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HISTORY.COM

ISSUE NO. 18

The 70's THE ULTIMATE CELEB GOSSIP PAGE 6

GAMES AND FUN! PAGE 5

THE BEST DECADE BY: VICTORIA POLIAK, MARCELO BARRERA, AND VICTOR DIAZ


Contents

06

Band Breakups? Big boy band groups-the Beatles randomly split up?

DEPARTMENTS 04

Book Review

05

Games

06

Gossip

07

Fashion

09

Education

010

Film

011

Food

013

Culture

014

Music

015

Daily Life

016

Sports

018

Law and Order

019

Foreign Affairs

021

Domestic Affairs

ON THE COVER Elton John closes out his show at the Staples Center.

07

Fashion vs. Comfort We ask experts in the fashion industry how to compromise being fashion-forward and comfortable at the same time.

010

What's New in Film?

016

Sports in the Seventies

Film is constantly changing and changing. Catch up on what was new in the 70s.

Champions, runners up, or last. After many playoffs, world series, and more, find out what's going on!


Book Review

01/28

THE SHINING

'77

Photographer Sabino Joson | Stylist Teagan Yatco | MUA Laura Divero

T

he Shining a breathtaking book of horror. In this book Stephen King has the main character called Jack torrance and his family go to the Overlook Hotel where he takes a job as a caretaker while he writes his play. As his son starts having disturbing visions by what he called “The Shining� and they unveils the darkness of the hotel which terrorize him and his family.

The Overlook hotels cures possesis Jack because it can not possess his son. The hotel makes him go and kill his son and wife. The hotel makes Jack bash his head to the point where he gets unrecognizable and later his own son and wife manage to lock him in the basement while the boiler explodes and kills him.

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GAMES G A L O R E "What Happened in the 70's" Version

THE 70'S

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THE ULTIMATE CELEB GOSSIP

THE BEATLES SING THEIR SWAN SONG The legendary rock band the Beatles spent the better part of three years splitting up in the late 1960s, and even longer than that hashing out who did what and why. And by the spring of 1970, there was little more than a complicated set of business relationships holding the group together. Each of the Beatles was attempting his musical interests outside of the band, and there were no plans in place to record together as a group. But as far as the public knew, this was just a momentary state of affairs. That all changed on April 10, 1970, when an ambiguous Paul McCartney “self-interview” was seized upon by the international media as an official release of a Beatles breakup. The occasion for the statements Paul issued to the press that day was the upcoming release of his debut solo album, "McCartney".

Nothing in Paul’s answers created a final statement about the Beatles’ fate, but his comments were nonetheless reported in the press supporting headlines like “McCartney Breaks Off With Beatles”. And whatever his intention at the time, Paul’s remarks provoked a further wedge within himself and his bandmates. In the May 14, 1970, issue of Rolling Stone, John Lennon lashed out at Paul in a way he’d never done openly: “He can’t have his own way, so he’s causing chaos,” John said. “I put out four albums last year, and I didn’t say anything about quitting.” By year’s end, Paul would file suit to suspend the Beatles’ business partnership, a legal process that would ultimately make official the unofficial breakup he declared.

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THE 70'S

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THE FASHION OF THE 70S The early 1970s fashion scene was very alike to 1969, just a bit more extravagant. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that a fashion revolution transpired in the 1970s. Polyester was the material of choice and vivid colors were everywhere. Men and women alike were wearing very snug fitting pants and platform footwear. By 1973, most women were wearing high cut boots and low cut pants. Early 1970s fashion was a fun era. It crowned some of the best elements of the 60s and perfected and/or exaggerated them. Some of the best clothing produced in the 1970s perfectly combined the mods with the hippies. Just when it seemed pants couldn’t flare anymore, the flare was almost gone. By the late 1970s the pantsuit, leisure suit, and tracksuit were what the average person was wearing. Every woman had a cowl neck sweater in her closet and every man owned a few striped v-neck velour shirts. Tunics, culottes, and robes were also very popular.

