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V English Series Across Borders Through Reading 6 Teacher’s Manual Second Edition ISBN 978-971-07-2555-7 Copyright 2009 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. and Lourdes M. Ribo, Concepcion I. Noche, and Pacita M. Gahol All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher and the author. Artwork belongs solely to Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Published and printed by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Main Office: Cebu Office: Davao Office: Iloilo Office: Cagayan Office:

1253 Gregorio Araneta Avenue cor. Maria Clara Street, Quezon City, Philippines Unit 202 Cebu Holdings Center, Cebu Business Park, Cardinal Rosales Avenue, Cebu City, Philippines Kalamansi St. cor. 1st Avenue, Juna Subdivision, Matina, Davao City, Philippines Unit 6, 144 M. H del Pilar St., Molo, Iloilo, Philippines Bldg. A, Unit 4, Pride Rock Business Park, Gusa, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Member: Philippine Educational Publishers’ Association; Book Development Association; Association of South East Asian Publishers; Graphic Arts Technical Foundation

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Preface The VP English Series is a language and reading program that: • reflects current trends and developments in language and reading instruction; • recognizes the interrelationships of the four components of the English program: listening, speaking, reading, and writing; • implements changes in English instruction as called for in the New Elementary Learning Competencies; • focuses on definite language and reading learning competencies attainable within specified and appropriate conditions and time; • develops language and reading skills in hierarchical and spiral fashion; • provides for learning and practice of specific language in meaningful and realistic communication situations; • relates language and reading to other subject areas in the curriculum; • promotes desirable Filipino values and cultivates in the learner a deep sense of nationalism; and • recognizes individual differences in terms of motivation, interests, and learning style and provides varied activities to meet these differences.

Features of the Teacher’s Manual The Teacher’s Manual for the VP Reading Series, Across Borders Through Reading 1-6, Second Edition, provides the classroom teacher with: (1) guidelines on how to use the worktext efficiently and (2) procedures and strategies that will result in more effective teaching. It offers: •

Integration of CD-ROM activities and web content enrichments A special feature of the series is the inclusion of Interactive Reading CD-ROMs. Two lessons in every unit incorporate animated presentations of the selection and post reading vocabulary exercises for grades three to six. The CD-ROM is easy to use. It will automatically run on Windows 98 PC with 256 MB RAM, 35 MB video card and 4X speed of CD-ROM or higher. The PC must have a compatible sound card and a working speaker. The CD-ROM will self-start a few moments after loading. Then, do the following instructions to access the specific features of the CD-ROM: 1. Select the unit title of the ABRE textbook.

The Teacher’s Manual which accompanies the worktext, Across Borders Through Reading 6, Second Edition, has been prepared primarily to provide the classroom teacher guidelines on how to use the worktext efficiently. The material is divided into units which are in turn fleshed out into lessons with labels corresponding to the unit and lesson titles in the worktext. Each lesson in the Teacher’s Manual consists of the following: Objectives, Subject Matter, Materials, and Procedure. The activities under Procedure, arranged in the sequence they are taken up in the teaching process, come under the headings: Start with What You Know, Add to What You Know, Search for Correct Meaning, Set a Goal for Reading, Read, Share Your Ideas, Sharpen Your Reading Skills, Do What’s Right, Make Connections, and Spin Off. The Procedure suggests ways of carrying out the day’s activity to attain the lesson objectives effectively.

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2. Select the lesson.

3. Read the instruction and do the activity.

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There are also embedded web links in the Teacher’s Manual. Activities for one of the two computer-assisted lessons of each unit are published online at www.vibalpublishing.com, including all the web links. On the Internet, one may directly access these through the i-teach. vibalpublishing.com portal. To further help the teacher integrate educational technology in the teaching of Reading, a teaching exemplar is provided and can be accessed through the i-teach.vibalpublishing.com portal. A teaching exemplar is an expanded lesson plan or a teaching guide for a lesson that is treated special because of its many possibilities for technology integration. In this grade level, the teaching exemplar is Lesson 4 (Message from a Painting) in Unit IV. The instructions in this manual are given under the assumption that the English classroom is provided with multimedia equipment which the teacher operates. Alternatively, the English lesson can be conducted in a school facility where there are a number of personal computers which have CD-ROM drives or are Internet-capable. In the event that the pupils have access to computers, in their homes or elsewhere, all they have to do is carry out the instructions in the CDROM box found on the first page of the lesson where there is e-learning integration. Pupils should be encouraged to run the CD-ROMs that go with their textbooks as a self-learning activity.The pupils can access the lessons through the i-learn.vibalpublishing.com. Once logged on at i-learn.vibalpublishing.com, click ENGLISH on the MYSUBJECTS panel, then, do the following instructions to access the activities.


