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Bullying Tips and Activities on how we can deal with this problem at school

A teacher’s guide VASILIKI PAPADOPOULOU, Med Athens 2013

A teacher’s guide VASILIKI PAPADOPOULOU, MEd Athens 2013


ISBN 978-960-93-5661-9 © Vasiliki Papadopoulou 2013 Βασιλική Παπαδοπούλου 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form, without written permission from the author. Απαγορεύεται η αναπαραγωγή, αντιγραφή, αποστολή, αναδημοσίευση του παρόντος έργου με οποιονδήποτε τρόπο χωρίς προηγούμενη γραπτή άδεια της εκδότριας. First published 2013 by Vasiliki Papadopoulou, Athens, Greece Πρώτη Έκδοση 2013 από Βασιλική Παπαδοπούλου, Αθήνα, Ελλάδα

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CONTENTS : Summary

page 3

Chapter 1 “Bullying? An old or new concept?” a) Basic terms and definitions

page 4

b) Causes of bullying - who becomes a bully?

page 6

c) Intervention – What is to be done?

page 8

Chapter 2 “Activities and practical guidelines” a) b)

Simple practical tips Activities and projects on bullying 1. The Box of Emotions 2. 6th March 2012 – PanHellenic Day against School Violence 3. Activity 3- April 2013

page 10 page 13

page 14 page 15

Conclusion

page 16

Appendices

page 17

Resources

page 24

Bibliography

page 26

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Summary:

The aim of this booklet is to present some basic information about the concept of bullying, as well as guidelines on how educators can deal with bullying and forms of violence in school settings. Since I have been an educator in Greek Secondary schools for about a decade, I have also included here some practical examples of small-scale or school- based activities I have organized and participated in. I do hope readers of this booklet will find these descriptions and tips helpful.

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CHAPTER 1 “Bullying? An old or new concept? A) Basic terms and definitions Whenever we hear the terms “school violence” or “bullying”, what do we usually think of? Do we probably associate these terms with images that include teenagers hitting or verbally offending each other? Well, what about leaving a student out, deliberately and emotionally hurting him/her, threatening, labelling or spreading rumours against this person because s/he is regarded as ‘different’ or ‘weak’? Have we taken into consideration all of these forms, including the most recent form of cyber-bullying? In general, should educators nowadays be concerned about this phenomenon and what could be defined as ‘bullying’? Is it an old concept or a new one?

Bullying could be defined as “the repeated attack - physical, psychological, social or verbal – by those in position of power on those who are powerless to resist, with the intention of causing distress for their own gain or gratification”. (Besag, 1989: 4). Likewise, Dan Olweus, who was actually the first one to research the subject of bullying in schools and also conduct large scale-intervention programs back in the 19701980’s, characteristically says: (1993:1) “it is important to include in the concept of ‘mobbing’ or bullying both the situation in which a single individual harasses another and that in which a group is responsible for the harassment”.

Therefore, having read these definitions, we need to take into account some important notions. To put it more simply, bullying is not mere teasing! It is a repeated and intentional act by those who have the power to behave so over the ones who are not in power to resist. Equally, the number of people associated with this behaviour should be considered in any incident of school violence. 4


Olweus also presents (1993:7) some vivid -though modified- stories from the press: “In

Avon, Sarah, aged 10, was regularly taunted by two unruly girls because she wouldn’t join them in disrupting lessons. They called her names, threatened her […].’I used to love school’, says a bewildered Sarah, ‘but now I hate it”. But Olweus goes on to even describe more tragic incidents: “Schoolboy Philip C. was driven to his death by playground bullying. He hanged himself after being constantly threatened and humiliated by three of his classmates (ibid., p.8). Possibly, some Greek parents or educators might claim that such bullying incidents are extreme and do not happen among Greek children/adolescents. Unfortunately, this is untrue! There are several incidents (inside and in the vicinity of) schools where young children or teens are constantly victimized by powerful peers or seniors. According to recent research conducted in Greek schools, about 10% of students is bullied, whereas the percentage of bullies is estimated to be about 5%. (www. esos.gr). The proportion of boys to girls involved in bullying is 3 to 1 (boys are most frequently involved in violent attacks, whereas girls take part in incidents of verbal violence). Equally, male aggression is said to be dominant as far as sex differences in aggressive behavior are concerned (Elliott et al., 1996: 450).