Sometimes it’s hard to determine which dresses were meant to be worn at home, and which ones were for a night on the town. Chest hair, medallions, polyester, butterfly collars, bell bottoms, skin-tight t-shirts, sandals, leisure suits, flowerpatterned dress shirts, sideburns and, yes, tennis headbands. There is one frequent theme throughout fashion in the 1970s: pants were tight fitting. And it is probably the first entire decade in which women could be seen wearing pants in every walk of life. It’s also hard to avoid the fact that color almost completely vanished by 1979. Earth tones, grays, whites, and blacks were back in full force, as people had clearly tired of the super bright tones of the early 1970s.

THE DO'S AND DON'TS

NO TM HE A D7 I0C' S | | 2 5 4


LEARNING IN STYLE THE 70'S

IN

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|

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ACT IN

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FUNDING


THE 70'S

the art of film film and theatre  Many known well-known movies were created in the 1970s. Movies like The Exorcist and the Godfather were made in the 70s. Also, the 70s were known as the Golden Age of Hollywood. This occured mostly because the war ended because during the 60s nobody was watching movies and Hollywood was doing very poorly. However, the 70s introduced a new age of film. Younger filmmakers began taking greater risks and restrictions regarding language. This had never been done before because people thought that an R- rated film would never win an Oscar. But in 1971, the movie The French Connection became the first R-rated movie to get an Oscar.

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FOUR OF THE TRENDIEST FOODS OF THE 70S Carrot Cake Carrot cake is a cake that contains carrots mixed into the batter.Who would have thought that the still very trendy carrot cake has been around for over 40 yeors! This 1970s favourite is still very much a part of our cake life now and is served in most coffee shops in one form or another.

Quiche Quiche is a savoury open tart or flan consisting of pastry crust filled with eggs, milk or cream, and cheese, meat, seafood or vegetables. Quiche can be served hot or cold. It is part of French cuisine but is also popular in other countries, particularly as party food.

Cheese Puffs Cheese puffs are a puffed corn snack, coated with a mixture of cheese or cheeseflavored powders. They are manufactured by extruding heated corn dough through a die that forms the particular shape. They may be ball-shaped, curly ("cheese curls"), straight, or irregularly shaped. Puffcorn is a similar food, without cheese flavoring.

Green Goddess Dressing Green goddess is a salad dressing, typically containing mayonnaise, sour cream, chervil, chives, anchovy, tarragon, lemon juice, and pepper. In the early 1970s, salad dressing maker Seven Seas produced a bottled version of this dressing. It is still made in limited quantities, although the company has since been purchased by Kraft Foods.

TASTY FOODS The 1970s were, to put it gently, an interesting decade. It was the decade of polyester and disco, of Watergate and the Iran hostage crisis, of Star Wars and Jaws, of All in the Family and The Muppet Show. It was also a captivating era to grow up in, and if you happened to spend your juvenile years during it, we bet you remember these foods. Some of today’s most favorite treats first appeared during this decade. Ben & Jerry’s, Combos, Reese’s Pieces, the Egg McMuffin, both Cocoa and Fruity Pebbles, granola bars, Twix, and instant ramen all burst onto the scene, and there was also an extensive influx of sugary snacks equipped directly toward children. Many of the popular dining and entertaining trends of the ’60s were brought over into the ’70s as well, but new styles of dining – and an entirely new meal, brunch – paved the way for how we still eat today in many ways. For every product that’s stood the test of time for the past 40 years, however, there are loads of food products that have been all but entirely forgotten. But some of the trendiest foods of the ’70s are back in style today, or never went out of fashion, to start with including fondue, tiramisu, and pasta primavera. Fondue was one of the prominent food trends of the 1960s, and its popularity extended right through the 1970s. Why?

Because it’s the ideal party food: melted cheese in a big communal pot. Once Americans got a taste of it, fondue caught on like wildfire, and after a period of being recognized a novelty, it’s once again popular. Tiramisu was first invented in Italy in the 1960s and made its way across the pond and onto the dessert menu at all Italian restaurants in America by the mid-’70s. A layered dessert of espresso-dunked ladyfingers, mascarpone, and cocoa powder, tiramisu is still pretty popular, but nowhere near as dominant as it once was. After appearing as an off-menu special at New York City’s famed Le Cirque in the mid-1970s, pasta primavera erupted onto the American dining scene and is today universally regarded as one of the best American culinary originalities of the 1970s. A subtly creamy dish of spaghetti tossed with a mixture of vegetables, pasta primavera was representative of a distinct wave of cooking called Nouvelle Cuisine, which highlighted fresh ingredients and creative presentation over rich and heavy foods. All these foods are made in many ways that its influence is still felt today.

