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The essential collection of cooking fundamentals from which most recipes are created


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black Victoria Hansen Š 2010. All rights reserved.


Content © Victoria L. Hansen 2003-2010 Bowral NSW Australia Cover Design and Layout © Tracey Lee Cooper (Maverick Creative ~ Bowral NSW) This book is copyright. Of course all recipes came from somewhere else originally and therefore cannot be truly copyright. Whilst those contained in this book may resemble ones you have or have made, these versions will have their own unique twist either in the ingredient proportions, manipulation of the method or the variations described and I have been using most of them for over 30 years. As I have adapted them to suit my cooking style, tastes and cooking practices, I hope you will too. Apart from exact duplication or replication of structure, design or layout of any part of this book, all the recipes are yours to do with as you wish. Please feel free to use and adapt them as you like, or copy and send them to friends, family and colleagues, or change them however as required. And if you come up with a version I haven’t thought of, or feel there’s something I haven’t included in this book that could be worthwhile and valuable for a future edition, I’d love to hear from you. Please email me at littleblackcookbook@gmail.com. First published in Australia in 2010 by VLH Enterprises Pty Ltd. PO Box 2726, Bowral NSW 2576 Australia Telephone: +61 2 8011 3148 Email: littleblackcookbook@gmail.com ABN 49 060 653 590

www.blackbookcooking.com National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry Author: Hansen, Victoria L. Title: The little black recipe book : the essential collection of cooking fundamentals from which most recipes are created /Victoria Hansen. Edition: 1st ed. ISBN: 978-0-9807636-0-7 (pbk.) Notes: Includes index. Subjects: Quick and easy cookery. Dewey Number: 641.512

First Edition (2010) printed in Australia


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V I C TO R I A H A N S E N Victoria Hansen is a qualified home economist and high school cooking teacher. She has been cooking since she was 10 and her passion for being a cooking teacher has prevailed all her life. After leaving school, she studied at the University of Western Sydney graduating with a Diploma of Education. She spent several years as a high school home economics teacher before moving into the commercial sector and eventually her own business. She has worked as a professional speaker conducting seminars and workshops for corporate employees and has presented many keynote addresses at conferences and seminars. She began working in television in 1996 and has hosted over 1,000 hours of live TV for TVSN, Australia’s home shopping channel, where she presented the cooking and craft shows. She has hosted numerous cooking segments on many of Australia’s TV networks, and is a regular radio presenter on more than 50 regional Australian radio stations daily with her BiteSize Cooking® Vignettes. She currently manages the BiteSize Cooking® brand which consists of the Radio Vignettes and Video Demonstrations of food and cooking related products and she consults to many companies in the area of online marketing, multimedia production and social media management. Victoria lives in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales in Australia.


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contents Acknowledgments

10

Introduction

11

About this Book

12

Essential Pantry & Cooking Equipment

16

Cooking Terms & Techniques

25


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contents

Cooking Fresh Produce Fish Fish Cooking Methods Chart Baked Fish Grilled Fish Barbecued or Chargrilled Fish Deep Fried Fish Pan-Fried Fish Steamed Fish Poached Fish Stewed or Casseroled Fish Seafood Squid (octopus/calamari) Fried or Sautéed Octopus Stuffed Octopus Clam Crab Crayfish Lobster Cutting Up an Uncooked Lobster Grilled Lobster Mussels Scallops Fried Scallops Oysters Opening Oysters Prawns Boiled Prawns Sautéed Prawns Pan Fried Prawns Barbecued or Chargrilled Prawns Beef, Lamb and Pork Roasting with Meat Thermometer Roast Beef Roast Lamb Roast Pork with Crackling Pan Fried Beef, Lamb and Pork

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 80 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 57 58 59

Chargrilled or Barbecued Beef, Lamb and Pork Stir Fried Beef, Lamb and Pork Corned Beef (boiled beef) Braised Beef, Lamb and Pork Pot Roast Stewed Beef, Lamb and Pork Variety Meats Heart Liver Tongue Sweetbreads Brains Kidney Tripe Marrow Oxtail Chicken Roast Chicken Chargrilled Chicken Breast Pan Fried Chicken Breast Deep Fried Chicken Poached Chicken Braised Chicken Stewed/Casseroled or Curried Chicken Game Birds Roast Turkey Roasted Game Bird Slow Cooked Game Bird Stews, Casseroles and Curries Basic Stew or Casserole of Beef, Lamb, Pork to Poultry Basic Indian Curry Sauce Basic Indian Curry and Variations Basic Thai Curry & Variations

60 61 62 63 63 80 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 67 68 69 70 70 71 72 73 80 74 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83


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Cooking Fresh Produce Fruits and Vegetables Boiling Vegetables Par Boiling Fruits and Vegetables Blanching Vegetables Skinning Fruits and Vegetables Mashing Vegetables Pureeing Vegetables Coulis Wilting Vegetables Steaming Vegetables Baked/Roast Vegetables

39 84 84 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 87

Stir-frying Vegetables Sweating Vegetables Sautéing Vegetables Chargrilling or Barbecuing Vegetables Stewed Vegetables Stewed Fruit Poached Fruit Microwaved Vegetables Cooking Dried Beans

Pasta, Noodles Rice & Grains Cooking Pasta Cooking Noodles Cooking Rice Basic Fried Rice & Variations

96 97 98 100

Basic Risotto & Variations Basic Polenta & Variations Basic Couscous & Variations

106 107 107 108 108 109

Basic Soufflé Omelette & Variations 110 Basic Quiche and Variations 112 Basic Frittata & Variations 114 Basic Soufflé & Variations 115 Basic Meringue 116 Crème Anglaise & Variations 117

122 123 123 124 125 126

121 Court Bouillon Sugar Syrup for Poaching & Freezing Fruit Béarnaise Essence Dashi Stock

Soups Thick Soups

101 102 103

105

Stocks, Syrups & Flavourings Stock Basic White Stock Master Stock Clarifying Stock Veal Stock Basic Brown Stock

90 90 91 91 91 92

95

Eggs Scrambled Eggs Boiled Eggs (soft & hard cooked) Coddled Eggs Poached Eggs Fried Eggs Basic Pan Omelette & Variations

89 89 89

127 128 129 130

134 135

Broth and Consommé

140


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Sauces

146

Mother Sauces 147 Béchamel Sauce & Derivatives 147 Basic Velouté Sauce & Derivatives 148 Espagnole Sauce & Derivatives 149 Basic Tomato Sauce & Derivatives 151 Hollandaise Sauce & Derivatives 152 Basic Mayonnaise & Derivatives 153 Independent Sauces 154 Beurre Blanc (Basic Butter Sauce) 154 Basic Cream Sauce & Variations 155 Gravy 157 Jus 158 Barbecue Sauce 159 Cumberland Sauce 160

Apple Sauce Basic Vinaigrette & Variations Composite/Compound Butters & Variations Sweet Sauces Caramel Sauce Butterscotch Sauce Egg Custard Sauce Brandy/Liqueur Sauce/Custard Citrus Sauce Chocolate Sauce Sabayon (Egg Foam Sauce or Zabaglione) Fruit Coulis

Salsa, Pastes & Pestos Basic Salsa & Variations Basic Pesto & Variations

170 171

Basic Tapenade

166 167

176 176 177 177 188 189 190 191 192 194

172

175 Basic Marmalade Basic Chutney Basic Relish Preserved Lemons Freezing Food

Cakes, Puddings & Biscuits Basic Plain Cake & Variations Basic Muffins & Variations Basic Steamed Pudding & Variations Basic Sponge Cake Sponge Roulade or Swiss Roll & Variations Basic Friands & Variations

162 163 163 163 164 164 165 165

169

Preserves & Preserving Food Choice of Fruit for Jam Sterilizing Jars for Preserving Testing the Jell Set of Jams, Jelly’s and Marmalades Basic Jam

160 161

178 179 180 181 183

187 Basic Drop Biscuits/Cookies & Variations Basic Shortbread & Variations Fruit (Christmas) Cake Traditional Steamed Christmas Pudding Anzac Biscuits

195 196 197 197 197


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Fillings, Frostings & Icings Basic Butter Frosting Ganache Basic Mousse & Variations Basic Cheesecake (Baked & Unbaked)

202 203 204 205

201 Pastry Crème (Crème Pâtissière) Basic Pannacotta (Clotted Cream) & Variations Chantilly Cream Roulade and Crepe Fillings

Batters Basic Waffle Batter Basic Fritter Batter Tempura Batter Crêpe Batter

212 213 213 214

Pikelets Batter Pancake Batter Blinis Batter Yorkshire Pudding

218 219 220

Basic Bread Dough 221 Refrigerator Biscuits & Variations 223 Basic Biscotti & Variations 225 Basic Dumplings & Variations 226

230 230 230 231

Fresh Breadcrumbs Toasted Breadcrumbs Coating Food for Frying Base for Roasted Proteins

Pastry Short Crust Pastry Biscuit or Champagne Pastry

238 239

Choux Pastry Puff Pastry

Index

232 232 233 234

244 244

240 241

243 Equivalent Weights and Measures 245 Stuffing Calculation Chart 245

Cooking Times Charts Protein Cooking Times

229

237

Measurement Charts & Tables Conversion Formulae Oven Temperature

214 214 214 214

217

Bases, Toppings, Coatings & Stuffing’s Cheesecake Base Pie Base Crumble Topping Basic Stuffing & Variations

207 208 193

211

Dough Basic Scones/Damper & Variations Basic Pasta Dough Basic Pizza Dough

206

247 248

Vegetable Cooking Times

250

253


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ACKNOWLEGMENTS Many friends and family who are not even aware of their input have sampled my recipes on their many visits to my home and through their feedback, I have created this essential kitchen handbook. I would however particularly like to thank my sister Tracey, without whose exceptional design skills, this, or most of my work, just wouldn’t exist. She is an inspiration and my best friend and I love her enormously. And as always - my loving and supportive parents who never stop believing in me and my brother Brett who has done much research and refinement of data for all my work.


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INTRODUCTION My first cookbook was The Commonsense Cookery Book, which I received at age 12 when I began high school. It was the definitive cooking handbook for anyone of any age or culinary ability. It had something for everyone, from basic ingredient knowledge, to measurement tables, basic cooking techniques and, of course, recipes for the most commonly made recipes of the time. It was used by home economic students as a reference and was retained and used in every year of high school. Many mothers purchased it for their children upon leaving home, as an essential kitchen tool. I’m sure many Australian cooks would agree that it would be hard to replace The Commonsense Cookery Book. Perhaps it’s because the simplistic nature of its contents are hard to beat, or because it holds a sentimental place in our hearts and kitchens and reminds us of what simple cooking is all about. Whatever the reason, it is an historic part of Australian culinary history. Today however, despite it’s legacies, many of its recipes are outdated, having been replaced by packaged and convenience foods, not to mention their considerable evolution and development making way for new and more suitable ingredient utilization. And yet, despite the multitudes of cookbooks on our shelves and cooking shows on our televisions, many people still don’t know the fundamentals of good simple cooking, and often don’t attempt much more than their weekly repertoire of tried and true recipes. I felt the time had come for a 21st century Commonsense Cooking Book. ‘The Little Black Cook Book’ is just that, a comprehensive culinary guide that combines the fundamental principles of food preparation, and most of the base recipes from which all recipes are created. A must have for cooks of any age or ability. The basic recipes in this book will form the foundations of your culinary imagination. Learn them, use them, and develop them. They are as versatile as your imagination and they will work, every time you attempt them.

Victoria Hansen


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ABOUT THIS BOOK Most of the recipes you’ll come across are either base recipes or compound recipes, with some exceptions being unique recipes intrinsic to a culture or cuisine. Base recipes are the simple formulations that have been around forever and are the fundamentals of cooking. Many stem from classical French cuisine that has endured cooking styles throughout the ages, and others have been adapted and manipulated into all sorts of variations. But the crux of food preparation and cooking is this, it all stems from a very fundamental set of skills, techniques, and base recipes and, once you know and understand these fundamentals, you can pretty much make any recipe from any cuisine. You’ll also be able to replicate meals you have at restaurants or see in a coffee table cookbook or magazine because you’ll be able to dissect the dish and know what recipes and techniques have been employed to create it. Of course, the herbs and spices used may take you some time to master, but the basic food preparation and cooking is the same, no matter what cuisine you’re working with. The Little Black Cook Book contains all this fundamental knowledge from the terms and techniques used in cooking, to the cooking methods of foods, to the base recipes from which most recipes are made. It DOES NOT contain compound recipes, but rather the recipes you can combine to form them. Now a bit about the content itself... · All recipes are metric, and where possible, standard cup and spoon measures have been used to make it easier for you when measuring ingredients. · For ingredients that are difficult to measure with a cup or spoon, such as butter, the actual weight or quantity required has been listed. Many of these ingredients already have measurement guides on the packaging. · Where a recipe calls for flour, it means plain flour. If self-raising flour is called for, it will be stated specifically. · All the oven temperatures in the book are based on multifunction ovens, i.e. ovens with the ability to turn internal fans and elements on and off. As such all the temperatures have been adjusted to compensate for the heat increase produced by the fans and the shortened cooking time. If you don’t own a multifunction oven, raise the oven temperatures listed in the recipes by 15-20°C and increase the cooking time by approximately 25%. Unless stated, all oven temperatures are for the fan forced setting.


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ABOUT THIS BOOK · · ·

Each recipe also states which function on your oven to use. If you are unfamiliar with each of the functions or the symbols that depict them, visit www.blackbookcooking.com/oven-settings to find out more. Every ingredient in the Essential Pantry is available from a supermarket. The beauty of this book is that if you stock your pantry with the essential items, you’ll be able to make most recipes at any time. You’ll also find most of the items listed in the Essential Kitchen Equipment available from a supermarket or any reasonable kitchen shop, or if not from some online store somewhere in the world. Most things today are a click away.

The recipes also use abbreviations. Use the following key as a guide...