As a result, when we look into school bullying incidents, we need to take into account the following roles children or teenagers take on: i.) the ‘bully-bullies’, ii.) the ‘victim’, iii.) the ‘bystanders’ and iv.) (hopefully) the ‘up-standers’, i.e. the ones who can be taught how to intervene and support the victims. What is more, we need to remember that violence can be: a) direct / bodily (hitting, spitting, kicking, hiding personal items e.t.c.) , b) direct / verbal (swearing, using sexual innuendos, offending), c) indirect/ social (threatening , spreading rumours, drawing offensive graffiti, betraying secrets), d) indirect / electronic or cyberbullying (using social media on the internet and / or mobile phones = i.e. spreading rumours, threatening, offending, ridiculing the victim using his/her personal data or photos). (Karavoltsou, 2013). 5


All in all, as Olweus (1993:1) emphasizes “bullying among schoolchildren is no doubt a very old phenomenon. The fact that some children are frequently and systematically harassed and attacked by other children has been described in literary works, and many adults have personal experience of it from their own days”. To put it more simply, almost all of us can remember respective nasty incidents back in our school years. However, nowadays, school violence has diverse and more dangerous forms that need to be researched and treated carefully as the underlying causes are more deeply rooted than in the past.

B) Causes of bullying - who becomes a bully? To begin with, bullying is undeniably a complex issue but why does it happen? Who becomes a bully and what are the characteristics of the target / victim? In general, what are the causes of bullying in schools?

First and foremost, we must emphasize that ‘teasing’ and ‘bullying’ are not the same notions! Teasing is not intended to harm another person and it is acceptable by everyone involved. Equally, it is not repeated behaviour over one particular person. Also, ‘teasing’ “does not mean to make fun of someone’s disabilities, ethnicity, faith or other characteristics that are out of the person’s characteristics” (for more on the differences between teasing and bullying, visit the website of Baltimore schools http://www.baltimorecityschools.org/).

According to researchers, socio-cultural, family and individual factors play a crucial role to the development of bullying behaviour. To illustrate, “most bullies seem to be students who have been treated violently themselves, attend schools that treat violence ineffectively, or are members of peer groups that encourage aggression”. (Elliott et al., 1996: 450).

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According to Olweus, 1982 (in Elliott et al., ibid.), the underlying causes in the development of a bully are: i.) parental indifference, ii.) parental permissiveness with an aggressive child, iii.) physical punishment on the part of the parents, and iv.) a temperamentally aggressive child. In other words, children growing up in dysfunctional families could exhibit such behaviours.

Similarly, social and economic discrepancies, high rate of unemployment and / or crime in the community can also lead to an increase in bullying behaviour and cases among schoolchildren (Karavoltsou, 2013), whereas extreme violence in the media could also be associated with it. In other words, family and socio-cultural factors play the most vital role. However, not all young people who come from underprivileged poor backgrounds resort to aggressive and bullying behaviours. Each young person that resorts to such violent behaviours is a unique case and clearly a combination of diverse factors.

Last but not least, school environments can also lead to the development and encouragement of such behaviours. In other words, a highly competitive school environment or an indifferent one could strengthen such aggressive behaviours. In a like manner, schools with no clear rules and behaviour code or schools that do not encourage student creativity could contribute to the development of hostility and intolerance among young people (Karavoltsou, 2013).

In conclusion, teachers cannot influence socio-cultural or family factors but they can and should create more positive climate in classes and the school. A school that drives away students cannot be the key to diminish aggression; a school, on the other hand, that promotes creativity and builds on positive rapport does make a difference!

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C) Intervention – What is to be done?

How can modern societies face this problem among children and teenagers? Can there be successful measures and intervention programmes? What about rules and legislation? To put it more simply, should governments decide on anti-bullying laws or does this sound too strict for teenagers?

According to wikipedia, “in the 2000s a movement against bullying gained popularity in the English-speaking world. The first National Bullying Prevention Week was conceived of in Canada in 2000 whereas the “Act against Bullying” was formed in the UK in 2003. In 2006, National Bullying Prevention Month was declared in the United States”. What is more, since 2012, there are anti-bullying laws in 48 U.S. states, although the strength and focus varies widely in each state. Likewise, sixteen states acknowledge that bullies often select their targets based on "creed or religion, disability, gender or sex, nationality or national origin, race, and sexual orientation." (www.wikipedia.org). It is therefore evident that ever since the 1970-1980’s -when Olweus first researched and talked openly about the phenomena of bullying and “mobbing” among young peoplewe have actually come a long way. But to understand a problem is the first step; the second step that needs to be taken is to cope with the problem and hopefully solve it. So what about intervention?