4. Read the instruction and do the activity.

1. Select grade of ABRE textbook.

•

Clearly defined lesson objectives The lesson objectives are stated in behavioral and communicative terms identifying what the learners are expected to display after the learning experiences. Every lesson also provides for an objective focusing on the development of a desirable value or attitude. These values are identified in the accompanying Scope and Sequence Chart.

•

Explicit subject matter The lessons present a wide range of interesting reading materials in various genre: short stories, poems and verses, informational articles, legends and tales, plays, and many others which are rich in human and Christian values. In addition, each unit of lessons includes two or three skill lessons on specific target skills over other minor skills. This is to ensure concentration and mastery on the part of every learner.

•

Well-organized procedures for the day-to-day activities The procedure in each lesson suggests ways on how the activities should be carried out to attain the objectives set. It includes specific steps/instructions on strategies and techniques to employ, background information about the selections, and sample questions to start off discussion, or elicit responses to some questions or exercises. However, the teacher is free to make modifications, revisions, or adaptations of the procedures as may be deemed necessary.

2. Select the unit and lesson.

3. Click activity.

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The lesson parts in the Teacher’s Manual correspond to the lesson parts in the pupils’ worktext. The parts are as follows: A. Start with What You Know This is the first part of the lesson. It aims to activate the pupils’ prior knowledge or schema in different ways. The manual gives suggestions on how the schema is to be activated. B. Add to What You Know This part aims to provide the pupils with additional information that can assist them in better understanding the selection. The manual provides other information that the teacher can share with the pupils. C. Search for Correct Meaning In this section, various meaning-getting strategies which pupils can use in working on the lexical items in their texts are suggested. D. Set a Goal for Reading In this section, suggestions are given on how the motive question found in the pupils’ text is to be taken up. E. Read Different techniques in taking up the reading selection are suggested in this section. In most lessons, the pupils silently read the selection. The teacher is free to determine how the selection is to be dealt with, that is, to be read orally or silently, at home or in school. In two lessons in every unit, animated presentations of the selections may be used through the Reading Interactive CD-ROM. F. Share Your Ideas In this section, a number of questions are listed for the purpose of checking the pupils’ general comprehension of the selection. Other questions are included as prompts for the pupils to demonstrate their higher order thinking skills. The questions also serve as springboards for large and small group discussions of topics of interest to pupils of a particular level.

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G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills Various reading skills are taken up in this part of the lesson – vocabulary, comprehension, literary and/or study skills. This is a very important part of the lesson as it is here where the teacher teaches a particular skill through explicit direct instruction. Several exercises are provided where the teacher requires the pupils to apply the skill taught. H. Do What’s Right This is the values inculcation part of the lesson. Various strategies are suggested such as group discussions, role playing, interviewing resource persons, and doing library research. I. Make Connections Integration with the other areas in the curriculum is done in this section. Activities which can enhance the pupils’ cognitive, socio-affective, and affective competencies are suggested. J. Spin Off This section suggests various enrichment activities the pupils can engage in. Each unit ends with two sections, namely: • Skill Focus. This section in the pupils’ worktext provides detailed explanations of selected skills. Application exercises are also provided. In the manual, suggestions are given to the teacher on how to teach the skills. •

Linking Reading with Writing. This section provides opportunities for making the reading-writing connection. In grades three to six, the Genre-Process approach to teaching writing is used. The following are the steps in the approach: (1) Preparation, (2) Modeling and Reinforcing, (3) Planning, (4) Joint Constructing, (5) Independent Constructing, and (6) Revising. The Authors


Content and Objectives Outline Unit I Old-Time Favorites Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson 1 A Makebelieve Story

Alice in Wonderland (novel)

• Recognize personification • Use synonyms • Recall details in a story read • Infer character traits