Tbsp tsp g ml kg ltr

tablespoon teaspoon grams milliliters kilogram litre

Take some time to read the Cooking Terms & Techniques before you make any of the recipes. Knowing these will make all the difference in understanding the recipes and making the procedures easier. For video demonstrations of these, visit www. blackbookcooking.com. You will need to be a subscribing member of the site to access the videos.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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essential pantry & essential kitchen equipment


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y One of the biggest deterrents when cooking, is finding a recipe you want to make and discovering you don’t have the ingredients you require. By keeping a stock of the most regularly used items in your pantry, you will be able to whip up most recipes when you get the urge. You’ll also find that your interest and enthusiasm in cooking will increase when the task of having to go out and specifically buy the ingredients is removed. Stock your pantry, fridge and freezer with the following ingredients and cooking as a chore will become a thing of the past.

Baking Items

Canned Vegetables

Baking Powder Bicarbonate of Soda Cream of Tartar Gelatine Cooking Spray Plain Flour Self-Raising Flour Cornflour Arrowroot Nutmeals

Nuts

(such as almond, hazelnut - buy in small quantities and store in the fridge in an airtight container)

Coconut

Tomatoes

Bamboo Shoots

(whole, pieces, puree and crushed)

(if you cook Asian)

Peas and Beans

(if you cook Asian)

(raw unsalted - pistachios, hazelnuts, pinenuts, cashews, macadamias, pecans, walnuts etc - buy in small quantities and freeze in usable quantities, they’ll thaw in about 2 hours)

Couverture Chocolate (Milk, Dark and White - buy small quantities) (desiccated and shredded)

Dried Fruit (dates, sultanas, craisins etc)

Water Chestnuts

(various - borlotti, broad, cannellini and kidney beans, split peas and chickpeas)

Fresh Vegetables

Onions (white, brown and red)

Garlic Ginger


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Herbs & Spices

Stocks & Cubes

Allspice Bay Leaves Bouquet Garni Cardamom Cayenne Pepper Chilli Powder Cinnamon (Sticks) Quills Cloves (Whole) Cumin Seeds Coriander Seeds Curry Powder Fennel Seeds Garam Masala Ground Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Ginger and Nutmeg Marjoram

Mustard Powder Mustard Seeds Mixed Dried Herbs Oregano Paprika Peppercorns

Liquid Stock

Parisienne Essence Home made stock

(Chicken, Beef and Vegetable Stock - just have 1-2 small containers of each on hand)

(Black, White, Green and Pink)

Poppy Seeds Saffron Sesame Seeds Turmeric Vanilla Beans

(frozen in 1 cup quantities and in ice cube trays for making sauces)

Stock Cubes or Stock Powder (Chicken, Beef and Vegetable Stock Cubes)

Sugar

White Granulated Sugar Caster Sugar Brown Sugar

Icing Sugar Mixture

(light and dark)

Palm Sugar

(or pure if you have gluten allergies) (if you cook Asian)

Milks

Evaporated Milk Condensed Milk

Powdered Milk


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Pastes; Creams; Syrups

Coconut Milk Coconut Cream Thai Red Curry Paste Thai Green Curry Paste Indian Curry Pastes

Honey Golden Syrup Molasses Treacle Maple Syrup

(various Indian curry pastes if you like curry)

Oils & Vinegars

Alcohol

Olive Oil Rice Bran Oil or Vegetable Oil Sesame Oil Oil Spray White Vinegar

Brown Malt Vinegar Balsamic Vinegar Tarragon Vinegar Red Wine Vinegar White Wine Vinegar

Port Sherry (sweet and dry) Marsala Cherry Liqueur (Kirsch) Orange Liqueur

Peppermint Liqueur

(Tripple Sec, Cointreau or Grand Marnier)

Seasonings; Favourings Pasta; Rice; Noodles & Grains

(Creme De Menthe) Aniseed Liqueur (Sambuca) Hazelnut Liqueur (Frangelico)

Red Wine White Wine Beer

Tomato Paste Chopped Chillies Flaked Salt Vanilla Essence, Vanilla Extract or Vanilla Paste

Wasabi Powder

Assorted Dried Noodles Assorted Dried Pasta

Arborio Rice Couscous Polenta

(various types depending on what you cook)

Rice (short grain, medium grain and long grain rice)

(if you cook Asian)

Miso Paste (if you cook Asian)


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Sauces

Canned Fish & Seafood Condiments Perishables (in the fridge)

Frozen Items Miscellaneous

Tomato Tabasco Worcestershire Mint For Asian sauces, see the website... www.bitesizecooking.com/knowledgebaseconversionchartsandtables-essential-pantries-of-asiancuisines Anchovies Crabmeat

Salmon Tuna

Whole Egg Mayonnaise Black and Green Olives Capers

Various mustards including Dijon and Wholegrain

Eggs Grated Tasty Cheese Parmesan Cheese Milk

Butter

Vanilla Ice-cream Assorted Berries

Pastry

Paper Towels Freezer Bags

Freezer-Go-Between Containers with Lids

(assorted sizes)

(various sizes)

Zip Lock Bags

Toothpicks Bamboo Skewers Kitchen Twine Bag Clips or Rubber Bands

(assorted sizes)

Cling Wrap Aluminium Foil Baking paper (parchment)

(salted butter and unsalted)

Cream

(Short Crust, Puff Pastry and Filo)


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT Each of you will have your version of the most essential kitchen equipment. Your opinion will be based on the amount and type of cooking you do, your level of cooking, i.e. whether you are a basic cook, a good cook or a gourmet cook, the size of your kitchen and your lifestyle. The kitchen equipment I have listed below is what I believe to be the basic essentials you’ll need to make most recipes once you’re a relatively competent cook. Until you get to that stage, some of this equipment may sit idle until you learn how to use it. My advice would be, start with the essentials, then gradually buy the extra bits and pieces as you can afford them and as the recipes you start to make call for them.

Utensils

Essential Set of Non Stick or Stainless Steel Utensils (choose based on the type of cookware you have)

Rubber Spatulas - S/L Wooden Spoons - S/M/L Wire Whisks S/L Strainers - S/L Colander Tongs - long & short handle Microplanes (various) Stainless Steel Grater Measuring Spoons Measuring Cups Can Opener Vegetable Peeler Bottle Opener Citrus Squeezer or Reamer 3 x Mixing Bowls S/M/L 3 Measuring Jugs S/M/L Meat Mallet Mortar and Pestle Corkscrew Turkey Baster Salad Spinner

Skewers (metal or bamboo) Thermometers (candy, meat and oven)

Cooks Timer Electronic Scales Vegetable/Mushroom Brush Zester Pot Holders and Oven Mitts Egg Rings or Egg Poacher Toothpicks Optional Flour Dredge Flour Sifter Cookie Cutters (plain and fluted)

Piping Bag Nozzles for piping bags, plain and fluted Rolling Pin Melon Baller Pastry Brush Set of Funnels S/M/L Nut Cracker


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

Cake Tins (the number and variety of these will depend on how much baking you do)

Essential Round Springform Tin Square Tin Bar/Loaf Tin Muffin Tins - S/M/L 2 x Cookie Trays/Slides 2 x Large Cooling Racks

Sandwich Tins (pair) Slice Tin Swiss Roll/Roulade Tin Fluted Jelly Mould 6 x 125ml Dariole Moulds Specialty cake tins and moulds if you like to bake

Optional

Knives

Ceramic Ware Small Appliances

Essential Paring Knife Vegetable Knife Serrated Tomato Knife Cooks Knife Bread Knife Carving Knife Carving Fork Sharpening Steel (Diamond) Scissors Knife block or wall magnet

Optional Utility (Sandwich) Knife Boning Knife Fillet Knife Cleaver Santoku Knife Mincing Knife (Mezzaluna) Cheese Knife Birds Beak Knife

Essential Medium Casserole with Lid Lasagne Dish Quiche/Pie Dish

Optional 6 x 7cm Ramekins 1-2 x 10cm Ramekin 1 x 18cm Ramekin

Essential Blender Food Processor Hand Beater Stick Blender

Optional Stand Mixer (if you bake) Mini Chopper Spice Grinder Slow Cooker Espresso Machine (if you

(Tourne or Peeling Knife)

like baking and making desserts with coffee flavour, an espresso machine is absolutely essential).


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

Cookware

Use this as a guide only. What cookware you purchase will be very dependent on the type of cooking you do and for how many. If you’re cooking for two, you might prefer to buy more smaller saucepans instead of one of each size. If you do mostly oven cooking, you might not need many saucepans or frypans at all. Base your choice on your cooking style.

3 x Saucepans S/M/L

Wok Splatter Mats Chargrill Pan Roasting/Baking Dishes

(ideally one non-stick)

(varying sizes)

Essential 3 x Frypans S/M/L (at least 1 non-stick)

Large SautĂŠ Pan with a Lid Stock Pot/Pasta Cooker

Chopping Boards Miscellaneous

Optional Pressure Cooker

A selection for raw food and cooked food. The coloured chopping boards made from polyethylene are the best choice from a food safety perspective and for ease of cleaning.

Cutlery Crockery Glassware Various platters, serving bowls and utensils


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notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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is an Italian expression that literally means ‘to the tooth’ and refers to food that offers a little resistance when you bite into it. It is used in reference to cooking pasta which should be soft but still firm, and noodles and rice. is a julienne of potato, often referred to as Pomm Allumette. to serve with the natural juices or gravy. cook by dry heat in an oven.

Baking (Pizza) Stone

it is best to bake pizza and bread directly on a hot surface, and a baking stone provides the hot surface needed.

Baking Sheet

good baking sheets (also called cookie trays/slides) are flat, often sideless sheets of metal and are often coated with a non-stick surface.

Barbecue Baste Batonnet

to roast slowly on a spit or grill over coals, or in an outdoor oven, basting frequently with a seasoned sauce. to moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings, water or seasoned sauce, to prevent drying or to add flavour. is a stick shaped knife cut (resembling a French fry) that measures 2⁄3 cm x ⁄3 cm x 6cm.

2

Beat

to work a mixture smooth with a regular, hard, rhythmic movement.

Bias Cutting

to slice the food at an angle producing elongated pieces. Bias cutting is used extensively in Asian cuisine, particularly stir-frying.

Blanch

to immerse fruits or nuts in boiling water to remove skins or make them easy to peel; also, to dip fruits and vegetables in boiling water in preparation for canning, freezing or drying, or to just soften the cellulose of raw produce to make it more palatable when served with other raw vegetables, such as in a salad.

Blend Blind bake

to mix two or more ingredients until smooth and uniform. to bake a piecrust before it is filled to create a crisper crust. To prevent puffing and slipping during baking, the pastry case is lined with foil or baking paper and filled with pie weights, dry beans or uncooked rice. The pastry case is then baked at 230°C for 20–25 minutes. The weights are removed shortly before the end of baking time to allow the crust to brown. cook in boiling liquid in which bubbles rise vigorously to the surface.


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cooking fresh produce


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FISH There are so many ways to prepare fish and so many different varieties that you could probably eat a different fish dish every day of the year and not even make a dent. All fish, regardless of how it is to be cooked, should be gutted and scaled. If it’s to be cooked whole (baked, pan fried or poached) the head and tail can be left on. It’s important not to overcook fish, as this makes the flesh tough and destroys flavour. Fish is done cooking when the flesh turns opaque and begins to flake easily when tested with a fork. Cooking times vary with each fish and cut. See the Protein Cooking Times on page 248. Once you master the basic cooking technique, you’ll be able to cook just about any fish recipe. As well as the basic recipes in this section however, use the following chart to help guide you to which cooking method to use for the various types of fish. If a cooking method is not listed then it usually means that method of cooking is not recommended for the ingredient.


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_____________________________________________ Name Type Cooking Method _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Bluefish fatty bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue ________________________________________________________________________________________ Cod lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Cusk lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Flounder lean poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Grouper lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil) chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Haddock lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Hake lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil) chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Halibut lean poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Ling lean stew or casserole, bake, gril (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Mahi Mahi medium–fatty grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue ________________________________________________________________________________________ Monkfish lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil) chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Orange Roughy lean poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Perch lean poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Red Snapper lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Salmon fatty poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue ________________________________________________________________________________________ Sea Bass lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, pan-pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Shark lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Skate lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Sole lean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Swordfish medium–fatty poach, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue ________________________________________________________________________________________ Trout fatty stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Tuna fatty bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Clams mollusk bake, steam ________________________________________________________________________________________ Crabs crustacean poach, stew or casserole, steam ________________________________________________________________________________________ Lobster crustacean poach, steam ________________________________________________________________________________________ Mussels mollusk bake, steam, ________________________________________________________________________________________ Oysters mollusk bake ________________________________________________________________________________________ Scallops, Bay mollusk poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Scallops, Sea mollusk poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Prawns crustacean poach, stew or casserole, bake, grill (broil), chargrill or barbecue, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________ Squid mollusk stew or casserole, pan fry ________________________________________________________________________________________


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S low C ooked G ame B ird Older game birds will benefit most from slow cooking. Techniques such as braising, pot roasting, and stewing work well with these tougher, drier birds. Additionally, the various breeds of game birds respond differently when slow cooked. For example, pheasant is especially responsive to pot roasting and stewing as a whole bird. Meanwhile, pigeon is frequently cooked in a steamed pudding with other meats and partridge blends well into casseroles.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Work on 250g meat per person

20 minutes

8–9 hours

Ingredients ....................................... 1–11⁄2 kg game bird, cut into pieces or 1½ kg of smaller birds in parts ....................................... 2 cloves garlic ....................................... ¼ cup of chopped onions ....................................... 2 Tbsp of olive oil ....................................... ¼ tsp of thyme ....................................... Flaked salt ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper ....................................... 1 cup of chicken stock ....................................... 2 Tbsp of honey ....................................... ¼ tsp of dried rosemary ....................................... ½ cup of sour cream ....................................... 2 Tbsp of flour ....................................... 1 cup of cream or milk .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Peel and finely chop the garlic cloves and the onions. Heat a large heavy frying pan to medium high and add the olive oil. Add the garlic and onions and sauté until limp but not browned or caramelized. Remove the garlic and onions and set them aside. Leave the oil behind. Add the pieces of game bird to the frying pan and add a little more oil if needed and lightly brown the pieces on all sides. Do them in batches if you don’t have enough room. While the game bird pieces are browning, start the covered slow cooker on low heat. Once the pieces are browned, place them in the slow cooker. Pour the chicken stock over the bird and add the garlic and onions, the thyme, salt and pepper to taste, and the honey. If you like cooking wine or sherry now is a good time to add a splash or two. Mix everything around well then sprinkle the rosemary over the top. Put the lid on the slow cooker and cook on low heat for about 6 hours. Remove the lid and add the sour cream to the mixture and stir it around. Replace the lid and cook on low for another hour. Poke the game birds while you’re adding the sour cream. If they seem tough, you can add more cooking time or increase the heat to high. In a blender or shaker, combine the cream or milk and the flour. Make sure the mixture is smooth. Remove the lid from the slow cooker again and pour the mixture in and stir around. Replace the lid and cook for another hour. Serve the slow cooker game birds over or with rice or pasta and steamed green vegetables.