Actually, great emphasis has been given on this phenomenon in western societies. Intervention programmes are implemented in schools worldwide, the media deal with it extensively and there are even documentaries and films on this topic. What is more, school projects on the initiative of governments, NGOs, school boards or teachers alone are carried out, organizations help children, teens and their families or teachers to understand and battle the problem (see: www.rbkc.gov.uk for an anti-bullying

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programme in London schools and www.violencepreventionworks.org for the description of Olweus Bullying Prevention programme ).

What about Greek schools? Evidently, Greek society has been going through a difficult phase due to the financial crisis which is mirrored in schools on a daily basis. Fortunately, though, there has been an increase in the interest on the part of school boards, teachers, organizations and even the media in tackling the problem through intervention programmes, training seminars, TV awareness spots e.t.c. What is more, the Ministry of Education has initiated an interesting research among teenagers in Greek schools. Questionnaires and relevant data that can be used by schools are accessible on http://paratiritirio.minedu.gov.gr/.

Equally, an association that implements both prevention and intervention programmes is the “Advocate/Ombudsman for Children” (Συνήγορος του Παιδιού). In my opinion, an extremely precious intervention programme on their side is the so-called “community of adolescent counsellors or mediators”, an initiative functioning within the European Network of Ombudspersons for Children (ENOC).

Unquestionably, more needs to be done since teen aggression and violence is and will be on the rise as long as social circumstances are hostile for the healthier development of young people! Equally, the role of every teacher is crucial, no matter whether s/he works at Elementary, Secondary or Vocational Education. I personally think that as far as anti-bullying strategies in schools are concerned everything counts: from the simplest action (i.e. positive class climate, a discussion or a small-scale project) up to school-based projects (adolescent mediator groups or extensive prevention intervention programmes).

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Bearing all these in mind, I would like to share with the readers of this booklet some practical steps based on my own professional experience. The section that follows is based on three activities I have carried out in class since March 2012, as well as some general guidelines.

CHAPTER 2 Activities and practical guidelines

A) Simple practical tips The following general guidelines that can be followed by teachers in class but also in the schoolyard are a combination of personal research in books / on the Internet and on-hand experience. Several other ideas and practical tips can be added by readers of this booklet whose experience is also invaluable. I would also like to underline the fact that all the tips given here are aimed at adolescent students as my own experience is based on this age range.

In my opinion, positive rapport between you (the teacher) and your students is the key aspect to strengthen trust and acceptance. In other words, even if bullying behaviour does not take place in front of you but in the schoolyard or the streets around the school or even in chat rooms and the Social media, you will probably be the first one to learn about it if students trust you and believe in your power to do something about it.

Secondly, clear rules and the existence of a class contract are absolutely important aspects. When teenagers know what behaviour is accepted, they can gradually familiarize themselves with the fact that respect towards their classmates- not just their teachers- is a vital component of everyday life at school.

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In addition, every teacher, no matter the subject s/he teaches can spend at least an hour during the school year on having a discussion with students about bullying. Likewise, newspaper articles, songs, poems and resources from the Internet especially designed for teenagers can help the educator when the topic of bullying is to be discussed in class.

Ideally, the whole school climate should be positive and both the head teacher and most of your colleagues should share your interest in decreasing and eliminating bullying and aggressive behaviour in school. Unfortunately, not all schools are like that. However, even a few supportive teachers and small-scale intervention projects can help the ‘target child /victim’ open up and ask for help. Isn’t that worth the whole process?

What is more, downloadable posters (i.e. from www.saferinternet.gr) with simple messages can be put on the walls of classrooms or in the corridors. Teenagers can easily remember simple tips that they read every day. To illustrate, these tips should be dealing with some basic advice on what students can do when bullying occurs to them or to somebody else. Equally, students’ work on this topic (i.e. drawings, posters) can be on display so that teenagers feel bullying cannot be tolerated and that everyone should do something about it!

