Page 1

the

basics cooking handbook

VICTORIA HANSEN S E C O N D

E D I T I O N


the

basics cooking handbook

V I C TO R I A H A N S E N Š2003-2010


Content © Victoria L. Hansen 2003-2010 Bowral NSW Australia Cover Design and Layout © Tracey Lee Cooper (Maverick Creative ~ Bowral NSW) This book is copyright. Of course all recipes came from somewhere else originally and therefore cannot be truly copyright. Whilst those contained in this book may resemble ones you have or have made, these versions will have their own unique twist either in the ingredient proportions, manipulation of the method or the variations described and I have been using most of them for over 30 years. As I have adapted them to suit my cooking style, tastes and cooking practices, I hope you will too. Apart from exact duplication or replication of structure, design or layout of any part of this book, all the recipes are yours to do with what you wish. Please feel free to use and adapt them as you like, or copy them and send them to friends, family and colleagues, or change them however you wish. And if you come up with a version I haven’t thought of, or feel there’ s something I haven’t included in this book that could be worthwhile and valuable for a future edition, I’d love to hear from you. Please email me at info@bitesizecooking.com

First published in Australia in 2003 by VLH Enterprises Pty Ltd. PO Box 2726, Bowral NSW 2576 Australia ABN 49 060 653 590

www.bitesizecooking.com ISBN 978-0-646-42825-3 First Edition (2003) printed in Australia Second Edition (2010) printed in Australia


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V I C TO R I A H A N S E N Victoria Hansen is a qualified home economist and high school cooking teacher. She has been cooking since she was 10 and her passion for being a cooking teacher has prevailed all her life. After leaving school she studied at the University of Western Sydney graduating with a Diploma of Education. She spent several years as a high school home economics teacher before moving into the commercial sector and eventually her own business. She has worked as a professional speaker conducting seminars and workshops for corporate employees and has presented many keynote addresses at conferences and seminars. She began working in television in 1996 and has hosted over 1,000 hours of live TV for TVSN, Australia’s home shopping channel, where she presented her own cooking and craft shows. From 2001 to 2004, she presented the ‘Good Taste Everyday’ and “Woolworths Fresh” cooking segments on the Seven and Nine Networks, for Woolworths and Good Taste Magazine and in 2007 and 2008 she presented a cooking segment “BiteSize Cooking” on the Susie show on the WIN network. Today she manages the BiteSize Cooking® brand which consists of the website www.bitesizecooking. com, publishing, podcasts, videos, and the BiteSize Cooking Radio Vignettes which air on over 50 regional Australian radio stations. Victoria lives in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales in Australia.


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contents Acknowledgments

10

Introduction

11

About this Book

12

Essential Pantry & Cooking Equipment

16

Cooking Terms & Techniques

25


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CONTENTS

Cooking Fresh Produce Fish Fish Cooking Methods Chart Baked Fish Grilled Fish Barbecued or Chargrilled Fish Deep Fried Fish Pan-Fried Fish Steamed Fish Poached Fish Stewed or Casseroled Fish Seafood Squid (octopus/calamari) Fried or Sautéed Octopus Stuffed Octopus Clam Crab Crayfish Lobster Cutting Up anUncooked Lobster Grilled Lobster Mussels Scallops Fried Scallops Oysters Opening Oysters Prawns Boiled Prawns Sautéed Prawns Pan Fried Prawns Barbecued or Chargrilled Prawns Beef, Lamb and Pork Roasting with Meat Thermometer Roast Beef Roast Lamb Roast Pork with Crackling Pan Fried Beef, Lamb and Pork

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 80 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 56 57 58 59

Chargrilled or Barbecued Beef, Lamb and Pork Stir Fried Beef, Lamb and Pork Corned Beef (boiled beef) Braised Beef, Lamb and Pork Pot Roast Stewed Beef, Lamb and Pork Variety Meats Heart Liver Tongue Sweetbreads Brains Kidney Tripe Marrow Oxtail Chicken Roast Chicken Chargrilled Chicken Breast Pan Fried Chicken Breast Deep Fried Chicken Poached Chicken Braised Chicken Stewed/Casseroled or Curried Chicken Game Birds Roast Turkey Roasted Game Bird Slow Cooked Game Bird Stews, Casseroles and Curries Basic Stew or Casserole of Beef, Lamb, Pork to Poultry Basic Indian Curry Sauce Basic Indian Curry and Variations Basic Thai Curry & Variations

60 61 62 63 63 80 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 67 68 69 70 70 71 72 73 80 74 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83


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CONTENTS

Cooking Fresh Produce Fruits and Vegetables Boiling Vegetables Par Boiling Fruits and Vegetables Blanching Vegetables Skinning Fruits and Vegetables Mashing Vegetables Pureeing Vegetables Coulis Wilting Vegetables Steaming Vegetables Baked/Roast Vegetables

39 84 84 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 87

Stir-frying Vegetables Sweating Vegetables Sautéing Vegetables Chargrilling or Barbecuing Vegetables Stewed Vegetables Stewed Fruit Poached Fruit Microwaved Vegetables Cooking Dried Beans

Pasta, Noodles Rice & Grains Cooking Pasta Cooking Noodles Cooking Rice Basic Fried Rice & Variations

96 97 98 100

Basic Risotto & Variations Basic Polenta & Variations Basic Couscous & Variations

106 107 107 108 108 109

Basic Soufflé Omelette & Variations 110 Basic Quiche and Variations 112 Basic Frittata & Variations 114 Basic Soufflé & Variations 115 Basic Meringue 116 Crème Anglaise & Variations 117

122 123 123 124 125 126

121 Court Bouillon Sugar Syrup for Poaching & Freezing Fruit Béarnaise Essence Dashi Stock

Soups Thick Soups

101 102 103

105

Stocks, Syrups & Flavourings Stock Basic White Stock Master Stock Clarifying Stock Veal Stock Basic Brown Stock

90 90 91 91 91 92

95

Eggs Scrambled Eggs Boiled Eggs (soft & hard cooked) Coddled Eggs Poached Eggs Fried Eggs Basic Pan Omelette & Variations

89 89 89

127 128 129 130

134 135

Broth and Consommé

140


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CONTENTS

Sauces

146

Mother Sauces 147 Béchamel Sauce & Derivatives 147 Basic Velouté Sauce & Derivatives 148 Espagnole Sauce & Derivatives 149 Basic Tomato Sauce & Derivatives 151 Hollandaise Sauce & Derivatives 152 Basic Mayonnaise & Derivatives 153 Independent Sauces 154 Beurre Blanc (Basic Butter Sauce) 154 Basic Cream Sauce & Variations 155 Gravy 157 Jus 158 Barbecue Sauce 159 Cumberland Sauce 160

Apple Sauce Basic Vinaigrette & Variations Composite/Compound Butters & Variations Sweet Sauces Caramel Sauce Butterscotch Sauce Egg Custard Sauce Brandy/Liqueur Sauce/Custard Citrus Sauce Chocolate Sauce Sabayon (Egg Foam Sauce or Zabaglione) Fruit Coulis

Salsa, Pastes & Pestos Basic Salsa & Variations Basic Pesto & Variations

170 171

Basic Tapenade

166 167

176 176 177 177 188 189 190 191 192 194

172

175 Basic Marmalade Basic Chutney Basic Relish Preserved Lemons Freezing Food

Cakes, Puddings & Biscuits Basic Plain Cake & Variations Basic Muffins & Variations Basic Steamed Pudding & Variations Basic Sponge Cake Sponge Roulade or Swiss Roll & Variations Basic Friands & Variations

162 163 163 163 164 164 165 165

169

Preserves & Preserving Food Choice of Fruit for Jam Sterilizing Jars for Preserving Testing the Jell Set of Jams, Jelly’s and Marmalades Basic Jam

160 161

178 179 180 181 183

187 Basic Drop Biscuits/Cookies & Variations Basic Shortbread & Variations Fruit (Christmas) Cake Traditional Steamed Christmas Pudding Anzac Biscuits

195 196 197 197 197


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CONTENTS

Fillings, Frostings & Icings Basic Butter Frosting Ganache Basic Mousse & Variations Basic Cheesecake (Baked & Unbaked)

202 203 204 205

201 Pastry Crème (Crème Pâtissière) Basic Pannacotta (Clotted Cream) & Variations Chantilly Cream Roulade and Crepe Fillings

Batters Basic Waffle Batter Basic Fritter Batter Tempura Batter Crêpe Batter

212 213 213 214

Pikelets Batter Pancake Batter Blinis Batter Yorkshire Pudding

218 219 220

Basic Bread Dough 221 Refrigerator Biscuits & Variations 223 Basic Biscotti & Variations 225 Basic Dumplings & Variations 226

230 230 230 231

Fresh Breadcrumbs Toasted Breadcrumbs Coating Food for Frying Base for Roasted Proteins

Pastry Short Crust Pastry Biscuit or Champagne Pastry

238 239

Choux Pastry Puff Pastry

Index

232 232 233 234

244 244

240 241

243 Equivalent Weights and Measures 245 Stuffing Calculation Chart 245

Cooking Times Charts Protein Cooking Times

229

237

Measurement Charts & Tables Conversion Formulae Oven Temperature

214 214 214 214

217

Bases, Toppings, Coatings & Stuffing’s Cheesecake Base Pie Base Crumble Topping Basic Stuffing & Variations

207 208 193

211

Dough Basic Scones/Damper & Variations Basic Pasta Dough Basic Pizza Dough

206

247 248

Vegetable Cooking Times

250

253


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ACKNOWLEGMENTS After such a successful first print run (100,000 copies sold) we have finally produced the second edition of First Principles, with even more base recipes and considerably more testing and refining. Again many friends and family who are not even aware of their input have sampled my recipes on their many visits to my home and through their feedback I have refined the recipes ... adding some and removing others. I would particularly like to thank my sister Tracey though. Without Tracey’s exceptional design skills, this, or most of my work, just wouldn’t exist. She is an inspiration and my best friend and I love her enormously. Onward and upward Trace, it’s you and me against the world. And as always - my loving and supportive parents who never stop believing in me and my brother Brett who has done much research and refinement of data for me for all my work.