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S tew S, C asserole & C urries Strictly speaking, both stewing and casseroling describe a long slow method of cooking in a simmering liquid at about 96°C. The only difference between the two is that casserole refers to the actual dish in which the food is cooked. This method of cooking is particularly suitable for tougher cuts of meat that tenderize well when simmered in liquid. A good strong saucepan or casserole is needed to avoid burning and it should have a firm-fitting lid to prevent evaporation. Always keep the temperature below boiling to keep the meat tender and palatable. Poultry will not require the same length of cooking time as the other meats. Suitable meats include – chuck steak, blade steak, gravy beef, lamb roasts (cubed), pork roasts (cubed) and broiler poultry. ‘Curries’, as we westerners call them, have been made for centuries in the Indian sub-continent both as a staple food and as a highly sophisticated cuisine. There are vast regional variations and numerous welldefined cuisines each of which have their own history. Many people would define curry as a spicy dish from India but the term curry itself isn’t really used in India, except as a term appropriated by the British to generically categorize a large set of different soup/ stew preparations ubiquitous in India and nearly always containing ginger, garlic, onion, turmeric, chilli, and oil (except in communities which eat neither onion or garlic, of course) and which must have seemed all the same to the British, being all yellow/red, oily, spicy/aromatic, and too pungent to taste anyway. A better definition would be a dish made with dried and fresh spices cooked in oil with a sauce made from pureed onions, garlic and ginger. The variety of spices used can be extensive but the commonest are chilli, cumin, coriander and turmeric. Other common ingredients are yoghurt, cream and ground nuts. The sauce is what takes the time to cook. Adding it to a mixture of vegetables and meat is the very last stage of making a curry.


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S tewed F ruit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Wash all fruit before stewing. Fruit can be peeled and chopped if desired. If using stone fruit, remove the stones. Fruit such as rhubarb cooks better chopped into bite-size pieces. Place the fruit, a little water and about half cup sugar for every 2 cups fruit in a saucepan over low heat and simmer until it is tender. Use for fruit crumbles, with yoghurt for breakfast, on cereals or as pie fillings or prepare this way before freezing for use later.

P oached F ruit Vegetables aren’t usually poached, but fruit is poached often. Poached fruit can be served as a dessert, on breakfast cereal or before preserving in jars. Fruit is usually peeled or skinned before being poached, and is usually poached in a heavy (40%) sugar syrup (see page 128), but the sweetness of the syrup will also depend on the type of fruit used and its ripeness. Method 1. Make the syrup then bring to the boil. 2. Add fruit to the lightly simmering syrup so that the fruit is completely covered. 3. Cook for about 5–10 minutes, depending on the fruit and its ripeness. 4. Remove from liquid and drain. 5. Strain syrup, then return it to the saucepan and continue to simmer till it is reduced to a thick viscous consistency. 6. Place the fruit in serving bowls and drizzle the thickened syrup over the top. Can be served hot or cold with whipped cream or ice cream and sprinkled with chopped nuts as garnish. 7. If poaching as a prelude to preserving, follow your preserving recipe.

M icrowaved F ruits & V egetables Almost all vegetables can be cooked in the microwave, but the resultant vegetable will not be the same as the other cooking methods. The Microwave is good for par cooking vegetables before baking or roasting and/or chargrilling, especially if the vegetable is one that will require a reasonable length of time to cook. Method The best way to cook vegetables in the microwave is to wash them then place them into a microwave safe plastic bag or container with a lid, with only the water left on them from washing, and microwave for the length of time specified in the Vegetable Cooking Times on pages 250-251. Tips when Cooking in a Microwave  Microwaves are attracted to moisture, fat, and sugars in food, so foods containing these ingredients cook or heat quickly.  When microwaving, stirring moves cool portions of the food to the edges of the dish for faster and more uniform cooking.  When microwaving a recipe that calls for foods to be elevated and you do not have a rack in your microwave, an upside-down glass pan or dish works well.  Do NOT cook in plastic food storage bags or disposable plastic containers, which are not heat resistant and may melt. Use only bags or containers designated ‘microwave safe’.


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C ooking D ried B eans All dried beans require a relatively long time to cook, however the different types do differ slightly. Soaking does reduce the cooking times somewhat for all beans. There are two basic methods for soaking beans:  Long Soak – simply cover the beans in water and soak them overnight (about 8–10 hours). You don’t want to soak the beans for too much longer, as they’ll absorb too much liquid and loose their texture and flavour.  Quick Soak – the second method is a little quicker and doesn’t require as much preparation. Put the beans in a large pot, add water and bring up to a boil. Let the water boil for about 2 minutes, then remove from the heat, cover the pot and let soak for about 1 hour. Beans-to-Cooking Liquid Ratio All beans have the same beans-to-cooking liquid ratio.  500g of soaked beans need to cook in 4 litres of cooking liquid  500g of un-soaked beans need to cook in 5 litres of cooking liquid Cooking the Beans When cooking the beans, bring the water, the beans and 2½ tsp of salt to a boil. Reduce the heat and maintain a low simmer during the remainder of the cooking time.

T ype of B ean

R equired C ooking T ime S oaked

U nsoaked

Black Beans 2¼–2½ hours 1½–2 hours __________________________________________________________ Black-Eyed Peas 1½–1¾ hours 1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Cannellini Beans 1½–1¾ hours 1–1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Chickpeas 2¼–2½ hours 1½–2 hours __________________________________________________________ Great Northern Beans 1½–1¾ hours 1–1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Navy Beans 1½–1¾ hours 1–1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Pinto Beans 1½–1¾ hours 1–1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Red Kidney Beans 1½– ¾ hours 1–1¼ hours __________________________________________________________ Lentils 20–30 min __________________________________________________________


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pasta, noodles, rice & grains


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Basic P olenta Polenta is cornmeal, which is cooked slowly and served soft as a side dish for meat, chicken, fish or vegetables or set then cut and fried and served as a base for a multitude of toppings.

Quantity Work on ¼ cup uncooked polenta per person

Prep. Time

Cook Time

5 minutes

10–20 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 3 cups cold water ....................................... 1 cup coarse polenta ....................................... Flaked salt ....................................... Finely ground black pepper .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Bring water to a boil then reduce to a simmer. Pour in the polenta steadily, stirring constantly. For soft polenta, continue to stir for 10 minutes until polenta thickens and is soft. (To test whether the polenta is soft, spoon a little of the polenta mixture onto a small plate and set aside to cool slightly. Rub a little of the mixture between two fingers to see if the grains have softened. If the grains are still firm, continue to cook, stirring constantly, over low heat until the polenta is soft.) Remove from heat, season with salt and pepper to taste then serve immediately. For firm polenta, continue to stir until the polenta is thick and comes away from sides of the pan, and is able to support a spoon. This can take any where from 10 to 20 minutes. Pour the polenta into a sided cookie tin and chill for 1–2 hours. When firm and completely cold, cut the polenta into squares or use a cookie cutter to cut into rounds and pan fry each piece on both sides in a little olive oil until golden.

Variations  Cook the polenta in stock instead of water, or milk for a sweet dish.  Add chopped vegetables before adding the polenta to the liquid to incorporate new flavours.  Add sugar instead of salt and pepper to create a sweet dish.  Add some grated Parmesan cheese, crème frâiche, sour cream, or mascarpone to the polenta as it begins to thicken.


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Basic C ouscous This tiny North African pasta is quick to cook and adapts to a variety of recipes. Quick-cooking varieties require only a brief soaking in hot water.

Quantity Work on ½ cup uncooked couscous per person

Prep. Time

Cook Time

2 minutes

5 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 1 cup of cooking liquid (water, chicken, beef or vegetable stock) ....................................... 1 Tbsp butter ....................................... ¼ tsp flaked salt (optional) ....................................... 1 cup of instant couscous .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4.

In a medium saucepan, bring the cooking liquid and butter to the boil over medium heat. Gradually, stir in the couscous. Remove from heat, cover and set aside to steep for a minimum of 5 minutes. Fluff with a fork before serving. Add salt if desired.

Variations  Butter and Parsley Couscous – Stir some chopped fresh parsley and softened butter into the cooked couscous.  Lemon or Lime Couscous – Add lemon or lime juice and grated citrus peel to the water.  Moroccan Couscous – currants or raisins, ground cinnamon, ground turmeric and ground cumin. Add the spices to the water before the couscous.  Middle Eastern Couscous – diced deseeded cucumber, diced red onion, diced red capsicum, diced preserved lemon, diced tomatoes, chopped fresh coriander, drained canned chickpeas, lemon vinaigrette (see page 161). Add all the ingredients to the cooked couscous then drizzle through the vinaigrette.  Nut Couscous – stir in toasted chopped nuts with the couscous.  Semi-Dried Tomato and Basil Couscous – add coarsely chopped semi-dried tomatoes, sliced green onions and minced garlic to the water, then stir in minced fresh basil with the couscous.


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cooking eggs


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C ooking eggs Eggs are one of the most versatile foods. As an ingredient, they have an enormous number of uses in cooking, and as a food in itself, exceptional nutritional value. They are the essential ingredients of most cakes and many other dishes such as sauces and hot and cold puddings. Some tips for success:  Eggs are better when used at room temperature than straight from the fridge. Take them out of the fridge 30 minutes or so before using.  Eggs are extremely sensitive to heat and there may be only a minute between them being soft and moist to tough, dry and rubbery. Follow the cooking times and temperatures set out in recipes closely.  When adding eggs to anything hot, such as soups or sauces, add a little bit of the hot substance to the eggs first, this will prevent the egg from cooking too quickly and forming lumps in the hot liquid.  Salt will relax the protein in eggs making them a little easier to blend. But if salt is added to eggs to be scrambled or made into an omelette, frittata or quiche, the eggs will become thin and may break-up when cooked or not set properly when baked.  The small air sack inside every egg increases with age. You can test an egg for freshness by immersing it (uncooked) in water. If it sinks, it’s fresh and is the best age for poached eggs, if it tilts, it’s older and should be used for scrambling and egg mixtures such as omelettes, frittatas or custards and if it floats, it could be bad. Old eggs are the best to use for hard cooking as their shells will come away from the cooked egg easily.

S crambled E ggs Multiply the quantities in the following recipe for the number of people you’re cooking for. Successful scrambled eggs use very little liquid, and ideally none at all, just the eggs and maybe a small dollop of cream. I add grated cheese to add flavour but traditional scrambled eggs having nothing but black pepper in them.

Prep. Time

Cook Time

1–2 minutes plus 30 minutes to bring eggs to room temperature

1–1½ minutes at most

Quantity Work on 2 eggs per person

Ingredients ....................................... 2 eggs ....................................... Dollop of cream ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper ....................................... 1 Tbsp grated cheese (optional) ....................................... Flavouring ingredients (optional) .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4.

Place the eggs in a bowl and whisk with the cream; add the pepper and the grated cheese if you’re using it. Spray a non-stick frying pan with oil and heat it to high. Reduce the heat then pour the egg mixture into the pan. Using a large flat spatula slowly push the outsides of the mixture into the centre of the pan, just enough to break up the eggs. Don’t be too heavy handed or quick as they can become a lumpy mass. Scrambled eggs should be soft and creamy with firm curds of egg throughout. If they are overcooked they will weep liquid because of the tightening of the proteins in the egg.

Tip: Add anything you like to scrambled eggs. Additions such as fresh herbs, smoked salmon, aged cheddar cheese, caviar, salmon roe, blue cheese, mushroom slices and seasonings all enhance scrambled eggs.


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B oiled E ggs (soft & hard cooked) Notoriously difficult to make for many people, soft or hard cooked eggs are simply a matter if timing and technique. It’s actually possible to get absolutely perfectly cooked eggs if you follow the following method and cooking times to a tee. Boiled eggs are best made with slightly older eggs. Despite the name, boiled eggs should not be boiled throughout the cooking process, (a method that yields a rubbery result), but instead should be brought to a boil and then the heat educed to s light simmer.

Prep. Time

Cook Time

2 minutes

Depends on how you like your eggs cooked

Ingredients

Method

....................................... Eggs at room temperature ....................................... Enough water to cover them in the saucepan .......................................

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Boil some water in a saucepan then add the eggs by gently lowering them into the boiling water using a spoon. For soft-boiled eggs – cook them for 2–3 minutes. For firm white but a soft yolk – cook for 5–6 minutes And for hard-boiled – cook for 10 minutes To centre the yolk, (have the yolk cook in the middle of the egg and not off centre) add the egg to the water just as it is being stirred to create a whirlpool and continue stirring for one minute while cooking.

NB: The water must be boiling before you add the eggs and timing must begin as soon as you add the egg.

coddled eggs Coddling is a gentle steaming method that produces a tender egg. The eggs are cooked in individual ceramic or glass coddling cups with lids.

