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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

Remember this?


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

INTRODUCTIONS Vocabulary What’s your name? My name is... Where are you from? I’m from... What’s your address? My address is... How old are you? I’m... (years old). What’s your phone number? My phone number is...

To be AFFIRMATIVE I

am (‘m)

a student

You

are ( ‘re)

a student

He/She/It

is (‘s)

a student

We/You/They

are (‘re)

students

NEGATIVE I

am not (‘m not)

a student

You

are not (aren’t)

a student

He/She/It

is not (isn’t)

a student

We/You/They

are not (aren’t)

students

Am

I

a student?

Are

you

a student?

Is

he/she/it

a student?

Are

we/you/they

students?

INTERROGATIVE

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

To be + jobs e.g. I’m a student. LOOK OUT! Don’t forget to write the article a(n) before the name of a job when the subject is in singular. e.g. What do you do / What is your job? I’m a teacher / I’m an artist. We cannot say: We’re a students. We say: We’re students. An is used when the next word begins with a vowel, a voiceless ‘h’ or the vowel ‘u’ pronounced /Ʌ/. Don’t forget to write the article a(n) before the name of a job when the subject is in singular. e.g. An umbrella.

To be + adjective ‘To be’ is used with adjectives to describe people. e.g. I am tall / I’m tall. REMEMBER: Adjectives don’t have a plural form. We cannot say: They are talls.

Short answers AFFIRMATIVE SHORT ANSWERS Yes,

I

am

Yes,

you

are

Yes,

he/she/it

is

Yes,

we/you/they

are

NEGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS No,

I

am not (I’m not)

No,

you

are not (aren’t)

No,

he/she/it

is not (isn’t)

No,

we/you/they

are not (aren’t)

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

LOOK! Contracted forms are very common and more informal than complete forms.

School subjects When we talk about a school timetable the following formula is commonly used: Subject + have/has + thing or activity + at + the time e.g. I have maths on Monday at 10:30.

Vocabulary: School subjects PE (Physical Education) MATHS ENGLISH ART GEOGRAPHY FRENCH SCIENCE IT (Information Technology) HISTORY MUSIC TIMETABLE BREAK LUNCH REMEMBER: Days of the week: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday They begin with a capital letter!

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

Vocabulary: Clothes

JUMPER

HAT

JACKET

TROUSERS

T-SHIRT

SHIRT

SKIRT

SHOES

JEANS

DRESS

Possessions They can be expressed in different ways: Have got = Subject + have got/has got + the thing possessed e.g. Nigel’s got a football. Saxon Genitive = Owner (person or animal) + ( ’s) + the thing possessed e.g. Nigel’s football. The first phrase is the contracted form of have got, whereas the second denotes possession of a person or animal. (i.e. The football that belongs to Nigel). I You He/She/It We/You/They

have/(‘ve) have/(‘ve) has/(‘s) have/(‘ve)

got got got got

AFFIRMATIVE FORM Subject + have/has + got + object e.g. I have got a guitar (I’ve got a guitar). NEGATIVE FORM Subject + haven’t/hasn’t + got + object e.g. I haven’t got a guitar. INTERROGATIVE FORM Have/Has + subject + got + object? e.g. Has Nigel got a guitar?

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

Possessive adjectives My

age

is

12

Your

age

is

12

His/Her/Its

age

is

12

Our

age

is

12

Your

age

is

12

Their

age

is

12

NOTEBOOK

BASKETBALL

BIKE

CD

BAG

SHOES

Vocabulary

Places in a town THERE IS / THERE ARE We use there is / there are to express amounts in singular or plural. The affirmative structure is: There is a/an + object (singular) There are + amount + objects (plural) The negative structure is: There isn’t / There aren’t + any + object/s + complement e.g. There isn’t any sports centre in my city. The interrogative structure is:

Remember this? | 7


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

Is there a/an / are there any + object/s + complement? e.g. Are there any sports centre in your city? SHORT ANSWERS In English, the answer to questions with ‘There is / There are’ is formed by: AFFIRMATIVE ANSWER: Yes, there is / are. NEGATIVE ANSWER: No, there isn’t / aren’t.

Vocabulary: Places in a town

SCHOOL

CINEMA

SHOPPING CENTER

HOSPITAL

TRAIN STATION

SPORTS CENTER

CAFÉ

Prepositions of place

IN FRONT OF

BEHIND

NEXT TO

ON

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 1 | Printed edition

IN

BETWEEN

Collocations with time expressions the morning In

the afternoon the evening

On

Monday/Mondays night

At

the weekend half past nine

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

JACK IS FAMOUS!


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

School news READING: JACK IS FAMOUS! Woman: The winner of the School Dart Championship is Supermind School, from London! Nigel: Thank you! Much appreciated!! Dr Miyagi: Congratulations, Nigel! You’re a brilliant captain. Nigel: Thanks, Dr Miyagi! You’re a great coach! Reporter: Excuse me. I’m a reporter from the local newspaper. I want to take a photo of Nigel. Cassie: Oh yes, he’s with the team. Reporter: Has he got dark hair? Cassie: No, that’s Jack. Nigel’s got fair hair. Reporter: Oh, OK. Thanks.

Reporter: Nigel, can I take a photo of you? Jack: Of me? Eh... yes, of course!! Reporter: Smile, please! Perfect! Look for your photo in the newspaper tomorrow. Ton: That’s fantastic, Jack! You’re famous!

Son: Look at Nigel! He’s really angry. Flyona: I’m not surprised! He is the real sports star! Son: It’s true, but Jack is famous! Cassie: It’s a big mistake! Jack: Psst! Be quiet! VOCABULARY WINNER

SURPRISED

COACH

REPORTER

MUCH APPRECIATED!

TAKE A PHOTO OF

CONGRATULATIONS

TEAM

BRILLIANT

HOWEVER

GREAT

MAKE A MISTAKE

FANTASTIC

LOOK FOR SOMEBODY/SOMETHING

FAMOUS

LOOK AT SOMEBODY

ANGRY

CHAMPIONSHIP

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY

SPIKY HAIR

CURLY HAIR

DARK HAIR

LONG HAIR

WAVY HAIR

STRAIGHT HAIR

SHORT HAIR

MEDIUM-LENGTH HAIR

FAIR HAIR

BLUE EYES

BROWN EYES REMEMBER!

Have got is a verb used to describe the appearance of people or things. e.g. You’ve got beautiful, spiky hair.