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INTRODUCTION The first cookbook I ever owned was The Commonsense Cookery Book, which I received at age 12 when I began high school. First published in 1934 it was the definitive cooking handbook for anyone of any age or culinary ability. It had something for everyone, from basic ingredient knowledge, to measurement tables, basic cooking techniques and, of course, recipes for the most commonly made recipes of the time. It was used by home economic students as a reference and was retained and used in every year of high school. Many mothers purchased it for their children upon leaving home, as an essential kitchen tool. I’m sure many Australian cooks would agree that it would be hard to replace The Commonsense Cookery Book. Perhaps it’s because the simplistic nature of its contents are hard to beat, or because it holds a sentimental place in our hearts and kitchens and reminds us of what simple cooking is all about. Whatever the reason, it is an historic part of Australian culinary history. Today however, despite it’s legacies, many of its recipes are outdated, having been replaced by packaged and convenience forms, not to mention their considerable evolution and development making way for new and more suitable ingredient utilization. And yet, despite the multitudes of cookbooks on our shelves and cooking shows on our televisions, many Australians still don’t know the fundamentals of good simple cooking, and often don’t attempt much more than their weekly repertoire of tried and true recipes. I felt the time had come for a 21st century Commonsense Cookery Book. ‘First Principles’ is just that, a comprehensive culinary guide that combines the fundamental principles of food preparation, with modern day resources and know how. A must have for cooks of any age or ability. The basic recipes in this book will form the foundations of your culinary imagination. Learn them, use them and develop them. They are as versatile as your imagination and they will work, every time you attempt them.

Victoria Hansen


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ABOUT THIS BOOK Most of the recipes you’ll come across are either base recipes or compound recipes, with some exceptions being unique recipes traditional to a culture or cuisine. The base recipes are those that have been around for ever and are the fundamentals of cooking. Many stem from classical French cuisine that have endured cooking styles throughout the ages, and others have been adapted and manipulated into all sorts of variations. But the crux of food preparation and cooking is this, it all stems from a very fundamental set of skills, techniques and base recipes and, once you know and understand this set of knowledge, you can pretty much make any recipe from any cuisine, plus, you’ll be able to replicate meals you have at restaurants because you’ll be able to pull apart the dish and know what recipes and techniques have been employed to create it. Of course, the herbs and spices used may take you some time to master, but the basic construction is the same, no matter what cuisine you’re working with. First Principles contains this fundamental knowledge from the terms and techniques used in cooking to the cooking methods of foods to the base recipes from which most recipes are made. What it does not contain are creative recipes, but rather the recipes from which you can be creative by showing you the basic ingredients and then the variations you can employ to create new and exciting flavours or use that recipes with different ingredients. I am sure that once you master what’s in this book, you’ll be able to cook just about any recipe without batting an eyelid. Now a bit about the content itself. All recipes are metric, and where possible, standard cup and spoon measures have been used to make it easier for you when measuring ingredients. For ingredients that are difficult to measure with a cup or spoon, such as butter, the actual weight or quantity required has been listed. Many of these ingredients already have measurement guides on the packaging and therefore have been listed accordingly. Where a recipe calls for flour, it means plain flour. If self raising flour is called for, it will be stated specifically. All the oven temperatures in the book are based on multifunction ovens, i.e. ovens with the ability to turn internal fans and elements on and off. As such all the temperatures have been adjusted to compensate for the heat increase produced by the fans and the shortened cooking time. If you don’t own a multifunction oven,


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ABOUT THIS BOOK increase the oven temperatures listed in the recipes by 15-20°C and increase the cooking time by approximately 25%. Unless stated, all oven temperatures are for the fan forced setting. Each recipe also states which function on your oven to use. If you are unfamiliar with each of the functions or the symbols that depict them, visit www.bitesizecooking. com/oven-settings to find out more. Every ingredient in the Essential Pantry is available from a supermarket. The beauty of this book is that if you stock your pantry with the essential items, you’ll be able to make most recipes at any time. You’ll also find most of the items listed in the Essential Kitchen Equipment available from a supermarket or any reasonable kitchen shop, or if not from some online store somewhere in the world. Most things today are a click away. The recipes also use abbreviations. Use the following key as a guide...

Tbsp tsp g ml kg ltr

tablespoon teaspoon grams milliliters kilogram litre

Take some time to read the Cooking Terms & Techniques before you make any of the recipes. Knowing these will make all the difference in understanding the recipes and making the procedures easier. For video demonstrations of these, visit www. bitesizecooking.com. Videos will launch in 2010 and new ones will be added weekly. You will need to be a subscribing member of the site to access the videos, but purchasing the second edition copy of First Principles gives you some special priviledges. Visit www.bitesizecooking.com to find out more.


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essential pantry & essential kitchen equipment


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y One of the biggest deterrents when cooking, is finding a recipe you want to make and discovering you don’t have the ingredients you require. By keeping a stock of the most regularly used items in your pantry, you will be able to whip up most recipes when you get the urge. You’ll also find that your interest and enthusiasm in cooking will increase when the task of having to go out and specifically buy the ingredients is removed. Stock your pantry, fridge and freezer with the following ingredients and cooking as a chore will become a thing of the past.

Baking Items

Canned Vegetables

Baking Powder Bicarbonate of Soda Cream of Tartar Gelatine Cooking Spray Plain Flour Self-Raising Flour Cornflour Arrowroot Nutmeals

Nuts

(such as almond, hazelnut - buy in small quantities and store in the fridge in an airtight container)

Coconut

Tomatoes

Bamboo Shoots

(whole, pieces, puree and crushed)

(if you cook Asian)

Peas and Beans

(if you cook Asian)

(raw unsalted - pistachios, hazelnuts, pinenuts, cashews, macadamias, pecans, walnuts etc - buy in small quantities and freeze in usable quantities, they’ll thaw in about 2 hours)

Couverture Chocolate (Milk, Dark and White - buy small quantities) (desiccated and shredded)

Dried Fruit (dates, sultanas, craisins etc)

Water Chestnuts

(various - borlotti, broad, cannellini and kidney beans, split peas and chickpeas)

Fresh Vegetables

Onions (white, brown and red)

Garlic Ginger


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Herbs & Spices

Stocks & Cubes

Allspice Bay Leaves Bouquet Garni Cardamom Cayenne Pepper Chilli Powder Cinnamon (Sticks) Quills Cloves (Whole) Cumin Seeds Coriander Seeds Curry Powder Fennel Seeds Garam Masala Ground Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Ginger and Nutmeg Marjoram

Mustard Powder Mustard Seeds Mixed Dried Herbs Oregano Paprika Peppercorns

Liquid Stock

Parisienne Essence Home made stock

(Chicken, Beef and Vegetable Stock - just have 1-2 small containers of each on hand)

(Black, White, Green and Pink)

Poppy Seeds Saffron Sesame Seeds Turmeric Vanilla Beans

(frozen in 1 cup quantities and in ice cube trays for making sauces)

Stock Cubes or Stock Powder (Chicken, Beef and Vegetable Stock Cubes)

Sugar

White Granulated Sugar Caster Sugar Brown Sugar

Icing Sugar Mixture

(light and dark)

Palm Sugar

(or pure if you have gluten allergies) (if you cook Asian)

Milks

Evaporated Milk Condensed Milk

Powdered Milk


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Pastes; Creams; Syrups

Coconut Milk Coconut Cream Thai Red Curry Paste Thai Green Curry Paste Indian Curry Pastes

Honey Golden Syrup Molasses Treacle Maple Syrup

(various Indian curry pastes if you like curry)

Oils & Vinegars

Alcohol

Olive Oil Rice Bran Oil or Vegetable Oil Sesame Oil Oil Spray White Vinegar

Brown Malt Vinegar Balsamic Vinegar Tarragon Vinegar Red Wine Vinegar White Wine Vinegar

Port Sherry (sweet and dry) Marsala Cherry Liqueur (Kirsch) Orange Liqueur

Peppermint Liqueur

(Tripple Sec, Cointreau or Grand Marnier)

Seasonings; Favourings Pasta; Rice; Noodles & Grains

(Creme De Menthe) Aniseed Liqueur (Sambuca) Hazelnut Liqueur (Frangelico)

Red Wine White Wine Beer

Tomato Paste Chopped Chillies Flaked Salt Vanilla Essence, Vanilla Extract or Vanilla Paste

Wasabi Powder

Assorted Dried Noodles Assorted Dried Pasta

Arborio Rice Couscous Polenta

(various types depending on what you cook)

Rice (short grain, medium grain and long grain rice)

(if you cook Asian)

Miso Paste (if you cook Asian)


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E S S E N T I A L PA N T R Y

Sauces

Canned Fish & Seafood Condiments Perishables (in the fridge)

Frozen Items Miscellaneous

Tomato Tabasco Worcestershire Mint For Asian sauces, see the website... www.bitesizecooking.com/knowledgebaseconversionchartsandtables-essential-pantries-of-asiancuisines Anchovies Crabmeat

Salmon Tuna

Whole Egg Mayonnaise Black and Green Olives Capers

Various mustards including Dijon and Wholegrain

Eggs Grated Tasty Cheese Parmesan Cheese Milk

Butter

Vanilla Ice-cream Assorted Berries

Pastry

Paper Towels Freezer Bags

Freezer-Go-Between Containers with Lids

(assorted sizes)

(various sizes)

Zip Lock Bags

Toothpicks Bamboo Skewers Kitchen Twine Bag Clips or Rubber Bands

(assorted sizes)

Cling Wrap Aluminium Foil Baking paper (parchment)

(salted butter and unsalted)

Cream

(Short Crust, Puff Pastry and Filo)


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT Each of you will have your version of the most essential kitchen equipment. Your opinion will be based on the amount and type of cooking you do, your level of cooking, i.e. whether you are a basic cook, a good cook or a gourmet cook, the size of your kitchen and your lifestyle. The kitchen equipment I have listed below is what I believe to be the basic essentials you’ll need to make most recipes once you’re a relatively competent cook. Until you get to that stage, some of this equipment may sit idle until you learn how to use it. My advice would be, start with the essentials, then gradually buy the extra bits and pieces as you can afford them and as the recipes you start to make call for them.

