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Unit 14:

WELCOME

EUROPE! Student’s Handbook


VOCABULARY

COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES COUNTRIES:

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During the time you have been learnign English, you have had the chance to learn the names of the countries. As you must know, some of them are referred with the. Most names of countries are used without the, but some have it before them, as the United Kingdom or the Netherlands. Some countries may be referred to with or without the (the Ukraine).

ADJECTIVES REFERRING TO COUN- NATIONALITIES: TRIES AND LANGUAGES: Some nationalities have nouns for re-

We generally use these endings: ▪ -ish: British, Irish, Danish, Turkish, Spanish... ▪ -(i)an: Andorran, Russian, Croatian... ▪ -ese: Portuguese, Maltese... ▪ -i: Israeli, Azerbaijani... ▪ -ic: Icelandic Some adjectives are worth learning separately e.g. Swiss, Greek, Dutch, Cypriot.

ferring to people, e.g. a Finn, a Swede, a Turk, a Spaniard, a Dane... For most nationalities we can use the adjective as a noun, e.g. a German, an Italian, a Belgian, a Greek... some need woman/man/person added to them (you can’t say ‘a Dutch’), so if in doubth, use them, e.g. a Dutch man, a French woman, an Irish person, an Icelandic man.


UNIT 14 1 Sometimes we refer to the countries according to their region or the groups they form. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Group the countries of Europe according to the blocks given: Slavic countrues: Balcan countries: Mediterranean countries: Western countries: Nordic countries: Baltic countries: Other:

2 Complete the following sentences, use the adjective referring to the country or the 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

language name. Celine Dion, who was born in Canada was, the ______________ (Switzerland) representative in 1988 and won singing in ______________ with the song Ne partez pas sans moi. Europe’s Living a Celebration by Rosa and Soraya’s La noche es para mi are the only ______________(Spain) songs which have had ______________ (England) in the lyrics. Loreen, who is half ______________ (Morocco), acheved a the number 1 in all the ______________ (Europe) charts. The last time that someone won singing in their national language was in 2007, when the ______________(Serbia) singer Marija Serifovic achuieved the victory for the balkan country. The ______________ (San Marino) singer, Valentina Monetta, is competing for the 2 time in a row with a song called Crisalide which means “chrysalis” in ______________ (Italy). Amaury Vassili is ______________ (France) but his song Songu from 2011 was in ______________ (Corsica). The ______________ (Ireland) brothers Jedward participated in the ______________ (United Kingdom) version of The X Factor before competing in the Eurovision Song Contest.

BORROWINGS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES English has taken words from most of the other languages which it had been in contact. It has taken many expressions from the ancient languages which usually have literary associations. From French, English has taken lots of words to do with cooking, the arts, and more sophisticated lifestyle in general. From Italian come words connected with music and

the pastic arts. German expressions in English have been coined either by tourists bringing back words for new things they saw or by philosophers or historians describing German concepts or experiences. The borrowings from other languages usually relate to things which English Speakers experienced for the frist time abroad.

3 Match the adjectives on the left with the nown they are most likely to be associated

now... Do you k try has

won the n u o c h est more whic ong Cont S n io is v Euro arino times? m San M o r f le p o how pe ? d won in are calle countries r u o f h whic ng to 1969? ries belo t n u o c which 5”? the “Big

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with, on the right. a. right-wing 1. kindergarten b. prima 2. casino c. strawberry 3. duvet d. ice 4. vendetta e. Fench 5. ballerina f. long-sleeved 6. embargo g. total 7. cuisine h. long-standing 8. floe i. noisy 9. yoghurt j. cosy 10. caftan Do you know words in English that come from Spanish or other languages? Do they mean the same in their original language?

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READING

Europe's Glitziest Show, Now In Austerity Mode

A

BY ANNA MOLIN STOCKHOLM

s fiscal austerity sweeps the European continent, one of the planet's most wildly popular mega-events—which helped propel household names like ABBA and Celine Dion—is going on a financial diet. Every year in late spring, more than 100 million people in more than 40 nations pack into pubs, attend kitschy theme parties or dive into their couches at home—all glued to the same television broadcast. Their focus: the Eurovision Song Contest, a weeklong Olympics-meet-"American Idol" singing competition that features one chosen act from each participating nation. The extravaganza is famous for its parade of aging crooners, exuberantly sequined pop singers and dark-horse acts like last year's gaggle of singing grannies in babushka scarves. Sweden, the country set to host next month, plans to slash the 58-year-old event's television-production budget to $20 million, less than half what it was last year, by using a smaller venue, fewer lights and less media fanfare. The goals: to survive in a tough economy, reignite the interest of nations hobbled by fiscal cutbacks—and in the process, create a more intimate affair that returns the focus to the music itself. Eurovision's final attracted an estimated 125 million viewers last year, dwarfing similar entertainment-world contests. The price tag to stage the event has ballooned, as countries race to outdo previous years' hosts on the technology and glamour factors. "It has become more of a technology arms race—who has the biggest LED screen, the most cameras," said Christer Björkman, Eurovision show producer for Swedish public broadcaster SVT. Mr. Björkman works for Sweden's Eurovision delegation and says he saw things get particularly out of hand in Düsseldorf (2011) and Moscow (2009), where show organizers insisted that wide camera angles almost always be used in order to show off the majesty of the stage. In Moscow, the ambitious stage design centered around more than 21,500 square feet of LED screens, roughly equivalent to half an acre. Fueling the glitz is an expensive proposition for the countries hosting the event. Traditionally, the way the contest has been run, the home country of the winning act becomes de facto host for the following year and must be prepared to shell out tens of millions of euros to put on a spectacle. Mr. Björkman said countries with financial problems have been known to "shake in their boots" when they come close to winning.

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Several countries that in the past were Eurovision mainstays are sitting on the bench this year. Bosnia-Herzegovina, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia have dropped out of the competition, with most blaming the tough austerity measures stemming from the European debt crisis, since sending a delegation has become too expensive and the cost of winning, too rich. Last year, the public broadcaster of Azerbaijan—a small, oil-rich nation wedged between Russia and Iran— spent an estimated $45 million hosting the contest, not including the $100 million it dished out for a new "crystal palace" arena and infrastructure that were fast-tracked because of Eurovision. Lorine Zineb Nora Talhaoui, a Stockholm native known now as just "Loreen," won the contest last year with her song "Euphoria." One of the financially fittest states in Europe, Sweden is taking a bit of a left turn with the competition. The public broadcaster SVT aims to more than halve the production tab to $20 million, representing the smallest budget since Helsinki hosted in 2007. The host city of Malmö (population: 300,000) is also putting $4 million into surrounding activities.

Martin Österdahl, executive producer of this year's event, says that for Eurovision to live on, small democratic nations must be able to afford to host it. "Someone has to have the courage to break the trend," he said. In fact, Loreen's performance of a year ago may have set a new template for how Eurovision will go forward. Instead of relying on a backdrop of flamboyant theatrics and pyrotechnic lighting, she simply got close and personal with the audience and let the song do the work. So, Messrs Österdahl and Björkman will look to emulate their country's Eurovision hero by trimming down. This year's competition will come with less lighting, fewer rehearsal days, more

Spartan opening-ceremony receptions for delegates and a press room that opens five days later than normal.

2012 host city Baky spent nearly $100 million to build a new arena.