• Exhibit a sense of humor

• Illustrating fairy tales

• Writing a reading report • Reading and enjoying a poem by Lewis Carroll

Lesson 2 Kindness to Animals

Black Beauty (novel)

• Deduce the meanings of words through context • Identify meanings and pronunciation of words • Recall details of a story read

• Show kindness to animals

• Knowing more about horses

• Writing a composition about the contribution of horses to the betterment of oneself

Lesson 3 A Fantastic Adventure

The Prince and the Pauper (novel)

• Deduce the meanings of words through context • Recall details of a story read

• Act justly

• Linking literature with history

• Reading the novel The Prince and the Pauper

Lesson 4 Two Fun Poems

Sliding, Hideout (poem)

• Deduce the meanings of words through context • Make inferences from a poem read • Determine words that rhyme

• Being a good sport

• Playing the game The Gift of Friendship

• Creating one’s own poem

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Lesson 5 The Need to Live

Robinson Crusoe (novel)

• Deduce the meanings of words through context • Use synonyms • Infer character traits • Recall details of a story read • Select the appropriate title of a given image

• Appreciate the gift of a comfortable life by being thankful

• Learning about different kinds of boats

• Writing a report on communication technology

Lesson 6 Shipwrecked!

Gulliver’s Travels (novel)

• Recognize context clues • Recognize true and false statements • Recall details of a story read

• Maintain a positive view of life

• Visualizing Gulliver’s travels

• Writing a paragraph on one’s reaction if in the place of Gulliver

Lesson 7 Living a Good Present to Have a Good Future

A Christmas Carol (novel)

• Use synonyms • Make inferences

• Use the present for a good future

• Raising funds through Christmas decorations

• Reading the novel A Christmas Carol • Drawing a timeline showing the events in A Christmas Story

Skill Focus • Meaning-getting and word formation • Using prefixes for meaning-getting and word formation • Using the dictionary • Stating the main idea of a set of paragraphs

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Linking Reading with Writing Writing a book review


Unit II Wonders of Nature Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson 1 Nature and Its Mystery

Isn’t It a Wonder (poem)

• Identify homonyms • Deduce the meanings of words through context • Make inferences from a poem read • Identify major and minor ideas

• Thank God for His Goodness

• Becoming aware of the mysteries of nature through science

• Writing a paragraph of thanksgiving to God

Lesson 2 Save Wildlife, Save Ourselves

Wildlife in Danger (informative article)

• Get the meanings of words with multiple meanings • Determine the topics and main ideas of paragraphs • Recall details of an informative article

• Care for wild animals

• Saving our endangered animals

• Writing about ways wild animals can be of benefit to humans

Lesson 3 A Heavenly Wonder

Aurora (poem)

• Classify synonyms • Interpret a poem

• Appreciate heavenly wonders

• Learning more about auroras

• Doing research on myths about the Goddess Aurora • Researching on scientific explanation for natural phenomena

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Lesson 4 Wonders of the World

Wind (poem)

• Determine the meaning and pronunciation of homographs • Deduce the meaning of words through context • Infer the meanings of poetic passages

• Cope with the “winds of change”

• Learning more about the wind

• Drawing the effects of a gentle and of a strong wind • Writing a poem about a thing of nature

Lesson 5 Keeping Our Waters Pollutant Free

Water Pollution (informative article)

• Give the meanings of terms related to pollution • Use context clues for meaninggetting • Recall details of an informative article • Identify supporting details

• Value our water resources

• Undertaking a project on water pollution

• Designing a poster, a collage, or a web page on the theme “The Best Things in Life Are Free”

Lesson 6 Regaining Our Fishing Grounds

Losing Paradise (informative article)

• Get word meanings through context clues • Recall details of an informative article

• Respect nature

• Regulating the fishing industry

• Drawing a good way of catching fish and writing about it • Composing a poem or a paragraph about losing and regaining “paradise”

Lesson 7 A Message from a Butterfly

Alley at the Back of Things (play)

• Getting the meanings of compound words • Use context clues for meaninggetting

• Value small animals

• Illustrating the metamorphosis of a butterfly

• Doing research and writing about butterflies


• Sequence events • Infer feelings or emotions • Recall details of a play read • Infer character traits Skill Focus • Identifying synonyms and antonyms • Using library resourses effectively • Using general references in the library • Making an outline