Our behaviour can also mean a lot! If our behaviour is clear and we show the class that we will not accept bias or hate speech against anybody, then we will probably function as role models. For instance, I really like the following sentence “I am a person who will speak up against bigotry. I will not let hate have the last word”. I read these thoughtprovoking words in one of the issues of www.tolerance.org/don’t-ignore-hate which I would recommend teachers to visit. Judging from my own experience, when the teacher shows such behaviour, interesting things can happen: a) ‘target children’ can 11


feel a little more secure and might hopefully trust their teacher and open up, b) ‘bullies’ will understand that their behaviour is not accepted and will not be tolerated, c) ‘bystanders’ or else the ones who happen to see bullying events, know a lot but do not support the victim will realize their own responsibility to speak up against violence. In general, bystanders play an important role in most bullying incidents. Unfortunately, most of them stay passive because they are indifferent, or might enjoy watching ‘a little action’, or even feel afraid of doing anything to intervene. If, however, they are taught simple steps on how to stand up for peers who are being bullied, then miracles can happen.

In addition, proper class management is of utmost importance and functions not only during the lesson but also as a signal to students about what behaviour is to be tolerated. At this point I would like to share with readers the following piece of advice for teachers, which I find extremely helpful: “Avoid the tribal dance, which usually involves a dare. Trouble starts; the teacher acts; the student reacts to protect status. The tribal dance has begun […].The lesson here is that you should know the danger signals and not put yourself in an impossible situation”. (Elliott et al.,1996: 451). Not directly linked to what teachers can do in order to prevent bullying behaviour or intervene when it does happen, the above quotation emphasizes that aggression is not to be tolerated but should not be dealt with ‘empty threats’ on the part of the teacher either.

In conclusion, we can do several things in our classes with our students, basically in terms of model behaviour, teacher-student relationship and class / school climate. Although bullying is a highly complex issue, which is aggravated in huge city school settings, we should take the moral responsibility to help and support students who are bullied but also intervene to help ‘bullies’ so that they will stop this dangerous behaviour. Nothing is easy but I think that the cause is worth fighting for! 12


b) Activities and projects on bullying

1. The Box of Emotions This is one of my favourite and easy to follow techniques before you start any kind of activity / project. Sadly, I do not recollect where I had heard or read that this is a technique used in English schools. To illustrate, a Box is placed somewhere in the classroom and students are encouraged to put slips of paper where anonymously they express their emotions and/or things that happened at school during the week.

I have actually used this technique about 10 times so far and I would recommend readers of this booklet to try it at least once or twice a year! What students have written is collected and then each slip of paper is read aloud in class by the teacher so that discussion could continue, i.e. The teacher reads the paper: “I feel sad because other kids make fun of me every day. What can I do?”. The teacher asks the class: “Why do you think this person feels sad? What could be done to change this situation?”. It can be claimed that even throughout this process empathy and understanding is built among teenagers.

A nice, though time-consuming method is for the teacher to take the slips from the box and on the following day to bring back not the actual ones but papers printed out from the computer with the same sentences the students used to express themselves. This way, the students feel secure as their handwriting cannot betray their identity (see photos in the Appendix).

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2. 6th March 2012 – PanHellenic Day against School Violence

To begin with, I would like to underline that although I am an EFL teacher, the activity described here was done in the Greek language because this particular project had a school-based character. Half of those students were not that fluent in English so as to be able to participate in the project using the language. As a result, I decided it was better to use the Greek language so that everybody would take part and enjoy the whole process.

This activity was meant to be in English and also conducted on a small-basis (in two classes of students aged 14-15 years old (3rd Class of 54th Junior High School where I was working then). However, with the support of my Principal and some of my colleagues it was finally carried out in every class and not solely on Tuesday 6/3/2012 but during the whole week.

The activity was simple and it included four main steps: 1) The students watched a video (Anti-bullying ad from Canada) from YouTube. 2) we started a discussion based on the video, 3) The students were split into pairs and were asked to complete a worksheet including teenagers’ views on bullying and also some scenarios [See: Appendix] and 4) The students were asked to write in slips of paper what their emotions were after watching the video or if they would like to describe any kind of experience they had with bullying incidents.

On the whole, it was a really successful school-based project that satisfied the students and let them express themselves. The slips of paper that were collected from the Box of Emotions were copied on my computer, printed out and were then used to create huge posters that were hanged on the walls of the school. (See Appendix). To conclude, I would definitely recommend teachers to 14


try every step or some steps of the above activity while talking to teenage students about bullying.

