethnic and religious diversity of your country and then map the diversity of media channels available. Who speaks and who is silent? Why? Introduction
To best describe the ethnic and religious diversity of Chile, ill have to go a little back in time, and describe the indigenous groups that were living in the land before the Spaniards arrived, it is also appropriate to mention that the 1st European to set foot on Chile, was in fact a Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan who landed at ChiloĂŠ Island following his voyage, in 1520, through the strait that now bears his name. The region was then known to its native population as Tchili, a Native American word meaning "snow.
When the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia arrived to Chile in 1541, he founded Santiago, which remains the capital of the country, there were different indigenous groups that had different ways of living and cultures, and they adapted and survived depending on the climate and the geography of their surroundings. Following the geography from north to south I can describe:
The Aymaras: They lived in the high plains. Their economy was based in agriculture and foraging.
The Atacameños: One of the groups more developed in the north of the country, together
established specially in the mountain valleys between Arica and San Pedro de Atacama.
The Changos: Fishers and nomads, they traveled the coast between Arica and Copiapo, they travelled in boats made of inflated seal skins.
The Diaguitas: The specialized in agriculture and in the pottery art, they lived between the Copiapo Valley and Santiago.
The Incas: even though the Incaican Empire was more related to Peru, in their thirst for power, ventured into Chilean lands, around 1470, and they occupated almost half the country, where they encountered the Mapuches, decisively defeated them into crossing into the Lake District.
The Mapuches (Araucanioans): they were warriors, without doubt the biggest resistance to the Spanish arrival, they lived between the River Itata and Tolten, they
were agriculturers and they were divided in smaller clans the Picunches, Mapuches and Huilliches.
The Chonos, Kawaskar and Yamanas: Fishing nomads, they lived and moved around the Occidental Patagonia.
The Polynesian: People ho inhabited the Isla de Pascua, or better known as the Easter Island.
Chileâ€™s Origins and Ethnic Backgrounds
Chile's official language is Spanish. The two main ethnic groups are white and mestizo, which composed 94 percent of the population. Mestizo is a mix of European and Native American peoples. The Native American population composed 3 percent of the population. Some of the indigenous populations still use native languages, mainly the Araucanian language. Indian groups are largely concentrated in the Andes in northern Chile, in some valleys of south-central Chile, and along the southern coast.
The largest ethnic group in Chile arrived from Spain and the Basque regions in the south of France. Estimates of the number of descendants from Basques in Chile range from 10% (1,600,000) to as high as 27% (4,500,000). Since Independence and throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, new groups of European immigrants arrived in Chile, principally being from: Spain, France England, Italy, Germany, Croatia, Netherlands, Russia, Greece, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland,
Armenia, Poland, Hungary, Portugal, among other countries. All of these immigrant groups had an important social, cultural, and economic impact on the country. The immigrant communities were distributed throughout the territory. Thus, those of German origin have a great influence in the regions of AraucanĂa, Los RĂos, and Los Lagos; Croatians in the cities of Antofagasta and Punta Arenas; and the British in Santiago, Punta Arenas, ValparaĂso, and in other coastal cities due to their close relationship with the Chilean Navy. Although the majority of European-origin immigrants came from Western Europe, there exist certain communities of smaller significance whose members come from Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, arriving in Chile primarily to escape persecutions against them during the first half of the 20th century. Those immigrants coming from Eastern Europe were principally Jews arriving in the mid-20th century and coming from the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Romania, and the former nations of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. They arrived in Chile escaping Nazism and Communism between the 1930s and 1950s. In the same way, some immigrants from the Caucasus, principally from Armenia, established themselves in Chile during the first decades of the 20th century due to the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Ottoman Empire in some Eastern areas of Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon. Other historically significant immigrant groups include: Croatia whose number of descendants today is estimated to be 380,000 persons, the equivalent of 2.4% of the population. Over 700,000 Chileans may have British (English, Scottish and Welsh) origin. 4,5% of Chile's Population., Chileans of Greek descent are estimated 90,000 to 120,000. Most of them live either in the Santiago area or in the Antofagasta area. Chile is one of the 5 countries with the most descendants of Greeks in the world. The