Quantity Work on 2 eggs per person

Ingredients

Prep. Time

....................................... 1 tsp double cream ....................................... 2 large eggs per person ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper, to taste .......................................

Cook Time 20 minutes

5 minutes

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

165°C

Fan Forced

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Line the bottom of a large saucepan with a paper towel. Fill the pan with enough water to come just below the rim of the coddlers (if you don’t have coddlers, you can use 125ml ramekins or ceramic dariole moulds and cover them with foil). Place over medium-high heat. Bring to a boil. Spray the insides of each coddler with cooking spray. Pour the double cream in the bottom of the coddler. Add one egg; season with salt & pepper. Screw on lids or cover with foil. Carefully place egg coddlers into boiling water. Reduce heat to medium, and simmer for 4 minutes. Turn off heat, cover pan, and let stand for 6-7 minutes. Remove coddlers from water, unscrew lids, and serve immediately.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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stocks, syrups & flavourings


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S TO C K Stock is a liquid in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered and strained out. Stock is used as a basis for other edible liquids such as soup, gravy, or sauce. It can be eaten alone or with garnish. Stock has been made for many years using animal bones which, traditionally, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavour and nutrients. The bones may or may not have meat still on them. When it is necessary to clarify a stock (i.e. for a cleaner presentation), egg whites may be added during simmering – the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment into a readily strainable mass. In East Asia (particularly Japan), a form of kelp called kombu is often used as the basis for stocks (called dashi in Japanese). Always make stock with cold water to extract the most juices possible from the ingredients. If you use hot water, the meat seals itself and keeps the juices in. Also many recipes call for vegetables to be cooked along with the meat. I haven’t found this necessary however; it can add more flavour to your stock. I find I do that when I add the other ingredients in the recipe that I’m using the stock for.


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Basic W hite S tock Basic white stock is the foundation of most soups and is used for gravies, sauces and some casseroles and stews. Basic stock is usually cooked once and can be made from all types of meat, fish and seafood and vegetables. It’s classed as white becuse the meat is not roasted before the stock is made.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

1–1½ litres

5 minutes

1–3 hours depending on type made

Ingredients

Method

....................................... 1kg chicken, vegetables, fish or fish bones, beef or beef bones ....................................... 3lt cold water ....................................... Flaked salt, to taste ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper, to taste .......................................

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Place the chicken, vegetables, fish or fish bones, beef or beef bones and salt and pepper into a saucepan and completely cover with 3 litres of water. Bring the water to the boil, then reduce heat. Place a lid on the saucepan and simmer for 1–3 hours. Turn heat off and allow to cool. Remove the solid ingredients. The meat can be chopped up and used for a soup or casserole, or discarded. Strain the stock then place it into airtight containers and either freeze for later use or keep in the fridge for up to 3–4 days.

M aster S tock Master stock is stock that sets firm like jelly when cooled. This is achieved by cooking the stock twice or three times, depending on the flavour intensity desired. For the second and third time, you use the stock from the first and/or second cooking, together with a fresh quantity of meat or vegetables. Master stock is most often used for richly flavoured consommés and clear broths or to make aspic and rich sauces.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

1–1½ litres

5 minutes

1 hour for each subsequent cooking

Ingredients ....................................... 1kg chicken, vegetables, fish or fish bones, beef or beef bones for each cooking ....................................... 2½ litres of basic stock of same ingredient to cover the base ingredient (see recipe above) .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Place the chicken, vegetables, fish, or fish bones, beef or beef bones into a saucepan and completely cover with the basic stock. Bring to the boil, place a lid over the saucepan, and simmer for 1 hour. Turn off heat and allow to cool. Remove the chicken, vegetables, fish or fish bones, beef or beef bones. The meat can be chopped up and used for a soup or casserole, or discarded. Repeat steps 1 thorugh 4 for a more flavourful stock. Strain the stock then place it into airtight containers and either freeze for later use or keep in the fridge for up to 3–4 days. Master stock is good frozen in ice cube trays as well to be used to flavour sauces.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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soups


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soups The soups of the world are diverse in form, ranging from light appetite-provoking bouillons to thick, hearty, stew-type broths which are virtually meals in themselves. Most countries produce soups which reflect their national cuisine, the consommé and bouillabaisse of France; the mock turtle and oxtail of England; the fruit soups of Scandinavia; the chowders, pepper pots and gumbos of America; the cock-a-leekie of Scotland; the borsch of Russia and Poland; the chicken broth and matzoh balls of Israel, and so on. The list, were it complete, would seem to be endless, but from it we would learn that the climate, agriculture, religion and economic state of a country all influence what goes into the nation’s soup pots. The soups of the classical cuisine are, as with sauces, a grouped and organised collection of variations, many based on national soups, set out in accordance with their content, consistency and texture. Soups can be thick, thin, clear, hot, cold, strained and unstrained and can be easily classed and base recipes with variations created. They include Thick Soups (purees, bisques, potages, veloutés and crèmes); Special Soups (foreign soups); Unpassed Soups (broths); Cold Soups and Clear Soups (clarified consommé’s). For the purpose of this book, we will be looking at those that lend themselves to variations including thick soups, broths and consommé’s.


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THICK SOUPS Basic P uree S oup A puree is prepared from cooked sieved vegetables to which stock is added. Some vegetables need a thickening agent as the purees of themselves do not cohere (hold together). This thickening agent can be raw potato or uncooked rice.

Quantity Work on 200g of vegetables per person

Prep. Time

Cook Time

15 minutes

45 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... Vegetables, peeled and chopped ....................................... 3 Tbsp uncooked rice or 125g raw potato per 200g vegetables (only if required) ...................................... 250ml light stock (chicken or vegetable) ...................................... Seasonings to taste (see variations) ......................................

Method 1. 2. 3.

4.

If the vegetables have a skin such as tomatoes or capsicum, remove these before chopping (see skinning fruit page 85 and char grilling capsicum page 90). Place the vegetables in a saucepan, add the rice or potato if required, cover with the stock, add the seasonings and simmer till tender. Allow to cool, then either place the ingredients in a blender and puree till thoroughly broken down, or use a stick blender and puree in the saucepan. a. If the soup is too thick, add a little more stock till the desired consistency is achieved. b. If it’s too thin, add a little more rice or potato and cook for a further 20 minutes then puree again. Heat and serve with crusty bread, croutons, and a dollop of cream or sour cream. Soup can also be frozen for use later.

Vegetables & Seasonings Asparagus: Summer Savory, Thyme, Parsley Broccoli: Oregano, Chives, Tarragon Brussels Sprouts: Marjoram Carrots: Anise Seed, Bay Leaves, Caraway Seed, Marjoram, Mint, Parsley, Sage Cauliflower: Dill Seed, Rosemary, Tarragon Celeriac: Tarragon Lentils: Fennel Seed, Oregano, Summer Savory Dried Beans: Sage, Summer Savory, Thyme, Oregano, Tarragon, Bay Leaves (soak beans in water over night and drain before using) Mushrooms: Lemon, Oregano, Rosemary Tarragon Onions: Basil, Marjoram, Oregano, Sage, Thyme, Mace (serve with slices of French bread sprinkled with grated cheese, grilled until melted, floating in the soup) Parsnips: Dill Peas: Basil, Chervil, Fennel Seed, Marjoram, Mint, Rose Potatoes: Bay Leaves, Caraway Seed, Chervil, Coriander, Green Dill, Parsley, Poppy Seed, Sesame Seed Pumpkin: Allspice (ground), Fennel Seed, Nutmeg, Cinnamon and Ginger Squash: Allspice (ground), Saffron Sweet Potatoes: Allspice (ground), Cinnamon (ground), Cloves (ground) Tomatoes: Basil, Bay Leaves, Celery Seed, Chervil, Oregano, Parsley, Sage, Tarragon, Thyme Turnips: Caraway Seed Zucchini: Basil, Marjoram, Mint, Oregano, Rosemary, Saffron, Thyme


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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sauces


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S auces Sauces are the base upon which the work of the kitchen is constructed. When tracing the development of present-day sauces, it is interesting to note how their role has changed from that of their counterparts in the past. Originally, their primary function was the covering of rather doubtful food which had taken several days to reach the kitchen. Today their role is to assist and accompany while remaining discreetly in the background. Sauces can be defined as being liquid or semi-liquid mixtures which are added to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, and desserts to give moisture or richness and to garnish or otherwise enhance the appearance. In some cases, they are used to provide a contrasting or piquant flavour to an otherwise bland food, as a coating with the aim of improving the overall appearance of the food concerned, or the modification of food flavours, by the use of highly spiced sauces used as dressings and marinades. Sauces also form the bases of many recipes, and once mastered, a cooks recipe repertoire can quite literally explode. In general, sauces can be classified as: • Basic or Mother – meaning that many sauces are created from using derivatives of the sauce – Béchamel, Velouté, Espagnole, Tomato, Hollandaise, Mayonnaise. • Derivative or Secondary – Each of the mother sauces has their own set of derivatives. These are listed with each sauce. • Independent – Gravy, Jus, Barbecue Sauce, Cumberland Sauce, Horseradish Cream, Apple Sauce, Vinaigrette, Buerre Blanc, and composite butters, although they’ve been separated here. • Sweet – Caramel Sauce, Butterscotch Sauce, Egg Custard Sauce, Citrus Sauce, Chocolate Sauce, Brandy/Liqueur Sauce, Sabayon (egg foam sauce), Fruit Coulis • Composite Butters – Goats Cheese and Watercress, Shallot Parsley, Ginger Coriander and Lime Butter, Anchovy, Curry, Orange Tarragon, Dill, Sun Dried Tomato and Rosemary, Lemon Chive, Garlic, Herb. General Rules Relating to the Handling of Sauces: • Sauces should simmer gently and not boil fiercely. • All sauces should be checked for seasoning and consistency. This should be done just prior to serving. • To prevent skinning, place cling wrap directly on the surface of the sauce.


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mother S auces B é chamel S auce

( a KA - M e lt e d B u t t e r S a u c e )

This basic sauce can be made in four consistencies depending on its end use. The thickness of the sauce is achieved by increasing the butter and flour but keeping the milk at the same volume. Béchamel can be sweet or savoury and is also the base of many recipes. Béchamel can also be made using oil instead of butter. Substitute the butter for oil in exact quantity. Choose neutral oil such as rice bran oil.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

5 minutes

5–10 minutes

Work on 1 cup of sauce for 2 people

Ingredients ....................................... Plain Flour ....................................... 1 cup Milk ...................................... Flaked salt to taste ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ....................................... Thin Béchamel (used as a base for cream soups) 1 Tbsp each of butter and flour ....................................... Medium Béchamel (used for vegetable au gratins, lasagne, boiled meats, fish and puddings) 1½ Tbsp each of butter and flour ....................................... Thick or Masking Béchamel (used as the base for soufflés and savoury fillings) 2 Tbsp each of butter and flour ....................................... Panada (used to bind croquettes, patties and fried savoury cakes) 3 Tbsp each of butter and flour ......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Melt the butter in a saucepan but do not boil. Remove from the heat, add the flour, salt and pepper or sugar and whisk until the mixture is free of lumps. While still off the heat, gradually add the milk, stirring constantly until the mixture is completely blended and smooth. Return to the heat and stir until it boils and thickens. Once the sauce boils, reduce the heat and cook for a further minute to cook the starch (flour).

Béchamel Derivatives  Parsley Sauce – add 2 Tbsp of finely chopped parsley.  Onion Sauce – add ½ cup of cooked chopped onions or ½ cup of cooked chopped shallots. Cook by simmering in water until tender.  Caper Sauce – add 2 Tbsp of capers, drained and chopped.  Cheese Sauce – add ½ cup of grated tasty cheese.  Curry Sauce – add 2 tsp of curry powder to the flour before it’s mixed in with the butter.  Mustard Sauce – add 2 tsp of Dijon mustard to the flour mixture before adding the cream.  Anchovy Sauce – add 2 tsp of concentrated anchovy paste and ½ tsp of lemon juice.  Sweet White Sauce – Instead of salt and pepper, add 1 Tbsp of sugar or 2 Tbsp of maple syrup.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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salsas, pastes & pestos


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Basic S alsa Salsa is a mixture of chopped fruits and vegetables along with some juices, olive oil, garlic, herbs and spices. Almost anything can be put into a salsa but the mixture of ingredients is what will give it its flavour. Salsa is ideal to serve as a base for meat, poultry or fish dishes, as a sauce on meat, poultry or fish dishes, or as dip for party and finger food. The beauty of salsa is its versatility and adaptability. At its most basic, salsa contains chopped or pureed tomatoes, chillies, onions, and fresh coriander, flavoured with salt and a squeeze of limejuice. But you can play with the ingredients and try as many different combinations as you like.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Makes approximately 2–3 cups

30 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 2 cups diced main ingredient ....................................... 2 Tbsp diced red onion ....................................... 2 Tbsp brunoise de-seeded chilli ....................................... ¼ cup coarsely chopped fresh coriander ....................................... ¼ cup limejuice ....................................... Flaked salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3.

In a medium bowl combine the tomatoes, onion, chillies, coriander, limejuice. Adjust the seasoning with salt and pepper to taste. Cover with cling wrap and let the salsa sit at room temperature for about 1 hour to allow the flavours to blend.

Suggestions Diced the ingredients mentioned below and mix with the basic salsa.  Mixed Tomato Salsa – choose various types and sizes of tomatoes for this salsa and mix them with the basic ingredients above.  Chargrilled Vegetable Salsa – diced chargrilled and peeled capsicum (various colours), eggplant, and zucchini plus pitted black olives, minced garlic and a few leaves of roughly chopped rocket.  Bean Salsa – canned mixed beans, eschallots and fresh herbs to compliment the bean choice.  Tropical Fruit Salsa – dice papaya, mango, pineapple, kiwifruit etc and mix with basic salsa ingredients above.  Seasonal Fruit Salsa – dice seasonal fruits and mix with basic salsa ingredients above. Be sure to douse fruits that oxidize easily with citrus juice to prevent browning.  Salsa Verde – is slightly more involved than just adding a few extra ingredients to the basic salsa. It is a recipe all in itself. Place 1 cup flat leaf parsley 2 Tbsp drained capers, 6 anchovies, 3 cloves garlic, 1 diced Spanish onion into a food processor and pulse several times, scraping down the sides between pulses. Add 100ml of olive oil and blend. Season with salt and pepper then refrigerate the salsa until required.