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing a description

Unit III Turning Points Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Make Connections (Content Integration)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson 1 A Time Machine Experience

What Time Is It? (short story)

• Recognize correct and wrong statements • Recognize vivid words • Scanning a story for details

• Demonstrate presence of mind

• Doing research on research

• Comparing the present with the future in terms of specific points

Lesson 2 The Filipino Ingenuity

Bonifacio Isidro: Inventor and Entrepreneur (biography)

• Use idiomatic expressions • Evaluate sentence meaning • Recall details of a story read

• Show initiative and resourcefulness

• Knowing discoverers and inventors

• Presenting a “Discoveries and Discoverers” ; “Inventions and Inventors” exhibit

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Lesson 3 Innovations: Boon and Bane

Brother ATM (dialogue)

• Use idiomatic expressions • Use similes • Recall details of a dialogue read

• Practice honesty

• Using an ATM card

• Writing experiences with the ATM

Lesson 4 A Step Forward for Humankind

Archimedes and His Great Discovery (informative article)

• Deduce the meanings of phrases through context • Evaluate sentence meaning • Identify supporting details • Recall details of a story read

• Develop an inquisitive mind

• Knowing more about Archimedes

• Doing a research on Thomas Edison

Lesson 5 Plastics: Useful and Harmful

The Story of Plastics (informative article)

• Name a word referred to • Sequence events • Recall details

• Dispose of plastics properly

• Researching on the advantages and disadvantages of plastics

• Making posters on proper disposal of plastics

Lesson 6 Modern Communications

The Television (poem)

• Use words with similar meanings • Learning words related to television • Interpret details of a poem read

• Practice television-viewing in moderation

• Knowing more about the television

• Writing a hypothetical conversation with a television

Lesson 7 The Prolific Tilapia

A Turning Point for Tilapia Culture (informative article)

• Identify the meanings of words • Recall details of a story • Infer character traits

• Being a good role model

• Knowing more about aquaculture

• Researching and writing about people who were successful in life

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Skill Focus • Getting meanings of homographs • Getting information from newspapers • Noting cause-effect relationships

Linking Reading with Writing • Writing about “How Something Came to Be”

Unit IV Experiencing the Arts Sharpen Your Reading Skills (Objectives)

Do What’s Right (Values)

Spin Off (Enrichment Activities)

Lesson Number and Title

Reading Selection/ Text

Lesson 1 Music, the Language of the Soul

The Notes of Note-Re Dame (short story)

• Use words that are of similar meanings • Recall details of a story read

• Be in harmony with others

• Using musical expressions

• Doing research on the life of a wellknown Filipino composer

Lesson 2 A Way to Instill Disipline

The Gift of Dance (third-person account)

• Use synonyms • Evaluate ideas • Recall details of a story read

• Show selfdiscipline

• Familiarizing oneself with ballet

• Doing research on a Filipino ballet dancer

Lesson 3 Gifts from the Earth

Sculpturing (informative article)

• Identify words with multiple meanings • Recall details of a selection read • Sequence actions

• Create something with one’s mind and heart

• Using different media for the arts

• Writing a paragraph on one’s choice of medium for a sculpture

Lesson 4 Message from a Painting

The Painting (short story)

• Determine the right words to be used in sentences

• See different scenes in a painting

• Trying to paint

• Writing about a painting

Make Connections (Content Integration)

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• Identify the synonyms in a narration • Note details of a story read • Select the appropriate title of a given image Lesson 5 The Unread Lines of Poetry

The Language of Poetry (informative article)

• Determine the meanings of words used • Recall details of a poem read

• Appreciate poetry

• Knowing about the white seal

• Reading a poem and interpreting it in pictures or in words

Lesson 6 The Haiku

The Memory of Beauty (thirdperson account)

• Identify synonyms • Recall details of a story read • Understand haikus

• Overcome difficulties

• Expressing oneself through a haiku

• Writing a haiku

Lesson 7 Painters of Rural Philippines

Fernando Cueto Amorsolo, Mauro Malang Santos, Jun Martinez (biography)

• Evaluate sentences • Recall details of a selection read

• Remember our past culture

• Visiting a painting exhibit

• Writing about commitment and dedication to attain one’s goal

Skill Focus • Using figures of speech • Following directions

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Linking Reading with Writing • Writing a poem