LOOK! Sentence stress: Adjectives Adjectives, nouns, verbs and adverbs are content words. These words carry information in the sentence. They are stressed and sound louder as we speak, to give importance to the information they contain.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

Language focus A. Describing people and things VOCABULARY

GUITAR

SKATEBOARD

TORCH

UMBRELLA

HEADPHONES

MP3 PLAYER

ALARM CLOCK

COMPUTER

ROLLERBLADES HAVE GOT Have got + noun This verb is used to express possession or property. e.g. I have got a computer. e.g. She has got a computer. e.g. Have they got a computer? Subject + have/has got + object e.g. Nigel has got a guitar. The have got form can be contracted: e.g. Nigel’s got a guitar. e.g. I’ve got a computer. Affirmative form Subject + have/has got + object e.g. He/She/It has got an alarm clock. e.g. I/You/We/They have got a new computer.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

Negative form Subject + haven’t/hasn’t got + object e.g. Nigel hasn’t got a guitar. Questions and short answers Have Has

I/you/we/they he/she

got got

a bag? a bag?

Have/Has + subject + got + object? e.g. Have you got a guitar? The Yes/No answers are as follows:: Affirmative short answer Yes, Yes,

I/you/we/they he/she/it

have. has.

Yes, subject + have/has. e.g. Yes, he has. Negative short answer No,

I/you/we/they

hasn’t..

No,

he/she/it

hasn’t

No, subject + haven’t/hasn’t. e.g. No, he hasn’t. USING ADJECTIVES Have got + adjective We can also use adjectives with have got. We always place the adjective before the noun. e.g. I’ve got a new computer. e.g. Has he got a new computer? e.g. He hasn’t got a new computer. We can use adjectives after the verb to be or before a noun. e.g. It’s new. e.g. It’s a new bike. VOCABULARY SMALL

OLD

NICE

LONG

HORRIBLE

NEW

CHEAP

SHORT

BIG

EXPENSIVE

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

School news READING: JACK IS FAMOUS! Nigel: Dr Miyagi, we want to celebrate and have a barbecue in the backyard on Sunday. Miyagi: That’s a good idea! What time at? Nigel: About 5 o’clock. Miyagi: Great! I can’t wait! Jack: Hey, you. Nigel, the famous darts player. Can you do fifty press-ups? Nigel: Mm, I don’t know. Jack: I can do fifty press-ups. Let’s have a competition! Flyona: Ignore him, Nigel. He’s jealous. Natasha: ...forty-eight, forty-nine, fifty! Jack: You’re a cheat, Nigel. I am the champion athlete at this school! Nigel: Well, good for you. I’m the captain of the darts team, not you. Sorry, Jack. Jack: I don’t like you, Nigel. I don’t like you at all. VOCABULARY CELEBRATE

BACKYARD

ORGANISE

JEALOUS

BARBECUE

PRESS-UP

Language focus B. Talking about abilities VOCABULARY

SEE

SMELL

HEAR

FEEL

TASTE

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

TALKING ABOUT ABILITIES: Can/can’t This modal verb expresses ability or lack of ability to do something. As a modal verb: • Its infinitive form is never preceded by to. e.g. Can (NOT: To can). • When conjugated, its form doesn’t change. e.g. I can/He can. (NOT: He cans sing). • The interrogative and negative forms don’t require an auxiliary verb. The verb can itself function as one. e.g. I can’t sing. (NOT: I don’t can sing). e.g. I can’t drive a car. e.g. I can play the piano. Affirmative = Subject + can + verb + (complement) e.g. I can swim. Negative = Subject + can’t (cannot) + verb + (complement) e.g. I can’t swim. Interrogative = Can/Can’t + subject + verb + (complement) e.g. Can you swim? Short answers with can/can’t Yes, No,

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they

can. can’t.

School news READING: GAME SHOW QUEEN Do you know who Anne Robinson is? She’s the presenter of a very popular game show on BBC television in Britain. The name of the show is The Weakest Link, El Rival Más Débil on Spanish television. Anne Robinson is tall and has got red hair. She wears black clothes. She isn’t a typical TV presenter. She isn’t friendly to the contestants. In fact, people think she’s very rude! Now you can watch The Weakest Link all over the world. You can watch Le Maillon Fable in France. The presenter is Laurence Boccolini. In Italy, the presenter is a man, Enrico Papi. In the United States, Anne is also the presenter of the show. The prizes in the American show are enormous. The contestant can win a hundred thousand dollars!

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 2 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY FRIENDLY

WEAR

PRIZE

ALL OVER

RUDE

CONTENDER

CONTESTANT

PRESENTER LOOK OUT! Word order is very important in English. Don’t forget to follow the following word order: Adjectives go before the noun. e.g. He’s got brown hair. The subject goes before the verb in affirmative sentences. e.g. He’s the presenter.

Language plus. Asking for/giving permission Can I + verb + (complement) ? e.g. Can I go to Jack’s party? Can I + not + verb + (complement) ? e.g. Can I not open your letter? This is the formula used to ask for permission to do something. To give and deny permission the formula is the following: Yes, you can. No, you can’t.

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english 2 | unit 3 | Printed edition

AN INTERVIEW ON THE RADIO


ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

AN INTERVIEW ON THE RADIO School news Reading: An interview on the radio Cole: Dr Miyagi? I’m Cole Watson from Radio StarStream. I want to interview Nigel on the radio. Jack: Ok, but he isn’t here. He washes cars on Saturday morning. Cole: Does he wash cars in the afternoon? Jack: No, he doesn’t. But he usually plays a darts match. Cole: What about Sunday morning? Jack: That’s OK. He doesn’t work on Sunday morning. Cole: Great! Jack: Hey, listen to Radio StarStream at nine o’clock tomorrow! It’s my interview! Flyona: That’s great, Jack! What is the interview about? Jack: Well, wait until tomorrow, it’s a surprise! Flyona & Ton: I can’t wait! Cole: Tell me about the darts team, Nigel. Jack: Well, we train every afternoon from Monday to Friday. Cole: Do you play matches at the weekend? Jack: Yes, we usually play a match on Saturday. We don’t play matches on Sunday. Cole: You’re very busy! Jack: Yes, the captain is always very busy! Flyona: I can’t believe it! Nigel: Grrr, Jack!I don’t like that guy! I hate him!! READING VOCABULARY to be a big head what is it about? wait every time play a match I can’t believe it Intonation: Questions

Does he listen to the radio?

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

Language focus A. Talking about habits and routines Present Simple We use the Present Simple to talk about routine actions. AFFIRMATIVE I/You

read

books.

He/She/It

reads

books.

We/You/They

read

books.

NEGATIVE I/You

don’t

read books.

He/She/It

doesn’t

read books.

We/You/They

don’t

read books.