For Swedes like Philippa Lodelius, this isn't necessarily welcome news. Growing up, she filled VHS tapes with recordings of past Eurovisions, filled out cards that allowed her to score the performers and kept a meticulous eye on the statistics. "I loved the music, the whole show...it always seemed like such a party." Currently, the 25-year-old property caretaker is hunting for tickets to Eurovision 2013. But with only 11,000 seats in Malmö's arena for the event, she will be hard pressed to find them. The final round is already sold out. Even if she does, she worries it may be a letdown. “There's a risk we'd come off as a bit lame," she said, questioning why wellheeled Sweden should be the country reining in things. "Now that we have the chance, we should take it and really show what we can do." Mr. Österdahl has an answer for her: "This is about ensuring that Eurovision stays popular and relevant—and financially sustainable." Bengt-Urban Fransson, one of the leaders of Sweden's arm of the international Eurovision fan club, or OGAE, sees the need to get costs under control, but is a tad worried about the image his country might be putting out. "There's a risk it could feel a bit low budget." Eurovision officials hope the Swedish example will reassure other countries— especially cash-strapped ones—that they too could put on the show with less money. The European Broadcasting Union, the association of national broadcasters responsible for organizing the song contest with host countries, says it will work with each nation to keep budgets trim. It is important, said Jon Ola Sand, EBU's executive supervisor of the Eurovision Song Contest, that the host broadcasters "don't bleed to death." Wall Street Journal, 11th of April, 2013


UNIT 14

Before reading 1 WORD CHECK: The following words appear in the text. Make sure you know what these words mean.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

sweep(s) fanfare sequin(ed) come off stem(ming) cash-strapped gaggle wedged broadcast(er) hobbled

a. to transmit on radio or television. b. located. c. to pass over a surface, region, etc, with a steady, driving movement or unimpeded course. d. a disorderly group of people. e. originated. f. to take place or happen. To have the intended effect. g. to progress unevenly or with difficulty. h. an ostentatious flourish or display. i. a small shining disk used for ornamentation. j. short of money, impoverished.

2 REVIEW: In order to understand a text, it’s important to use as many reREADING STRATEGIES

ading strategies as you can.

1. PREDICT CONTENT: Look at the title and the pictures. What do you think the text is about? 2. IDENTIFY THE MAIN IDEA: Read the first sentence of each paragraph. What is the main idea of the text? 3. SCAN THE TEXT: Find the following information:

UP: Eurovision 2012 stage. LEFT: Eurovision Song Contest 2013 poster. DOWN: A view of the skyline of Malmö with one of its icons, the Turning Torso skyscraper, the highest building in Scandinavia, designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava.

a. countries that don’t participate this year. b. the experience of a Eurovision fan. c. the amount of viewers of the contest.

4. IDENTIFY THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: Read the first paragraph, what is the writer’s purpose? a. to persuade

b. to entertain

c. to inform

Comprehension activities 3 Are the following sentences true or false? Find 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

evidences in the text to support your answer. The Eurovision Song Contest helped to launch the careers of Abba or Celine Dion. People from more than 40 nations watch Eurovision every year. Eurovision budget has been cut to the half of the one it had last year. The Eurovision Song Contest can get compared to other similar programmes in terms of audience. Christer Björkman declared that some countries were afraid of winning. 4 countries withdrawed this year because they were disappointed witht heir results last year. Sweden got inspired in Loreen’s performance for arranging the 2013 Contest. Philippa Lodelius is worried about the result of arranging the contest in Sweden.

4 Choose the correct answer acording to what you have understood. 1. Why did Christer Björkman think 3. What are the worries of the Swethat Düsseldorf 2011 and Baku dish Eurovision fans? 2012 was too much? a. They are afraid of the negative a. You had to be a very good sinconsequences of having a low ger. budget for the contest. b. The essence of the contest b. They are afraid that Sweden was getting lost. will give the feeling that they c. He was astonished by the don’t care. technical developments. c. They are afraid of giving a boring image. 2. What has been the inspiration on 4. What is important for the host Loreen’s performance for this yebroadcasters according to Jon ar’s contest? Ola Sand? a. They are going to focus on the a. The survival of the contest in a artists and leave less room for difficult time. the ornamentation. b. The the Eurovision Song Conb. They want the contest to be test doesn’t become a showy more organic. contest. c. They are going to use Loreen c. Reverse the tendency that was aesthetics and ideas. making Eurovision become an unaffordable show.

SPEAKING & PRONUNCIATION PRONOUNCING ADJECTIVES REFERRING TO COUNTRIES AND LANGUAGES: ▪ -ish: /-ɪʃ/ as in Irish /ˈaɪrɪʃ/ ▪ -ian: /-ɪən/ as in Albanian /ælˈbeɪnɪən/ ▪ -an:/-ən/ as in Estonian /ɛˈstəʊnɪən/ ▪ -ese: /-i:z/ as in Sanmarinese /sænməriˈni:z/

▪ -i: /-ɪ/ as in: Azeri /əˈzɛərɪ/ or Azerbaijani ▪

/ˌæzəbaɪˈdʒɑːnɪ/ -ic: /-ik/as in Icelandic /aɪsˈlændɪk/

1 PRACTICE YOUR PRONUNCIATION: Do you know how people from the following countries are called? Which languages do they speak in those countries? ▪ Latvia ▪ Switzerland ▪ San Marino ▪ Finland ▪ Portugal ▪ United Kingdom ▪ Spain ▪ Belgium ▪ Malta ▪ France ▪ Romania ▪ Israel

2 DEBATE:

Do you think that the Eurovision Song Contest is influenced by political issues or is it only the music quality what matters for winning the contest?

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GRAMMAR REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech (also called Indirect Speech) is used to communicate what someone else said, think or believe, but without using the exact words. Look at the examples and choose the correct answers below. STATEMENTS 1. “The stage is finally built” announced the producer. (DIRECT SPEEH) The producer anounced that the stage was finally built (REPORTED SPEECH) 2. “I have sent my competing song to the public television today” the composer replied. (DIRECT SPEECH) The composer replied that he had sent his competing song to the public television that day. (REPORTED SPEECH) QUESTIONS 3. “Is the public ready for the show?” the host asked. The host asked if the public was ready for the show. 4. “Who were you watching Eurovision with?” my friend wanted to know. My friend wanted to know who I had been watching Eurovision with. FORM a. In reported statements and questions, we move / don’t move the main verb back in time when the reporting verb is in the past. b. We change / don’t change pronouns, time expressions and words such as here, this, these... c. In yes/no / wh- questions, we begin the reported question with the words if or whether. ORDERS 5. “Give us the results of the Italian vote” the host told the spokespersson. The presenter told the spokesperson to give them the results of the Italian vote. 6. “Don’t look straight into the camera!” ordered the cameraman to the singer. The cameraman ordered the singer not to look straight into the camera. SUGGESTIONS 7. “Let’s watch the Eurovision Song Contest together!” suggested Kevin. Keving suggested watching / that we (should) watch the Eurovisiong Song Contest together. FORM a. In reported orders, we use base form / infinitive. b. In negative reported orders, we use not to / to not before the main verb. c. In reported suggestions, the verb can / cannot be followed by that + subject + base form or by a gerund. See Grammar Bank in page 13

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1 Choose the correct answer. 1. “I enjoy my work,” said the presenter. The presenter said that she enjoyed / had enjoyed her work. 2. “He copied the lyrics of the song!” The composer insisted that he was copying / had copied the lyrics of the song. 3. “I’ll give you all the information,” said the volunteer to the tourist. The volunteer told the tourist that he would give / gave him all the information. 4. “We are going to watch the show on Saturday,” announced John. John anounced that they were going to watch / are going to watch the show the following Saturday. 5. “The weather in Malmö has been terrible”, complained the journalist. The journalist complained that the weather in Malmö was / had been terrible. 6. “We can’t help you,” they told her. They told her that they wouldn’t / couldn’t help her. 7. “I may have a party next week,” Said Holly. Holly said that she might / would have a party the following week.