3. Activity within C4C Programme that was done at the 1ST Experimental school of Athens in April 2013

Last year I participated in the C4C Intervention programmes (E.M.E.I.Σ. programme) in the school environment (see http://www.connecting4caring.gr). Among the interesting activities that were proposed to us by the co-ordinators (Center for Research and Practice in School Psychology) there was the one that follows and which I chose to carry out in a class of 12-year-olds:

According to the material given to teachers who were participating in this programme, students are asked to take a sheet and fold it and crumple it until it is almost torn. Then they are asked to try and make the paper look as it was before… Afterwards, they are told that they should imagine the paper resembles a teenager’s emotions every time s/he is bullied. Students were asked: “How easy is it for this teenager to feel well again before he was ‘crumpled’ by the bullies?” Then students were asked to work in pairs and write a story about what kind of bullying behaviour towards this teenager made him/her feel like a torn paper. (See photos in the Appendix).

The results of this activity based on the material given to us (in particular: Student’s Workbook, p.57 in the chapter “Facing Stressful situations”) were interesting and the students seemed eager to participate. Their stories were describing the problems bullying can cause to a teenager.

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After following those steps, I decided to add an extra activity: I asked the students to write on a poster how they think this person (the victim of bullying in their stories) might have felt every time s/he was being bullied. Each student was given a pen and was asked to add his/her thoughts on the big poster. (See photos in the Appendix).

CONCLUSION:

In retrospect, I feel that all of these experiences boosted my research interest in the subject of bullying but also strengthened my decision to deal with the problem of bullying more constructively and also in collaboration with other colleagues who might be interested in intervention programmes and activities. Concluding, I would like to underline that the more complex the problem, the more careful steps need to be taken and the more effective strategies must be followed. Bullying will not be eliminated tomorrow but our effort and contribution can play a vital role in making our schools safer places for every teenage student.

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APPENDIX: Photos from the activities that were described ACTIVITY 1: The Box of Emotions

HELP SOMEBODY!!! (One of the messages found in the box of emotions – this is the printed version)

****************************************************************************

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I feel sad because someone talked to me in an impolite way today… ****************************************************************************

I feel extremely angry because the ones that make fun of a kid don’t think of what this child feels! Unfortunately I have gone through the same experiences. Actual Message in Greek: (Νιώθω πολύ θυμό γιατί αυτοί που κοροϊδεύουν ένα παιδί, δεν

σκέφτονται πώς νιώθει! Και δυστυχώς έχω περάσει τα ίδια τα προηγούμενα χρόνιa ).

(The above message was among the ones found in the Box of Emotions during Activity number 2) ACTIVITY 2 : 6th March 2012

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Thursday 6th March 2012

st

54th Secondary School of Athens

WORKSHEET – “ Day against School Violence”

1 Part Read in pairs the comments made by teenagers around the world. These comments were uploaded on http://www.pacerteensagainstbullying.org/#/identify/creative-writing. Read each comment and discuss the questions: 1. In your opinion why did these teenagers decide to write their comments on this website?……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Which are the emotions all these teenagers share ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. *********************************************************************************** “ My name is Marion, I'm from Norway and I 'm 15 soon 16 years old. I've been bullied since I was 8 years old, on my first school everyone was cool, no one was bullying each other, we all were friends and had a lot of fun. When I was 10 years old we moved to another place in Norway and then it all started. I didn't wear the same clothes as they did, and they called me things that really hurt, like "ugly". But the verbal harassment didn't stop… “ - 1/10/2012, Marion “Imagine waking up and you are the target they want Imagine walking into a black hole you once called school Imagine thinking the reasons behind the words that were said to haunt Imagine putting yourself in the shoes of a person who has been through this Imagine being a bystander and speaking up was an opportunity you missed Imagine what this world would be like if these kids didn't take their last breath.” 22 /11/ 2011, Elysse “ Bullying is when someone does something and their main goal is to hurt someone else” 7/11/2011 , Jake, 16 “ I have been cyberbullied. It was AWFUL! For the first time in my life I was scared to go by a computer. I thought that was the worst time of my life. If I thought that was bad, I wonder what it's like being physically hurt? 13/6 / 2011, Amy “Being bullied has made me lose all self-esteem and confidence. I pretended to be sick so that I wouldn't have to go and see my bullies. No one should be made to feel like that as we are all meant to be unique however treated equally. I was brought up to believe that everyone was beautiful and should be treated equally. Then why did those girls feel the need to humiliate, insult and degrade me??? 23 / 5 /2011 , Anonymous