descendants of Swiss add 90,000, an estimated that about 5% of the Chilean population has some French ancestry, and 600,000 to 800,000 Italians. Other groups of European descendants have followed, but are found in smaller numbers. They did transform the country culturally, economically and politically. European immigration, and to a lesser degree from the Middle East, produced during the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries large "waves" in America. After the Atlantic coasts of the Southern Cone (that is, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil), Chile was the most significant Latin American destination and was favoured mainly by the intense traffic through the extreme south of the country until the opening of the Panama Canal in 1920, although other groups came from Argentina across the Cordillera. It is estimated that near the 5% of the Chilean population is of Asian origin immigrants descendant, of the Middle East (i.e. Palestinians, Syrians, Lebanese and Middle East Armenians), are around 800,000. Israelis, both Jewish and non-Jewish citizens of the nation of Israel may be included. Chile is home to a large population of immigrants, mostly Christian. Roughly 500,000 Palestinian descendants are believed to reside in Chile. In recent years, Chile had a growing East Asian population: considerably from China (see Chinese Chilean), a more recent wave from Japan and South Korea (see Koreans in Chile). The earliest wave of East Asian immigration took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly Chinese and Japanese contract labourers. There are less than 100,000 East Asians in Chile, about one percent of the population. Chile administers Easter Island a territory 4,100 km west of the mainland. The Rapa Nui people are native to the island and are Polynesian in origin. About 3,500 live on
the island, but 10,000 more came to the mainland in the 20th century. The Rapa Nui people fought to obtain self-autonomous government in Easter Island with success. There is a sizable population Gypsies in Chile. They are widely and easily recognized, and continue to hold on to their traditions and language and many continue to live semi-nomadic lifestyles travelling from city to city and living in small tented communities.
70 percent of the population over age 14 identify as Roman Catholic and 15.1 percent as evangelical. The term "evangelical" referred to all non-Catholic Christian churches with the exception of the Orthodox Church (Greek, Persian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and Armenian), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses. Approximately 90 percent of evangelicals are Pentecostal. Wesleyan, Lutheran, Reformed Evangelical, Presbyterian, Anglican, Episcopalian, Baptist, and Methodist churches are also present. Groups that constitute less than 5 percent of the population include Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Jews, Orthodox Christians, Muslims, Baha'is, Buddhists, and members of the Unification Church. Of those surveyed, all other religions total 493,147 persons, or 4.4 percent, and atheists and those "indifferent" regarding religion constitute approximately 8.3 percent. Indigenous people make up 5 percent (780,000) of the population. Sixty-five percent of indigenous people identify themselves as Catholic, 29 percent as evangelical, and 6 percent as "other." Mapuche communities, constituting 87 percent of indigenous citizens, continue to respect traditional religious leaders (Longkos and Machis), and
anecdotal information indicates a high degree of syncretism in worship and traditional healing practices. Members of the largest religious groups (Catholic, Pentecostal, and other evangelical churches) are numerous in the capital and are also found in other regions of the country. Jewish communities are located in Santiago, ValparaĂso, ViĂąa del Mar, Valdivia, Temuco, ConcepciĂłn, La Serena, and Iquique (although there is no synagogue in Iquique). Mosques are located in Santiago, Iquique, and Coquimbo. The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and other laws and policies contributed to the generally free practice of religion. The law at all levels protects this right in full against abuse, either by governmental or private actors. Church and state are officially separate. The 1999 law on religion prohibits religious discrimination; however, the Catholic Church enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment. Government officials attend Catholic events and also major Protestant and Jewish ceremonies.