2 Change the sentences into reported speech. 1. “I’ll miss you next summer.” My boyfriend told me that...

2. “These students must get help now.” The teacher said that...

3. “I’m having a party here tonight.” Laura said that...

4. “You didn’t try hard enough yeaterday.” My coach complained that...

5. “I can’t find my ring.” The man said that...

6. “I closed my shop early today.” She mentioned that...

7. “I have passed all my exams!” The student boasted that...

8. “You’re making too much noise.” Our neighbours complained that...

9. “I’m going to wear a dress by Jean Paul Gaultier.” The Eurovision host declared that...

The Swedish comedian Petra Mede, during her presentation to the media as the Eurovision Song Contest hostess.


UNIT 14 3 Change the sentences into direct speech.

5 Recently, the British representative, Bonnie Tyler went to the

1. Helen told me that she liked my new haircut.

Terry Wogan radio show. Read the conversation.

Helen told me...

2. Matt promised that he wouldn’t be late for the meeting that afternoon. ...promised Matt.

3. The teacher told us not to talk during the lesson. The teacher said...

4. Sarah suggested that we bring those CDs to the party. Sarah suggested...

5. “Let’s buy some tickets to the Eurovision Song Contest.” My friend suggested....

6. The teacher ordered the students to be quiet The teacher said...

7. The journalist asked the singer what the name of her next CD was. The journalist asked...

8. The journalist asked the singer if she liked being famous. The journalist asked...

9. Petra Mede ordered the spokesperson not to reveal the results yet.

Terry Wogan, the British comentator of the Eurovision Song Contest from 1980 – 2008 with Bonnie Tyler, the 2013 representative of the United Kingdom.

Terry Wogan: Bonnie, everybody recognises your voice, so let me ask you the first question: Why Eurovision, what’s behind it? What persuaded you? Bonnie Tyler: Well, I was asked 30 years ago to do it, but I didn’t feel prepared, but when they asked me this time I thought it was a great idea! People may think I’m too old, because I’m 63 and this is a high level competition, but I think that music breaks all the barriers, and this is not about your age but about the feelings! Terry Wogan: So you were asked to do it then, how was it with the song? Did you consider any other song? Bonnie Tyler: Actually, they proposed Believe in Me and I think it’s a wonderful choice, it’s my favourite from my newest album so I had no doubts... If I was going to do it, it had to be with that song! Your friend missed the programme. How would you tell him about the interview?

Petra Mede ordered...

10. The girls claimed that they hadn’t seen Patricia that day. ...the girls said.

4 Match the sentence halves. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The coach encouraged... I invited... The teacher reminded... The passenger complained... The doctor advised... He apologised... The actress suggested... She warned him not... The students agreed... They suggested that we...

a. b. c. d. e.

him to do more exercise. that the train was late. that the exam was too difficult. the team to play better. the students to check their answers before handing the exam paper. to be late for work again. Jessica to the school dance. practising the scene before the filming started. for forgetting her birthday. all went to the cinema that night.

f. g. h. i. j.

LET’S LOOK BACK... Rewrite the following sentences, starting with the words given. Do not change the original meaning of the sentences. 1. Albert’s drawing isn’t as good as Gerald’s. Gerald’s drawing is...

2. They came to live in London two years ago. They have...

3. Smoking is forbidden in hospitals. You...

4. Although the weather was horrible, we went skiing. In spite of...

5. I’m sorry I didn’t go smoking with you. I wish...

6. The mechanic is going to repair her car next week. She..

7. I eat at this restaurant once a week.

...?

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VOCABULARY MAKING A TV PROGRAMME Making a TV programme like the Eurovision Song Contest is not an easy thing because two worlds are combined: On the one hand, it has all the necessary things for television show. With more than 250 people working on it we find words related to jobs such as persenter or host, producer, cameraman, camera... and places like backstage, set, front

of house... On the other hand, it is also a live music event, so it has many characteristics in common with concerts with terms refering to people as singer, performer, dancer, backing singer... or other words like performance area, catwalk, beam lights At the same time, Eurovision has established some terms

1 Put the names in their correct place, some pictures may have two names.

singer · spokesperson · presenter · producer · catwalk · stage · ramp · script · platform · main performance area · scoreboard · dancer · spotlight · camera · host · microphone microphone stand · screen · performer · backing singer · front of house

MUSIC GENRES 2 Complete the following sentences about artists that have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest with the words in the box and match the texts with the pictures. Do you know any more genres? ballad · dance / electronic · pop · rock · latin · country · opera · folk · classical

a

b

1. Despite not being favourites, Lordi achieved the first Finnish victory in Athens 2006 with their _________ song Hard Rock Hallelujah.

c d

e

e

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4. Malena Ernman is the Swedish _________ superstar. In 2009 she represented her country with La Voix, which was a mixture of _________ music and _________.

2. Even though Pastora Soler, who represented Spain in 2012, is famous for her _________ songs, she sang the _________ Quedate conmigo in Baku.

5. Alexander Rybak brought the contest to Norway after his victory in Moscow 2009 with Fairytale, a song inspired in _________ music.

3. The _________ band Texas Lightning with their song No No Never were the German entry in 2006. This kind of genre is not common in the Eurovision Song Contest.

6. John and Edward are the duo Jedward, they are a very famous _________ band who became famous in the British version of The X Factor.


LISTENING 1 Listen to what the people appearing in the following video say and decide if the following statements are true or false.

2 Complete the sentences according to what you hear: 1. Ola Melzig said that the normal problem for the audience sitting in the upper sits is the __________ that they miss the __________ __________.

2. The operators in the video are finishing the __________ and __________ all the lights and sound systems in the arena. 3. The stage is thirty metres deep to create the feeling of __________. 4. The next step in building the stage will be building the main part of the stage and its __________. 5. Ola Melzig’s favorite moment is when they go __________. 6. The main difference between Eurovision and a concert is that it is a __________ and it’s more __________ and __________. 7. According to the technical director, the __________ is what makes a good TV show. 8. There are tickets are available for __________ and __________.

To watch the video again, go to: http://youtu.be/4AqBmXtEe7I

a. Loreen got the highest score ever and an instant commercial success all over Europe. b. Sweden has won the contest 6 times and they are hosting the show for the fifth time. c. Ola Melzig thinks that a big arena is not needed to make a good television show. d. They want to give the ESC the feeling of a live concert. e. There are people working in the stage in the nights too.

3 Listen to Euphoria and comment, what do you think the song is about? Why do you think that there are so many songs about love?

EUPHORIA

LOREEN

Text & Music: Tomas G:Son, Peter Boström

Lorine Talhaoui, or Loreen, as we know her, is a Swedish Pop singer and music producer. Born in 1983 she comes from a family of Moroccan-Berber origin. After participating in a talent show in 2004, Loreen returned to the public eye in 2011 when she competed to represent her native country at Eurovision with the song "My Heart Is Refusing Me." Even though she didn’t win, her song became a hit in Sweden. The following year Loreen entered the Swedish national song contest again. This time her song "Euphoria" won with 34.57% of the vote, qualifying her for the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 held at Baku, Azerbaijan. She won the competition with a total of 372 points, the second highest in Eurovision history, receiving points from 40 of the voting 42 countries. Apart from her home nation, the only other country that did not award any points was Italy.