INTERROGATIVE Do

I/you

read books?

Does

he/she/it

read books?

Do

we/you/they

read books? REMEMBER

Do/does is the auxiliary verb used to make questions. An auxiliary verb is a verb which gives extra information about the main verb in a sentence. SHORT ANSWERS Affirmative and short answers Yes,

I/you

do.

Yes,

he/she/it

does.

Yes,

we/you/they

do.

Negative short answers No,

I/you

don’t.

No,

he/she/it

doesn’t.

No,

we/you/they

don’t.

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

Wh- questions and answers Where? • Where do you play tennis? At the sports centre. When? • When does she go out? On Saturday. What? • What do they eat for lunch? Sandwiches. IN / AT The answer to questions referring to time requires in with parts of the day. •

morning

afternoon

evening

The answer to questions referring to time requires at when telling the time and also when followed by night, midday and midnight. •

What time do you get up? At 8 o’clock.

What time do you come home? At midday. LOOK!

In English, some parts of the day correspond to different times in Spanish: In the afternoon: between 12 (midday) and 5 pm. In the evening: between 5 pm and 8 pm. In addition, a.m. means after meridian (morning, before 12.00). p.m. means post meridian (afternoon, evening, night). The Greenwich time is used as a basis for calculating time in most places around the world.

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

Adverbs of frequency

never

sometimes

often

usually

always

We use adverbs of frequency to talk about how often we do activities that are part of our everyday life. The Present Simple tense normally uses these adverbs to express the sense of routine and frequency. Adverbs of frequency usually go between the subject and the main verb. •

I usually get up early.

I always surf the Internet on Saturday.

But in some cases these adverbs are placed after the verb. For example, after the verb ‘to be’: •

He’s often at the gym.

School news Reading: Jack’s a big-head! Jack: Hi, Son! Look at this! It’s from the Bull’s Eye Darts team. Son: A dartboard? What’s so special about that? Jack: It’s got the signatures of the players! They’re the best team from London! Son: Oh, great. Come on, I want to go out. Jack: But I want to watch the darts game on television! It’s the semifinal of the national championship! Son: I hate watching darts competitions on television! Jack: Well, you know darts is very important to me! Son: You think you’re the centre of the world! Jack: I don’t understand. Son: What about me? I like going to parties and... Jack: We’ve got the barbecue this afternoon. Son: Oh, the barbecue. Huh! More darts!! Jack: What’s your problem, Son? Son: You’ve got a problem, Jack, not me. The “famous” Jack. You’re a fake and a bighead!

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

READING VOCABULARY

dart

dartboard

signature

Language focus B. Talking about likes and dislikes Like/dislike/hate/love + (verb –ing)

hate

not like

I hate homework.

I don’t like computer games.

I like hamburgers.

I love rock music.

like

love

These verbs are useful to indicate personal preferences or inclinations. Subject + verb + noun • I hate chicken. The structure of the verb changes when we talk about actions. Subject + preference or inclination verb + verb (-ing) • I love watching TV. Short answers Affirmative Yes,

Subject

do/does.

Negative No,

Subject

don’t/doesn’t.

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

Vocabulary text messages computer games picnics stories parties football tennis headaches email

Skills Reading: What’s a sponsored run? A sponsored run is a popular event in many schools around the world. The objective is to raise money for charity. First, the students decide the distance of the run. Then, they look for sponsors. Sponsors promise to give money to the charity. Sponsors decide the amount of money per mile and they write their name on a sponsor form. After the run, the students collect the money from the sponsors. Supermind School’s Sponsored Run for Oxfam, 18th June. Oxfam is one of the most important charities in Britain. It helps poor people in developing countries. It organises projects in every continent. The main office is in Oxford. More than a thousand people work for Oxfam in Britain. READING VOCABULARY raise charity step to follow organise collect cognate popular objective decide distance event look for amount

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 3 | Printed edition

Language plus. Expressions of frequency To ask questions about frequency, we use the wh- question how often: •

How often do I teach my students?

Questions How often

do

I/you

go out?

How often

does

he/she/it

go out?

How often

do

we/you/they

go out?

Answers Once (1)

A week/a month/a year

Twice (2)

A week/a month/a year

Three times

A week/a month/a year

A week/a month/a year

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

THE BARBECUE


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

School news READING: THE BARBECUE Son: Hi, Stella! What are you doing? Stella: I’m cooking sausages, and Cassie’s making a big salad. Son: Great. Where’s Jack? Stella: I don’t know. He isn’t here. Ton: What are you doing, Son? Son: I’m phoning Jack. He isn’t helping, for a change. He’s late again. Son: Jack! We’re all in the backyard. Where are you? And the drinks? Jack: Oh, I’m at the shopping centre. I’m buying a new T-shirt for the barbecue. Son: But the guests are arriving, and we are doing all the work! Jack: OK, OK, see you in a minute. Son: Stella, this is ridiculous! Everyone’s helping with the barbecue except Jack. It’s not fair. Stella: Well, he’s the radio celebrity now, you see... Cassie: Look Son, here’s Jack. Jack: Hi, everyone! Hey, great barbecue! Son: Look at him, he thinks he’s fantastic. Stella: Are you angry with him? Son: Yes, I am. I’m very angry with him.

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS To be + verb (-ing ) + something This is the grammatical structure used to express that somebody is doing an activity at the moment of speaking. e.g. Stella is eating sausages. VOCABULARY TO BE LATE TO BE ON TIME SEE YOU IN A MINUTE TO BE RIDICULOUS TO BE FAIR CELEBRITY ANGRY

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY ARRIVE LEAVE SIT DANCE TALK COOK MAKE A SALAD PHONE BUY CLOTHES WEAR A T-SHIRT INTONATION LINE Intonation adds meaning to sentences. Intonation shows the speaker’s emotional intention. The common intonation in questions with –ing verbs (Present Continuous tense) is:

e.g. What are you doing?

Language focus A. Talking about what people are doing now VOCABULARY SWIM SUNBATHE EXPLORE THROW A BALL CARRY A SURFBOARD GRAMMAR: Present Continuous Affirmative I

am

carrying

a surfboard.

You

are

carrying

a surfboard.

He/She/It

is

carrying

a surfboard.

We/You/They

are

carrying

a surfboard.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

Negative I

‘m not

carrying

a surfboard.

You

aren’t

carrying

a surfboard.

He/She/It

isn’t

carrying

a surfboard.

We/You/They

aren’t

carrying

a surfboard.

Interrogative Am

I

carrying

a surfboard?

Are

you

carrying

a surfboard?

Is

he/she/it

carrying

a surfboard?