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CULTURE

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The 1970s in some ways, were a continuation of the 1960s. The hippie culture was still very present in the 70s. Hippies refused to follow established institutions, criticized middle-class values, protested nuclear weapons and the Vietnam War, welcomed aspects of Eastern philosophy, championed sexual liberation, and were often vegetarian and eco-friendly. People were still protesting over Vietnam and how the war was wrong. Women, African Americans, and Native Americans fought for equality. President Nixon’s actions ruined the nation’s trust in their federal government. The disappointments of the 70s set a tone in life that continued for many years.


MUSIC ESCAPE Bohemian Rhapsody- Queen It comes from the album "A Night at the Opera" from the band Queen. It is in the genre of rock. It has revived many awards over the years such as Grammys Hall of Fame, Brit award for British singles and MTV award for the best music video in a film. 

Stayin Alive - Bee Gees Came out for the album Saturday Night Fever. It was put in the characterization of general pop. It got a Grammy nomination for Best Vocal Arrangement for two or more Voices.

I Will Survive - Gloria Gaynor From the album, Love Tracks sand by Gloria Gaynor. In the genera of jazz, Disco, and R&B. I was Nominated for a Grammy Nomination for the song of the year, a Grammy nomination for the track of the year and for Grammy nomination in best female pop vocal.  

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DAILY LIFE

WAY WE LIVED

When rocks were pets and rings decoded your mood. If you are a child of the 1970s, you're probably used to younger generations assuming you grew up growing out your hair and listening to disco. Although this assumption isn't totally wrong, there was much more to the 70s. A decade full of pre-internet fun, like running around sundown without anyone worrying. They didn't need to be fed, walked,, or bathed, which obviously made them the best pets ever. Being the proud owner of a Pet Rock was a big deal in the 70s. Another big deal of the 70s was practicing the "bump" with all of your fiends. Doing this with "KC and the Sunshine Band" playing in the background? Did you ever obsess over your color-changing mood ring? All of your friends knew to stay away when the ring suddenly turned black because you were in a bad mood...or just cold. There were also plenty of of glamorous moments, between the wild fashions, TV stars like Farrah Fawcett and the disco era. NT OHMEA D 7 0I C' S | | 2145


SNAPPING THE STARS SPORTS AND MORE...!

 In the 1970s, boxing was a huge thing. It was the

In Football, there was a running back all teams

time of Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier.

dreamed of. OJ Simpson. He broke the single-

Muhammad, was the heavyweight champion, but

season record for rushing yards. In the Super

after a brutal 15 rounds with Frazier, he was

Bowl alone, he ran 200 yards. He ended that

defeated. This fight was known as the fight of the

season with 2,003 total yards. In the 70s there

century. Then after Foreman defeated Frazier for

were three teams that dominated the NFL; Miami,

the title.

Minnesota, and Los Angeles. All three teams ended the season with 12-2 records. In the 1973 Super Bowl, the Dolphins beat the Vikings into a victory for Miami.

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LAW & ORDER In the 1970’s african americans, women, native americans and the LGBTQ comunity where still fighting hard to get better rights. During these times being a homosexual was very controversial and you were discriminated against. Many people started to go on the bandwagon against the war and started protesting for its end.

There was big controversy when the pentagon papers got released. It said that Lyongdon B. Johnson had lied to the public about the so called war because no official declaration of war had been declared. It had also shown all the actions took during the war. Most of them were alright but there were very controversial decisions.

"A

JUDGMENT

OF

ACQUITTAL

GOES TO

ALL THE

FACTS," THE 70'S

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FOREIGN AFFAIRS Foreign Affairs were a big part of the 1970s. Nixon’s foreign policy detente was the relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China. Also, Nixon used Vietnamization to stop U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces. SALT was the negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons. It was established to restrict the types and number of weapons that each country would deploy. 