Why, why can’t this moment last forevermore? Tonight, tonight eternity’s an open door… No, don’t ever stop doing the things you do. Don’t go, in every breath I take I’m breathing you… Euphoria Forever, ’till the end of time From now on, only you and I We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up Euphoria An everlasting piece of art A beating love within my heart We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up We are here, we’re all alone in our own Universe, We are free, where everything’s allowed and love comes first, Forever and ever together, we sail into infinity, We’re higher and higher and higher, we’re reaching for divinity. Euphoria Forever, ’till the end of time From now on, only you and I We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up Euphoria An everlasting piece of art A beating love within my heart We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up Forever we sail into infinity, We’re higher, we’re reaching for divinity… Euphoria Forever, ’till the end of time From now on, only you and I We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up Euphoria An everlasting piece of art A beating love within my heart We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up Euphoria, euphoria We’re going up-up-up-up-up-up-up

SPEAKING 1

Did you watch the Eurovision Song Contest? Work in pairs and talk about the following points:

▪ Do you think the result was fair? What do you ▪ ▪ ▪

think of the result of Spain? Did the best song win? What do you think the winning song had that made it special? Which was your favourite song? Do you think all the songs were good? Do you think there were countries that got votes because of their cultural affinities or for political reasons?

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WRITING Improving your writing Look at the following problems when wri-

1 ting a sentence. Then read sentences a-

h. Each sentence contains one error. Match the error to the point and correct the error. 1. Punctuation 2. Word order 3. Connectors of time/sequence 4. Referencing 5. Adjectives and adverbs 6. Connectors of addition and contrast 7. Connectors of cause and result 8. Connectors of purpose

a. She was an inexperienced photographer. Moreover, she took some excellent photographs. b. The fire-fighters entered the burning building so that to rescue a child. c. Scientist have eventually found a cure for this terrible disease. d. I can’t do my English homework. They are too difficult. e. Jewellery, money, passports, and clothes were stolen from the tourists. f. The students are nervous today due to there is an important exam. g. The judge said that the next court session on Monday would be. h. They entered quiet so no one would hear them. the following sentences using 2 Rewrite the words in brackets. Then check your answers with your partner. 1. The child wears torn colthes for school every day. (always)

2. Several criminals have been arrested because the police have finally taken action. (Consequently) 3. Our team practised every day so that we would have a chance at winning. (so as to)

3 Find seven errors in the following newspaper article and correct them.

Sweden Wins Eurovision Song Contest

t in The Swedish singer, Loreen, won the Eurovision Song Contes of ce audien TV l ationa intern an before y, Sunda Azerbaijan, on ities. 100 million people after angering the Azeri author

Rights Defenders organisation, met some activists the who accuse the government of obligating people from their homes for the building of the hall, an accusation that Baku denies. Azeri authorities accused her of making political statements that did not belong in a musi-

cal event. BY MARGARITA ANTIDZE The 28-year-old singer won with the BAKU, AZERBAIJAN song "Euphoria" in the competition anion Eurovis nual of 42 countries, delighting viewers the won Sweden's Loreen Song Contest in Azerbaijan on Sunday and the contest's professional judges and before an international TV audience of dancing barefoot as she sang. 100 million people, days after anger Russia came second and Serbia was Azeri authorities by meeting rights acti- third in the 57th year of a contest famous vists critical of the host country's human for its kitschness. rights record. The competition took place in a speOpposition groups have been used the cially-built "Crystal Hall" on the shores Eurovision spotlight, intended by Azer- of the Caspian Sea. baijan to promote the country as a des- The Eurovision Song Contest has been a tination for tourism and business, to launching pad for international careers. demand democracy and the resignation Swedish pop group Abba, however, beof the government. came famous after winning in 1974 with Dozens of peaceful protesters have been "Waterloo" and Canada's Celine Dion arrested this month in Baku, the capital took top honors in 1988 for Switzerland. of the country. Activists say some buil- As winner, Sweden will host the next Eudings in the centre of the city were de- rovision contest. Reuters* molished to make way for the Eurovision 26th of May, 2012 arena and residents were forcibly evicted without a proper compensation. Loreen, who is a member of the Civil

4. There were storm warnings. Therefore, many people left the city. (due to) 5. You’ll have to ask Janet if you can borrow this book because it belongs to her. (hers) 6. People like listening to Theresa because of her good singing voice. (well) 7. They were angry despite our apology. (although) 8. I did my homework after talking on the phone for an hour. (before)

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UP RIGHT: Loreen with the Civil Rights Defenders from Azerbaijan. DOWN RIGHT: Loreen visits the neighborhood where the evictions took place. LEFT: Loreen in a poster of a campaign of Civil Rights Defenders.


UNIT 14 Writing your essay A NEWSPAPER REPORT A newspaper report gives information about an event that has happened. It can include basic facts, details, background and people’s comments. It answers the following questions: ▪ who (the subject of the story) ▪ what (what has happened) ▪ when ▪ where ▪ why (explanation for what happened) ▪ how

4 Choose the correct answers in the newspaper report

DOUBTS ABOUT EMMELIE’S ROYAL DESCENT below.

BY ADRIÁN VALIENTE MADRID, SPAIN Controversy on this year’s Danish representative at Eurovision. Emmelie De Forest won Dansk Melodi Grand Prix, getting the right to represent Denmark in Malmö. She is also the 1. current/currently favourite to win the contest. The issue now is regarding to Emmelie’s roots, as back in January, Emmelie presented herself as the granddaughter of British Queen Victoria (May 1819 – January 1901). This story 2. could/would be repeated on TV by the commentators, at the live shows, from Malmö. But now, nothing is clear. Researchers are doubting about this, as the american author Marlene A. Eilers Koenig, who says that this story does not match. Koenig, who has been studying and investigating both women, concludes on this: Emmelie “has Swedish and Finnish ancestry, as well as American roots. Her great-grandparents were Americans, but we have to keep investigating 3. in order to/so that know the truth”. 4. Moreover/However, British genealogist Tony Martin told that it was impossible for him to prove the connection between Emmelie and Queen Victoria. “There are things, which we all don’t know due to lack of 5.source material/ma terial source, but there IS a connection between Emmelie and the British Royal family”, he concludes. 5. Anyway/Although, DR (Danish Eurovision Broadcaster) has decided not to focus on this before Eurovision and official promo information, as it might be that international press are only doing it on the song. 6. Next/After all this, Danish newspaper BT, reported that Emmelie de Forest is sticking to the story about Queen Victori a being her great grandmother. So, we still have the doubt about 7.this/that topic and everyone is now waiting for Emmelie’s response. OIKOTIMES* 17th of April, 2012

5 Together with your partner discuss the following: In which paragraph(s) does the writer... 1. report someone’s opinion? 2. explain the origin of the controversy? 3. talk about someone’s background? 4. talk about a decission? 5. say who the story is about?

NOW IT’S YOUR TURN! Write a newspaper report about the Eurovision Song Contest. Use 150-180 words.

1. BRAINSTORM: Decide what you think happened and who was involved. Decide where, when and why it happened.

2. ORGANISE YOUR IDEAS: Use the plan to organise your

ideas.

PLAN: A Newspaper Report Opening Paragraph 1 – opening sentence summarising the event. Body Paragraphs 2 and 3 – basic facts, background and other details. Closing Paragraph 4 – comments of people involved.

3. FOCUS ON LANGUAGE: Choose the words and phrases you want to use in your newspaper report.

Here you have some vocabulary and expression that you can use:

LANGUAGE HELP

Shows and television: Stage Spotlight Performer Spokesperson Composer Host Trophy Winner Arena Venue

according to... reported that... announced that... added that... because of... as a result of... his/her reaction was...

4. WRITE A FIRST DRAFT. 5. CHECK YOUR WORK. CHECKLIST

followed the plan for a newspaper report.

used connectors and time words correctly.

used a variety of adjectives and adverbs.

used correct words for referencing.