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Basic P esto The name pesto comes from the same Latin root of ‘pestle,’ which is fitting as the sauce, in its simplest form, is made by crushing a few key ingredients together, and have been part of Italian cuisines since Roman times. Pesto is a very versatile sauce and can be used as a bruschetta topping, tossed through pasta, on cooked meats, and even in soups. A lovely way to explore pesto sauces is to buy a few different kinds, and make a platter of pesto bruschetta using each sauce.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Makes about 2 cups

15 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 2–3 bunches (3 cups) fresh herbs ....................................... 2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed ....................................... ¼ cup complementary nuts (see variations) ....................................... ¼ cup grated Parmesan cheese ....................................... 1 cup olive oil .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Remove the leaves from the herb bunch to make 3 cups of loosely packed leaves. Place in a food processor or blender with the garlic, nuts and Parmesan. Add a couple of Tbsp of oil and use the pulse action to process the ingredients with short bursts until they are finely chopped. (If the blender halts, add a few more drops of oil to get it moving again.) While the blender is running, add the remaining oil and process to a paste. Place pesto in an airtight container and refrigerate till required. Pesto can also be frozen till required. I fill ice cube trays with it. One cube is ideal to add to basic vinaigrette for one person, or to spread on 2 slices of bruschetta.

Variations       

Basil Pesto – pine nuts Mint Pesto – cashew nuts Coriander Pesto – unsalted roasted peanuts Chargrilled Capsicum Pesto – do not add nuts Chargrilled Eggplant Pesto – do not add nuts Oven Roasted Tomatoes Pesto – do not add nuts Rocket Pesto – pine nuts


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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preserves & preserving


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P R E S E RV E S & P R E S E RV I N G There are many reasons for making your own preserves or for preserving foods. If you are growing your own fruits and vegetables, the best way of using up that abundant harvest is by making it into preserves or freezing it. If you do not grow your own produce, it is still an advantage to be able to purchase produce in season, in larger quantities, at a cheaper price, and then preserve it for future use. But don’t think when you preserve food you need to do it in bulk. I make enough for myself just because I’ve come across some delectable produce in season and have the urge to cook it up or make it last longer. Before you start preserving food, there are some basics you need to know. Choice of Fruit for Jam Choose fruit from the good and medium columns below in preference to the poor. Fruit form the poor column will more than likely need the addition of commercial jam setter to make your jam set.

Good

Medium

Poor

cooking apples crab apples cranberries lemons limes quinces Seville oranges

apricots blackberries dessert apples loganberries mulberries plums raspberries

bananas cherries figs grapes melons nectarines peaches pineapples rhubarb strawberries

Sterilizing Jars for Preserving Properly handled sterilised equipment will keep preserved foods in good condition for years. Sterilizing jars is the first step of preserving foods. Jars should be made from glass and free of any chips or cracks. Preserving or bottling jars are topped with a glass, plastic, or metal lid, which has a rubber seal. Twopiece lids are best for bottling, as they vacuum seal when processed. To sterilise jars, before filling with jams, pickles, or preserves: • Wash jars and lids with hot, soapy water. • Rinse well and arrange jars and lids open sides up, without touching, on a tray. • Leave in a preheated 150°C oven for 25 minutes, or, boil the jars and lids in a large saucepan, covered with water, for 15 minutes. • Use tongs when handling the hot sterilised jars, to move them from either boiling water or the oven. Be sure the tongs are sterilised too, by dipping the ends in boiling water for a few minutes. As a rule, hot preserves go into hot jars and cold preserves go into cold jars. • All items used in the process of making jams, jellies, and preserves must be clean. This includes any towels used, and especially your hands. After the jars are sterilised, you can bottle the food.


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Testing the Jell Set of Jams, Jellies and Marmalades Jams, jellies and marmalades are not ready for bottling until they can pass the jell test, or reach what is called the setting point. After the recommended time in a recipe, you should perform this test before attempting to bottle your preserve. 1. 2. 3.

Place a small plates in the fridge, whilst making your jam. After the desired rolling boil time, move pan off the heat, and take a small amount of jam, place on the cold plate from the fridge. Leave for 30 seconds then push finger through gently, if it wrinkles you have a set. If not, continue to cook the preserve longer.

Basic Jam Jam is a mixture of fruit and sugar. The high concentration of sugar prevents the growth of microorganisms and allows the jam to keep for several months, hence the term – preserve. Jam will only set if there are sufficient quantities of pectin, acid and sugar present. Some fruits are naturally rich in pectin and give a good set, while others may have to be boosted with added pectin (commercially purchased – Jam Setter).

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Makes about 3 x 250g jars of jam

45 minutes

1½ to 2 hours

Ingredients ....................................... 1kg fruit (see page 176) ....................................... 750g sugar .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Have the jars sterilised (see page 176) and in the oven. Remove skins, seeds, pips, and stones from the fruit. Place the fruit in a saucepan with a little of the sugar and cook till the fruit is tender. Add the remaining sugar and stir through. When boiling jams, to prevent burning, a large glass marble placed in the pan is better than stirring. When the sugar is dissolved, cook rapidly until the jam sets when tested (see above). Fill the jars with the jam, place the lid on immediately, and set aside to cool. Label the jam with type and date of bottling. For a great selection of downloadable preserve label artwork that you can use to print off your own personalised labels, visit www.preservelabels.com.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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freezing food


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free z ing food Freezing extends the shelf life of food. Blanching food before freezing prevents the enzymes in food from affecting the quality of the food during storage. Only vegetables can be blanched before freezing. If fruit is blanched, and then frozen, the fruit will become mushy after defrosting. Containers • Select containers that are designed for freezing food like freezer bags or plastic freezer containers. Containers should be moisture/vapour resistant to prevent ‘freezer burn’. • Wash all containers in hot, soapy water. Discard any containers that are cracked or chipped. • Rinse with hot water and let air dry on a clean towel or rack. Food Selection and Blanching • Choose young, tender vegetables or well-ripened fruits for freezing. Tomatoes may be cooked, pureed, or juiced before freezing. • Wash, peel, and trim away bruised areas. Cut into serving sizes, if desired, before freezing. • Blanch all vegetables (except capsicum and onions) to preserve quality. For blanching times required for each vegetable, see Vegetable Cooking Times pages 250-251. • Once blanched, remove the vegetable from the ice water, drain, and dry thoroughly. It is important to freeze vegetables dry because extra moisture can decrease the quality. Preparing Fruit for Freezing Fruits may be frozen in sugar syrup, dry sugar, or with no sugar at all. Sugar syrup is preferred because it coats the cut fruit and protects it from the action of enzymes that change the colour and appearance of the fruit. If no sugar is added, the fruit will not remain firm and will turn brown from the enzyme action. Use dry sugar for fruits that readily produce juice, such as strawberries and peaches. Sugar syrup is used to pack fruits that form juice slowly, such as pineapples and apples. Fruits packed in sugar or with syrup generally have a better texture and flavour than those packed dry, however, small berries such as cranberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and currants can be frozen without sugar. Use the Sugar Syrup Table on page 128 for syrup concentration guides. When preparing fruits that will oxidise (turn brown) when exposed to air (apples, peaches, or pears), dip them in acidulated water (lemon juice and water) to prevent the change in colour. As an alternative, you can add a pinch of citric acid or ascorbic acid to your sugar syrup. Packing and Storing the Food • Pack the food in the appropriate freezer container. Allow 1cm of headspace for dry food and 3–5cm for food covered with liquid. After packing, wipe the top of each package clean. Seal airtight. When filling plastic storage bags, be sure the fruit is covered by the sugar syrup. Remember to ‘burp’ the bag, to expel all of the air before you seal it. This will prevent freezer burn and keep the food from drying out. • Label the container with the date and the name of the product. • Place bags, containers, or jars in the freezer and store at 4°C or below. • Be sure that your freezer temperature remains steady. Fluctuation (freeze, thaw, refreeze) in temperature will adversely affect the quality of the food. • When containers are removed from the freezer, thaw in the refrigerator or in a pan of cool running water.


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notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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cakes, puddings & biscuits


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Basic P lain C ake This recipe is a fundamental proportioned basic cake. Once you master this recipe, cake making will become a breeze and the variety of cake flavours you can make will be limited only to your imagination. Just remember, if your flavour requires a liquid, you need to substitute it for the amount in the cake, and similarly, if it requires a nut meal or coconut etc, you’ll need to adjust the flour accordingly, otherwise the balance of ingredients will be out. Of all the recipes, baking is an exact science and the proportions must balance. Keep that in mind and you’ll always have a successful recipe.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Makes a 22cm cake

20 minutes

Depends on cake tin used – see below

165°C

Fan Forced

Ingredients ....................................... 125g butter ....................................... ¾ cup caster sugar ....................................... 4 drops vanilla ....................................... 2 eggs ....................................... 2 cups self raising flour ....................................... ½ cup milk .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

Preheat the oven. In a large bowl, cream the butter and sugar. Beat the eggs and add them gradually to the creamed mixture, beating well after each addition. Add the sifted flour alternatively with the milk, beginning and ending with flour, then beat for about a minute till a smooth batter forms. Pour batter into a prepared cake tin (sprayed with cooking spray and also lined with baking paper if the tin is NOT non-stick) a. 2 x shallow cake tins b. Loaf tin c. Slab tin d. Ring tin e. Patty cakes Bake for 30–40 minutes until a skewer inserted into the centre comes out clean. Patty cakes will take about 20–30 minutes. Turn out onto a rack and allow to cool.

Variations          

Banana Cake – mash two very ripe bananas and add the creamed mixture before you add the eggs. Chocolate Cake – Add 4 level Tbsp of cocoa powder to the flour. Increase the milk by 1 Tbsp. Vanilla Chocolate Chip Cake – Add ½ cup chocolate chip bits to the dry mixture before adding the milk. Citrus and Poppy Seed Cake – Add 2 level tsp of grated orange or lemon rind and 1 tsp poppy seeds to the sifted flour – replace the milk with fresh orange or lemon juice. Coconut Cake – Add ½ cup of desiccated coconut and a few drops of coconut essence/flavouring before the flour and the milk. Spice Cake – Add 1 tsp of ground ginger, ½ tsp of ground cinnamon and ½ tsp of nutmeg to the flour. Almond/Hazelnut Cake – Add ½ tsp baking powder to the flour before sifting and substitute 1 cup of the flour with almond or hazelnut meal and add a few drops of almond/hazelnut extract/essence. Ginger Cake – Add 2 tsp ground ginger to the flour. Marble Cake – divide the batter into three bowls, add red food colouring to one, 2 Tbsp cocoa, a pinch bicarbonate of soda and 1 Tbsp extra of milk to the other, and leave one plain. Drop all three mixtures into the prepared cake tin and draw a thick skewer or knife through all the batters to streak the colours. Patty Cakes – spoon into 24 greased patty or muffin tins or patty cake papers on a standard cookie slide. Cooking time is 20–30 minutes. Always check at 20 minutes.


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Basic M uffins Muffin recipes are very similar to basic cakes. You’ll notice this one is almost identical, except for one aspect, instead of creaming the butter and sugar, this is a melt and mix method. Muffins often use the melt and mix method to give a more roughed up mixture and thus chunkier textured result.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Makes 12 medium sized muffins

10–15 minutes

20–30 minutes

165°C

Fan Forced

Ingredients ....................................... 125g butter ....................................... 2 eggs ....................................... 2 cups self raising flour ....................................... ½ cup milk ....................................... Sweet – ¾ cup sugar 4 drops vanilla extract Use milk ....................................... Savoury – 1 onion, finely chopped 1 Tbsp flat leaf parsley, finely chopped .5 cup tasty cheddar cheese, grated Use buttermilk .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Preheat the oven. In a large bowl, place the dry and variation ingredients (flour, sugar, onion, cheese, salt and pepper and any other dry variation ingredients) and stir together. In another bowl, combine the liquid ingredients (milk, melted butter and eggs, vanilla and any other liquid variation ingredients) and beat lightly. Add the liquid to the dry ingredients and mix to combine, (do this gently so as not to over beat and work the gluten). Pour batter into the holes of a greased 12-hole muffin tin (you can also use muffin papers if desired). Bake for 20-30 minutes until a skewer inserted into centre comes out clean. Turn out onto a rack and allow to cool.