Print Media El Mercurio - conservative daily La Tercera - daily La Nacion - government-owned daily La Segunda - conservative evening daily Diario Financiero - business daily Santiago Times - English-language
Most press activity occurs in the central valley of Chile, particularly in Chile's largest city, the capital Santiago. In 1996, the dailies range from nationally distributed and
high quality newspapers to small-town tabloids. These newspapers are distributed between four and seven times per week. Distribution ranges from as much as 300,000 copies for El Mercurio (in its Sunday edition) to 3,000 copies of a regional paper. Chile's capital, Santiago, has nine major newspapers with a combined daily circulation of approximately 479,000. The circulation of local dailies in the regions outside Santiago was approximately 220,000. Assuming an average readership of three persons per newspaper, total readership countrywide could be estimated at more than 2 million readers per day. Nearly all towns with populations of 50 thousand or more had newspapers that focused on local news and events. Apart from the publications of Chile's two newspaper chains, there were approximately 25 other independent regional dailies. These had a small circulation within their towns. One of the most important regional dailies was Concepci贸n's El Sur , with a circulation of approximately 30 thousand. Other important and widely read periodicals were the non dailies that appeared two to four times per month and were published for a nation-wide readership. The biweekly newsmagazine, Ercilla had an approximate circulation of 12 thousand. Other nondailies with relatively large circulations were the three business-oriented monthly magazines, America Econom铆a, Capital, and Gesti贸n. The two popular magazines, Cosas and Caras were biweeklies with Life magazine format. They published interviews with popular stars and athletes, as well as political interviews of national and international interest. Other widely-read publications in Chile included the following weekly and monthly magazines: El Siglo, the Communist Party's official weekly publication; Punto Final, a biweekly publication of the extreme-left group Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario (Revolutionary Left Movement); Paula, a women's magazine; Mensaje, an intellectual monthly magazine published by the
Jesuits; and several sports and TV/motion picture magazines. Circulation information was not available for these non-dailies. El Mercurio-chain also published two other widely read dailies, the mass-oriented, Las Últimas Noticias and El Mercurio's afternoon supplement, La Segunda. According the official statistics by the United States Department of State, the daily El Mercurio attracted conservative audiences. The second media chain was Consorcio Periodístico de Chile (COPESA), owned by Alvaro Saieh, Alberto Kasis, and Carlos Abumohor. COPESA published the news daily La Tercera for national distribution. La Tercera was a Santiago-based national newspaper with a daily circulation of about 250,000. The highest daily readership in Chile. El Mercurio competes with COPESA's La Tercera for newspaper readers. COPESA also publishes three other periodicals for national distribution: the popular magazine, La Cuarta; the free daily tabloid, La Hora; and the newsweekly, Qué Pasa, which offered political analyses of current events. Qué Pasa has an approximate circulation of 20 thousand readers. COPESA created sites on the Internet for its publications. The publisher also had affiliations with smaller-scale print and digital publishers. One such affiliation was with the digital company that produced "RadioZero," a music Internet site for younger audiences.
Most dailies are printed in Spanish, but there are a few foreign language dailies. There are also several English-language economic and financial newspapers published in the metropolitan centre of Santiago. These are The News Review, published twice a week, and the daily Santiago Times. One of the longest running magazines in Chilean history, Revista Católica, has circulated since the nineteenth century. Mensaje, an intellectual monthly magazine published by the Jesuits, has a nation-wide readership.
During the military dictatorship, Pinochet increased the role of the Catholic Church. He established a strong public relationship with Cardinal Francisco Javier Errazuriz, who also delivered Pinochet's resignation letter of his senator-for life post. Pinochet's public relationship with the Church was perhaps intended to divert attention from accusations of human rights violations during his dictatorship. Since independence (except during years of military dictatorship), Chilean press reflected a strong political orientation and represented the political interests of the conservatives, liberals, ultra-rights, and ultra-lefts. In the nineteenth century, El Independiente represented the interests of the conservative party and La Republica, of the Chilean Liberal Party. Nearly all political parties have their own Internet site. They also publish pamphlets and small-scale periodicals to promote their political ideologies, strategies, and candidates. Most politically active groups regularly use the mainstream media to promote their policies and ideologies. Some of these political groups and their publications are: the Communist Party (legalized in Chile in 1990) which publish El Siglo on a weekly basis; and the ultra-left group, Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario (Revolutionary Left Movement), which publishes the bi-weekly Punto Final. The center-left group, the Concertaci贸n (Concerted Action) a coalition of Socialists, Communists, and some factions of the Christian Democratic The most prestigious daily, El Mercurio, has both a morning and an evening edition. Its largest sales came from the Sunday edition with a distribution in 2002 of 300,000 copies. El Mercurio was considered the right-wing/conservative paper for middle-aged and up audiences. La Tercera seemed to appeal to popular and younger audiences.
National Television of Chile - TVN is owned, but not funded, by the state, and it functions independently from it; a very particular case of public television in South America. A board of directors, appointed by the President of the Republic and later ratified by the Senate, oversees control over the station TV Universidad Catolica de Chile (Canal 13) - owned by Catholic university, sometimes the channel is regarded as conservative and right-wing. Its owned by Andronico Luksic, one of the richest man in Chile Chilevision – private On August 28, 2010, it was announced that Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., a TimeWarner company had reached an agreement to purchase it. These assets do not include the analog television channel frequency which is still owned by Universidad de Chile Megavision – Private, owned by Ricardo Claro, billionaire and South American industrialist who was a leading force in Dictator Augusto Pinochet's successful efforts to lure American investment back to Chile in the 1970s. Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (UCV) - owned by Catholic university of Valparaiso, only covers the metropolitan and 5th region. Red TV - Is a private TV channel in Chile. Owned by Mexican businessman Remigio Ángel
airs Hollywood blockbusters (especially in primetime). It is also the TV station that broadcasts the local version of the reality TV show "Big Brother".