Table of Specifications (Pretest, Posttest) No. of Items

Item Placement Pretest

Posttest

Part I: Vocabulary and Study Skills

3. Identify the main idea in a group of paragraphs

3

46, 47, 48

46, 47, 48

4. Identify major and minor ideas

2

59, 60

59, 60

5. Determine the main idea

2

50, 51

50, 51

6. Identify traits

1

52

52

7. Sequence events to their order

5

41, 42, 43 44, 45

41, 42, 43 44, 45

1. Deduce the meanings of words through context

4

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3, 4

2. Identify homonyms

3

5, 6, 7

5, 6, 7

8. Infer feeling or emotion

1

49

49

3. Recall details of the poem read

2

26, 27

26, 27

9. Identify supporting details

3

53, 54, 55

53, 54, 55

4. Determine words that rhyme

2

28, 29

28, 29

3

56, 57, 58

56, 57, 58

5

4

8, 9, 10, 11

8, 9, 10, 11 60

60

60

6. Decode words through affixes

2

12, 13

12, 13

7. Identify words with multiple meanings

2

14, 15

14, 15

8. Get meanings of compound words

3

16, 17, 18

16, 17, 18

9. Use idiomatic expressions

3

19, 20, 21

19, 20, 21

10. Use similes

4

22, 23, 30, 31

22, 23, 30, 31

11. Determine meanings of words with double meanings

2

24, 25

24, 25

12. Identify personification

2

32, 33

32, 33

1. Recall details in the story read

5

34, 35, 36, 37, 38

34, 35, 36, 37, 38

2. Infer character traits

2

39, 40

39, 40

Identify synonyms and antonyms

10. Note cause-effect relationship Total

Part II: Comprehension

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Pretest/Posttest I. Vocabulary and Study Skills Answer each number correctly. Write the letter only. Replace the italicized expressions with the correct words from the box. a. steep b. vanished

c. shrink d. grove

____ 1. The mountain climbers were climbing a high and sharply sloping mountain. ____ 2. My brother’s shirt became smaller when washed. ____ 3. A newly painted house was built under a group of trees near a river. ____ 4. The mist disappeared in the air. Fill in the blank with the correct homonym. 5. The ________ of the estate is standing outside in order to breathe fresh ________. a. air b. heir 6. She ________ at the visitors as they go up the ________. a. stairs b. stares 7. They ________ all the ________ slices of cakes on the table. a. eight b. ate Which words are synonyms? Circle the letter of your answer. 8. The young men and women were strolling in the park. They enjoyed walking and chatting. a. chatting – eating c. strolling – walking b. young – old 9. The bewildered son was seeking the help of his confused parents. a. seeking – help c. bewildered – parents b. bewildered – confused

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Which words are antonyms? Check the letter of your answer. 10. Bobby wore his fake watch. His genuine one was kept in his cabinet. a. fake – genuine c. genuine – watch b. fake – watch 11. I want to begin working with others. I don’t want the management to terminate me. a. begin – working c. terminate – management b. begin – terminate Give the meaning of the word with a prefix in each sentence. 12. The microorganisms are being studied by the pupils. Microorganisms mean – a. small organisms c. newly-discovered b. big organisms organisms 13. The actor appears on the stage. He reappears and takes another bow. Reappear means – a. to appear later c. to appear again b. stop appearing Match the italicized word with its meaning in the box. Write the letter only. a. a small tear caused by unravelled thread b. go swiftly ____ 14. I have to run home. Mother is waiting for me. ____ 15. There’s a run on my knitted skirt. What compound word is referred to in each definition? Write your answers on the blank. 16. The fireman’s clothes are impossible to be destroyed by fire. It is ________. a. firewood b. fireproof c. fire drill 17. We gathered some pieces of wood drifting in the water or washed ashore. They are ________. a. driftwood b. past c. lumber


18. We are Filipinos and we obey the laws of our country. We are ________ citizens. a. lawyer b. law breaker c. law-abiding Which idiomatic expression means the same with the italicized phrase? Choose the answer from the box. a. a field day b. easy come, easy go

c. cool as a cucumber

____ 19. She was very calm when she received her award. ____ 20. Andrew had the opportunity of playing all the toys to himself. ____ 21. You spend all your money in one morninh? Complete the simile with the appropriate word. 22. The white clouds are like ________ in the sky. a. sheep b. leaves c. stones 23. Her gown is as colorful as a ________. a. paint b. rainbow c. flowers Use the correct stressed word in the blank. 24. Do you object to use an ________ for the examination? a. object' b. ob'ject 25. It takes only a ________ to read the minute detail of the information. a. min'ute b. minute' Read the short poem. Answer the questions that follow. Circle the letter of your answer. The Wind I saw you toss the kites on high And blow the birds about the sky; And all around I heard you pass, Like ladies’ skirts across the grass O Wind, a-blowing all day long, O Wind, that sings so loud a song!