Utensils

Essential Set of Non Stick or Stainless Steel Utensils (choose based on the type of cookware you have)

Rubber Spatulas - S/L Wooden Spoons - S/M/L Wire Whisks S/L Strainers - S/L Colander Tongs - long & short handle Microplanes (various) Stainless Steel Grater Measuring Spoons Measuring Cups Can Opener Vegetable Peeler Bottle Opener Citrus Squeezer or Reamer 3 x Mixing Bowls S/M/L 3 Measuring Jugs S/M/L Meat Mallet Mortar and Pestle Corkscrew Turkey Baster Salad Spinner

Skewers (metal or bamboo) Thermometers (candy, meat and oven)

Cooks Timer Electronic Scales Vegetable/Mushroom Brush Zester Pot Holders and Oven Mitts Egg Rings or Egg Poacher Toothpicks Optional Flour Dredge Flour Sifter Cookie Cutters (plain and fluted)

Piping Bag Nozzles for piping bags, plain and fluted Rolling Pin Melon Baller Pastry Brush Set of Funnels S/M/L Nut Cracker


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

Cake Tins (the number and variety of these will depend on how much baking you do)

Essential Round Springform Tin Square Tin Bar/Loaf Tin Muffin Tins - S/M/L 2 x Cookie Trays/Slides 2 x Large Cooling Racks

Sandwich Tins (pair) Slice Tin Swiss Roll/Roulade Tin Fluted Jelly Mould 6 x 125ml Dariole Moulds Specialty cake tins and moulds if you like to bake

Optional

Knives

Ceramic Ware Small Appliances

Essential Paring Knife Vegetable Knife Serrated Tomato Knife Cooks Knife Bread Knife Carving Knife Carving Fork Sharpening Steel (Diamond) Scissors Knife block or wall magnet

Optional Utility (Sandwich) Knife Boning Knife Fillet Knife Cleaver Santoku Knife Mincing Knife (Mezzaluna) Cheese Knife Birds Beak Knife

Essential Medium Casserole with Lid Lasagne Dish Quiche/Pie Dish

Optional 6 x 7cm Ramekins 1-2 x 10cm Ramekin 1 x 18cm Ramekin

Essential Blender Food Processor Hand Beater Stick Blender

Optional Stand Mixer (if you bake) Mini Chopper Spice Grinder Slow Cooker Espresso Machine (if you

(Tourne or Peeling Knife)

like baking and making desserts with coffee flavour, an espresso machine is absolutely essential).


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ESSENTIAL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

Cookware

Use this as a guide only. What cookware you purchase will be very dependent on the type of cooking you do and for how many. If you’re cooking for two, you might prefer to buy more smaller saucepans instead of one of each size. If you do mostly oven cooking, you might not need many saucepans or frypans at all. Base your choice on your cooking style.

3 x Saucepans S/M/L

Wok Splatter Mats Chargrill Pan Roasting/Baking Dishes

(ideally one non-stick)

(varying sizes)

Essential 3 x Frypans S/M/L (at least 1 non-stick)

Large SautĂŠ Pan with a Lid Stock Pot/Pasta Cooker

Chopping Boards Miscellaneous

Optional Pressure Cooker

A selection for raw food and cooked food. The coloured chopping boards made from polyethylene are the best choice from a food safety perspective and for ease of cleaning.

Cutlery Crockery Glassware Various platters, serving bowls and utensils


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cooking terms & techniques


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Al Dente

Allumette Au jus Bake

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is an Italian expression that literally means ‘to the tooth’ and refers to food that offers a little resistance when you bite into it. It is used in reference to cooking pasta which should be soft but still firm, and noodles and rice. is a julienne of potato, often referred to as Pomm Allumette. to serve with the natural juices or gravy. cook by dry heat in an oven.

Baking (Pizza) Stone

it is best to bake pizza and bread directly on a hot surface, and a baking stone provides the hot surface needed.

Baking Sheet

good baking sheets (also called cookie trays/slides) are flat, often sideless sheets of metal and are often coated with a non-stick surface.

Barbecue Baste Batonnet Beat

to roast slowly on a spit or grill over coals, or in an outdoor oven, basting frequently with a seasoned sauce. to moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings, water or seasoned sauce, to prevent drying or to add flavour. is a stick shaped knife cut (resembling a French fry) that measures 2⁄3 cm x 2 ⁄3 cm x 6cm. to work a mixture smooth with a regular, hard, rhythmic movement.

Bias Cutting

to slice the food at an angle producing elongated pieces. Bias cutting is used extensively in Asian cuisine, particularly stir-frying.

Blanch

to immerse fruits or nuts in boiling water to remove skins or make them easy to peel; also, to dip fruits and vegetables in boiling water in preparation for canning, freezing or drying, or to just soften the cellulose of raw produce to make it more palatable when served with other raw vegetables, such as in a salad.

Blend Blind bake

Boil

to mix two or more ingredients until smooth and uniform. to bake a piecrust before it is filled to create a crisper crust. To prevent puffing and slipping during baking, the pastry case is lined with foil or baking paper and filled with pie weights, dry beans or uncooked rice. The pastry case is then baked at 230°C for 20–25 minutes. The weights are removed shortly before the end of baking time to allow the crust to brown. cook in boiling liquid in which bubbles rise vigorously to the surface.


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Braise

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to brown meat or vegetables in a small quantity of hot fat, then to cook slowly in a small amount of liquid either in the oven or on the top of the stove. Braising is an ideal way to prepare less-tender cuts of meat, firm fleshed fish and vegetables.

Broil

cook by exposure to direct heat under the grill of a gas or electric stove, in an electric oven, or over an open fire. See also Grill.

Brown

to cook food quickly (with or without fat) on top of the stove, under a grill, or in the oven to develop a richly browned, flavourful surface to help seal in the natural juices.

Brunoise Brush Butterfly

are finely diced julienne usually measuring 1⁄3 cm cubes. Brunoise are usually used as a garnish. to spread food with butter, margarine or egg, using a small brush. to split a food such as a prawn, boneless lamb leg or pork chop, horizontally in half, cutting almost but not all the way through, and then opening (like a book) to form a butterfly shape. Butterflying exposes more surface area so the food cooks evenly and more quickly.

Caramelise

to melt sugar slowly over very low heat until sugar is liquid, deep amber in colour and caramel flavoured.

Casserole

from the French for ‘saucepan’, a casserole is a large, deep pot used both in the oven and as a serving vessel. The word casserole is also used for the food cooked and served in such a vessel, with the cookware itself called a ‘casserole dish’.

Chargrill Chill Chop

Chow (Stir-fry)

to cook, uncovered, on a hot surface, usually a chargrill pan or on a barbeque. The fat is poured off as it accumulates. to refrigerate food or let it stand in ice or iced water until cold. to cut food into smaller pieces, usually with a large knife and cutting board. One hand holds the knife tip on the board; the other moves the blade up and down, cutting through the food. a basic cooking method in Oriental kitchens. Generally a wok is used, but you can use a frying pan. The food is tossed about in a hot pan with very little oil, in a process not unlike sautéing.


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Clarify

to clear a liquid, such as stock, by adding slightly beaten egg white, eggshells, and often chopped vegetables. The beaten egg coagulates in the hot liquid and the particles, which cause cloudiness, adhere to it. The mixture is then strained.

Coat

to roll in flour, chopped nuts, nut meals, sugar, crumbs, etc., until all sides are evenly covered; or to dip first into slightly beaten egg or milk, then to cover with whatever coating is called for in a recipe.

Coats Spoon Coddle

Combine

when a mixture forms a thin, even film on the spoon. to cook slowly and gently in water just below the boiling point. Eggs are frequently coddled. Also often referred to as poaching, although not a correct term. Coddled eggs are usually cooking in the oven where as poaching is done on the stove top. to mix various ingredients together.

Cook

to prepare food by applying heat in any form.

Core

to remove the core or centre of various fruits, such as apples, pears and pineapple; and vegetables, such as lettuce and cabbage. Coring removes small seeds or tough and woody centres.

Cream

to rub, whip or beat with a spoon or beater until the mixture is soft and fluffy. Usually describes the combining of butter and sugar for a cake.

Crimp

to pinch or press dough edges – especially piecrust edges – to create a decorative finish and/or to seal two layers of dough so the filling does not seep out during baking.

Crisp

to make firm and brittle in very cold water or in the fridge (lettuce or other greens, for example).

Crystallize

Cube Curdle

to cook fruit in heavy sugar syrup until transparent, then drain and dry. Also, to cook vegetables with sugar or syrup to give a coating or glaze when cooked. to cut an ingredient into cubes from about 1–2 cm in diameter. to set, or separate, into solids and liquids. Egg and milk-based mixtures are susceptible to curdling if they are heated too quickly or to too high a temperature, or combined with an acidic ingredient, such as lemon juice or tomatoes.


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Cut

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to break up food into pieces, with a knife or scissors.