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Foreign Affairs The US was used to improve China. China needed export markets for its industrial goods and improved relations with the US would help achieve this goal. President Ford visited China to reaffirm US interest in normalizing relations with Beijing. Shortly after taking office in 1977, Carter again reaffirmed the interest expressed in the Shanghai Communique. The US and China established diplomatic relations on January 1, 1979. THE 70'S

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SO...WHAT HAPPENED IN THE U.S.?

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS

WATERGATE SCANDAL, CONTINUED ON PAGE 22

On June 17, 1972, five men were seized attempting to bug the Democratic National Committee's offices in the Watergate, an office complex in DC. Three of them were Cuban by background, a fourth was an American who was associated in the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the fifth was a retired CIA employee. They were discovered with two listening devices, and two ceiling panels in an office adjacent to that of DNC chair Lawrence O'Brien were removed, suggesting that the burglars were endeavoring to bug O'Brien's office. Nixon made three significant speeches on the Watergate scandal during 1973 and 1974. The first was on April 30, 1973, in which he declared the removal of Dean, Haldeman, and Ehrlichman. A more insubordinate speech was delivered on August 15, 1973. Perhaps the politically most difficult speech was the one on April 29, 1974, in which Nixon released unfinished transcripts of the White House tapes. Political investigations started in February 1973 when the Senate established a Committee to examine the Watergate scandal.

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THE 70'S

The public hearings of the Committee were sensational, including the evidence of John Dean, Nixon’s former White House Counsel. The Committee also revealed the existence of the secret White House tape recordings, sparking a major political and legal battle among the Congress and the President. In 1974, the House of Representatives authorized the Judiciary Committee to reconsider impeachment proceedings against Nixon. The work of this Committee was again the spotlight a quarter of a century later when Bill Clinton was impeached. Nixon's resignation had not put an end to the request among many to see him punished. The White House considered a pardon of Nixon, though it would be disliked in the country. Nixon, contacted by Ford ambassadors, was originally hesitant to accept the pardon, but then agreed to do so. Ford, however, insisted on a statement of remorse. Nixon felt he had not committed any crimes and should not have to issue such a document. Ford eventually agreed, and on September 8, 1974, he granted Nixon a "full, free, and absolute pardon", which ended any possibility of a charge. A presidential pardon of Richard Nixon was announced on September 8, 1974, by President Gerald Ford, which allowed his predecessor Richard Nixon a full and absolute forgiveness for any crimes he might have done against the United States while president.

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Government & P O L I T I C S

During the Vietnam War, the power of the American government to exert influence overseas was tested in the 1970s. As it had not been since World War II. And that influence was limited. After the longest war in American history, the United States was unable to win in Vietnam. In 1973, the country settled for a peace treaty that was little more than a piece of paper indicating a failed foreign policy in Asia. The end of the Vietnam War also closed the deep chasm between Americans who supported the war and those who opposed it. Perhaps at no time since the Civil War had the country been so divided over an issue. Antiwar protestors demonstrated on city streets and on college campuses, leaving some Americans dead at the hands of their fellow countrymen. During the decade, the United States also suffered continuing trade imbalances and saw a sharp decline in its domination of world markets. There was little the nation could do to alter its trade deficits or its dependence on foreign oil. Its military power was shown to be less dominant, and its economic pressure was shown to be less effective. In the 1970s, one encouraging development in American foreign policy was the thaw of the cold war (period of extreme political tension between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II). President Richard M. Nixon recognized that the enormous military spending of the United States and the Soviet Union was bankrupting both countries. Sensing the growing hostilities between the Soviet Union and China, Nixon decided to play the interest of one superpower against the other. He hoped this would lessen the possibility of confronting the Soviets on the battlefield. By 1972, Nixon had negotiated an arms-control agreement with the Soviet Union and had begun diplomatic talks with China. Presidents Gerald R. Ford and Jimmy Carter tried to continue these initiatives, and for a while they worked. Ultimately, however, the cordial relations among the superpowers cooled yet again as they accused one another of trying to extend their influence around the world. By 1978, Carter was calling for massive increases in military spending, and the world settled in for another decade of the cold war.