26. Which line in the poem tells what the wind does to the kites? a. and all around I heard you pass b. I saw you toss the kites on high. c. Like ladies’ skirts across the grass. 27. Which line tells what the wind does to the birds? a. I saw you toss the kites on high. b. And blow the birds about the sky. c. O Wind, a-blowing all day long. 28. Which word rhymes with pass? a. long b. song c. grass 29. Which word rhymes with sky? a. high b. song c. grass 30. Which line shows personification? a. O Wind, a-blowing all day long. b. O Wind, that sings so loud a song! 31. Which figure of speech is used in these lines? And all around, I heard you pass Like ladies’ skirts across the grass. a. metaphor b. simile c. personification 32. Which section of a newspaper would you most likely read about a very strong wind and rain that become a very strong typhoon? a. front page b. editorial c. classified ads 33. Which library resource would you look up for more information about wind? a. atlas b. dictionary c. encyclopedia II. Comprehension Read the selection. Then amswer the questions that follow. “Rosaura! Rosaura!” If you were tall enough, you might have seen a little splash of red in the tall grass. And if you had looked closer you might have seen a small girl wearing a red hair ribbon.

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Rosaura was hiding from her mother and father. Hide and seek was her favorite game. She crouched quietly, listening to the faint sound of her mother’s voice. All Rosaura could see were the swaying green stalks of the corn. They rustled above her head where the sky stretched clear and blue. Suddenly a bright yellow butterfly darted by. Rosaura jumped up to chase the butterfly forgetting all about the hiding game. “Rosaura! There you are,” called her mother. “It’s time for lunch.” It was dark and cool in the cottage where Rosaura lived with her parents. Rosaura ate her meal quickly. She wanted to go back into the sunshine to play as soon as she had finished her food. “Rosaura, where are you going?” called her mother. She caught a glimpse of Rosaura’s red ribbon disappearing around the door. But Rosaura was already through the gate, and heading for the fields. “Rosaura! Rosaura!” An excerpt from a folktale of Chile

Complete the following sentences. Circle the letter of your answer. 34. Rosaura was a ________ girl. a. big b. small c. tall 35. She wore a ________ on her hair. a. blue ribbon b. red ribbon c. pink ribbon 36. Rosaura loved to go ________ from her mother and father. a. swinging b. climbing c. hiding 37. She would hide among the green stalks of the ________. a. rice b. corn c. wheat 38. Rosaura saw a ________ and chased it. a. grasshopper b. dragonfly c. butterfly 39. Which statement tells about Rosaura? a. She is hardworking. b. She is lazy. c. She enjoys playing on the field.

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40. Which statement tells about Rosaura’s parents? a. They are happy for her and they love her. b. They are cranky parents. c. They often leave Rosaura alone in the field. Arrange the events in sequence as they happened in the story. Answer with a, b, c, d, and e with a being the first to happen and e the last. 41. ____ She chased the yellow butterfly that darted by. 42. ____ After eating, she was heading for the fields again. 43. ____ She had lunch with her parents. 44. ____ Rosaura was a small girl with red ribbon. 45. ____ She loved to play hiding with her father and mother. 46. What is the main idea of the first paragraph? a. She was a tall girl. b. A small girl with red ribbon. c. A red ribbon 47. What is the main idea of the second paragraph? a. Rosaura was hiding among the green stalks. b. The swaying green stalks c. The yellow butterfly 48. What is the main idea of the third paragraph? a. The family were having lunch. b. She slipped down from her chair. c. The cottage was dark and cool. 49. Why did Rosaura run back into the fields? a. She wanted to rest. b. She wanted to play again. c. She was sleeping. Read the paragraphs. Answer the questions that follow. King Midas was a hopeless king. He spent his days listening to his friends, the satyrs. Midas liked to hear stories with happy endings, especially ones where the hero became rich and had piles of glittering yellow gold.