Cut in

to mix shortening (butter, lard or suet) with dry ingredients using a pastry blender, knife, fork or food processor. Usually applied to pastry making.

Deep-fry

cooking in enough fat to cover the food completely. The aim is to produce foods with a crisp golden-brown crust and a thoroughly cooked interior without letting them absorb too much fat. The type, quantity and temperature of the fat are important in accomplishing this result.

Deglaze

after meats or vegetables have been cooked in the oven, wine or stock is added to the pan over high heat, and the rich debris (known as fond) that remains in the pan is gently scraped with a wooden spoon and combined with the wine or stock.

Degrease

to remove the fat from a liquid such as stock, clear soup or stew juices. Stand the liquid until the fat rises to the top, then spoon off as much as possible – if you can, tilt the container so that the fat collects at one side. The last traces of fat can be blotted off by placing absorbent paper directly on the surface, allowing to become soaked and then removing. An easier way, if there is time, is to chill the liquid so that the fat solidifies on top, then remove the fat layer.

Deseed

to remove the seeds and watery flesh from fruits and vegetables such as capsicum, tomatoes, cucumber, melons and papaya etc.

De-vein

to remove the dark intestinal vein of a shellfish by using the tip of a sharp knife, then rinsing the prawn in cold water.

Develop

allow food to sit for a time before serving so the flavours have a chance to blend or strengthen.

Devil

to coat with a hot seasoning, such as mustard or a hot sauce. Eggs are ‘devilled’ when the yolk is mixed with highly spiced seasonings.

Dice

to cut food into small cubes of uniform size and shape, usually about ½ cm in size.

Disgorge

to draw out any bitter juices from vegetables such as eggplant, zucchini and cucumber. by slicing the ingredient then sprinkling with salt to draw out the juices.

Dissolve

to make a liquid and a dry ingredient combine into a solution.


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Dot

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scatter small amounts of specified ingredients, usually butter, or nuts, chocolate, etc. on top of food. This adds extra richness and flavour and can help promote browning.

Dredge

to sprinkle, coat or cover with flour, crumbs, cornflour or other seasoned mixture.

Drizzle

to slowly pour a liquid, such as melted butter, oil or a glaze in a fine stream, back and forth, over food.

Dust

to sprinkle a food or coat lightly with flour, sugar, icing sugar, cornflour or cocoa powder.

Emulsify

to bind liquids that usually cannot blend smoothly, such as oil and water. The trick is to add one liquid, usually the oil, to the other in a slow stream while mixing vigorously. You can also use natural emulsifiers – such as egg yolks or mustard – to bind mixtures like vinaigrettes and sauces.

Ferment

to bring about a chemical change in foods or beverages. Beer, wine, yoghurt, buttermilk, vinegar, cheese and yeast breads all get their distinctive flavours from fermentation.

Fillet

a strip or compact piece of boneless meat or fish.

Flake

to break or pull apart a food, like chicken or fish that divides naturally by following the divisions, pulling at them gently with one or two forks. Or flake with your fingers.

Flambé

to serve flaming, after sprinkling with brandy or other liqueur, then igniting.

Fold/Fold in

to combine two ingredients or two combinations of ingredients by two motions; cutting vertically through the mixture and turning over and over by sliding the implement (usually a spatula or knife) across the bottom of the mixing bowl with each turn.

Fork Tender

a degree of doneness for cooked vegetables. You should feel just a slight resistance when food is pierced with a fork.

Fricassee

to cook pieces of poultry or meat by braising and serving with a thickened sauce.

Fry

to cook in a small amount of fat on top of the stove; also called ‘sauté’ and ‘pan fry.’

Garnish Glacé

to decorate food. Nuts, olives, parsley, citrus zest and so forth are called garnishes when used to finish a dish to make it pleasing to the eye. to coat with thin sugar syrup cooked to the crack (toffee) stage.


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Glaze

to cover with aspic; to coat with thin sugar syrup or to cover with melted fruit jelly. Cold meats, fish, fruit, etc., are often glazed.

Grate

to tear off coarse-to-fine particles of food with a hand grater or mechanical device.

Grill

cook by exposure to direct heat under the grill of a gas or electric stove, in an electric oven, or over an open fire.

Grind

to put food through a chopper. Choppers have two or three blades. Use a blade with smaller holes for fine foods; one with the larger holes for a coarse grind.

Hack

when cutting up chickens or thin boned meats, one ‘hacks’ with a cleaver (large square knife), thus cutting the meat into large bite-size pieces and retaining the bone. The presence of the bone will keep the meat moist during cooking.

Julienne Knead Larding/To Lard Leavening

to cut vegetables into very thin match-like strips. to work and press dough with the palm of your hands so the dough becomes stretched and elastic. to insert strips or pieces of fat into uncooked lean meat (with a larding needle) for added flavour and moisture. A leavening (raising) agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. The leavening agent reacts with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers to produce gas that becomes trapped as bubbles within the dough. When a dough or batter is baked, it ‘sets’ and the holes left by the gas bubbles remain, giving breads, cakes, and other baked goods their soft, spongelike textures.

Liqueur

a sweet, high-alcohol beverage made from fruits, nuts, seeds, spices, or herbs infused with a spirit, such as brandy or rum. Traditionally served after dinner as a mild digestive, liqueurs are also used in cooking.

Lukewarm

at a temperature of about 135°C. Lukewarm food will feel neither warm nor cold when sprinkled on or held to the inside of the wrist.

Macerate

raw, dried or preserved fruit or vegetables are soaked in liquid to soften and absorb the flavour of the liquid. In the case of fruit, they are often just sprinkled with sugar, then left to sit and release their own juices. This process makes the food more flavourful and easier to chew and digest.


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Marinade

an acid-oil mixture of oil and vinegar or wine, often flavoured with spices and herbs, used to stand foods in to add flavour and/or tenderise.

Marinate

or marination, also known as marinating, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. The liquid in question, the ‘marinade’, is often a vinegar (or other acidic liquid such as lemon juice or wine) and oil mixture. It can also contain herbs and spices. The purpose of marinating is to add flavour and, in some cases, tenderize meat, chicken and fish.

Melt Mince Mirepoix

Mix

to heat solid food until it becomes liquid. to cut food in tiny pieces, but finer than chopped. Mincing is the next step after brunoise. is the French name for a combination of finely diced onions, carrots, and celery sautéed with butter, and used as the flavour base for a wide number of dishes, such as stocks, soups, stews and sauces. These three ingredients are commonly referred to as aromatics, and similar such combinations may include leeks, parsnips, garlic, tomatoes, shallots, mushrooms, capsicum, chillies, and ginger. Traditionally, the ratio for mirepoix is 2:1:1 of onions, celery, and carrots. Note that these ratios are for the weight of the ingredients, not the volume. When making a white stock, parsnips are used instead of carrots to maintain the pale colour. to stir, usually with a spoon, until ingredients are thoroughly combined.

Pan-fry

to cook or fry on top of the hot plate in a hot, uncovered pan with little or no fat.

Parboil

to boil until partially cooked.

Pare

Pasteurize Paysanne

Peel Pinch

to cut away all external parts of fruits and vegetables, both outside and under skin layers such as barks, shells, skins and pith so that the raw fruit and vegetable flesh are all that is left. to sterilize by heating an ingredient, then rapidly cooling it. is a decorative knife cut that’s related to a medium dice but sliced into 1⁄3 cm thick blocks (1 cm x 1cm x 1⁄3 cm). Paysanne are most often used as a garnish. to thinly strip or slip off outer coverings of some fruits or vegetables. the amount of a powdery ingredient you can hold between your thumb and forefinger – about 1/16 of a teaspoon.


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Pipe

Pit Poach Pot Roast Pound

Preheat

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to force a food from a bag, through a pastry tip attached to the end of the bag to use as a decoration or garnish, or to shape dough, such as for profiteroles and éclairs. to remove the seed or pit. to cook eggs, fish, chicken, fruit and other delicate foods in hot liquid (below the boiling point), being very careful that the food also retains its shape. to brown meat in a small amount of fat, then finish cooking in a small amount of liquid. to flatten meats and poultry to a uniform thickness using a meat mallet or rolling pin. This ensures even cooking and also tenderizes tough meat by breaking up the connective tissue. Veal cutlets and chicken breasts are often pounded. to heat an oven to a stated temperature before using.

Prick

to pierce a food before cooking in order to: a) prevent buckling – as in an empty piecrust before it is baked, or b) bursting – such as a potato before baking, or sausages before cooking. Use the point of a sharp knife, a fork or a metal skewer.

Proof

a) to test yeast for potency: If you’re not sure if yeast is fresh and active, dissolve it in warm water (160°–175°C) with a pinch of sugar. If the mixture foams after 5–10 minutes, the yeast is fine to use, or b) proofing also refers to the rising stages of yeast doughs.

Punch Down

to deflate yeast dough after it has risen, which distributes the gluten (the elastic protein in flour that gives bread its strength) and prevents dough from over-rising. Punch your fist in the centre of the dough, and then pull the edges toward the centre.

Purée

Reconstitute Reduce Roast

to force vegetables, fruits and other foods through a fine sieve, food mill or to blend in an electric blender or food processor to produce a fine-textured substance. a procedure used for preparing dried foods, whereby the food is soaked in fresh water for a time. to evaporate some of the liquid in stock or sauce by gently simmering. cook/bake by dry heat in an oven, on a spit in an oven, over hot coals, or in an electric rotisserie.


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Roux

Rubbed

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a blend of flour and fat (oil or butter or a combination of both), used to thicken sauces and gravies. The fat and flour are mixed together in equal amounts then heated. If a white roux is desired, the melting and blending are done over low heat for a few minutes. If a brown roux is desired, the heat is increased and the mixture is cooked to the desired degree of brown. when whole-leaf herbs, such as sage or bay leaves, are crushed in the hands so that their oils are released, the herbs are then referred to as having been rubbed.