6. WRITE A FINAL DRAFT.

10


UNIT PROJECT Year

EUROVISION SONG CONTEST WINNERS Country Winning Artist Winning song

1963

Denmark

1965

Luxembourg

1970

Ireland

1971

Monaco

1956 Switzerland 1957 The Netherlands 1958 France 1959 The Netherlands 1960 France 1961 Luxembourg 1962 France

THE EUROVISION SONG CONTEST A way of learning about cultures

1964

1966 Austria 1967 United Kingdom 1968 Spain Spain United Kingdom 1969 The Netherlands France

YOUR TASK In groups, you are going to investigate about a country that has won the Eurovision Song Contest, you have to talk about their facts and history, their main cultural features, their monuments, their history in the contest... Once you have done your investigation, you are going to present the information in a critical way in front of your partners.

1. DECIDE WHICH COUNTRY YOU WANT TO TALK ABOUT. We suggest you one of the following: FRANCE

GERMANY

DENMARK

ITALY

SPAIN

UNITED KINGDOM

SWEDEN

IRELAND

RUSSIA

2. GATHER INFORMATION FROM THE INTERNET.

Do a search in Google, check Wikipedia, Youtube, Eurovision.tv... there’s many places where you can find everything you want.

3. CHOOSE WHAT YOU WANT TO SAY.

As you will see, there is a lot of information on the Internet. You have to choose among everything you have found and decide what you want to tell.

4. STRUCTURE YOUR THE INFORMATION AND PREPARE THE VISUAL MATERIAL.

Once you’ve chosen what you are going to say it is time to decide HOW you are going to say it.

5. REHEARSE YOUR PRESENTATION.

Now your presentation is ready, then it’s time for you to learn all the facts you are going to say. For that, the best thing is that you practice saying your presentation at home.

The day of the presentation, be calm, that will help you to concentrate and do it the best you can.

11

France Gall

Udo Jürgens Sandie Shaw Massiel Salomé Lulu Lenny Kuhr Frida Boccara

Refrain Net Als Toen Dors Mon Amour Een Beetje Tom Pillibi Nous Les Amoreux Un Premier Amour Dansevise

Non Ho L’età Poupée De Cire, Poupée De Son Merci Chérie Puppet On A String La, La, La Vivo Cantando Boom Bang-A-Bang De Troubadour Un Jour, Un Enfant

1998

Israel

1999

Sweden

2000

Denmark

2001

Estonia

All Kinds Of Everything Un Banc, Un Arbre, Séverine Une Rue Vicky Leandros Après Toi Anne-Marie David Tu Te Reconnaîtras ABBA Waterloo Teach-In Ding-A-Dong Your Kisses Botherhood Of Man Save For Me Marie Myriam L’oiseau Et L’enfant Izhar Cohen & A-Ba-Ni-Bi Alphabeta Gali Atari & Hallelujah Milk And Honey Johnny Logan What’s Another Year? Bucks Fizz Making Your Mind Up Nicole Ein Bißchen Frieden Corinne Hermès Si La Vie Est Cadeau Herreys Diggi Loo Diggi Ley Bobbysocks La Det Swinge Sandra Kim J’aime La Vie Johnny Logan Hold Me Now Ne Partez Pas Céline Dion Sans Moi Riva Rock Me Toto Cotugno Insieme:1992 Fångad Av En Carola Stormvind Linda Martin Why Me? Niamh Kavanagh In Your Eyes P. Harrington & Rock ‘n’ Roll Kids C. McGettigan Secret Garden Nocturne Eimear Quinn The Voice Kathrina & Love Shine A Light The Waves Dana International Diva Take Me To Charlotte Nilsson Your Heaven Fly On The Wings Of Olsen Brothers Love Tanel P. & D. Benton Everybody

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Latvia Turkey Ukraine Greece Finland Serbia Russia Norway Germany Azerbaijan Sweden

Marie N I Wanna Sertab Erener Every Way That I Can Ruslana Wild Dances Helena Paparizou My Number One Lordi Hard Rock Hallelujah Marija Serifovic Molitva Dima Bilan Believe Alexander Rybak Fairytale Lena Meyer-Landrut Satellite Eldar & Nikki Running Scared Loreen Euphoria

1972 Luxembourg 1973 Luxembourg 1974 Sweden 1975 The Netherlands 1976 United Kingdom

How do you do it?

6. BE CALM.

Italy

Lyss Assia Corry Brokken André Claveau Teddy Scholten Jaqueline Boyer Jean-Claude Pascal Isabelle Aubret Grethe & Jørgen Ingmann Gigliola Cinquetti

1977

France

1978

Israel

1979

Israel

1980 Ireland 1981 United Kingdom 1982 Germany 1983 Luxembourg 1984 Sweden 1985 Norway 1986 Beligum 1987 Ireland 1988

Switzerland

1989 1990

Yugoslavia Italy

1991

Sweden

1992 1993

Ireland Ireland

1994

Ireland

1995 1996

Norway Ireland

1997 United Kingdom

Dana


SELF-EVALUATION CHECK GRAMMAR REVIEW

REPORTED SPEECH 1 Rewrite each sentence in reported speech using the verbs in capitals. (20 POINTS) 1. “I'll definitely return it tomorrow,” he said. PROMISED

2. “Did you invite Tom to your party?” he asked. ASKED 3. “You should stop worrying about his exams,” she said. ADVISED 4. “Yes, I'll come with you,” he said. AGREED 5. “Why don't you come with us?” my parents asked. SUGGESTED 6. “Don't believe anything he says,” she said. WARNED

2 Change the sentences into direct speech. (20 POINTS) 1. Jane said that she had been ill the previous week. 2. Tom’s mother wanted to know why he was eating those chocolates. 3. Mike told me not to call him at work. 4. She said she was sure that she had never been there before. 5. The caller asked what time the performance would begin that night. 6. They suggested having a picnic that weekend.

VOCABULARY 3 Complete the following table. (15 POINTS) Country San Marino

Nationality

Language Dutch

British

5 Choose the correct answer. (20 POINTS) 1. The policeman ordered us ..... questions. a. to not ask b. don’t ask c. not ask d. not to ask 2. I don’t believe it. This ..... the first time you’ve ever watched this show. a. mustn’t be b. shouldn’t be c. can’t be d. doesn’t have to be 3. Our house ..... many years ago. a. is built b. was built c. builds d. was building 4. I asked him when ..... to take judo lessons. a. he is starting b. he will start c. is he starting d. he was starting 5. I would have felt better if I ..... so much. a. hadn’t eaten b. woudln’t eat c. haven’t eaten d. didn’t eat 6. If he asked her to go out, she ..... yes. a. would have said b. will say c. would say d. had said 7. Please don’t walk here while the floor ..... a. is being washed b. is washing c. was washing d. is washed 8. The women told us that they ..... friends for many years. a. are b. have been c. had been d. will be

ERROR CORRECTION

Spain Ireland Cypriot

6 Change the sentences into direct speech. (10 POINTS)

1. I would like that my mother was here.

4 Clasify the words in the box in their semantic field. (15 POINTS) 2. I asked to the doctor a question. catwalk · alternative · broadcast · country · host scoreboard · dance · producer · script

▪ PARTS OF A STAGE: ▪ JOBS:

▪ MUSIC GENRES:

3. His parents want that he study economics. 4. She must to be a great tennis player. 5. It's for that I'm not going to the party. 6. I don't used to have breakfast so early.

MARK: ....../100

12


GRAMMAR BANK REPORTED SPEECH

El estilo directo reproduce las palabras exactas que alguen ha dicho; se emplean comillas. El estilo indirecto reproduce el significado exacto de lo que alguien ha dicho pero sin reproducir las palabras exactas. En el estilo indirecto no se emplean comillas. La palabra that puede usarse u omitirse después del verbo introductorio (say, tell, etc.). SAY – TELL ▪ say + ningún complemento personal. The singer said (that) he was afraid of doing it badly. ▪ say + to + complemento preposicional. The singer said to me (that) he was afraid of doing it badly. ▪ tell + complemento personal. The singer told me (that) he was afraid of doing it badly. ▪ se utiliza say + to infinitive pero nunca say about. se utiliza tell sb y speak/talk about. The host said to applaud before the countdown. The stage manager told us/spoke/talked about when we had to applaud.