The decade found Americans as troubled by domestic issues as by foreign affairs. Their faith in the federal government, already badly shaken by the Vietnam War, was almost completely lost over the events surrounding the 1972 burglary of the Democratic National Committee's headquarters in the Watergate office complex. The arrest of five men in the break-in led to the uncovering of a trail that went all the way to the White House, and right to the Oval Office. Try as he might, Nixon could not hide his involvement in the illegal activities surrounding the case. Faced with mounting evidence and certain impeachment, Nixon created history one last time by resigning from the presidency. The U.S. Supreme Court played a decisive role in the downfall of the Nixon presidency, and it also was instrumental in resolving conflicts confronting American society in the 1970s. Rapidly growing prison populations and frequent riots raised questions about prison conditions and stricter sentencing to try to reduce rising crime rates. Debates about school busing and school desegregation were conducted in courtrooms and in the streets. And environmental groups and businesses fought legal battles to protect the environment. The most far-reaching Supreme Court ruling in the decade came in the 1973 Roe v. Wade case. Many Americans believed that control over childbearing was an important element of women's privacy and equality. Some argued for a constitutional right to preserve a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. The Court's decision, which established a woman's legal right to choose an abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy, created an ongoing debate that changed the course of national politics. The decade of the 1970s ended as it had begun for America, with involvement in a crisis abroad.


Works Cited

“14 Surprising Old Hollywood Scandals That History Forgot.” Ranker, www.ranker.com/list/forgotten-old-hollywoodscandals/thaneeconomou. “The 1970s: American Pop Culture History.” RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1970s/. “1970s: The Way We Lived - Research Article from Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell Bottoms.” BookRags, BookRags, www.bookrags.com/research/1970s-the-way-we-lived-bbbb04/#gsc.tab=0. “The Advertising Archives | Magazine Advert | Nike | 1970s.” The Advertising Archives | Magazine Advert | Old Spice | 1950s, www.advertisingarchives.co.uk/detail/20292/1/MagazineAdvert/Nike/1970s. Algoo, Jennifer. “In Photos: The Best of '70s Fashion.” Harper's BAZAAR, Harper's BAZAAR, 28 Mar. 2018, www.harpersbazaar.com/fashion/trends/g6495/70s-fashion-in-photos/. “The Beatles.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 2 Apr. 2014, www.biography.com/people/groups/the-beatles. “Discovery Education's Puzzlemaker: Create Your Own Cross Word Puzzles!” Puzzlemaker: Game Based Learning, puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/CrissCrossSetupForm.asp? campaign=flyout_teachers_puzzle_crisscross. Drummond, Steve. “'Open Schools' Made Noise In The '70s; Now They're Just Noisy.” NPR, NPR, 27 Mar. 2017, www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/03/27/520953343/open-schools-madenoise-in-the-70s-now-theyre-just-noisy.


Works Cited

“Film History of the 1970s.” An Award-Winning, Unique Resource of Film Reference Material for Film Buffs and Others, with Reviews of Classic American-Hollywood Films, Academy Awards History, Film Posters., www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html. Good, Dan. “The Pet Rock Captured a Moment and Made Its Creator a Millionaire.” ABC News, ABC News Network, 1 Apr. 2015, abcnews.go.com/US/pet-rock-captured-moment-made-creatormillionaire/story?id=30041318. Grover, Amy. “Welcome To.” Kickers Revival, 1 Jan. 1970, seenandheardbyamy.blogspot.com/2015/07/kickers-revival.html. “The History of Foreign Affairs.” Foreign Affairs, 15 Nov. 2013, www.foreignaffairs.com/history-foreign-affairs. “Influential Sports in the 70s.” Home, ds4pc.weebly.com/influentialsports-in-the-70s.html. Myers, Dan. “If You Grew up in the '70s, You'll Definitely Remember These Foods.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 24 Aug. 2017, www.latimes.com/sns-dailymeal-1806069-eat-if-you-grew-70s-you-lldefinitely-remember-these-foods-20170824-story.html. Pearson, Steve. “Music Played in the 1970's Popular Music From the 70s.” The People History, www.thepeoplehistory.com/70smusic.html. “Supreme Court in the 1970s.” Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination: Questions And Answers, www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/1970s/supremecourt.html. Woodbury, Jessica. “The Scariest Stephen King Covers.” BOOK RIOT, BOOK RIOT, 11 Oct. 2017, bookriot.com/2017/09/08/the-scarieststephen-king-covers/.


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