Sauté

to fry lightly until golden and tender in a small amount of hot fat (butter or oil) in a frypan or wok, turning frequently.

Scald

to heat liquid just below the boiling point; milk has reached a scalding point when a film forms on the surface.

Scallop

to arrange foods in layers in a casserole (such as scalloped potatoes), with a sauce or liquid, and then baked. Usually has a topping of breadcrumbs.

Score

to cut narrow grooves or gashes part way through food before cooking. e.g. in steaks to prevent curling, or to cut diamond-shaped gashes through fat in ham just before glazing.

Scramble Sear

Season Shave

Shot

to lift or fold eggs gently while cooking to form curds. to cook at a very high temperature, either on top of the stove or in the oven for a short time in order to quickly form a brown crust on the outer surface of the food. to add salt, pepper or herbs to enhance the flavour of a dish. involves cutting wide, paper-thin slices of food, such as Parmesan cheese, vegetables, or chocolate. Shave off slices with a vegetable peeler or a very sharp fine grater with a slice side. Use as garnish. a liquid measure that amounts to very little or to taste. A shot of wine is about 1 Tbsp, but a shot of Tabasco Sauce is less than 1/16 tsp.

Shred

to cut or tear in long, narrow pieces. The fineness varies – recipes often say that foods should be ‘finely’ or ‘coarsely’ shredded. Use a hand or mechanical shredder; or cut crisp vegetables, like cabbage, to shreds with a sharp knife.

Shuck

to remove the shells of oysters, mussels or clams, or the husks of corn.

Sieve

to pass food through a fine mesh to separate solids or liquids.


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Sift

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to put dry ingredients through a fine sieve.

Simmer

to cook in a liquid that is kept just below the boiling point; bubbles form slowly and break below the surface.

Skewer

a long, thin metal or wooden pin used to secure or suspend meat and/ or vegetables during cooking. The food is threaded onto a wooden or metal skewer so they hold their shape during cooking. Fruit can also be skewered for serving.

Skim

to remove fat or froth from the surface of a liquid, such as stock, soup or boiling preserves.

Slice

is a knife technique whereby the food is cut into flat pieces of uniform size and shape.

Sliver

to cut or splinter into long, thin strips, with a sharp knife on a cutting board.

Slurry

is a cold liquid and cornflour mixture used to thicken sauces, soups, stews and desserts. It can also be added to egg based sauces to prevent the eggs from curdling. The cornflour can be mixed with water, wine or stock. If you use a liquid with citrus or apple juice, the thickening power will be cut in half so use double the cornflour. Pour the cornflour in a bowl, add the liquid and mix together with a fork or small whisk. Make sure the liquid is cold. This ensures the mixture won’t clump when added to cooking food. As rule, slurries usually have 1:2 ratio: 1 part cornflour to 2 parts liquid.

Steam

to cook on a rack or holder over a small amount of boiling water in a tightly covered container.

Steep Sterilize Stew

to allow food to stand in hot liquid to extract flavour and/or colour. Tea and saffron for example, are steeped. to heat in boiling water or steam for at least 20 minutes, until living organisms are destroyed. to cook foods very slowly below the boiling point, in enough liquid to cover.

Stir

to mix, usually with a spoon or fork, until ingredients are worked together.

Stir-fry (Chow)

a basic cooking method in Oriental kitchens. Generally a wok is used, but you can use a frying pan. The food is tossed about in a hot pan with very little oil, in a process not unlike sautĂŠing.


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Stock

the liquid in which vegetables or meat have been cooked.

Sweat

to sauté over low heat with a lid on. This method produces steam and speeds up the cooking time.

Tammy Cloth

Temper

Tender–crisp

traditionally a piece of woolen material through which purees are strained. Also used for straining sauces and stocks. Can also be made of cotton or blends of fibres. to heat food gently before adding it to a hot mixture so it doesn’t separate or curdle. Often eggs are tempered by mixing with a little hot liquid to raise their temperature before they are stirred into a hot sauce or soup. the ideal degree of doneness for many vegetables, especially green vegetables. Cook them until they are just tender but still retain some texture.

Terrine

a container used for the cooking and moulding of coarse-ground meat loaves or pâtés. Also the meat itself. The containers are found in many styles and materials.

Toast

to brown and dry the surface of foods with dry heat, such as bread and nuts.

Toffee

a sugar syrup (sugar and water) cooked till it browns and sets hard when cooled. The deepness of the colour will be an indication of the hardness when cooled.

Toss

to tumble ingredients lightly with a lifting motion, as in a salad.

Truss

to tie joints with metal or wooden pins, skewers or string to help it hold its shape during cooking.

Whip

to rapidly beat ingredients such as eggs or cream, etc., in order to incorporate air and expand their volume.

Whisk Zest

to beat ingredients (such as cream, eggs, salad dressings or sauces) with a fork or a whisk (a looped wire utensil) to mix, blend or incorporate air. is the coloured peel or rind of a citrus fruit. To zest means the process of removing it. Use a grater, zester or vegetable peeler to remove the outermost part, avoiding the bitter white pith underneath. The peel itself is often referred to as zest.


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CONVERSION FORMULAE

______________________________________________________________________ Ounces to Grams: Multiply ounce figure by 28.3 to get number of grams ______________________________________________________________________ Grams to Ounces: Multiply gram figure by .0353 to get number of ounces ______________________________________________________________________ Pounds to Grams: Multiply pound figure by 454 to get number of grams ______________________________________________________________________ Pounds to Kilograms: Multiply pounds by 0.45 to get number of kilograms ______________________________________________________________________ Ounces to Millilitres: Multiply ounce figure by 30 to get number of millilitres ______________________________________________________________________ Cups to Litres: Multiply cup figure by 0.25 to get number of litres ______________________________________________________________________ Fahrenheit to Celsius: Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit figure, multiply by 5, then divide by 9 to get Celsius figure ______________________________________________________________________ Celsius to Fahrenheit: Multiply Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, add 32 to get Fahrenheit figure ______________________________________________________________________ Inches to Centimetres: Multiply inches by 2.54 to get number of centimetres ______________________________________________________________________ Centimetres to Inches: Multiply centimetre figure by .39 to get number of inches ______________________________________________________________________

O V E N T E M P E R AT U R E S ______________________________________________________________________ Fahrenheit (ยบF) Celsius (ยบC) Recipe Instruction ______________________________________________________________________ 250 130 Warm oven ______________________________________________________________________ Low oven

300

150

325 160 ______________________________________________________________________ 350 180 Moderate oven 375 190 ______________________________________________________________________ 400 200 Hot oven 425 220 ______________________________________________________________________ 450 230 Very hot oven 475 250 ______________________________________________________________________ 500 280 Extremely hot oven ______________________________________________________________________


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E Q U I VA L E N T W E I G H T S A N D M E A S U R E S

______________________________________________________________________

Measure Teaspoons Tablespoon Cups Millilitres Grams ______________________________________________________________________ 8 drops a dash ______________________________________________________________________ 1.25 1.25 1/4 1/4 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/8 2.5 2.5 1/2 1/2 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/4 5 5 1 1 tsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1 20 20 4 1 Tbsp ______________________________________________________________________ 1/8 2 30 30 8 1/8 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/4 4 60 60 16 1/4 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/3 5 75 75 20 1/3 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1/2 8 125 125 32 1/2 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 2/3 10 150 150 40 2/3 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 3/4 12 180 180 48 3/4 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 1 16 250 250 64 1 cup ______________________________________________________________________ 4 64 1000 200 1 litre ______________________________________________________________________ 1.89 31.5 473 94.6 1 Pint ______________________________________________________________________ 3.78 63 946 189 1 Quart ______________________________________________________________________ 15 252 3785 757 1 Gallon ______________________________________________________________________

S T U F F I N G C A L C U L AT I O N C H A R T When calculating stuffing, plan on ½ to ¾ cup serving of stuffing per person. For amounts needed to stuff whole birds according to their weight, refer to the chart below. This chart will help you determine how much stuffing to use for chicken, turkey, and other poultry. ______________________________________________________________________

Quantity of Stuffing Size of Bird to be Stuffed Number of Servings ______________________________________________________________________ 2.5 cups 1.3 - 1.8 kg 2-3 ______________________________________________________________________ 3.5 cups 2.2 - 3.6 kg 4-6 ______________________________________________________________________ 7 cups 2.6 - 4.5 kg 8 ______________________________________________________________________ 9.5 cups 4.5 - 5.5 kg 10 ______________________________________________________________________ 14.5 cups 5.5 - 6.8kg 12-14 ______________________________________________________________________ 18 cups 6.8 - 9 kg 18-20 ______________________________________________________________________


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cooking times charts


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PROTEIN COOKING TIMES

Roasting __________________________________________ Oven Specific Protein Cut Thickness Instructio /Weight Temp. (째C ) __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

220 Standing Rib Roast, Rib Eye Roast, Eye Roast for 30 then 150-165 Round Roast, Round Mini Roast, Sirloin reduce to 15 Roast, Rolled Brisket, Rump Roast, Eye per kilo stat Fillet Roast, Butt Fillet __________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 Lamb Whole leg, Boneless Leg Roast, Rib Roast Roast for 30 then 165 or Rack, Crown Roast (unstuffed), reduce to 16 Shoulder Roast, Boneless Shoulder Roast kilo stated h __________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 Pork Rolled Loin Roast, Fillet/Tenderloin, Roast for 30 then 165 Whole Scotch Fillet, Leg Roast, Crown reduce to 16 Roast/Loin Rack, Pork Belly Roast, Easy kilo stated h carve Leg, Mini Roast __________________________________________________________________________________________ 175 Chicken & Poultry Whole Chicken Start with m ______________________________________________________ temperature 165 Whole Turkey when intern 79째C to 82째 __________________________________________________________________________________________ 175 Fish Whole, fillets and steaks Beef

__________________________________________________________________________________________ 1kg 175 All Meatloaf Cook beef, l internal tem chicken and __________________________________________________________________________________________

Char Grill/Barbecue __________________________________________ Oven Specific Protein Cut Thickness Instructi /Weight Temp. (째C ) __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

2.5cm Steak (porterhouse, sirloin, fillet, scotch Times speci _________________________________________________________________________ fillet, topside, rump) 4cm _________________________________________________________________________ 5cm __________________________________________________________________________________________ Beef

Lamb Steak (sirloin, loin or backstrap) 2cm _________________________________________________________________________ Chops/Cutlets (shoulder, loin or rib) __________________________________________________________________________________________ Pork Steak (scotch fillet, medallion, 2cm rump/leg steaks) _________________________________________________________________________ Chops/Cutlets/T-Bones __________________________________________________________________________________________ Chicken Breast The time sp 2cm breast that cooking tim _________________________________________________________________________ Parts (legs or thighs, drumettes, Legs will ta wingettes, drumsticks) drummettes __________________________________________________________________________________________ All Sausages First poach barbecue on minutes. __________________________________________________________________________________________


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Protein Cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to ensure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing beef, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven roasted, chargrilled or barbequed.