SAY TELL ASK

hello, good morning/afternoon, etc. something/nothing, so, a few words, no more, for certain/ sure, sorry, etc. The truth, a lie, a story, a secret, a joke, the time, the difference, one from another, somebody, one’s name, somebody the way, somebody so, someone’s fortune, etc. a question, a favour, the price, about somebody, the time, around, for something/somebody, etc.

REPORTED STATEMENTS ▪ En el estilo indirecto, los pronombres personales, los

pronombres posesivos y los adjetivos posesivos varían en función del significado de la oración. Kyle said, “They have selected my song.” (Oración en estilo directo) Kyle said (that) they had selected his song.” (Oración en estilo directo) Podemos reproducir las palabras de una persona tanto si hace bastante tiempo que las pronuncicó (out-of-date reporting) como si las ha pronunciado hace poco (upto-date reporting).

UP-TO-DATE REPORTING Los tiempos verbales pueden cambiar o permanecer iguales en estilo indirecto. Direct speech: Emily said, “I watched Eurovision on Saturday.” Reported speech: Emily said (that) she watched/had watched Eurovision on Saturday.” OUT-OF-DATE REPORTING El verbo introductorio está en pasado y los tiempos verbales

13

cambian de la siguiente manera: ESTILO DIRECTO Present simple

ESTILO INDIRECTO  Past simple said (that) she liked “I like the British song.” She the British song. Present continuous  Past continuous “I’m listening to the French He said (that) he was listening to the French song. song.” Present perfect  Past perfect said (that) Ireland had “Ireland has won 7 times.” She won 7 times. Past simple  Past simple or Past perfect They said (that) they “We saw the performance.” saw/had seen the performance. Past continuous  Past continuous or Past perfect continuous She said (that) she was “I was helping the Swiss helping/had been helping team.” the Swiss team. Will  Would “I will send a song to the He said (that) he would send a song contest to the contest.”

▪ Algunas palabras y expresiones temporales cambian de la siguiente manera, según el significado:

ESTILO DIRECTO This These Now Today Yesterday Tomorrow Tonight Tomorrow morning Yesterday afternoon Next week/month/year Last week/month/year Ago Here

ESTILO INDIRECTO That Those Then, immediately That day The day before, the previous day The next day, the following day That night The following morning The previous afternoon The following week/month/year The previous week/month/year Before There

▪ Los tiempos verbales cambian en estilo indirecto cuando consideramos que lo que el hablante dijo no es verdad: “A snake is a mammal.”

He said that snake was

a mammal. (Sabemos que no es verdad).

▪ Los tiempos verbales pueden cambiar o permanecer

igual en estilo directo si informamos sobre una verdad general o una ley de la naturaleza. The professor said, “the sun is a star”  The professor said (that) the sun is/was a star” Los tiempos verbales permanecen igual en estilo indirecto: a. cuando el verbo introductorio va en presente, futuro o presente perfecto. Debbie has (often) said , “I love animals”  Debbie has (often) said that she loves animals. b. en las condicionales de tipo 2 y 3. “If I were you, I would walk to school.”, she said to me.  She told me (that) if she were me, she would walk to school.


UNIT 14 REPORTED QUESTIONS

want to know…, I doubt…, etc., y el verbo aparece en forma afirmativa. Si la pregunta indirecta empieza con I want to know…, I wonder… o I doubt…, el signo de interrogación se omite. Pregunta directa: “What’s the task of a TV producer?” Pregunta indirecta: Do you know what the task of a producer is?

▪ Las preguntas en estilo indirecto suelen ir introducidas ▪

por los verbos ask, inquire, wonder o por la frase want to know. Si la pregunta en estilo indirecto empieza con un pronombre interrogativo (who, where, when, how, what…), la pregunta en estilo indirecto va introducida por ese mismo pronombre: “When did the countries choose their song for Eurovision Song Contest?”, he asked. (pregunta en estilo directo). He asked when the countries had chosen their song for Eurovision Song Contest. (pregunta en estilo indirecto). Si la pregunta en estilo directo va introducida por un verbo auxiliar (be, do, have), por un verbo modal (can, may, etc.) o es una yes/no question, la pregunta en estilo indirecto va introducida por if o whether: “Do you see the ESC this year?”, he asked. (pregunta en estilo directo). He asked if/whether she saw the ESC that year. (pregunta en estilo indirecto). En las preguntas en estilo indirecto el verbo aparece en forma afirmativa. El signo de interrogación y las palabras o frases como please, well, oh, etc., se omiten. Los tiempos verbales, los pronombres y las expresiones temporales cambian del mismo modo en las afirmaciones: “Can you show me the spanish band’s performance?”, she asked him. (pregunta en estilo directo). She asked him if he could show her the Spanish band’s performance. (pregunta en estilo indirecto).

INDIRECT QUESTIONS ▪ Las preguntas indirectas se utilizan para pedir consejo e

información. Éstas van introducidas por frases como: Could you tell me…?, Do you know…?, I wonder…, I

REPORTED COMMANDS/ REQUESTS/ SUGGESTIONS/ ORDERS ▪ Para emitir órdenes, peticiones y sugerencias en estilo

indirecto empleamos un erbo introductorio específico (advise, ask, beg, suggest, etc.) seguido del to-infinitive, de –ing o de una frase introducida por that, dependiendo del verbo introductorio. “Stop watching TV!”, he said.  He told me to stop watching TV. (orden). “Switch the TV off, please”, he said.  He asked us to switch the TV off. (petición). “Let’s vote for our favourite song”, she said.  She suggested voting for their favourite song (sugerencia). “You’d better stay at home to enjoy the show”, he said.  He suggested that I should stay at home to enjoy the show. (sugerencia). Para emitir órdenes o instrucciones en estilo indirecto usamos los verbos order o tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive: “Don’t watch this”, she told them. (orden en estilo directo). She told them not watch this. (orden en estilo indirecto). “Play the music”, the singer told him. (orden en estilo directo). The singer ordered him to play the music. (orden en estilo indirecto).

MODAL VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH

Observa cómo cambian los siguientes verbos modales en estilo indirecto del tipo out-of-date reporting: ESTILO DIRECTO

ESTILO INDIRECTO

He said, “I’ll watch the Eurovision Song Contest later.”

He said (that) he would watch the ESC later.

He said, “I can’t come to the meeting.” He said, “I can help in the arrangement for the party next week.” He said, “There may be an eruption today.”

He said, “Shall I help you hand out those leaflets?”

He said (that) he couldn’t come to the meeting. (present) He said (that) he would be able to help in the arrangement for the party the following week. He said (that) there might be an eruption today. He asked me where he should put the empty cans. (information) He asked (me) if he shuld go to Malmö to see the contest. (advice) He offered to help me hand out the leaflets. (offer)

He said “We must arrive on time.”

He said (that) we had to arrive on time. (obligation)

He said, “They must be the reporters.”

He said (that) they must be the reporters. (deduction)

He said, “We had better check the weather forecast.”

He said (that) they had better check the weather forecast. He said (that) I didn’t need to/didn’t have to take my raincoat that day. He said (that) they wouldn’t have to worry aout it snowing the next/following week. (future) He said (that) I should wait until it stopped raining.

He said, “Where shall I put the empty cans?” He said, “Shall I go to Malmö to see the contest?”

He said, “You needn’t take your raincoat today.” He said, “They needn’t worry about it snowing next week.” He said, “You should wait until it stops raining.”