Variations

 Banana Muffins – mash two very ripe bananas and add the liquid mixture before you add to the dry.  Blueberry Muffins – add 1 cup frozen blueberries to the combined batter just before spooning into the muffin tin.  Chocolate Muffins – Add 4 level Tbsp of cocoa powder to the flour. Increase the milk by 1 Tbsp.  Chocolate Chip Muffins – Add ½ cup chocolate chip bits to the dry mixture before adding the milk.  Citrus and Poppy Seed Muffins – Add 2 level tsp of grated orange or lemon rind and 1 tsp poppy seeds to the dry ingredients – replace the milk with fresh orange or lemon juice.  Coconut Muffins – Add ½ cup of desiccated coconut to the dry ingredients and a few drops of coconut essence/flavouring to the liquid ingredients.  Spiced Muffins – Add 1 tsp of ground ginger, ½ tsp of ground cinnamon and ½ tsp of nutmeg to the dry ingredients.  Almond/Hazelnut Muffins – Add ½ tsp baking powder to the flour and substitute 1 cup of the flour with almond or hazelnut meal and add a few drops of almond/hazelnut extract/essence to the liquid ingredients.  Ginger Muffins – Add 2 tsp ground ginger to the dry ingredients.  Cheese and Bacon Muffins – Add 1⁄2 cup grated tasty cheese and 1⁄4 cup cooked and cooled chopped bacon bits to the batter before placing in the muffin tins.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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fillings, frostings & icings


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Basic B utter F rosting The key to beautiful soft and fluffy frosting is the beating of the butter. The time it takes to achieve this is anywhere between 5 and 8 minutes. Make sure you allow the time to do this. Using a stand mixer makes the task easier as you can add the other ingredients while the mixer is running, ensuring the beating continues throughout the process, otherwise if you use a hand beater you have to continually stop and start. Attempting to do it by hand does not achieve good results. It’ll still be edible, but not delightful.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Will frost a 22cm cake

20 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 125g butter ....................................... 3¼ cups icing sugar mixture ....................................... 1–1½ Tbsp milk ....................................... ¾ tsp vanilla extract ....................................... 1–2 Tbsp milk (extra) ....................................... 3–4 drops food colouring (optional) ....................................... 2–3 drops flavouring essence – orange, lemon, coconut, almond, chocolate (optional) .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Beat butter in a stand mixer or with a hand beater until light in colour and fluffy. Gradually add 3 cups of the sifted icing sugar mixture, while still beating. Slowly beat in the vanilla and the milk. Gradually beat in the remaining icing sugar mixture. Beat in the extra milk (1–2 Tbsp) if needed, to make frosting of spreading consistency. If a coloured or flavoured frosting is desired, tint the frosting with 6–8 drops of food colouring, or a few drops of flavour essences.


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G anache Ganache is a rich mixture of chocolate and cream which can be used as a frosting or filling. Depending on the intended use, different ratios of chocolate to cream are used, to create anything from a light glaze to a dense standalone truffle. Although ganache is remarkably rich and luxurious, it is extremely easy to make. Adding butter or oil to the ganache will make it highly glossy, as is sometimes desirable for frosting. Liqueurs and other flavourings can also be added. As it cools, the ganache will become stiffer, but it can easily be reheated, if needed. The addition of small amounts of coffee or orange can also radically change the flavour. Different types of chocolate yield various styles of ganache, from bittersweet to white; however, it is a good idea to use high quality chocolate, since the ganache is so simple that cheap chocolate will mar the flavour. Ganache can be made with milk, dark or white chocolate.

Prep. Time

Cook Time

5 minutes

20 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... Light Filling for layering cakes and other similar desserts • 200g chocolate • 200ml thickened cream ....................................... Glaze/Frosting for tortes and other rich cakes and desserts • 600g chocolate • 200ml thickened cream ....................................... Dense Filling for truffles and other candied desserts and can also be lightly rolled in cocoa powder and served like a truffle • 400g chocolate • 200ml thickened cream .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4.

Heat the cream and chocolate in a heavy saucepan until the chocolate completely melts and combines with the cream. Transfer to the bowl of a stand mixer and beat the mixture till it cools thoroughly and becomes thick and glossy. For a glossy finish, add a little neutral flavoured oil such as rice bran oil, or unsalted butter to the mixture towards the tail end of the beating. A teaspoon is sufficient to give the finish. Use as required.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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batters


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Basic Waffle Batter A waffle is a batter or dough based cake cooked in a waffle iron patterned to give a distinctive and characteristic shape. There are many variations based on the type and shape of the iron and the recipe used. This recipe is a very simple and basic one that can be adapted and varied as required.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Makes enough waffles for 2

15 minutes

30 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 1½ cups flour ....................................... ¾ tsp baking powder ....................................... 2 eggs, separated ....................................... 1½ cups milk or buttermilk .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Place the flour and baking powder into a bowl and make a well in the centre. Whisk the egg yolks and milk together and pour into the well. Beat the mixture for 1–2 minutes, and then set aside for 5–10 minutes. Whisk the egg whites until soft peaks form and carefully fold into the flour mixture. Preheat a waffle iron and cook ½ cupfuls of the mixture at a time until the waffles are golden brown (about 2 minutes).


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Basic F ritter Batter Fritters are a mixture of different ingredients which are covered with batter, then deep-fried. ‘Fritter’ derives from the Latin word frictura which translates as fried or to fry. Any ingredient dipped in batter and fried can essentially be a fritter, though it may not always be called so. This batter can be used for sweet fritters by adding sugar. When food is coated in batter, it needs to be dry and once coated, needs to be cooked immediately. As such, it’s best to have everything you need ready before you start, have the oil already heated, and have the serving plates and other accompaniments ready to serve because fried foods also don’t keep well, in fact, they need to be served as soon as they’re cooked and drained.

Quantity

Prep. Time

One quantity of this batter 1 hour and 5 minutes is enough for 2 people

Ingredients

....................................... 1 cup self raising flour ....................................... Pinch salt ....................................... 1 Tbsp melted butter or olive oil ....................................... 2 ⁄3 cup warm water ....................................... 1 egg white, stiffly beaten ....................................... 1 Tbsp caster sugar (added if making a sweet batter) .......................................

Cook Time 10 minutes

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Put the flour, salt (and sugar if it’s to be a sweet batter) into a bowl and make a well. Mix the oil with the warm water and pour into the bowl. Beat the batter until smooth. Leave for at least 1 hour. Stiffly beat the egg whites, fold them into the batter, and then use immediately.

T empura Batter Using icy cold water (fridge temperature) is a must. This keeps the batter from becoming sticky. When you add the flour, whisk quickly just to mix it in evenly. Sticky batter results in oily tempura. Tempura ingredients, like all deep fried and battered ingredients, need to be dry before being dipped into the batter.

Quantity

Prep. Time

makes 1 cup batter (enough for 2 people)

5 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 1 beaten egg ....................................... 1 cup iced water ....................................... 1 cup plain flour .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4.

Beat the egg and mix with water. Add flour and whisk quickly. Dip dry even sized pieces of dry food into the batter then immediately into the hot oil and cook till golden, about 20–30 seconds. Drain and serve immediately.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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doughs


the

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Basic S cones / Damper Scone mixture needs to be worked quickly and lightly to avoid stiff and therefore tough dough. If the dough gets tough, the scones will not rise. If you make double the quantity of this scone mixture, only use 1½ cups milk, not 2 cups, but double all the other ingredients.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Serves 4

10 minutes

10 minutes

210°C

Fan Forced

Ingredients ....................................... 2 cups self raising flour ....................................... ¼ tsp salt ....................................... 2 Tbsp butter ....................................... 1 cup milk or buttermilk .......................................

Method 1. 2.

Preheat the oven. Line a cookie slide with baking paper, or use a round or square cake tin that’s been greased. 3. Sift the flour and salt into the bowl of a food processor. 4. Cut the butter into cubes, and while the food processor is running, add the butter cubes one at a time until they are all incorporated and the mixture resembles coarse meal. Transfer the mixture to a mixing bowl. 5. Pour nearly all the milk in at once, keeping a little for glazing, and mix quickly with a knife to a soft dough. 6. Turn onto a floured board and knead very lightly and quickly. 7. Roll or press out to a round or square shape about 3cm thick. 8. Score the top into 9 equal portions (like a noughts and crosses board), not cutting all the way through, but just enough to be able to break the cooked dough into individual scones. 9. Brush with milk to glaze. 10. Place on the tray and bake for 8–10 minutes. 11. Serve with butter, or jam and cream. 12. If you’re making into a damper, serve hot with golden syrup.

Variations  Cheese Scones – add ½ cup grated tasty cheese to the flour mixture after the butter, or roll out the dough, sprinkle with the cheese, roll up and cut up like a roulade and place on the slide with the cut edge up.  Date/Sultana Scones – add 1⁄3 cup sultanas or chopped dates to the flour after the butter. NB: Pumpkin Scones are made with a completely different recipe, more like a cake. Pumpkin scones are not considered a variation of basic scones.


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Basic Pasta D ough Home made pasta is easier with a pasta machine but it is possible to make some pasta shapes by rolling out the dough and cutting it with a knife.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Work on 1 cup flour to make enough pasta for 2 people

1 hour 15 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 1 cup strong plain flour ....................................... Pinch salt ....................................... 1 Tbsp olive oil ....................................... 1 egg .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Place the flour and salt into the bowl of a food processor. Beat the egg and olive oil together and add to the flour. Pulse the processor till smooth dough is formed. Place the dough on a lightly floured surface, and with both hands, knead the dough for about 10 minutes. If you have a dough hook on your processor, this can all be done in the processor. Wrap the dough in cling wrap and leave for about 30 minutes before shaping. Use a pasta machine to make your choice of pasta or, roll out the pasta with a rolling pin, then roll it into a long roll and slice into 1cm rings, open them out and hang them over a rack to allow the dough to relax before cooking. You can also cut pasta into squares or rounds, place filling on each piece and use another piece on top then seal the edges to make ravioli.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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bases, toppings, coatings & stuffings


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C heesecake , P ie Base or C rumble Topping This mixture can be used instead of pastry for a sweet or savoury pie or as the base of a sweet or savoury cheesecake. Vary it by using different nutmeals or adding herbs and spices to compliment the filling. This recipe can also be used as a crumble on stewed fruit for a dessert. Add the desiccated coconut and change the method as set out below.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Enough for 22cm pie or cheesecake

15 minutes

15–20 minutes

180°C

Fan Forced

Ingredients ....................................... 125g pecan, almond, pistachio, hazelnut, or macadamia nutmeal. ....................................... 1 cup flour, sifted ....................................... ½ cup desiccated coconut (if making into a crumble topping) ....................................... 60g butter ....................................... Sweet ¼ cup sugar, 1 tsp vanilla extract ....................................... Savoury Flaked salt and freshly ground black pepper, and fresh or dried chopped herbs may also be added .......................................

Method for Pie or Cheesecake Base 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add the nutmeal and the seasonings for savoury or sweet. Stir in the sifted flour gradually. Press the crumb mixture into the base of a spring form pan, pie dish or flat ceramic baking dish. Bake in a moderate over 20 minutes. Top with your favourite pie or cheesecake filling and bake or chill.

Method for Crumble Topping 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Place the nutmeal, sugar, coconut and flour in a food processor. Pulse to combine. Cut the butter into cubes, and while processor is in motion, gradually add the butter till mixture resembles course meal. Place over the stewed fruit (page 91) and bake in the oven for 15 minutes or until golden brown. Serve hot with double cream or ice cream. Make a savoury version and use as a crumble coating on top of baked meats such as fish, chicken or lamb.


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Basic S tuffing There are many different varieties of stuffing; the one you choose is predominantly a matter of taste. This basic recipe will work for poultry, game, and pork. The cooking time, oven temperature and the amount you require of the stuffing, will depend on the variation ingredients you add and the size and weight of the meat etc you are stuffing. For accurate cooking times and for how much stuffing you require, plan on ½ to ¾ cup of stuffing per person. For amounts needed to stuff whole birds according to their weight, refer to Stuffing Calculation Chart on page 245.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Makes 4 cups

15 minutes

15 minutes

Ingredients ....................................... 1 beaten egg (only use if you’re making a stuffing with minced meat) ....................................... 2 medium onions, chopped ....................................... 4 cups fresh breadcrumbs (see page 232) ....................................... Variation ingredients (see below) ....................................... 1 Tbsp rice bran oil ....................................... 2 Tbsp butter ....................................... Flaked salt, to taste ....................................... Freshly ground black pepper, to taste .......................................

NB: Stuffing should be used as quickly as possible after making unless frozen.

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Heat the oil in a pan, add the onions, and sauté for 1 minute. Add any variation ingredients that need to be cooked such as garlic, mushrooms, bacon, minced meat such as pork or veal etc for 5–6 minutes. Place the cooked ingredients, herbs, spices, and nuts into a bowl and combine thoroughly. Add the butter to the pan and melt, then add the breadcrumbs and toss to coat and absorb the butter. Add the breadcrumbs to the other ingredients in the bowl. If you’re making a stuffing with minced meat, add all the bowl ingredients now to the food processor and with the motor running, pour in the beaten egg till the stuffing clumps together. Either stuff the roast and cook immediately, or wrap the stuffing in plastic wrap and foil and freeze till required.

Variations  Ham, Fennel and Raisin Stuffing – 1 medium bulb of fennel, diced; 250g smoked ham, chopped; ¼ cup fresh rosemary, chopped; ½ cup grated parmesan.  Pork, Apple and Sage Stuffing – 500g pork mince; 1 cup coarsely chopped dried apples; ¼ cup fresh parsley, chopped; 1 Tbsp fresh sage, chopped.  Pistachio and Mushroom Stuffing – 500g pork mince; 1 cup chopped shelled pistachio nuts; 2 cups mushrooms, chopped; 2 cloves garlic, chopped; ¼ cup chopped fresh parsley.  Apple and Nut Stuffing – 175g raisins; 3 cooking apples, peeled, cored and coarsely chopped; 125g blanched almonds, chopped; 1 Tbsp each of fresh parsley, sage and thyme; 1 tsp ground cloves.  Cornbread Stuffing – 3 celery stalks, chopped; 250g pork mince; 1 can whole peeled chestnuts, finely chopped, 1 Tbsp each fresh thyme, oregano and parsley; 250g crumbled cornbread (instead of the breadcrumbs); 1 tsp cinnamon; zest and juice of 1 orange.  Chestnut and Cranberry Stuffing – 250g cranberries (fresh or dried); 1 tsp cinnamon; grated zest and juice of 1 orange; 1 can whole peeled chestnuts, finely chopped.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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pastry


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S hort C rust Pastry The number one rule to making a good pastry is to chill everything – ingredients, utensils, even your hands. I also don’t attempt pastry making at all in summer, it’s just too difficult. And the second rule is to rest the pastry before rolling it. This will ensure a more delicate pastry. The chilling also prevents shrinkage during cooking.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Depends on what you’re making

10 minutes

Depends on your recipe

220°C

Bakers Function

Ingredients ....................................... 250g plain pastry flour (or ordinary plain flour if you can’t get pastry flour) ....................................... ½ tsp baking powder ....................................... ¼ tsp salt ....................................... 1 tsp sugar (for a sweet pastry) ....................................... 60g frozen unsalted butter, finely chopped or grated ....................................... 2 Tbsp iced water .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Preheat the oven. Sift the flour, baking powder and salt into the bowl of a food processor. Pulse to combine. (If you do not have a food processor, sift the ingredients into a mixing bowl.) While the processor motor is running, add the butter cubes one by one until the mixture resembles coarse meal (or rub the butter in with the fingertips or with a pastry blender). Add water gradually, making the mixture into a very dry dough. Do not add all the water unless necessary. Wrap the pastry in cling wrap and rest it in the fridge for at least 30 minutes before rolling. Turn the chilled pastry dough onto a floured board and roll out lightly to desired shape for the recipe you’re making. Blind bake if necessary (see page 26). Bake for the time specified in your recipe.