Are

we/you/they

carrying

a surfboard?

SHORT ANSWERS Affirmative short answers Yes,

I

am.

Yes,

you

are.

Yes,

he/she/it

is.

Yes,

we/you/they

are.

Negative short answers No,

I

am not.

No,

you

aren’t.

No,

he/she/it

isn’t.

No,

we/you/they

aren’t.

WH- QUESTIONS Wh- + to be + subject + verb ( -ing ) ? e.g. Where is he sunbathing? At the beach. e.g. What are you carrying? A surfboard. e.g. Who are they phoning? Some friends. LOOK! Questions with who as the subject of the sentence are always made with ‘is’, even when the answer is a plural thing. e.g. Who is going to the vet’s? Emma and David. When ‘who’ refers to the object, the question can be made using ‘is’ or ‘are’. e.g. Who is she calling? e.g. Who are they visiting?

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY

TOWEL

SHARK

SAND

SEA

ICE CREAM

OCTOPUS

ROCKS

SWIMMING SUIT

LOOK! Sometimes, when we add ‘–ing’ the verb changes. When a monosyllable verb ends in: consonant + vowel + consonant, the verb doubles the final consonant. e.g. I love swimming. When the verb ends in ‘–e’, this final letter drops and –ing is added. e.g. I like cycling. When the verb ends in ‘y’, there is no change. We only have to add –ing to the infinitive form. e.g. I am carrying a surfboard. VOCABULARY LISTEN TO PLAY SLEEP CHEAT DRAW READ WRITE TALK EXPLAIN PAY ATTENTION STUDY DO AN EXERCISE ADORABLE CAREFULLY

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY Let’s + verb CAPTAIN FINE COOL! AT THE MOMENT COME ON

School news READING: TEAM SPIRIT? Jack: Hey, Ton! Look at this! Ton: A sponsored run! Let’s make a team! Jack: Good idea. Nigel, do you want to be in the team? Nigel: Yes, I do. But this time, there’s no captain in the team. Jack: Fine, it’s a deal! Nigel: We can run five miles! Jack: Of course. But first we need to get the sponsors. Jack: I can put a poster in my dad’s office. Ton: And I can put a poster at the sports centre. I’m sure I can get a lot of sponsors there! Nigel: Cool! Nigel: Let’s make the posters now. Jack, is there any paper in your bag? Jack: Yes, there is. And there are some pens in my pencil case. Ton: Hey, let’s ask the girls to be in our team. Jack: Er... That’s not a very good idea. Your sister is not very happy with me at the moment Ton: Oh... OK. Come on, let’s make the posters.

Language focus B. Talking about quantities PLURAL FORM OF NOUNS In English, the plural of most countable nouns is formed by adding ‘–s’. e.g. Two carrots. Nouns ending in ‘–s’, ‘-sh’, ‘-ch’, ‘-x’ and ‘-o’ add ‘–es’. e.g. Two buses. Nouns ending in consonant + ‘-y’ form the plural changing ‘–y’ to ‘ –i’ and adding ‘–es’. e.g. Two dictionaries. Nouns ending in ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’ change the ‘-f’ to ‘-v’ and add ‘-es’. e.g. Two lives.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

IRREGULAR PLURALS man

men

woman

women

child

children

foot

feet

mouse

mice

tooth

teeth

VOCABULARY

PEN

PENCIL

GLUE

PAPER

COLOURING PENCILS RULER

NOTEBOOK

STICKY TAPE

STICKERS

RUBBER

PENCIL CASE

PENCIL SHARPENER

NEAT

MESSY

THERE IS/THERE ARE We use there is/are to express amounts in singular and plural. But it is necessary in English to pay attention to the noun to see whether it is singular or uncountable or whether it is a plural noun. e.g. There is an orange / There are some oranges.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

A (AN)/SOME/ANY We use them together with there is/are to express amounts. A (AN) This article precedes countable nouns in singular. e.g. There is an apple. e.g. Is there an apple in the fridge? e.g. There isn’t an apple. COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted. They have a plural form. Uncountable nouns cannot be counted and have no plural form. SOME It is used in affirmative sentences before countable nouns in plural or before uncountable nouns. e.g. There are some biscuits. e.g. There is some bread. ‘Some’ is also used in interrogative sentences when we are offering something. e.g. Would you like some biscuits? ANY It is used in negative and interrogative sentences in front of countable nouns in plural or in front of uncountable nouns. e.g. There aren’t any drinks. e.g. Is there any cheese? COUNTABLE NOUNS (SINGULAR) e.g. There is a pencil. e.g. There isn’t a pencil. e.g. Is there a pencil? Short answer: Yes, there is/No, there isn’t. COUNTABLE NOUNS (PLURAL) e.g. There are some pencils. e.g. There aren’t any pencils. e.g. Are there any pencils? Short answer: Yes, there are/No, there aren’t. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS e.g. There is some paper. e.g. There isn’t any paper.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

e.g. Is there any paper? Short answer: Yes, there is/No, there isn’t.

Skills READING: SATURDAY JOBS Some secondary school students in Britain work at the weekend. It’s a great way to make extra money! Ton works in a supermarket on Saturday morning. At the moment, he’s working at the checkout. He’s scanning shopping. He likes talking to the customers, but he doesn’t like wearing a uniform. “Hi, I’m Cassie. I work in a fast food restaurant from 10.00 am to 4.00 pm. At the moment, I’m putting chips in a container. Oh, the fun! I don’t really like my job because I get extremely tired, but I love eating hamburgers and chips! There are a lot of French tourists in the town in July and August. I love speaking French to them, it’s a bit like being in France!” Jack washes cars on Saturday morning. At the moment, he’s washing his neighbour’s car. He likes his job because he loves cars. “Some of my customers have got classy cars”, he says. “This one’s amazing! It’s so, so cool!” VOCABULARY

SUPERMARKET

CHECKOUT

FAST FOOD RESTAURANT

REMEMBER: DICTIONARIES: They are useful. They tell us the meaning of words and word types. The words are organised alphabetically.

CONTAINER TO BE A BIT LIKE WASH AMAZING CLASSY PAW

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 4 | Printed edition

WRITING TIP REMEMBER: PUNCTUATION • Full stops appear at the end of sentences. CAPITAL LETTERS Capital letters are used for: • Names of people, places, shops… • Nationalities, countries and languages. • Days and months. • The first word of a sentence. • The pronoun ‘I’ (first person singular).