Chile has many radio and television broadcast stations, as well as an increasing number of Internet users Chile has at least 180 AM and 64 FM radio broadcast
stations. There is an average of 5.18 million radios. Chile has five main national broadcast television networks. All of them, including the state-owned but autonomous National Television (TVN), are self-supporting through advertising. Television broadcasting stations in Santiago are Channel 4, La Red; Channel 5, Universidad Católica Valparaíso (UCV); Channel 7, Televisión Nacional (TVN); Channel 9, Megavisión; Channel 11, Chilevisión; Channel 13, Corporación de Televisión de la Universidad Católica; and the UHF television station Gran Santiago Television, Channel 21. Programming depends heavily on foreign series and movies. Dubbed cinema and TV products from the United States predominated. However, Mexican, Venezuelan, Brazilian, Argentine, and Japanese material can also be seen. Locally produced news, magazine shows, variety shows, and soap operas were of high quality and attracted large prime-time audiences. Cable television reaches an estimated 1.900.000 households in Chile, 51 percent of them in Santiago. Most homes and apartment complexes, particularly in Santiago, are hooked up to receive cable. For some renters, access to cable is included in the monthly rent payments. Two major cable systems, Metropolis-Intercom and VTRCabled, enjoy near monopoly status in the business as they provided cable services to 95 percent of the country. Both cable companies rebroadcast all local stations, as well as major international channels from the United States, Italy, France, Germany, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. U.S. programs offered to Chilean audiences included Cable Network News International (CNN International), Music Television (MTV), Turner Network Television (TNT), Worldnet, the Sports cable network (ESPN), Cartoon Network, Home Box Office-Olé (HBO Olé), and Maximum Service Television (MSTV).
MSTV is a forty-five-year old national association of local television stations dedicated to preserving and improving the technical quality of free, universal, community-based television service to the public. Radio is a prime source of current news to millions of Chileans, and the national networks devote large budgets to maintaining professional news staff. The number one national network in the metropolitan area of Santiago was Radio Cooperativa (760 AM and 93.3 FM). Two other news radio stations were Radio Chilena (660 AM and 100.9 FM) and Radio Agricultura (570 AM and 92.1 FM). The major musical and commercial FM radio stations were Rock y Pop, Pudahuel-La Radio de Chile, Coraz贸n, Rom谩ntica, and Activa.
Radio Radio Cooperativa - news-based, national, private network Pudahuel FM - private Bio Bio La Radio - private network El Conquistador FM - private network Radio Horizonte - music-based, private network
Conclusion The Ethnic groups in Chile are not very varied, as the statistics shows us, most of the population are “mestizos” or mixed South American people with Europeans. It is a shame that the very few remaining indigenous people in Chile, are some how discriminated, they have difficulties finding jobs, and mixing with the rest of the population, many of these cultures have almost disappeared, their languages lost, it’s a real shame, because in fact, they were the only indigenous who were able to stop the Incas, and fight the Spanish conquest for more than 300 years. Because of the Spanish, most of the population is catholic, but I must say that very few maybe half of the 90% actually practises it, my parents are both catholic, but we never went to mass or prayed, i was not baptised because my parents thought, I should decide which religion I would want to follow when old enough. The religion in Chile seems a thing of the past, and new generations are more open minded, and pay little attention to the trivialities of Church. Finally about the media, y can conclude that even if we don’t completely feel European because of our ancestry, we definitely have European culture, the biggest companies in Chile are still owned by Spanish corporations, the TV programme is largely based on European and North American copycats, there is a lack of programs that remind us of our traditions and culture, and the media s plagued with celebrity gossip and soup operas. Since Chile returned to democracy, the flow of information is some how free, there is no evident manipulation of news, although one can see in the different media outlets which ones are more or less conservative. But then again it befalls on us to make the choice from which source we want to be informed.
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Published on Feb 22, 2011