_________________________________________ Specific Approximate Cooking Time Instructions Rare Medium Well _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

Oven mp. (°C )

220 n 150-165

Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then reduce to 150-165°C for length of time per kilo stated here

20min per kg

30min per kg

40min per kg

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 25min per kg 30min per kg 20min per kg 220 Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then hen 165 reduce to 165°C for length of time per kilo stated here _________________________________________________________________________________________ 25min per kg 30min per kg 20min per kg 220 Roast for 30 minutes at 220°C then hen 165 reduce to 165°C for length of time per kilo stated here

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 40min per kg 175 Start with meat and refrigerator ________ _____________ temperature and remove from the oven 45min per kg 165 when internal temperature reaches 79°C to 82°C. _________________________________________________________________________________________ 17mins kg in total 175

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 1¼ hrs total approx, 175 Cook beef, lamb and pork loaves to an will depend on internal temperature of 71°C and mince type used chicken and turkey loaves to 79°C _________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________ Specific Approximate Cooking Time Instructions Rare Medium Well _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

Oven mp. (°C )

6min 8min 5min Times specified are minutes per side __________________________________________________________________________________________ 12min 15min 10min _________________________________________________________________________________________ 18min 20min 16min _________________________________________________________________________________________

5min __________________________________________________________________________________________ 10min 8min 5min _________________________________________________________________________________________

5 -6min 8 - 10min __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 - 8min 8 - 10min _________________________________________________________________________________________

The time specified is only for chicken 8 - 10min breast that has been pounded and cooking time is per side __________________________________________________________________________________________ Legs will take longer than wingettes or 8 - 15min drummettes _________________________________________________________________________________________ First poach for 20 minutes and then 15 - 25 minutes barbecue on medium heat for 5 - 10 depending on minutes. thickness _________________________________________________________________________________________


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V E G E TA B L E C O O K I N G T I M E S The following vegetable chart shows you various cooking methods and times at a glance. If you’re cooking a vegetable that’s not listed, use a similar textured vegetable as a guide. As you refer to this chart, please keep the following in mind: • The times on the chart are for 500g of the vegetable unless otherwise noted. • The times are in minutes. • A range of time is given because cooking times vary due to the age and size of the vegetables. Vegetables are done when they are tender, but still crisp. (They should not be mushy.) • Steaming times begin when the water boils and creates steam. • When microwaving, some vegetables require no water except the droplets that cling to them after rinsing. • Blanching times begin when vegetables are dropped into boiling water. • Some cooking methods are not recommended for certain vegetables. This is indicated in the chart by the abbreviation ‘NR’.

______________________________________________________________________

Vegetable Approximate Cooking Time - (in minutes) ______________________________________________________________________ Steam

Microwave

Blanch Boil

Other

______________________________________________________________________ NR 4-5 each NR 25-40 Globe Artichoke, whole 30-60 ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 10 6-7 8-12 10-12 Globe Artichoke, hearts 10-15 ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry pieces for 5 8 -10 4-6 2-3 5-12 Asparagus ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 5-15 6-12 3 10-20 Beans, green ______________________________________________________________________ NR 10-20 8-12 2-4 20-30 Beans, lima ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 60 at 165°C 40-60 14-18 NR 30-60 Beets ______________________________________________________________________ Blanch, then bake 8-15 6-7 3-4 5-10 Broccoli, spears ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 5-6 4-5 2-3 4-5 Broccoli, florets ______________________________________________________________________ Halve or slice then 6-12 7-8 3-5 5-10 Brussels sprouts stir-fry for 3-4 ______________________________________________________________________ Blanch leaves, then 6-9 10-12 NR 10-15 Cabbage, wedges stuff and bake ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 5-8 8-10 NR 5-10 Cabbage, shredded ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 30-40 at 165°C 10-15 8-10 4-5 15-20 Carrots, whole ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 4-5 4-7 2-3 5-10 Carrots, sliced ______________________________________________________________________ Cauliflower, whole

15-20

6-7

4-5

10-15

Blanch, then back for 20

at 165°C ______________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________ Blanch, then bake 8-15 6-7 3-4 5-10 Broccoli, spears ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 5-6 hansen 4-5 251 2-3 principles 4-5 Broccoli, florets victoria first ______________________________________________________________________ Halve or slice then 6-12 7-8 3-5 5-10 Brussels sprouts stir-fry for 3-4 ______________________________________________________________________ Blanch leaves, then 6-9 10-12 NR 10-15 Cabbage, wedges

V E G E TA B L E C O O K I N G T I M E S

______________________________________________________________________ stuff and bake

______________________________________________________________________ Vegetable Approximate Cooking - (in minutes) Stir-fry for 3-4 5-8 8-10 NR 5-10 Time Cabbage, shredded ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ for 30-40 at 165°C 10-15 8-10 4-5 15-20 Carrots, whole Steam MicroBlanch Boil Bake Other ______________________________________________________________________ wave Stir-fry for 3-4 4-5 4-7 2-3 5-10 Carrots, sliced ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ then back for 20 4-5 10-15 Cauliflower, whole NR 30-60 4-56-7 each NR 25-40 Blanch, Globe Artichoke, whole 15-20 ______________________________________________________________________ 165°C ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 10 6-7 8-12 10-12 at Globe Artichoke, hearts 10-15 ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 6-10 3-4 3-4 5-8 Cauliflower, florets ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry pieces for 5 8 -10 4-6 2-3 5-12 Asparagus ______________________________________________________________________ Soak for 10 then bake 6-10 3-4 3-4 4-7 Corn, on cob

Stir-fry for 3-4

5-15 6-12 3 10-20 for 45 at 175°C Beans, green ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ NR 10-20 8-12cup 2½ 2-4- 4 20-30 Beans, lima Stir-fry for 3-4 4-6 2 per 3-4 Corn kernels ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 30 at 165°C 190°C 15-30 7-10 10-15 10-15 Eggplant, whole Bake for 60 40-60 14-18 NR 30-60 Beets ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 10-15 at 220°C 5-6 5-6 3-4 5-10 Eggplant, diced ______________________________________________________________________ Blanch, then bake 8-15

6-7 3-4 5-10 Broccoli, spears ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry mustard greens NR 18-20 2-3 30-60 Greens, Stir-fry for 3-4 5-6 4-5 2-3 4-5 Broccoli, florets ______________________________________________________________________ for 4 -6 - collard/mustard/turnip ______________________________________________________________________ Halve or slice then 6-12 7-8 3-5 5-10 Brussels sprouts Stir-fry for 2-3 4-6 8-10 4-5 5-8 Greens, kale/beet ______________________________________________________________________

stir-fry 3-4 at 165 °C Bake forfor 50-60 30-35 8-12 NR 15-30 Kohlrabi ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry grill for 4 -5 4-5 3-4 NR 3-4 Mushrooms Blanch or leaves, then 6-9 10-12 10-15 Cabbage, wedges in stock or wine stuff and bake ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 60 at 190°C 20-25 6-10 NR 20-30 Onions, whole ______________________________________________________________________

Stir-fry for 3-4 5-8 8-10 NR 5-10 Cabbage, shredded ______________________________________________________________________ Braise in stock 15-25 15-20 5-7 2-3 10-20 Onions, pearl ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 30-40 at 165°C 10-15 8-10 4-5 15-20 Carrots, whole ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 30 at 145°C 8-10 4-6 2-3 5-10 Parsnips ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry 4-5 4-7 2-3 5-10 Carrots, sliced Stir-fry for for 3-4 2-3 3-5 5-7 1-2 8-12 Peas ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 2-3back for 20 2-4 2-4 1-3 4-5 Capsicum whole Blanch, then 15-20 6-7 4-5 10-15 Cauliflower, ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 40-60 at 190°C 12-30 6-8 3-5 20-30 Potatoes, whole ______________________________________________________________________ at 165°C