Language plus. Talking about future plans (I) PRESENT CONTINUOUS: FUTURE PLANS This tense is useful to talk about activities happening at the moment of speaking (now). e.g. I’m having a drink with my friends. We can also use this tense to talk about actions in the near future (arranged plans). e.g. I’m having a drink with my friends on Tuesday. LOOK! We can’t use the Present Simple to talk about future arrangements. e.g. I meet my friends at 7 o’clock. VOCABULARY STUDY FOR MY EXAMS TIDY MY ROOM GO SHOPPING HAVE LUNCH MEET MY FRIENDS TRAIN AT THE GYM CLASSMATE

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ENGLISH 2 | unit 5 | Printed edition

A TINY ACCIDENT


ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 5 | Printed edition

A Tiny Accident School news Reading: A Tiny Accident Mr McCullen: Do you like my new van, boys? Jack: It’s really nice, Mr McCullen. Just one thing... Mr McCullen: What is it Jack? Jack: Well, it is a big car, and we charge a little more for big cars. The price for bigger cars is five pounds. Mr McCullen: No problem. See you in half an hour! Jack: Come on, let’s get down to business. We’ve got three cars to wash this morning. Nigel: OK, here are the brushes. Jack: And I’ve got the hot water. Nigel: Use this brush. It’s better than the white brush. Jack: Thanks. Nigel: Oh, I can’t wash the top of the van. Jack: I can do it. I’m taller than you. Nigel: Cheers. Nigel: Be careful Jack! Jack: Oh no! Nigel: That’s a really bad scratch. Clean it with the brush. Jack: Oh, sugar. It’s worse now! Nigel: A scratch on your neighbour’s new van. You’re in trouble, Jack! Jack: Argh! We’ve got to do something before he collects the car! After a while... Mr McCullen: Well boys, the car is cleaner now. Uh, where’s Jack? Nigel: Oh... er, he is cleaning another car, we’re very busy. Mr McCullen: Ah, OK. Anyway, it’s a good job! Well done, boys. Nigel: Oh... er, thanks, Mr McCullen. A little later... Jack: I feel really bad about the scratch. Nigel: No wonder!

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 5 | Printed edition

READING VOCABULARY van

collect

nice

after a while

get down to business

anyway

top

no wonder

cheers

brush

to be in trouble

scratch

VOCABULARY: Adjectives small

sad

big

clean

tall

drity

short

wet

happy

dry

PRONUNCIATION: The importance of word stress Word stress is the relative emphasis we give to certain syllables in a word. Without word stress, words would sound flat and it would be very difficult to understand them. When there is a contrast in terms of emphasis, it is easier to decipher the pronunciation of a word and, in turn, its meaning. This way, words have weak and strong forms. Weak = When the vowel sounds in a syllable are shorter and less distinct. Strong = When the vowel in a syllable is longer and more noticeable.

beau-ti-ful beau: Strong syllable. (More stressed) ti-ful: Weak forms. (Less stressed) WEAK FORMS: SCHWA Schwa /ə/ is a short vowel sound that is similar to /ʌ/, somewhere between /a/ and /e/. It is always a weak sound. This sound may vary depending on the level of formality, the speed and the regional accent of the speaker. All the vowels can be used to be spell the schwa sound. •

adjust – oven – cousin – London - support

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Language focus A. Comparative adjectives Comparisons are used to contrast things. Comparative adjectives are used to show the difference between two things, people or animals: •

Russia is bigger than France.

Cars are more expensive than bikes.

The number of syllables of an adjective determines the comparative form to be used. Then, adjectives are divided in: short and long adjectives. SHORT and LONG adjectives Short adjectives They are all one-syllable adjectives and most two-syllable adjectives (there are some exceptions). One-syllable adj. (adds –er) One-syllable adj. ending in ‘-e’ (adds –r) Adj. ending in ‘–y’ (changes –y for –i and adds –er) One-syllable adj. ending in a single consonant (doubles the consonant and adds –er)

old – older nice - nicer happy – happier thin – thinner good – better

Irregular forms

bad – worse far – farther / further

Long adjectives They are most two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with more than two syllables. The comparative adjective is formed by adding ‘more’ before the adjective. •

difficult - more difficult

But, some adjectives can add ‘more’ or modify the adjective adding ‘-er’. •

clever (cleverer - more clever)

quiet (quieter - more quiet)

narrow (narrower - more narrow)

simple (simpler - more simple)

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Making comparisons ‘Than’ is used to complete the comparison. It precedes the person or object that forms the comparison. •

Flyona is taller than Nigel.

VOCABULARY good

old

thin

ugly

heavy

light

bad

young

expensive

polluted

old-fashioned

dangerous

exciting

attractive

modern

paceful

stressing

relaxing

School news Reading: Girls, get your hands dirty! Flyona: The boys are making a team for the sponsored run. Son: Let’s make a girls team. And let’s beat the boys! Cassie: It’s not a good idea. The worst thing we can do is to start a competition against the boys. Flyona: It’s true, we know better than that! Stella: Here, listen to this: “Join a volunteers programme and help your community. Use your life experience to help others and make a difference to someone’s life! Offer the best help to your community” Son: It sounds cool! Why don’t we do that? Cassie: Yes, let’s do that. Let’s volunteer! Stella: What’s the most appropriate service we can do? There are lots of volunteering opportunities! Dr Miyagi: What are you up to, girls? Are you talking about volunteering? Stella: Oh, hi Dr Miyagi. Yes, we want to take part in a volunteer program. Dr Miyagi: Brilliant! I know what you can do! Flyona: What is it? Dr Miyagi: Our community here needs volunteering for environmental purposes. Stella, Cassie, Son, Flyona: Environmental purposes?

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Dr Miyagi: Exactly. The area around the school premises is the dirtiest in the city... Stella: Do you mean “cleaning” the area? Dr Miyagi: Yes. There’s a community clean-up program that seeks volunteers desperately. The waste is piling up everywhere around the green areas of the community. Cassie: It’s not the most exciting thing we can do! Stella: I completely agree with you! Dr Miyagi: Ehem.... See what I mean? Anyway, the park outside the school is filthy, and it is a pity that no one is cleaning it! It’s the most beautiful park in this borough, but things are changing for the worse. So, please, think about it. True, it’s not the most attractive idea, but it’s the most intelligent service you can offer to both the community and the school. Flyona: Well, we have to think about it. It’s a good idea, but some people have an issue with cleaning dirt... Stella: Speak for yourself! READING VOCABULARY let’s beat the boys

volunteer

environmental

purpose

seek

desperately

pile up

I agree with you

filthy

borough

both

have an issue with something

speak for yourself

Language plus B. Comparisons Superlative Adjectives We use superlative adjectives to compare three or more things. These adjectives show which thing has got a quality above or below the level of the others. •

Dublin is the biggest city in Ireland.