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2nd Part – Scenarios 1) Peter (a student of Junior High, 2nd Class) with a physical disability walks past a group of kids in the schoolyard when they suddenly start imitating the way he walks and making fun of him. . How does Peter feel? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………................................................................................................................................................... If you were a bystander, how would you react? …………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2) Mary and Gina are standing in the school yard when one of the ‘popular’ girls (Tanya) walks by and suggests that all of them should start making fun of Niki who is coming close. Tanya says that they should call Niki, “fat cow” and “barrel”. How should Mary and Gina react? Should they say anything? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3) Steven receives a number of offensive e-mails, text messages on his mobile phone and comments on his Facebook page for an entire week. He finds out that two of his classmates are responsible for this situation. He wants to tell his parents so that they will in turn notify the Police…but he is afraid; what if things get worse after that? What do you think he should do? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………….................................................................................... 4) What is your opinion about bullies? Why do you think they enjoy hurting other kids? What are they trying to prove to others and themselves too? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 2

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ACTIVITY 3:

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RESOURCES: 

http://www.thebullyproject.com/ (The social action campaign inspired by the award-winning film BULLY. Τhe site provides educators, parents and students with tools and resources- You can also access their FACEBOOK page).

www.saferinternet.gr ( an interesting site with necessary info. and downloadable material for parents and teachers).

INTERESTING VIDEOS ON YOUTUBE - These videos can build a basis for discussion in class. I have used all of the following videos in various classes and I consider them to be indispensable tools. a) “Words hurt” – Video URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=1j6YA03hm4k b) “Anti-bullying ad” - Video URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=nWJut7KQhI4 c) “Anti-bullying awareness – indirect, cyber bullying, alienated” - Video URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=YFzay3Vm860 d) «Οι μαθητές ανταλλάσσουν εμπειρίες και απόψεις για τη βία στο σχολείο» http://www.youtube.com player detailpage&v=eaY7TG4wF80

www.0-18.gr (Official website of the Ombudsman of Children with three different units and resources: a) children, b) adults, c) community of teenage mediators).

http://www.tolerance.org

(A website where teachers can find thought-

provoking news and valuable resources on issues such as diversity, respect and equal opportunity in schools. Also, teachers can download pdf versions of 24


“Teaching Tolerance” magazines. The most recent issue (n.45- Fall 2013) is researching the problem of bullying at schools).

www.pacer.org/bullying ( The portal page where teachers and parents can have access to resources such as videos, teenagers’ stories and awareness toolkits).

http://www.pacerteensagainstbullying.org

(This

website

is

addressed

to

teenagers so it can be absolutely valuable to teenagers and their teachers alike).

gray-v.thess.sch.gr/new2011/0509_Hmerida/ParamerismosThimou.ppt (Interesting board game designed by students at the 3rd Junior High School of Thessaloniki during the school year 2010-2011).

http://www.protagon.gr “School Violence- Terrorism of innocence” (Μarch 2010) : Episode of a TV series on a Greek channel

http://www.esos.gr/article/parembatikes-symperifores/erotimatologioypoyrgeio-paideias-mathites-sxoliki-bia

www.violencepreventionworks.org (a very helpful site for teachers and schools on Olweus bullying prevention programme. Fee webinars and online courses for teachers are also available).

www.connecting4caring.gr/c4c (Based on the wider model Connecting for Caring -Theory and scopes of this intervention programme are described on the site)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Karavoltsou, A (2013) A brief Guide about school violence for teachers of Secondary Education

Moschos, G. (2013) School of today against violence and social problems – ‘Efimerida ton Syntacton”, Issue of 18/09/2013

Besag,V. E. (1989) Bullies and Victims in Schools. Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press Elliott, S.N., Kratochwill, T.R., Littlefield, J. & Travers, J.F. (1996). Educational psychology: Effective teaching, Effective Learning. Dubuque: Brown & Benchmark Publishers

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, (2011) Anti-bullying Strategy 2011-2014, www.rbkc.gov.uk (accessed on 5th March 2012)

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“Bullying – Tips and activities on how we can deal with this problem at school” is an ebook intended to provide readers with some knowledge about bullying in Secondary schools and also some practical guidelines on how teachers can deal with this problem at a basic level. The tips and activities described here are based on personal experience gained by the writer in two secondary schools in Athens, Greece since 2012. This e-book is generally intended to be used by teachers or any reader interested in the problem of school bullying.

ISBN 978-960-93-5661-9

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Bullying