14


GRAMMAR BANK VERBOS INTRODUCTORIOS ESPECIALES VERBO INTROD. + to-inf agree demand offer promise refuse threaten claim + sb + to-inf advise allow ask beg command encourage forbid instruct invite sb order permit/allow remind urge warn want + ing form accuse sb of apologise for admit (to) boast about complain to sb about deny insist on suggest + -ing form + that - clause agree boast claim complain deny exclaim explain inform sb promise suggest explain to sb + how + sb + to-inf wonder where/what/why/how + clause (cuando el sujeto del verbo introductorio no es el mismo que el sujeto de la pregunta indirecta wonder + whether + toinf or clause wonder where/what/how + toinf (cuando el sujeto del infinitivo es el mismo que el sujeto del verbo)

15

ESTILO DIRECTO “Ok, I’ll go to the beach clean-up” “I want to watch the ESC.” “Would you like me to record the show for you?” “I’ll vote for Denmark’s song.” “I won’t help with your campaign.” “Stop singing or I’ll send you to your room.” “I saw the concert in the front line.”

ESTILO INDIRECTO He agreed to go to the beach clean-up. He demanded to watch the ESC. He offered to record the show for me. He promised to vote for Denmark’s song. He refused to help with our campaign. He threatened to send me to my room if I didn’t stop singing. He claimed to have seen the concert in the front line.

“You should ask an expert” He advised me to ask an expert. “You can watch the news” He allowed me to watch the news. “Please, don’t listen to that” He asked us not to listen to that. “Please, help me!” He begged me to help him. “Go outside!” He commanded us to go outside. “Come on, try it” He encouraged me to try it. “You mustn’t leave the house” He forbade me to leave the house. “Stay out of the midday sun” He instructed me to stay out of... “Would you like to watch the show with He invited me to watch the show with them. us?” “Form a queue!” He ordered us to form a queue. “You may go to Malmö” He permited me to go to Malmö. He reminded me to dress warmly. “Don’t forget to dress warmly” He urged me to close all the... “Close all the shutters” He warned me not to walk too far... “Don’t walk too far in the forest” He wanted me to make a list . “I’d like you to make a list” “You cut down those trees!” “I’m sorry I broke your CD.” “Yes, I stole the money.” “I give more money to charity than you.” “You never heed on me.” “I didn’t take her bag.” “You must go inside now.” “Let’s go to the stadium.”

He accused me of cutting down...

He apologised for breaking/having broken her CD. He admitted (to)stealing/having stolen the money. He boasted about giving more money to charity than us.

He He He He

complained about my never heeding on him. denied taking/having taken her bag. insisted on us/our going inside. suggested going to the stadium.

“No, Spain won’t win the ESC” “I’m a very enviromentally-friendlyperson.” “I swan across the river.” “You don’t care about me.” “I didn’t use your umbrella.” “It’s horrific!” “The singer has to relax.” “The hurricane is headed towards our town.” “I’ll wear a coat.” “You should read this article.” “This is how singers play on the stage.”

He agreed that Spain wouldn’t win... He boasted that he was a very enviromentally-friendly-person. He claimed that he had swun across the river He complained that I didn’t care about him. He denied that he had used my umbrella. He exclaimed that it was horrific. He explained that the singer had to relax. He informed me that the hurricane was headed towards our town. He promised that he would wear a coat. He suggested that I shoul read that article

He asked himself, “Where’s Laura?” He asked himself, “Why is she shouting?” He asked himself, “What is she carrying?” He asked himself, “How did she get there?”

He He He He

He explained to me how sigers played on the stage.

wondered wondered wondered wondered

where Laura was. why she was shouting. what she was carrying. how she had got there.

He asked himself, “Should I ask her for He wondered whether to ask her for help. help?” He asked himself, “Where should I sit?” He wondered where to sit. He asked himself, “What can I say?” He wondered what to say. He asked himself, “How can I help?” He wondered how to help.


VOCABULARY BANK EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, NATIONALITIES & LANGUAGES

COUNTRY

NATIONALITY

LANGUAGE

COUNTRY

NATIONALITY

LANGUAGE

COUNTRY

NATIONALITY

LANGUAGE

Albania

Albanian

Albanian

Greece

Greek

Greek

Norway

Norwegian

Norwegian

Andorra

Andorran

Catalan

Hungary

Hungarian

Hungarian

Poland

Pole

Polish

Armenia

Armenian

Armenian

Iceland

Icelandic

Icelandic

Portugal

Portuguese

Portuguese

Austria

Austrian

German

Ireland

Irish

Irish, English

Romania

Romanian

Romanian

Azerbaijani

Italy

Italian

Italian

Russia

Russian

Russian

Israeli

Hebrew

San Marino

Sanmarinese Italian

Latvian

Latvian

Serbia

Serbian, Serb Serbian

German

German

Slovakia

Slovak

Slovak

Lithuanian

Lithuanian

Slovenia

Slovene

Slovenian

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani, Azeri

Belarus

Belarusian

Belgium

Belgian

Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria

Bosnian, Herzegovinan

Belarusian, Israel* Russian French, German, Dutch Latvia Bosnian, Ser- Liechtenstein bian, Croatian

Bulgarian

Bulgarian

Lithuania

Czech Republic Cezch

Czech

Luxembourg

Cyprus

Cypriot

Greek, Turkish Macedonia

Denmark

Danish, Dane Danish

Malta

Maltese

Maltese

Switzerland

Swiss

Estonia

Estonian

Moldova

Moldovan

Moldovan

Turkey

Turkish, Turk

Finland

Finnish, Finn

French

Ukraine

Ukranian

France

French

Montenegrin

Montenegrin

United Kingdom British, Briton English

Georgia

Moroccan

Arabic, Berber

Germany

Estonian Finnish, Swedish

Monaco

Luxembourger Luxembourgish, French, German Spain Sweden Macedonian Macedonian, Albianian

Monegasque, Monacan

French

Montenegro

Georgian

Georgian

Morocco*

German

German

The Netherlands Dutch

Some countries have other regional languages which are co-official in their regions.

Dutch, Frisian

Spanish, Spaniard Swedish, Swede

Spanish Swedish German, French, Italian

Turkish

Ukranian

* Israel and Morocco are not European countrues but they participate or participated in the ESC.

16


VOCABULARY BANK BORROWINGS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES

SWEDEN

lingonberry moped ombudsman tungsten

FINLAND

NORWAY

sauna

fjord floe krill lemming ski slalom

RUSSIA

bistro sputnik cosmonaut perestroika steppe tundra tsar balalaika mammoth

NETHERLANDS

bamboo blink booze cookie cruise easel yatch tattoo

GERMANY

kindergarten dachshund rottweiler hamburger frankfurter delicatessen blitz waltz poddle snorkel Wanderlust seminar

FRANCE

cuisine gateau chauffeur boutique cràche duvet coup elite PORTUGAL sauté avant garde marmalade cul de sac palaver aubergine dodo bidet cobra

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

MUSICAL GENRES pop rock classical jazz dance country reggae electronic techno Latin easy listening folk opera heavy metal blues rap hip hop flamenco

17

▪ schlager ▪ indie

SPAIN

armada avocado breeze canyon cannibal

cockroach

guerrilla hurricane mosquito patio siesta

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

GREECE dogma

ITALY

drama psychology hippopotamus theory pseudonym synonym

ballerina piano casino scenario fiasco soprano confetti spaghetti ghetto vendetta lingua franca zucchini

orchestra choir conductor band to play an instrument to sing musician pianist violinist guitarist singer drummer concert song love song tune rhythm beat

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

MAKING A MUSIC TV SHOW note melody harmony mic (abbreviation of microphone) hi-fi stereo DJ speakers CD CD player MP3 player solo duet pop star to record to listen to music

▪ record (as in "a ▪ record") ▪ ▪ recording ▪ ▪ Volume ▪ ▪ loud ▪ ▪ soft ▪ ▪ quiet ▪ ▪ broadcasting ▪ ▪ commercial ▪ ▪ host ▪ ▪ hostess ▪ ▪ presenter ▪ ▪ dancer ▪ singer ▪ spokesperson ▪ producer ▪ catwalk ▪ stage ▪ backdrop

platform ramp script scoreboard spotlight beam light camera stand screen performer backing singer front of house


WRITING GUIDE WRITING A NEWSPAPER REPORT When we write a newspaper report, we provide information about an event that has happened. A newspaper report should be objective and should answer the questions: who, what, when, where and why. Look at the topic below. Then study the plan and read the model.