Short adjectives Short

+ est

The shortest

Big

+ g + est

The biggest

Happy

(eliminate ‘y’) + i + est

The happiest

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 5 | Printed edition

LOOK! The article the is used with superlative adjectives. This is so because superlative adjectives describe things that have got unique characteristics as compared to the rest. Long adjectives • the most expensive IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES • good - the best •

bad - the worst

far - the fathest/the furthest

Comparatives and Superlatives comparative

superlative

-er

-est

old - older

old - oldest

-r

-st

nice - nicer

nice - nicest

Change y for i

Change y for i

and add -er

and add -est

pretty - prettier

pretty - prettiest

Double the final consonant and add -er

Double the final consonant and add ‘-est’.

thin - thinner

thin - thinnest

good - better

good - the best

bad - worse

bad - the worst

far - farther / further

far - the farthest / the furthest

adjectives and

More + adjective

The most + adjective

adjectives with

difficult - more difficult

difficult - the most difficult

1 syllable adjectives 1 syllable adjectives ending in-e Adjectives ending in –y 1 syllable adjective ending in a single consonant Irregular adjectives Most 2 syllable

3 syllables or more clever - cleverer / more clever Adjectives

narrow - narrower /

that accept

more narrow

the two forms

quiet - quieter / more quiet simple – simpler - more simple

clever - cleverest / the most clever narrow - narrowest / the most narrow quiet - quietest / the most quiet simple - simplest / the most simple

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 2 | Printed edition

VOCABULARY beautiful strange interesting

Skills Reading: A World of film People think Hollywood is the centre of international cinema. But the United States isn’t the only country with an important film industry! 1 Britain The British film industry is smaller than the American film industry, but it makes a lot of important films. Pierce Brosnan, Kate Winslet, Catherine Zeta Jones and Hugh Grant are famous British film stars. 2 Spain One of the biggest names in the Spanish film industry is Pedro Almodóvar. Many people think he’s one of the best film directors in the world. His films include All about my mother and Talk to her. A new Almodóvar film is a very important event in the world of cinema. 3 Australia Some of the biggest names in the film industry, for example Nicole Kidman, are Australian. Nicole is the star of Moulin Rouge and The Others, and she’s got an Oscar for Best Actress. Other famous Australian film stars are Russell Crowe and Mel Gibson. 4 India The film industry in India is huge and it makes more films each year than Hollywood. Most Indian films are spectacular musicals with a lot of songs and dances. They usually have a romantic storyline. READING VOCABULARY storyline industry film each year a lot of brilliant person

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Writing and / but We use ‘and’ to join sentences with similar ideas. •

She’s interesting and she’s friendly.

We use ‘but’ to join sentences with contrasting ideas. •

She’s interesting but she isn’t friendly. LOOK!

It’s very common to omit the subject in the sentence after using ‘and’, as the subject has been specified in the first part of the sentence. It only can be omited when the subject is the same in the first and the second part of the sentence. • She is interesting and friendly.

Language plus. Talking about quantities Much, many, a lot of We use much, many and a lot of to talk about indefinite quantities. many

Countable nouns

I’ve got many friends.

Uncountable nouns

much

There isn’t much milk.

(in negative forms) Uncountable nouns

a lot of

They practise a lot of sports.

(affirmative forms) Plural countable nouns (affirmative forms)

We have a lot of homework to do.

VOCABULARY

water

bacon

coffee

butter

biscuits

onions

oranges

sausages

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ENGLISH 2 | UNIT 2 | Printed edition

apples

bread

hamburgers

bananas

milk

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

A busy day at Whitecoal Park


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

A BUSY DAY AT WHITECOAL PARK School news Reading: A busy day at Whitecoal Park Dr Miyagi: Hey, girls! You’re doing a brilliant job! Flyona: Thank you, but this is more difficult than we imagined! Dr Miyagi: How do you mean? Son: We knew that rubbish had to be categorised, but it’s a bit of a mess! Food remains in this bag, recyclable stuff in different bags... Cassie: And that’s why it’s taking ages to finish this side of the park! Dr Miyagi: You need to be patient. Think about the big favour you’re doing to the community! And by the way, where’s Stella? Son: Good question. We phoned her but she wasn’t at home. Dr Miyagi: She was at school yesterday. Was she at the café with you after class? Flyona: Yes, she was. Mm, I think she wasn’t interested in this and she decided not to come. Cassie: Oh, I remember now! She was at the skateboard park with Ton. Son, why don’t you phone your brother? Son: Alright. Can you lend me your phone? I left mine at school. Cassie: Sure, no problem. Son: Ton, what happened to Stella? You were with her last night, weren’t you? Ton: Hi, Cassie! Son: No, it’s Son here, I don’t have my mobile phone here at the park. Ton: Ah, OK. What’s the matter? Son: What happened to Stella? You were with her last night, weren’t you? Ton: Yes, I was. She had a little accident with my skateboard and hurt her hand. We were at the hospital this morning. The doctor said she has to rest today. Son: Poor Stella, it all makes sense now! Thank you, Ton, see you later.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

READING VOCABULARY PATIENT

PROUD

RUBBISH

FOOD REMAINS

RECYCLABLE STUFF

BUSY DAY

LEND SOMEBODY SOMETHING

HURT

REST

BIG FAVOUR

MAKE SENSE

BE INTERESTED IN

ANGRY

BRILLIANT JOB

DISAPPOINTED USEFUL EXPRESSIONS BY THE WAY

IT ALL MAKES SENSE NOW!

WHAT’S THE MATTER?

A BIT OF A MESS

HOW DO YOU MEAN?

TAKE AGES

GOOD QUESTION

SURE, NO PROBLEM

Pronunciation The Past Simple tense of regular verbs can be pronounced in three different ways. • /t/: 1) Verbs ending in ‘–ed’ preceded by a voiceless consonant: /p,k,f,ʃ,ʧ,s,θ/. e.g. liked /t/. The ‘–e’ is silent. e.g. I stop - I stopped /stɒpt/ • /d/: 2) Verbs ending in ‘-ed’ preceded by a voiced consonant: /b, g,v,ʒ,ʤ,z,ð,l,m,n/ or a vowel. e.g. phoned /d/. The’ –e’ is silent. e.g. I clean - I cleaned /kli:nd/ • /Ⅰd/: 3) Verbs ending in ‘-ed’ preceded by /t/ or /d/. e.g. shouted /ɪd/. The‘–e’ changes to /ɪ/. e.g. I visit - I visited /vɪzɪtɪd/

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Language focus A. Talking about past events (I) PAST SIMPLE We use the Past Simple tense to talk about situations and actions that took place in the past and are finished now. e.g. Stella was at the skateboard park with Ton yesterday. AFFIRMATIVE I

was

sad

You

were

sad

He/She/It

was

sad

We/You/They

were

sad

I

wasn’t

sad

You

weren’t

sad

He/She/It

wasn’t

sad

We/You/They

weren’t

sad

Was

I

sad?