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B iscuit or C hampagne Pastry Biscuit pastry, sometimes called champagne pastry is a lighter version of short crust pastry. The addition of cornflour or custard powder makes the pastry lighter in texture and flavour. Combined with pastry flour as well, the result is delicate soft pastry. The number one rule to making a good pastry is to chill everything – ingredients, utensils, even your hands. I also don’t attempt pastry making at all in summer, it’s just too difficult. And the second rule is to rest the pastry before rolling it. This will ensure a more delicate pastry. The chilling also prevents shrinkage during cooking.

Quantity

Prep. Time

Cook Time

Oven Temp.

Oven Setting

Depends on what you’re making

15 minutes

Depends on your recipe

220°C

Bakers Function

Ingredients ....................................... 1¼ cups self-raising pastry flour (ordinary selfraising flour will do if you can’t get hold of pastry flour) ....................................... 1 Tbsp cornflour or custard powder ....................................... Pinch salt ....................................... 90g chilled cubed butter ....................................... 1 egg ....................................... ¼ cup sugar (omit for a savoury pastry) .......................................

Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Preheat the oven. Sift the flour, cornflour or custard powder and salt into the bowl of a food processor. Pulse to combine. (If you do not have a food processor, sift the ingredients into a mixing bowl.) While the processor motor is running, add the butter cubes one by one until the mixture resembles coarse meal. (Or rub the butter in with the fingertips or with a pastry blender). Beat the egg and add the sugar if you are using the dough for a sweet recipe, then add the egg mixture to the flour and butter mixture and mix to a soft dough with a butter knife. Wrap the pastry in cling wrap and rest it in the fridge for at least 30 minutes before rolling. Turn the chilled pastry dough onto a floured board and roll out lightly to desired shape for the recipe you’re making. Blind bake if necessary (see page 26). Bake for the time specified in your recipe.


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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measurement charts & tables


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C onversion F ormulae

______________________________________________________________________ Ounces to Grams: Multiply ounce figure by 28.3 to get number of grams ______________________________________________________________________ Grams to Ounces: Multiply gram figure by .0353 to get number of ounces ______________________________________________________________________ Pounds to Grams: Multiply pound figure by 454 to get number of grams ______________________________________________________________________ Pounds to Kilograms: Multiply pounds by 0.45 to get number of kilograms ______________________________________________________________________ Ounces to Millilitres: Multiply ounce figure by 30 to get number of millilitres ______________________________________________________________________ Cups to Litres: Multiply cup figure by 0.25 to get number of litres ______________________________________________________________________ Fahrenheit to Celsius: Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit figure, multiply by 5, then divide by 9 to get Celsius figure ______________________________________________________________________ Celsius to Fahrenheit: Multiply Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, add 32 to get Fahrenheit figure ______________________________________________________________________ Inches to Centimetres: Multiply inches by 2.54 to get number of centimetres ______________________________________________________________________ Centimetres to Inches: Multiply centimetre figure by .39 to get number of inches ______________________________________________________________________

O V E N T E M P E R AT U R E S ______________________________________________________________________ Fahrenheit (ยบF) Celsius (ยบC) Recipe Instruction ______________________________________________________________________ 250 130 Warm oven ______________________________________________________________________ Low oven

300

150

325 160 ______________________________________________________________________ 350 180 Moderate oven 375 190 ______________________________________________________________________ 400 200 Hot oven 425 220 ______________________________________________________________________ 450 230 Very hot oven 475 250 ______________________________________________________________________ 500 280 Extremely hot oven ______________________________________________________________________


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E quivalent W eights and M easures

______________________________________________________________________

Measure Teaspoons Tablespoon Cups Millilitres Grams ______________________________________________________________________ 8 drops a dash ______________________________________________________________________ 1.25 1.25 1/4 1/4 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/8 2.5 2.5 1/2 1/2 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/4 5 5 1 1 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1 20 20 4 1 Tbsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/8 2 30 30 8 1/8 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/4 4 60 60 16 1/4 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/3 5 75 75 20 1/3 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/2 8 125 125 32 1/2 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 2/3 10 150 150 40 2/3 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 3/4 12 180 180 48 3/4 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1 16 250 250 64 1 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 4 64 1000 200 1 litre ______________________________________________________________________ 1.89 31.5 473 94.6 1 Pint ______________________________________________________________________ 3.78 63 946 189 1 Quart ______________________________________________________________________ 15 252 3785 757 1 Gallon ______________________________________________________________________

S tuffing C alculation C hart When calculating stuffing, plan on ½ to ¾ cup serving of stuffing per person. For amounts needed to stuff whole birds according to their weight, refer to the chart below. This chart will help you determine how much stuffing to use for chicken, turkey, and other poultry. ______________________________________________________________________

Quantity of Stuffing Size of Bird to be Stuffed Number of Servings ______________________________________________________________________ 2.5 cups 1.3 - 1.8 kg 2-3 ______________________________________________________________________ 3.5 cups 2.2 - 3.6 kg 4-6 ______________________________________________________________________ 7 cups 2.6 - 4.5 kg 8 ______________________________________________________________________ 9.5 cups 4.5 - 5.5 kg 10 ______________________________________________________________________ 14.5 cups 5.5 - 6.8kg 12-14 ______________________________________________________________________ 18 cups 6.8 - 9 kg 18-20 ______________________________________________________________________


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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cooking times charts


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P rotein C ooking T imes

Roasting __________________________________________ Oven Specific Protein Cut Thickness Instructio /Weight Temp. (째C ) __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

220 Standing Rib Roast, Rib Eye Roast, Eye Roast for 30 then 150-165 Round Roast, Round Mini Roast, Sirloin reduce to 15 Roast, Rolled Brisket, Rump Roast, Eye per kilo stat Fillet Roast, Butt Fillet __________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 Lamb Whole leg, Boneless Leg Roast, Rib Roast Roast for 30 then 165 or Rack, Crown Roast (unstuffed), reduce to 16 Shoulder Roast, Boneless Shoulder Roast kilo stated h __________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 Pork Rolled Loin Roast, Fillet/Tenderloin, Roast for 30 then 165 Whole Scotch Fillet, Leg Roast, Crown reduce to 16 Roast/Loin Rack, Pork Belly Roast, Easy kilo stated h carve Leg, Mini Roast __________________________________________________________________________________________ 175 Chicken & Poultry Whole Chicken Start with m ______________________________________________________ temperature 165 Whole Turkey when intern 79째C to 82째 __________________________________________________________________________________________ 175 Fish Whole, fillets and steaks Beef

__________________________________________________________________________________________ 1kg 175 All Meatloaf Cook beef, l internal tem chicken and __________________________________________________________________________________________

Char Grill/Barbecue __________________________________________ Oven Specific Protein Cut Thickness Instructi /Weight Temp. (째C ) __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

2.5cm Steak (porterhouse, sirloin, fillet, scotch Times speci _________________________________________________________________________ fillet, topside, rump) 4cm _________________________________________________________________________ 5cm __________________________________________________________________________________________ Beef

Lamb Steak (sirloin, loin or backstrap) 2cm _________________________________________________________________________ Chops/Cutlets (shoulder, loin or rib) __________________________________________________________________________________________ Pork Steak (scotch fillet, medallion, 2cm rump/leg steaks) _________________________________________________________________________ Chops/Cutlets/T-Bones __________________________________________________________________________________________ Chicken Breast The time sp 2cm breast that cooking tim _________________________________________________________________________ Parts (legs or thighs, drumettes, Legs will ta wingettes, drumsticks) drummettes __________________________________________________________________________________________ All Sausages First poach barbecue on minutes. __________________________________________________________________________________________


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Protein Cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to ensure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing beef, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven roasted, chargrilled or barbequed.

_________________________________________ Specific Approximate Cooking Time Instructions Rare Medium Well _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

Oven mp. (°C )

220 n 150-165

Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then reduce to 150-165°C for length of time per kilo stated here

20min per kg

30min per kg

40min per kg

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 25min per kg 30min per kg 20min per kg 220 Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then hen 165 reduce to 165°C for length of time per kilo stated here _________________________________________________________________________________________ 25min per kg 30min per kg 20min per kg 220 Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then hen 165 reduce to 165°C for length of time per kilo stated here

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 40min per kg 175 Start with meat and refrigerator ________ _____________ temperature and remove from the oven 45min per kg 165 when internal temperature reaches 79°C to 82°C. _________________________________________________________________________________________ 17mins kg in total 175

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 1¼ hrs total approx, 175 Cook beef, lamb and pork loaves to an will depend on internal temperature of 71°C and mince type used chicken and turkey loaves to 79°C _________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________ Specific Approximate Cooking Time Instructions Rare Medium Well _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

Oven mp. (°C )

6min 8min 5min Times specified are minutes per side __________________________________________________________________________________________ 12min 15min 10min _________________________________________________________________________________________ 18min 20min 16min _________________________________________________________________________________________

5min __________________________________________________________________________________________ 10min 8min 5min _________________________________________________________________________________________

5 -6min 8 - 10min __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 - 8min 8 - 10min _________________________________________________________________________________________

The time specified is only for chicken 8 - 10min breast that has been pounded and cooking time is per side __________________________________________________________________________________________ Legs will take longer than wingettes or 8 - 15min drummettes _________________________________________________________________________________________ First poach for 20 minutes and then 15 - 25 minutes barbecue on medium heat for 5 - 10 depending on minutes. thickness _________________________________________________________________________________________


notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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little black à l’ allemande sauce about this book acknowledgments aioli al dente allumette almond and pistachio biscotti refrigerator biscuits almond/hazelnut soufflé cake dumplings muffins anchovy butter sauce anglaise, crème apple and nut stuffing chutney sauce baked au jus bake baked cheesecake fish pears and apples rice custard stone fruit vegetables apricots baking (pizza) stone baking sheet banana cake muffins barbecue sauce fish prawns base for roasted proteins bases cheesecake for roasted proteins pie basic biscotti bread dough broth

148 12 10 153 26 26 225 224 115 188 227 189 162 147 117 231 179 160 88 26 26 205 42 88 118 88 87 88 26 26 188 189 26 159 44 54 234 230 234 230 225 221 141

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brown stock butter frosting cheesecake chutney consommé couscous cream sauce crème anglaise crème soup drop biscuits/cookies dumplings friands fried rice frittata fritter batter Indian curry Indian curry sauce jam marmalade mayonnaise meringue mousse muffins pan omelette pannacotta pasta dough pesto pizza dough plain cake polenta potage puree soup quiche refrigerator biscuits relish risotto salsa scones/damper seafood bisque shortbread soufflé soufflé omelette sponge cake steamed pudding stew or casserole stuffing tapenade thai curry tomato sauce velouté sauce velouté soup

126 202 205 179 142 103 155 117 138 195 226 194 100 114 213 82 81 177 178 153 116 204 189 109 207 219 171 20 188 102 136 135 112 223 180 101 170 218 139 196 115 110 191 190 80 231 172 83 151 148 137

vinaigrette waffle batter white stock baste batonnet batter blinis crêpe fritter pancake pikelet tempura waffle beans salsa cooking times table dried (cooking) béarnaise essence sauce beat beef barbecued boiled braised chargrilled corned pan fried stewed stir-fried berry friands mousse bias cutting biscotti blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme lemon and caper pistachio & black olive parmesan & rosemary almond and pistachio chocolate ginger hazelnut mixed spice biscuits Anzac drop refrigerator blanch

161 212 123 26 26 211 214 214 213 214 214 213 212 92 170 92 92 152 129 152 26 55 60 62 63 60 62 59 80 61 194 204 26 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 187 197 195 223 26


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little black blanching vegetables blend blind bake blinis batter blue cheese and herb omelette and pecan biscotti and pecan dumplings and pecan biscuits cream sauce vinaigrette blueberry muffins soufflé boil boiled eggs prawns vegetables brains braise beef chicken lamb pork brandy/liqueur custard bread and butter pudding dough pull apart crumbs fresh toasted broccoli and spinach frittata and spinach quiche broil broth Asian country vegetable brown brûlée, crème brunoise brush buns Chelsea hot cross butter cheese & watercress and parsley couscous

85 26 26 214 109 225 227 224 156 161 189 115 26 107 54 84 66 27 63 73 63 63 164 118 221 222 232 232 232 114 113 27 141 141 141 141 27 118 27 27 222 222 162 103

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anchovy curry dill garlic ginger coriander, lime herb lemon chive orange tarragon shallot parsley tomato & rosemary butterfly cakes almond banana chocolate chocolate chip Christmas citrus and poppy seed coconut fruit ginger hazelnut marble plain spice sponge patty calamari fried sautéed stuffed caramel sauce crème banana filling caramelise casserole Chantilly cream chargrill capsicum curdle curry butter Indian sauce sauce custard filling tart baked rice cut cut in