TOPIC:

Write a newspaper report about something that happened in your country.

PLAN:

MODEL:

Computer Saves Drowning Child

Headline

BY JOHN SMITH LONDON, UK

Paragraph 1: Opening sentence summarising the event.

A young gitl almost drowned in a swimming pool in Wales –but her life was saved by a computer. On 24th August, a 10-year-old girl was swimming in a pool in Bangor, North Wales when she suddenly sank to teh bottom. A computer monitoring system detected that she was not moving and alerted the lifeguards within three seconds. The computer system, called the Poseidon had been installed in the pool two years earlier at a cost of £65,000. It uses underwater cameras to detect people in trouble and an alarm system which shows lifeguards their location.

Paragraph 2-3: Basic facts, background and other details.

Local council officer Brian Evans said that the lifeguards whould have seen the child, but only after two or three minutes –and time is critical in these situations. “We feel as though the system has saved this little girl’s life,” he commented. The girl spent the night in hospital, bbut has made a full recovery.

Paragraph 4: Comments of people involved

USEFUL LANGUAGE According to... ...reported that... ...added that...

...because of... ...as a result of... his/her reaction was... 18


EXTRA PRACTICE REINFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 1 Choose the correct answer.

1. Dan said that he will meet / would meet us at ten o’clock. 2. Paula told Jack that she has been waiting / had been waiting for him for an hour. 3. They said that they didn’t find / hadn’t found work yet. 4. Tony told Mrs Brown that the cat is drinking / was drinking her tea. 5. Sara asked James whether he had made / made an appointment the previous day. 6. Ellen’s parents asked when she was coming / is coming home that night. 7. Sam enquired whether we had ever seen / ever saw the film March of the Penguins. 8. The ski instructor asked how long it had been snowing / has been snowing.

2 Complete the sentences. Use reported speech.

1. “Stop making so much noise,” the teacher told the students. The teacher told the students........................................... 2. “Don’t turn on the television,” Tim’s mother said. Tim’s mother told him....................................................... 3. “Let’s meet at the café after work,” Anne suggested. Anne suggested that...........................................................

3 Write sentences using the words below. 1. they / had / the / museum / that / been / all / Sandra / working / week / said / at .......................................................................................................................... 2. whether / raining / children / was / asked / the / it .......................................................................................................................... 3. told / mum / clean / house / my / me / to / the .......................................................................................................................... 4. that / playing / Brian / friends / his / basketball / said / were .......................................................................................................................... 5. pizza / dinner / night / suggested / a / that / David / ordering / for ..........................................................................................................................

4 Complete the sentences in reported speech.

1. “Will Dan’s father drive us to the party tonight?” Louise asked. Louise asked whether .................................................................................................... 2. “I haven’t seen Paul since 2001,” Andrea said. Andrea told us that she ................................................................................................. 3. “Don’t look at your partners’ answers,” the teacher ordered the students. The teacher ordered the students .................................................................................. 4. “The football team has been practising since six o’clock,” Jim announced. Jim announced that ......................................................................................................... 5. “When are you finishing work tonight?” Sue asked me. Sue asked ......................................................................................................................... 6. “Let’s buy a new TV,” suggested Brian. Brian suggested that ......................................................................................................

5 Complete the sentences in reported speech.

1. I asked Regina where she was going for her holiday. .......................................................................................................................... 2. Everyone asked Susan what she had done the day before. .......................................................................................................................... 3. They said that they wouldn’t go to the party unless Sam invited them. .......................................................................................................................... 4. The manager ordered Gina to finish typing those letters by five o’clock. .......................................................................................................................... 5. Albert told us that he had finished the last Harry Potter book the week before. .......................................................................................................................... 6. Tina suggested that we make Lucy a surprise party. ..........................................................................................................................

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UNIT 14 MORE PRACTICE 1 Choose the correct answer. 1. Dan asked me what I think / thought / am thinking of Timothy’s work experience. 2. Peter suggested going / went / to go to the cinema. 3. His sister wanted to know whether he is going / he was going / was he going to the lecture. 4. Jennifer complained that she will have to work / has to work / had to work extra hours the following day. 5. Andrea said that they wouldn’t finish / won’t finish / can’t finish their report that day. 6. The boys reported that it began / had begun / will begin snowing two hours before.

2 Complete the sentences. Use reported speech.

1. “Janet has just returned from India,” Matthew said. Matthew said...................................................................... 2. “Let’s go out tonight,” Harry suggested. Harry suggested that.......................................................... 3. “Can you give me some more information about the job?” Sandra asked the manager. Sandra asked the manager whether................................ 4. “It will definitely snow tomorrow,” the weatherman predicted. The weatherman predicted that....................................... 5. “Where did you find this book?” Donna asked. Donna asked........................................................................

3 Choose the correct verb in brackets. Then rewrite the sentences in reported speech. 1. Anne: “My parents won’t allow me to work after school.” (complain / suggest) .......................................................................................................................... 2. Shop manager: “We are closing the shop early today.” (order / explain) .......................................................................................................................... 3. Teacher: “If you complete the assignment by next week, you’ll get extra marks.” (enquire / promise) .......................................................................................................................... 4. Tim: “Don’t forget the party next week, Sam.” (remind / suggest) ..........................................................................................................................

4 Complete the sentences in direct speech. 1. James complained that they had been working too hard since the week before. .......................................................................................................................... 2. Sandra suggested flying to Italy the following week. .......................................................................................................................... 3. The workers warned Paul that they wouldn’t finish the repairs unless he paid them. .......................................................................................................................... 4. Peter asked Mike if he was starting his new job that day. .......................................................................................................................... 5. Linda wanted to know when I was coming home. .......................................................................................................................... 6. Dan’s mum told him not to eat with his mouth open. .......................................................................................................................... 7. Her brother said that he usually studied maths on Tuesdays, but that his lesson had been cancelled the day before. ..........................................................................................................................

5 Complete the passage with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Do you like the idea of flying through the air in front of hundreds of people? Diego Zeman does. He works for a circus, and his act requires him to be shot through the air from a four-metre-long cannon. In a recent interview, Diego said that he (1) ……………………… (work) for circuses since he was a child. He added that his parents (2) ……………………… (be) circus performers when they were younger and that he (3) ……………………… (start) training when he was eight years old. He said that he still (4) ……………………… (feel) nervous during a performance and he (5) ……………………… (have to) concentrate very hard on what he was doing. He explained that if he (6) ……………………… (make) a mistake, he risked much more than his job – he risked his life. He warned young people (7) ……………………… (not take) a job like his just for the money. However, he said that if you (8) ……………………… (like) bungee-jumping, you (9) ……… ……………… (love) the feeling of freedom you get when being fired from a cannon. He said that he (10) …………………… … (continue) doing his job until it (11) ……………………… (stop) being fun.

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NOTES

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UNIT 14

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Didactic Unit 14 – Welcome Europe!