Were

you

sad?

Was

he/she/it

sad?

Were

we/you/they

sad?

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

Verbs can be regular or irregular. REGULAR VERBS Regular verbs make the Past Simple adding ‘-ed’. e.g. walk - walked When the verb ends in ‘-e’, ‘-d’ is added. e.g. phone - phoned When the verb ends in vowel + ‘y’, ‘-ed’ is added. e.g. play - played When the verb ends in consonant + ‘y’, ‘-y’ is changed to ‘-i’ and ‘-ed’ is added. e.g. study-studied One-syllable verbs that end in cons + vowel + cons, double the final consonant and add ‘-ed’. e.g. stop - stopped.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

IRREGULAR VERBS Irregular verbs don’t follow any rules. You have to learn them by heart! run - ran go - went give - gave ...

Vocabulary

HILL

BRIDGE

LAKE

TOWN

MOUNTAIN

RIVER

ROAD

WOOD

School news READING: MAKING FRIENDS... Jack: Oh no! There’s Mr McCullen. I don’t want to see him! Son: What’s the problem? Jack: I made a scratch on his van on Saturday. Son: Was he angry? Jack: Er... no, he wasn’t. Son: Oh, that was nice of him. Jack: Er... he didn’t see it. And I didn’t tell him. Son: That’s terrible Jack, that’s dishonest... Jack: I know, but... Son: I’m sorry, Jack. I don’t like dishonest people.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

Alasdair: So you made a scratch on Mr McCullen’s van... Jack: How do you know? Alasdair: I heard you. Now, Mr McCullen is a good friend of mine... Jack: Oh please, don’t tell him! Alasdair: Poor Jack. I thought you were the fantastic darts player, the great radio star... but I was wrong. You need to clean up your act, Jack. And better sooner than later, because... READING VOCABULARY SCRATCH DISHONEST VAN BE A GOOD FRIEND OF MINE SOON LATE

Language focus B. Talking about past events (II) Vocabulary

POPCORN

SIT AT THE FRONT / BACK

SWEETS

CRY

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

COKE

LAUGH

WATER

GO ON MY OWN

Past Simple We use the auxiliary ‘did’ + not (didn’t) in the negative form of the Past Simple. Don’t forget that when we use auxiliaries the verb that follows has to be in the infinitive form (infinitive without ‘to’). Remember that the auxiliary ‘didn’t’ is used in the negative form with other verbs that are not ‘to be’. e.g. Jack didn’t tell Mr McCullen about the scratch. NEGATIVE I

didn’t

watch television

You

didn’t

watch television

He/She/It

didn’t

watch television

We/You/They

didn’t

watch television

Did

I

watch television?

Did

you

watch television?

Did

he/she/it

watch television?

Did

we/you/they

watch television?

INTERROGATIVE

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 6 | Printed edition

SHORT ANSWERS AFFIRMATIVE Yes,

I

did

Yes,

you

did

Yes,

he/she/it

did

Yes,

we/you/they

did

No,

I

didn’t

No,

you

didn’t

No,

he/she/it

didn’t

No,

we/you/they

didn’t

NEGATIVE

WH-QUESTIONS What

did

I

do?

Where

did

you

go?

What

did

he/she/it

do?

When

did

we/you/they

go?

Skills READING: THE OLYMPIC GAMES Athens The first Olympic Games of the modern era were celebrated in this city in 1896. Women didn’t participate in the events. There were only 280 competitors from 14 countries. It was the start of the modern Olympic Games. Barcelona The Olympic Games were held here in 1992. People remember these games because the opening and closing ceremonies were spectacular. Vitaly Scherbo, a gymnast, won four gold medals in one day. That’s an Olympic record! Sydney The 2000 Olympic Games were held in this city. The organisation was excellent and the sporting standards were very high. It was the perfect way to celebrate the new millennium and the Olympic tradition. The star of the games was Ian Thorpe, the Australian swimmer. He won five medals and he was only 17 at the time!

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READING VOCABULARY CELEBRATE EVENT COMPETITOR COUNTRY CEREMONY SPECTACULAR ORGANISATION EXCELLENT STANDARD Listening LOOK! Spelling and pronunciation patterns are usually different in English. Words are not pronounced the way they are written. This arbitrariness is a difficult thing for learners of English.

Language plus. Describing a scene in the past (I) Vocabulary

TICKET OFFICE

STAGE

FANS

BAND

NOISE

RUBBISH

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COUNTABLE NOUNS SINGULAR There

was

a stage

There

wasn’t

a stage

Was

there

a stage?

Short answers: Yes, there was. / No, there wasn’t. COUNTABLE NOUNS PLURAL There

were

some fans

There

weren’t

any fans

Were

there

any fans?

Short answers: Yes, there were. / No, there weren’t. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS There

was

some noise

There

wasn’t

any noise

Was

there

any noise?

Short answers: Yes, there was / were. No, there wasn’t / weren’t.

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 8 | Printed edition

Tougher than the rest?


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 8 | Printed edition

TOUGHER THAN THE REST? School news Reading: Tougher than the rest? Ton: Hello Jack! Listen, I was at Son’s party yesterday. Jack: Uh, uh, really? How was it? Ton: Fine. The partygoers were all talking about you. Why did you not go? Jack: Oh, err, I wasn’t feeling very well. I had a sore belly, you see. Ton: We were going to call you, but we didn’t in the end because... Jack: Because... what? Ton: Well, people at the party were saying that you were probably very annoyed. Jack: Me? Annoyed? Ha, ha. Listen, nothing offends Jack. I’m tougher than the rest... Flyona: Jack, what’s come over you? You weren’t at the birthday party! Jack: Oh well, I had other plans, to tell you the truth. Flyona: But you told me you were going to go! Jack: Yes, I did. But yesterday I was checking my agenda and I realised I had an appointment I could not miss. Flyona: Did you apologise to Son, at least? Jack: Apologise? What for? Flyona: Uh uh, you sound annoyed, Jack. Is it because she didn’t, by accident, invite you? Jack: Annoyed, me? Listen, I have bigger fish to fry... Dr Miyagi: Jack? Are you OK? You’re crying! Jack: Mm, yes, I... I was reading a very sad book, and you see, it was moving... Dr Miyagi: A... sad book. Sure, Jack. You never read books, to start with. Come on, what is it? Jack: Nothing, I told you, I was... Dr Miyagi: Oh! Now I know. I was teaching today when I heard some students say something about a party. Apparently, you didn’t show up, Jack. Is it because they forgot to invite you? Jack: Uh, uh, uh, uh! I know they weren’t trying to annoy me but that really annoyed me, uh, uh, uh! Dr Miyagi: It’s OK Jack... but I think you’re hurt because... you couldn’t be in the spotlight. Jack: I know, uh uh uh, I’m an attention-getter, uh, uh! Dr Miyagi: ...and it’s OK to be emotional, Jack. Let me tell you something, Jack. You can’t always be tougher than the rest.