162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 27 187 188 188 188 188 197 188 188 197 188 188 188 188 188 191 188 48 48 48 49 163 118 193 27 27 208 27 90 28 162 81 147 193 118 118 29 29

damper deep-fry chicken fish deglaze degrease demiglaze deseed de-vein develop devil dice disgorge dissolve dot dough bread pasta pizza dredge dressing coleslaw Caesar thousand island drizzle drop biscuits chocolate chocolate chip ginger nut peanut butter spicy date sultana wholemeal duck roast slow cooked dumplings blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme herb lemon and caper orange pistachio & … parmesan & rosemary almond hazelnut mixed spice dust eggs and bacon frittata

218 29 71 45 29 29 150 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 221 219 220 30 153 153 153 30 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 75 77 78 226 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 30 114


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little black custard sauce noodles boiled cooking fried poached scrambled coddled emulsify eq. weights & measures essential pantry/equip. fennel and raisin biscotti and raisin dumplings and raisin refrigerator biscuits ferment fillet fillings bacon and mushroom caramelised banana chicken & mushroom custard ricotta & strawberry cheese & asparagus jam savoury crepe savoury roulade smoked salmon & dill strawberries & cream sweet crepe sweet roulade crepe lamb roulade fish cooking methods mousse baked barbecued casseroled chargrilled deep-fried grilled (broiled) pan-fried poached steamed stewed flake flambé fold/fold in

164 97 107 105 108 108 106 107 30 245 16 225 227 224 30 30 201 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 57 193 40 41 204 42 44 80 44 45 43 46 47 46 80 30 30 30

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fork tender formulae, conversion freezing food containers food selection packing & storing food preparing fruit for fresh breadcrumbs produce, cooking ricotta filling friands berry chocolate hazelnut orange & poppy seed fricassee fried eggs or sautéed octopus rice scallops frittata broccoli and spinach chicken & mushroom egg and bacon pumpkin and feta salmon and oyster smoked salmon & dill zucchini and salami frosting, butter frostings fruit cake coulis poached skinning stewed & vegetables, cooking fry frying, coating food for game birds roast slow cooked ganache garnish geese roast slow cooked ginger pannacotta

30 244 183 184 184 184 184 232 39 193 194 194 194 194 194 30 108 48 100 52 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 202 201 197 167 91 85 91 84 30 233 74 77 78 203 30 75 77 78 207

biscotti cake cookies coriander, lime butter muffins refrigerator biscuits roulade glacé glaze grate gravy roasting pan saucepan green peppercorn sauce tomato chutney tomato relish grill fish lobster grind gruyere and thyme biscotti and thyme dumplings & thyme biscuits guinea fowl roast hack ham cheese filling soufflé leek omelette fennel, raisin stuffing hazelnut biscotti friands refrigerator biscuits heart herb biscotti butter dumplings mayonnaise refrigerator biscuits roulade icings independent sauces Indian curry basic, with variations bhuna dupiaza

225 188 195 162 189 224 193 30 31 31 157 157 158 156 179 180 31 43 51 31 225 227 224 75 77 31 193 115 109 231 225 194 224 65 225 162 227 153 224 193 201 154 82 82 82 82


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little black korma madras vindaloo masala jam filling basic recipe choice of fruit for testing the jell set of julienne jus kidney kitchen equipment knead lamb coatings fillings rubs barbecued braised chargrilled pan-fried stewed stir-fried larding/to lard leavening lemon and caper biscotti and caper dumplings and caper biscuits chive butter or lime couscous shortbread preserved liqueur liver lobster cutting up grilled lukewarm macerate marinade marinate marrow mayonnaise creamy herb measurement charts meat thermometer melt meringue

82 82 82 82 193 177 176 177 31 158 67 20 31 55 57 57 57 60 63 60 59 80 61 31 31 225 227 224 162 103 196 181 31 65 51 51 51 31 31 32 32 67 153 153 153 243 55 32 116

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microwave tips when cooking in vegetables mince minestrone mirepoix mix mixed berry pudding herb soufflé omelette spice biscotti spice dumplings spice biscuits spice roulade mother sauces mousse berry chocolate citrus fish smoked fish vegetable muffins almond banana chocolate chocolate chip citrus and poppy seed coconut ginger hazelnut spice mushroom cream sauce soufflé soufflé omelette mussels mustard Scandinavian sauce noodles cellophane egg hokkien ramen rice soba soman udon nut cookies

91 91 91 32 141 32 32 190 111 225 227 224 193 147 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 156 115 111 52 153 153 147 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 195

couscous skinning meal shortbread octopus fried sautéed stuffed orange & poppy seed friands shortbread tarragon butter black olive biscotti black olive dumplings black olive biscuits oven temperature chart oxtail oysters opening pan-fry beef chicken breast lamb pork prawns fish pan omelette blue cheese and herb pumpkin & vegetable ham capsicum & leek pumpkin and shallot pannacotta chocolate cinnamon citrus coconut and lime ginger and lemongrass liqueur pantry, essential parboil fruits and vegetables pare parmesan rosemary biscotti rosemary dumplings and rosemary biscuits partridge roast slow cooked pasta dough cooking

103 85 196 48 48 49 194 196 162 225 227 224 244 67 53 53 32 59 70 59 59 54 46 109 109 109 109 109 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 16 32 84 32 225 227 224 75 77 78 96 219 96


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little black quantities of pasteurize pastry crème biscuit champagne choux puff short crust pâtissière, crème paysanne peach chutney baked pear chutney baked peel pesto cream sauce cream vinaigrette basil chargrilled capsicum chargrilled eggplant coriander mint roasted tomatoes rocket pheasant roast slow cooked pie base pigeon roast slow cooked pinch pipe pit poached chicken eggs fish fruit polenta creamy soft firm pork apple & sage stuffing barbecued braised chargrilled

96 32 237 206 239 239 240 241 238 206 32 179 88 179 88 32 171 156 161 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 75 77 78 230 75 77 78 32 33 33 33 72 108 47 91 102 102 102 55 231 60 63 60

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pan fried roast with crackling stewed stir-fried pot roast potatoes, roast pound prawns barbecued boiled chargrilled pan fried sautéed preheat preserved lemons preserves preserving sterilizing jars for prick primavera tomato sauce cream sauce proof protein cooking times puddings brandy chocolate bread and butter steamed Christmas citrus and poppy seed coconut and lime mixed berry sticky date strawberry Yorkshire pumpkin and feta frittata and feta quiche and shallot omelette punch down purée vegetable risotto vegetables quail roast slow cooked quiche Lorraine broccoli and spinach chicken & mushroom pumpkin and feta salmon and oyster

59 58 80 61 33 88 33 54 54 54 54 54 54 33 181 175 175 176 33 151 156 33 248 187 190 118 197 190 190 190 190 190 214 114 113 109 33 33 101 86 75 77 78 112 113 113 113 113 113

smoked salmon & dill sunshine zucchini and salami reconstitute red tomato and fruit relish chutney reduce refrigerator biscuits savoury sweet almond and pistachio chocolate ginger hazelnut mixed spice blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme herb lemon and caper pistachio & black olive parmesan & rosemary relish corn corn and cabbage green tomato red tomato and fruit zucchini remoulade rice noodles cooking cooking by absorption steaming types of risotto Milanese Peking duck pureed vegetable seafood roast beef chicken lamb pork with crackling potatoes turkey game bird meat thermometer roux

113 113 113 33 180 179 33 223 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 180 180 180 180 180 180 153 98 97 99 99 99 98 101 101 101 101 101 33 56 69 57 58 88 76 77 55 34


the

little black rubbed salmon and oyster frittata and oyster quiche salsa verde bean chargrilled vegetable mixed tomato seasonal fruit tropical fruit sauces à l’ allemande au vin blanc aurore bercy diable hussarde joinville lyonnaise madère mousseline provencale reforme Robert supreme anchovy apple barbecue basic butter basic cream béarnaise béchamel beurre blanc bigarade blue cheese cream bolognaise bordelaise boscaiola caper carbonara chasseur chateaubriand cheese cheese cream chive cream Cumberland curry demiglaze espagnole garlic cream

34 114 113 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 146 148 148 148 148 150 151 148 150 150 152 151 150 150 148 147 160 159 154 155 152 147 154 150 156 151 150 156 147 156 150 150 147 156 156 160 147 150 149 156

105 cook book

peppercorn cream hollandaise horseradish maltaise marinara matricana mushroom cream mustard mustard cream napoletana onion parsley pesto cream piquante portugaise primavera cream primavera tomato seafood siciliana sweet white brandy brandy custard butterscotch caramel chocolate citrus egg custard egg foam liqueur sabayon zabaglione tartare tomato tuna & mushroom c velouté sauces, independent sauces, mother sauces, sweet sauté prawns vegetables savoury crepe filling dumplings refrigerator biscuits crepe filling roulade or Swiss roll soufflés scald scallop scallops

156 152 153 152 151 151 156 147 156 151 147 147 156 150 151 156 151 153 151 147 164 164 163 163 165 165 164 166 164 166 166 153 151 156 148 154 147 163 34 54 89 193 227 224 193 193 115 34 34 52

fried scones cheese date sultana score scramble eggs seafood risotto sauce sear season shave shortbread chocolate lemon nutmeal orange shot shred shuck sieve sift simmer skewer skim skinning fruit slice sliver slow cooked game bird slurry smoked salmon and dill filling salmon and dill frittata salmon and dill quiche salmon omelette soufflé savoury cheese ham mushroom seafood sweet almond blueberry chocolate citrus coconut soufflé omelette bacon

52 218 218 218 218 34 34 106 48 101 153 34 34 34 196 196 196 196 196 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 85 35 35 78 35 193 114 113 111 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 110 111


the

little black cheese mixed herb mushroom prawn smoked salmon sweet savoury tomato soups bisque crème potage puree velouté thick spice cake muffins date cookies sponge cake roulade or Swiss roll squab roast slow cooked squid (octopus/calamari) fried sautéed stuffed steam steamed Christmas pudding fish pudding rice vegetables steep sterilize jars for preserving stew beef fruit lamb fish pork vegetables chicken stir stir-fry (chow) beef lamb

111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 134 139 138 136 135 137 135 188 189 195 191 192 75 77 78 48 48 48 49 35 197 197 46 190 99 87 35 35 176 35 80 91 80 80 80 90 80 35 35 61 61

106 cook book

pork vegetables stock stock master brown clarifying dashi veal white stone fruit, baked strawberry and cream filling pudding stuffing’s calculation chart apple and nut basic chestnut and cranberry cornbread ham fennel and raisin pistachio & mushroom pork apple and sage sugar syrup sweat vegetables sweet crepe filling dumplings mango chutney refrigerator biscuits roulade filling roulade or Swiss roll sauces soufflé omelette soufflés white sauce sweetbreads Swiss roll savoury sweet tables, measurement tammy cloth tart custard Portuguese custard temper temperature table, oven tender–crisp terrine thick soups

61 89 36 122 123 126 124 130 125 123 88 193 190 229 245 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 128 36 89 193 227 179 224 193 193 163 111 115 147 66 192 193 193 243 36 118 118 36 244 36 36 135

toast toffee toss truss turkey roast vegetable broth (minestrone) cooking times mousse mashed puree baked barbecued blanching boiling chargrilled microwaved par boiling roast sautéed steaming stewed stir-fried sweating wilting coulis vinaigrette balsamic blue cheese cream honey and orange pesto cream red wine Thai weights and measures whip whisk zest

36 36 36 36 75 76 141 250 204 86 86 87 90 85 84 90 91 84 87 89 87 90 89 89 87 86 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 245 36 36 36


P R A IS E FO R V I CTO R I A H A N S EN I think your book is brilliant. I must have wasted weeks of my life stirring risotto and now I don’t have to. Made the cheesecake on the weekend and the ladies thought I was some kind of genius. I’m very impressed, thanks very much. Mark Congratulations on a fabulous book. I’ve been cooking for 40 years but have still gained an enormous amount from your book and will be buying one for each of my daughters-in law. Many of my own favourite recipes are basic plus variation types. Just love them! I also have placed your web site in my favourites. Jennifer I love this book, it’s great! Even an old fellow like me can understand it. I particularly like the variations you present for each recipe it certainly simplifies cooking for me. The only problem is I enjoy the fruits of our labour too much! Thanks very much and well done. Gordon I would like to congratulate you on producing your fantastic book ‘The Little Black Cook Book’. I am going to buy it for my two ‘20 something’ children as each of them is living independently and both love cooking. They often ring to ask for help! I thought I had enough cookbooks in the hundreds I own, not to mention the mags I buy, but I found plenty of information which is handy to have in one small volume. You truly have produced the contemporary Gree and Gold! Sandra I think the selections, explanations, and layout are all good. The idea of doing a basic recipe then listing variations is good. You have achieved a ‘Common Sense’ book in an updated way. I particularly like it because you have done the measurements in spoons and cups where practical. Jean I love your recipe book. Easy to follow and with readily available ingredients. Well done!

Joan

I just wanted to give you some feedback on your fantastic basics cooking handbook, ‘The Little Black Cook Book’. I would like to congratulate you on producing a handbook with all the important information which is often not included in other cookbooks, such as explanations of key cooking terms and what to stock your pantry with – you are right that the chore of buying ingredients for specific recipes can sometimes be quite bothersome and can stop you cooking something. I feel the book will really help me. Louise Your ‘Little Black Cook Book’ is a marvellous book. Just what every cook should have.

Keith

At age 37, my cooking skills were limited to meat and boiled veggies, and one pancake recipe learned at my mother’s knee. All my life, meals had been provided by (a) parents, (b) the army, or (c) a wife, who wouldn’t let me in the kitchen except to wash dishes. When I found myself living alone, the most important tool in the house was a can opener. I stumbled through, learning things the hard way, until a girlfriend (in frustration, no doubt) recently gave me a copy of your ‘The Little Black Cook Book’. My fingers are still sticky from my first quiche, now cooling on the bench. The sense of achievement is out of all proportion to the effort involved. Thanks for providing such an easy-to-follow, cover-all-bases, and not-scarebeginners-with-jargon reference. Let me know when you want to come by for dinner. Jonathan

The Little Black Cook Book Sampler  

The essential collection of cooking fundamentals from which most recipes are created.

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