______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 25-30 at 190°C 10-12 8-10 2-3 15-20 Potatoes, cut ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3-4 6-10 3-4 3-4 5-8 Cauliflower, florets ______________________________________________________________________ Stir-fry for 3 5-6 3-4 2-3 2-5 Spinach ______________________________________________________________________ Soak for 10 then bake 6-10 3-4 3-4 4-7 Corn, on sliced cob NR 5-10 3-6 2-3 5-10 Squash, ______________________________________________________________________

for 45for at 40-60 175°Cat 175°C Bake 15-40 6-10 NR 5-10 Squash, halves ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Bake forfor 40-90 NR 5-6cup NR- 4 20-30 Squash, whole Stir-fry 3-4 at 165°C 4-6 2 per 2½ 3-4 Corn kernels ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Bake 10-15 2-3 3-4 ½ -1 NR Tomatoes Bake halves for 30 atfor190°C 15-30 7-10 10-15 10-15 Eggplant, whole ______________________________________________________________________ at 190°C {to skin only) ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 10-15 at 220°C 5-6 5-6 3-4 5-10 Eggplant, diced ______________________________________________________________________ Bake for 30-45 at 165°C 20-25 9-12 NR 15-20 Turnips, whole ______________________________________________________________________

Greens,

NR

18-20

2-3

30-60

Stir-fry mustard greens

Stir-fry for 2-3 12-15 6-8 2-3 5-8 Turnips, cubed ______________________________________________________________________ for -6 collard/mustard/turnip Grill4halves for 5 5-10 3-6 2-3 5-10 Zucchini ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Stir-fry for 2-3 4-6 8-10 4-5 5-8 Greens, kale/beet ______________________________________________________________________ 30-35 8-12 NR 15-30 Bake for 50-60 at 165 °C Kohlrabi


victoria hansen

253

first principles

index


victoria hansen

à l’ allemande sauce about this book acknowledgments aioli al dente allumette almond and pistachio biscotti refrigerator biscuits almond/hazelnut soufflé cake dumplings muffins anchovy butter sauce anglaise, crème apple and nut stuffing chutney sauce baked au jus bake baked cheesecake fish pears and apples rice custard stone fruit vegetables apricots baking (pizza) stone baking sheet banana cake muffins barbecue sauce fish prawns base for roasted proteins bases cheesecake for roasted proteins pie basic biscotti bread dough broth

148 12 10 153 26 26 225 224 115 188 227 189 162 147 117 231 179 160 88 26 26 205 42 88 118 88 87 88 26 26 188 189 26 159 44 54 234 230 234 230 225 221 141

254

brown stock butter frosting cheesecake chutney consommé couscous cream sauce crème anglaise crème soup drop biscuits/cookies dumplings friands fried rice frittata fritter batter Indian curry Indian curry sauce jam marmalade mayonnaise meringue mousse muffins pan omelette pannacotta pasta dough pesto pizza dough plain cake polenta potage puree soup quiche refrigerator biscuits relish risotto salsa scones/damper seafood bisque shortbread soufflé soufflé omelette sponge cake steamed pudding stew or casserole stuffing tapenade thai curry tomato sauce velouté sauce velouté soup

first principles

126 202 205 179 142 103 155 117 138 195 226 194 100 114 213 82 81 177 178 153 116 204 189 109 207 219 171 20 188 102 136 135 112 223 180 101 170 218 139 196 115 110 191 190 80 231 172 83 151 148 137

vinaigrette waffle batter white stock baste batonnet batter blinis crêpe fritter pancake pikelet tempura waffle beans salsa cooking times table dried (cooking) béarnaise essence sauce beat beef barbecued boiled braised chargrilled corned pan fried stewed stir-fried berry friands mousse bias cutting biscotti blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme lemon and caper pistachio & black olive parmesan & rosemary almond and pistachio chocolate ginger hazelnut mixed spice biscuits Anzac drop refrigerator blanch

161 212 123 26 26 211 214 214 213 214 214 213 212 92 170 92 92 152 129 152 26 55 60 62 63 60 62 59 80 61 194 204 26 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 187 197 195 223 26


victoria hansen

blanching vegetables blend blind bake blinis batter blue cheese and herb omelette and pecan biscotti and pecan dumplings and pecan biscuits cream sauce vinaigrette blueberry muffins soufflé boil boiled eggs prawns vegetables brains braise beef chicken lamb pork brandy/liqueur custard bread and butter pudding dough pull apart crumbs fresh toasted broccoli and spinach frittata and spinach quiche broil broth Asian country vegetable brown brûlée, crème brunoise brush buns Chelsea hot cross butter cheese & watercress and parsley couscous

85 26 26 214 109 225 227 224 156 161 189 115 26 107 54 84 66 27 63 73 63 63 164 118 221 222 232 232 232 114 113 27 141 141 141 141 27 118 27 27 222 222 162 103

255

first principles

anchovy curry dill garlic ginger coriander, lime herb lemon chive orange tarragon shallot parsley tomato & rosemary butterfly cakes almond banana chocolate chocolate chip Christmas citrus and poppy seed coconut fruit ginger hazelnut marble plain spice sponge patty calamari fried sautéed stuffed caramel sauce crème banana filling caramelise casserole Chantilly cream chargrill capsicum curdle curry butter Indian sauce sauce custard filling tart baked rice cut cut in

162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 27 187 188 188 188 188 197 188 188 197 188 188 188 188 188 191 188 48 48 48 49 163 118 193 27 27 208 27 90 28 162 81 147 193 118 118 29 29

damper deep-fry chicken fish deglaze degrease demiglaze deseed de-vein develop devil dice disgorge dissolve dot dough bread pasta pizza dredge dressing coleslaw Caesar thousand island drizzle drop biscuits chocolate chocolate chip ginger nut peanut butter spicy date sultana wholemeal duck roast slow cooked dumplings blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme herb lemon and caper orange pistachio & … parmesan & rosemary almond hazelnut mixed spice dust eggs and bacon frittata

218 29 71 45 29 29 150 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 221 219 220 30 153 153 153 30 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 75 77 78 226 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 30 114


victoria hansen custard sauce noodles boiled cooking fried poached scrambled coddled emulsify eq. weights & measures essential pantry/equip. fennel and raisin biscotti and raisin dumplings and raisin refrigerator biscuits ferment fillet fillings bacon and mushroom caramelised banana chicken & mushroom custard ricotta & strawberry cheese & asparagus jam savoury crepe savoury roulade smoked salmon & dill strawberries & cream sweet crepe sweet roulade crepe lamb roulade fish cooking methods mousse baked barbecued casseroled chargrilled deep-fried grilled (broiled) pan-fried poached steamed stewed flake flambé fold/fold in

164 97 107 105 108 108 106 107 30 245 16 225 227 224 30 30 201 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 193 57 193 40 41 204 42 44 80 44 45 43 46 47 46 80 30 30 30

256

fork tender formulae, conversion freezing food containers food selection packing & storing food preparing fruit for fresh breadcrumbs produce, cooking ricotta filling friands berry chocolate hazelnut orange & poppy seed fricassee fried eggs or sautéed octopus rice scallops frittata broccoli and spinach chicken & mushroom egg and bacon pumpkin and feta salmon and oyster smoked salmon & dill zucchini and salami frosting, butter frostings fruit cake coulis poached skinning stewed & vegetables, cooking fry frying, coating food for game birds roast slow cooked ganache garnish geese roast slow cooked ginger pannacotta

first principles 30 244 183 184 184 184 184 232 39 193 194 194 194 194 194 30 108 48 100 52 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 202 201 197 167 91 85 91 84 30 233 74 77 78 203 30 75 77 78 207

biscotti cake cookies coriander, lime butter muffins refrigerator biscuits roulade glacé glaze grate gravy roasting pan saucepan green peppercorn sauce tomato chutney tomato relish grill fish lobster grind gruyere and thyme biscotti and thyme dumplings & thyme biscuits guinea fowl roast hack ham cheese filling soufflé leek omelette fennel, raisin stuffing hazelnut biscotti friands refrigerator biscuits heart herb biscotti butter dumplings mayonnaise refrigerator biscuits roulade icings independent sauces Indian curry basic, with variations bhuna dupiaza

225 188 195 162 189 224 193 30 31 31 157 157 158 156 179 180 31 43 51 31 225 227 224 75 77 31 193 115 109 231 225 194 224 65 225 162 227 153 224 193 201 154 82 82 82 82


victoria hansen korma madras vindaloo masala jam filling basic recipe choice of fruit for testing the jell set of julienne jus kidney kitchen equipment knead lamb coatings fillings rubs barbecued braised chargrilled pan-fried stewed stir-fried larding/to lard leavening lemon and caper biscotti and caper dumplings and caper biscuits chive butter or lime couscous shortbread preserved liqueur liver lobster cutting up grilled lukewarm macerate marinade marinate marrow mayonnaise creamy herb measurement charts meat thermometer melt meringue

82 82 82 82 193 177 176 177 31 158 67 20 31 55 57 57 57 60 63 60 59 80 61 31 31 225 227 224 162 103 196 181 31 65 51 51 51 31 31 32 32 67 153 153 153 243 55 32 116

257

first principles

microwave tips when cooking in vegetables mince minestrone mirepoix mix mixed berry pudding herb soufflé omelette spice biscotti spice dumplings spice biscuits spice roulade mother sauces mousse berry chocolate citrus fish smoked fish vegetable muffins almond banana chocolate chocolate chip citrus and poppy seed coconut ginger hazelnut spice mushroom cream sauce soufflé soufflé omelette mussels mustard Scandinavian sauce noodles cellophane egg hokkien ramen rice soba soman udon nut cookies

91 91 91 32 141 32 32 190 111 225 227 224 193 147 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 156 115 111 52 153 153 147 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 195

couscous skinning meal shortbread octopus fried sautéed stuffed orange & poppy seed friands shortbread tarragon butter black olive biscotti black olive dumplings black olive biscuits oven temperature chart oxtail oysters opening pan-fry beef chicken breast lamb pork prawns fish pan omelette blue cheese and herb pumpkin & vegetable ham capsicum & leek pumpkin and shallot pannacotta chocolate cinnamon citrus coconut and lime ginger and lemongrass liqueur pantry, essential parboil fruits and vegetables pare parmesan rosemary biscotti rosemary dumplings and rosemary biscuits partridge roast slow cooked pasta dough cooking