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READING VOCABULARY APPARENTLY SHOW UP MOVING AT LEAST APOLOGISE OFFEND PARTYGOERS ATTENTION-GETTER

Vocabulary: Idioms and lexical phrases SHAKE HANDS WITH

WHAT FOR?

SAY HELLO TO

TO TELL YOU THE TRUTH

APOLOGISE TO

TO HAVE A BIGGER FISH TO FRY

ARGUE WITH

BY ACCIDENT

WHAT’S COME OVER YOU?

TO BE IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Pronunciation: Connected speech When we speak, words flow in such a way that everything sounds connected: five distinct consecutive words sound like a single word. When we speak, we adapt our pronunciation to our audience, and maximum clarity is not always necessary. When we try to get our message across, certain phonemes and words get lost. The overall message is not affected by it this is a case of effective communication!

Language focus A. Describing a scene in the past We use the Past Continuous to say that an action was in progress at a particular time in the past. e.g. Harold was reading a book in the interval. However, it can also be used to say that an action was in progress at every moment during a period of time. e.g. Flyona and Nigel were playing computer games all day yesterday. AFFIRMATIVE I

was

reading

You

were

reading

He/She/It

was

reading

We/You/They

were

reading

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NEGATIVE I

wasn’t

reading

You

weren’t

reading

He/She/It

wasn’t

reading

We/You/They

weren’t

reading

QUESTIONS Wasn’t

I

reading

Weren’t

you

reading

Wasn’t

he/she/it

reading

Weren’t

we/you/they

reading

SHORT ANSWERS Yes,

I

was

Yes,

you

were

Yes,

he/she/it

was

Yes,

we/you/they

were

No,

I

was

No,

you

were

No,

he/she/it

was

No,

we/you/they

were

WH- QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS What were you doing? I was having a shower. Where were you travelling? To Manchester. Who were they talking to? To Stella’s grandparents.

School news Reading: Deconstructing Jack? Flyona: Stella and I were talking to Dr Miyagi this morning. He was very worried about Jack. Nigel: Really?

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ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 8 | Printed edition

Stella: Yes. First he didn’t understand why, but then he could see it clearly. Ton: And what was the matter? Flyona: Well, apparently Jack is hurt. He wasn’t showing his feelings to anyone because he’s too proud. Nigel: But, why is he hurt? Is it because he couldn’t go to the party? Flyona: That’s what I thought, too. But it wasn’t true. He could go to the party. He wasn’t really meeting anyone. Ton: So he was lying! Stella: Yes, but you know that Jack is not a bad person. He couldn’t kill a fly. Flyona: He couldn’t go to the party because Son made a silly mistake. Nigel: Do you mean that she forgot to invite him to the party? Flyona: Yes. Jack needs to be in the spotlight. He wasn’t invited to the party, and that offended him. But he lied because nothing could ever affect Jack. Ton: Until yesterday. Stella: Yes. He couldn’t accept the fact that he wasn’t going to be the star at the party. Not getting that hurt him, so he was pretending to be OK all the time. Poor Jack!! Flyona, Ton: Look, there he is! READING VOCABULARY WORRIED ABOUT CLEARLY APPARENTLY PROUD HE COULDN’T KILL A FLY A SILLY MISTAKE IN THE SPOTLIGHT PRETEND

Language focus B. Could and couldn’t Could is the past of can. We use could or couldn’t to express what we were or weren’t capable of doing in the past: e.g. I couldn’t swim last summer but I can now. I could ride a bike when I was 7. Since it is a modal verb, the form ‘could’ is the same for all persons. It doesn’t use an auxiliary in either negative an interrogative forms, and ‘to’ is never added to the verb that follows: e.g. I could to ride a bike when I was 6.

Tougher than the rest? | 5


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 8 | Printed edition

AFFIRMATIVE I/You He/She/It We/You/They

could

speak Catalan

couldn’t

speak Catalan

NEGATIVE I/You He/She/It We/You/They QUESTIONS I/you he/she/it we/you/they

speak Catalan

Yes,

I/you he/she/it we/you/they

could

No,

I/you he/she/it we/you/they

couldn’t

Could

SHORT ANSWERS

Vocabulary: Abilities DRIVE A CAR FIX A COMPUTER USE A COMPUTER RIDE A BIKE SPEAK JAPANESE PLAY THE GUITAR COOK SWIM SKI

Skills Reading: Notting Hill Carnival / London’s Caribbean street party! The Notting Hill Carnival lasts for two days in August. The main event is the parade of dance troupes, steel bands and musicians. There are hundreds of food stalls with traditional Caribbean food, for example, mangoes, coconuts and spicy chicken. More than two million people visit the carnival each year.

Tougher than the rest? | 6


ENGLISH 2 | CHAPTER 8 | Printed edition

John and Lara were listening to a steel band. The band was playing on the corner of Kensal Road and Ladbroke Grove. Alison was watching the parade. She was taking a photo of the Jamaican Kings dance troupe. People were dancing and laughing. The parade was going along Great Western Road. Paula and Stella were standing at a food stall. They were eating Caribbean food. Paula thought the food was very spicy. The food stall was on the corner of Westbourne Grove and Portobello Road. READING VOCABULARY

STEEL BAND

DANCE TROUPE

FOOD STALL

PARADE

MANGOES

COCONUTS

Language plus a. talking about the past Past Continuous The Past Continuous is used to describe a prolonged action that takes place in the past. By contrast, the Past Simple is used to describe short actions that interrupt the main action. However, both actions can be joined using the particle ‘when’. Past Continuous + when + Past Simple e.g. Jack was sleeping when I opened the door. What was Jack doing when I opened the door? Past Simple + when + Past Continuous e.g. The phone rang when Nigel was watching TV. Did she leave when you were cooking?

Tougher than the rest? | 7


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