103 85 196 48 48 49 194 196 162 225 227 224 244 67 53 53 32 59 70 59 59 54 46 109 109 109 109 109 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 16 32 84 32 225 227 224 75 77 78 96 219 96


victoria hansen

quantities of pasteurize pastry crème biscuit champagne choux puff short crust pâtissière, crème paysanne peach chutney baked pear chutney baked peel pesto cream sauce cream vinaigrette basil chargrilled capsicum chargrilled eggplant coriander mint roasted tomatoes rocket pheasant roast slow cooked pie base pigeon roast slow cooked pinch pipe pit poached chicken eggs fish fruit polenta creamy soft firm pork apple & sage stuffing barbecued braised chargrilled

96 32 237 206 239 239 240 241 238 206 32 179 88 179 88 32 171 156 161 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 75 77 78 230 75 77 78 32 33 33 33 72 108 47 91 102 102 102 55 231 60 63 60

258

pan fried roast with crackling stewed stir-fried pot roast potatoes, roast pound prawns barbecued boiled chargrilled pan fried sautéed preheat preserved lemons preserves preserving sterilizing jars for prick primavera tomato sauce cream sauce proof protein cooking times puddings brandy chocolate bread and butter steamed Christmas citrus and poppy seed coconut and lime mixed berry sticky date strawberry Yorkshire pumpkin and feta frittata and feta quiche and shallot omelette punch down purée vegetable risotto vegetables quail roast slow cooked quiche Lorraine broccoli and spinach chicken & mushroom pumpkin and feta salmon and oyster

first principles

59 58 80 61 33 88 33 54 54 54 54 54 54 33 181 175 175 176 33 151 156 33 248 187 190 118 197 190 190 190 190 190 214 114 113 109 33 33 101 86 75 77 78 112 113 113 113 113 113

smoked salmon & dill sunshine zucchini and salami reconstitute red tomato and fruit relish chutney reduce refrigerator biscuits savoury sweet almond and pistachio chocolate ginger hazelnut mixed spice blue cheese and pecan fennel and raisin gruyere and thyme herb lemon and caper pistachio & black olive parmesan & rosemary relish corn corn and cabbage green tomato red tomato and fruit zucchini remoulade rice noodles cooking cooking by absorption steaming types of risotto Milanese Peking duck pureed vegetable seafood roast beef chicken lamb pork with crackling potatoes turkey game bird meat thermometer roux

113 113 113 33 180 179 33 223 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 224 180 180 180 180 180 180 153 98 97 99 99 99 98 101 101 101 101 101 33 56 69 57 58 88 76 77 55 34


victoria hansen

rubbed salmon and oyster frittata and oyster quiche salsa verde bean chargrilled vegetable mixed tomato seasonal fruit tropical fruit sauces à l’ allemande au vin blanc aurore bercy diable hussarde joinville lyonnaise madère mousseline provencale reforme Robert supreme anchovy apple barbecue basic butter basic cream béarnaise béchamel beurre blanc bigarade blue cheese cream bolognaise bordelaise boscaiola caper carbonara chasseur chateaubriand cheese cheese cream chive cream Cumberland curry demiglaze espagnole garlic cream

34 114 113 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 146 148 148 148 148 150 151 148 150 150 152 151 150 150 148 147 160 159 154 155 152 147 154 150 156 151 150 156 147 156 150 150 147 156 156 160 147 150 149 156

259

first principles

peppercorn cream hollandaise horseradish maltaise marinara matricana mushroom cream mustard mustard cream napoletana onion parsley pesto cream piquante portugaise primavera cream primavera tomato seafood siciliana sweet white brandy brandy custard butterscotch caramel chocolate citrus egg custard egg foam liqueur sabayon zabaglione tartare tomato tuna & mushroom c velouté sauces, independent sauces, mother sauces, sweet sauté prawns vegetables savoury crepe filling dumplings refrigerator biscuits crepe filling roulade or Swiss roll soufflés scald scallop scallops

156 152 153 152 151 151 156 147 156 151 147 147 156 150 151 156 151 153 151 147 164 164 163 163 165 165 164 166 164 166 166 153 151 156 148 154 147 163 34 54 89 193 227 224 193 193 115 34 34 52

fried scones cheese date sultana score scramble eggs seafood risotto sauce sear season shave shortbread chocolate lemon nutmeal orange shot shred shuck sieve sift simmer skewer skim skinning fruit slice sliver slow cooked game bird slurry smoked salmon and dill filling salmon and dill frittata salmon and dill quiche salmon omelette soufflé savoury cheese ham mushroom seafood sweet almond blueberry chocolate citrus coconut soufflé omelette bacon

52 218 218 218 218 34 34 106 48 101 153 34 34 34 196 196 196 196 196 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 85 35 35 78 35 193 114 113 111 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 110 111


victoria hansen

cheese mixed herb mushroom prawn smoked salmon sweet savoury tomato soups bisque crème potage puree velouté thick spice cake muffins date cookies sponge cake roulade or Swiss roll squab roast slow cooked squid (octopus/calamari) fried sautéed stuffed steam steamed Christmas pudding fish pudding rice vegetables steep sterilize jars for preserving stew beef fruit lamb fish pork vegetables chicken stir stir-fry (chow) beef lamb

111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 134 139 138 136 135 137 135 188 189 195 191 192 75 77 78 48 48 48 49 35 197 197 46 190 99 87 35 35 176 35 80 91 80 80 80 90 80 35 35 61 61

260

first principles

pork vegetables stock stock master brown clarifying dashi veal white stone fruit, baked strawberry and cream filling pudding stuffing’s calculation chart apple and nut basic chestnut and cranberry cornbread ham fennel and raisin pistachio & mushroom pork apple and sage sugar syrup sweat vegetables sweet crepe filling dumplings mango chutney refrigerator biscuits roulade filling roulade or Swiss roll sauces soufflé omelette soufflés white sauce sweetbreads Swiss roll savoury sweet tables, measurement tammy cloth tart custard Portuguese custard temper temperature table, oven tender–crisp terrine thick soups

61 89 36 122 123 126 124 130 125 123 88 193 190 229 245 231 231 231 231 231 231 231 128 36 89 193 227 179 224 193 193 163 111 115 147 66 192 193 193 243 36 118 118 36 244 36 36 135

toast toffee toss truss turkey roast vegetable broth (minestrone) cooking times mousse mashed puree baked barbecued blanching boiling chargrilled microwaved par boiling roast sautéed steaming stewed stir-fried sweating wilting coulis vinaigrette balsamic blue cheese cream honey and orange pesto cream red wine Thai weights and measures whip whisk zest

36 36 36 36 75 76 141 250 204 86 86 87 90 85 84 90 91 84 87 89 87 90 89 89 87 86 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 245 36 36 36


PRAISE FOR VICTORIA HANSEN & FIRST PRINCIPLES

I think your book is brilliant. I must have wasted weeks of my life stirring risotto and now I don’t have to. Made the cheesecake on the weekend and the ladies thought I was some kind of genius. I’m very impressed, thanks very much. Mark Congratulations on a fabulous book. I’ve been cooking for 40 years but have still gained an enormous amount from your book and will be buying one for each of my daughters-in law. Many of my own favourite recipes are basic plus variation types. Just love them! I also have placed your web site in my favourites. Jennifer I have had this book for several months now it’s great! Even an old fellow like me can understand it. I particularly like the variations you present for each recipe it certainly simplifies cooking for me. The only problem is I enjoy the fruits of our labour too much! Thanks very much and well done. Gordon I would like to congratulate you on producing your fantastic book ‘First Principles’. I have just bought each of my two ‘20 something’ children a copy of the book as each of them is living independently and both love cooking. They often ring to ask for help! I am so impressed with your book that I am going to buy my own copy – I thought I had enough in the hundreds I own, not to mention the mags I buy, but I found plenty of information which is handy to have in one small volume. You truly have produced the contemporary Green and Gold! Sandra I saw your cookery book while shopping this afternoon, and bought a copy. I have just been looking it over and think the selections, explanations, and layout are all good. The idea of doing a basic recipe then listing variations is good. You have achieved a ‘Common Sense’ book in an updated way. I particularly like it because you have done the measurements in spoons and cups where practical. Jean I love your new recipe book. Easy to follow and with readily available ingredients. Well done!

Joan

I just wanted to give you some feedback on your fantastic basics cooking handbook, ‘First Principles’. I received the book for Christmas and have only today had time to sit down and flip through it. I would like to congratulate you on producing a handbook with all the important information which is often not included in other cookbooks, such as explanations of key cooking terms and what to stock your pantry with – you are right that the chore of buying ingredients for specific recipes can sometimes be quite bothersome and can stop you cooking something. I feel the book will really help me. Louise I have purchased your book ‘First Principles’. It is a marvellous book. Just what every cook should have.

Keith

At age 37, my cooking skills were limited to meat and boiled veggies, and one pancake recipe learned at my mother’s knee. All my life, meals had been provided by (a) parents, (b) the army, or (c) a wife, who wouldn’t let me in the kitchen except to wash dishes. When I found myself living alone, the most important tool in the house was a can opener. I stumbled through, learning things the hard way, until a girlfriend (in frustration, no doubt) recently gave me a copy of First Principles. My fingers are still sticky from my first quiche, now cooling on the bench. The sense of achievement is out of all proportion to the effort involved. Thanks for providing such an easy-to-follow, coverall-bases, and not-scare-beginners-with-jargon reference. Let me know when you want to come by for dinner. Jonathan

First Principles Sampler  

The basics cooking handbook containing all recipes, food preparation techniques and how to's from which all recipes are created.

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