50. What is the paragraph all about ________? a. King Midas c. Satyr b. King Solomon 51. What is the topic sentence? a. He spent time with his friends. b. He wanted to become rich. c. King Midas was a hopeless king.

Give the correct effect from each cause a. because it turned into gold. b. because he had nothing to eat. c. because the water turned into a thick, liquid gold that half choked him. 56. 57. 58. 59.

King Midas was hungry– He couldn’t eat the crusty bread– He tried to drink, but it gave him a panic– Which is the main idea? a. King Midas was hungry and thirsty. b. The crusty bread turned into gold. c. The water he tried to drink turned into thich, liquid gold. 60. Which is the minor idea? a. The bushes turned into sprays of fine gold. b. King Midas was a hooeless king. c. King Midas touched everything into gold.

King Midas could hardly wait. He ran back down the mountain. Was it true? Yes! The bushes that he plunged his hands into became sprays of fine gold. He ran on through the woods. Whooping and whacking the tree trunks as he passed. He could own a whole forest of gold!

52. a. b. c.

What character trait did King Midas show? He was cruel. He was greedy because of gold. He was generous.

Choose the supporting ideas for the main topic Whatever King Midas touched. 53. ____ a. The bushes that he touched became sprays of fine gold. 54. ____ b. The trees were cut down. 55. ____ c. The tree trunks became gold. d. He could own a whole forest of gold. e. The leaves of trees were still green. King Midas was a very hungry by the time he got back to the palace. He hurried into the kitchen to find a delicious, fresh, crusty bread on the table. Midas tore off a hunk to eat. But halfway to his mouth, he almost dropped it. The bread turned to solid gold. When Midas tried to drink, his mouth was filled with thick, liquid gold that he spat out in a panic, half-choked.

Key to Correction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

a c d b b a b c b b a a c b a

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

b a c c a b a b b a a b c a b

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

b a c b b c b c c a c e d a b

46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

b a c b a c b a c d b a c a a

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Table of Contents Unit

I

Old-time Favorites..............................................................2

Lesson 1 A Make-believe Story ....................................................... 2 Alice in Wonderland (novel) Lesson 2 Kindness to Animals......................................................... 5 Black Beauty (novel) Lesson 3 A Fantastic Adventure ...................................................... 8 The Prince and the Pauper (novel) Lesson 4 Two Fun Poems ............................................................. 10 Sliding; Hideout (poems) Lesson 5 The Need to Live ........................................................... 12 Robinson Crusoe (novel) Lesson 6 Shipwrecked! ................................................................. 15 Gulliver’s Travels (novel) ............................................................... Lesson 7 Living a Good Present to Have a Good Future ............... 18 A Christmas Carol (novel)

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Unit

II

Wonders of Nature...........................................................25

Lesson 1 Nature and Its Mystery .................................................. 25 Isn’t It a Wonder (poem) Lesson 2 Save Wildlife, Save Ourselves ........................................ 29 Wildlife in Danger! (informative article) Lesson 3 A Heavenly Wonder........................................................ 32 Aurora (poem) Lesson 4 Wonders of the Wind ..................................................... 34 Wind (poem) Lesson 5 Keeping Our Waters Pollutant Free ............................... 37 Water Pollution (informative article) Lesson 6 Regaining Our Fishing Grounds .................................... 39 Losing Paradise (informative article) Lesson 7 A Message from a Butterfly ............................................ 42 Alley at the Back of Things (play)

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 20

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 47

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 23

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 49


Unit

III

Turning Points ...................................................................51

Lesson 1 A Time Machine Experience ......................................... 51 What Time Is It? (short story) Lesson 2 The Filipino Ingenuity ................................................... 53 Bonifaco Isidro: Inventor and Entrepreneur (biography) Lesson 3 Innovations: Boon and Bane .......................................... 56 Brother ATM (dialogue) Lesson 4 A Step Forward for Humankind ..................................... 58 Archimedes and His Great Discovery (informative article) Lesson 5 Plastics: Useful and Harmful ......................................... 61 The Story of Plastics (informative article) Lesson 6 Modern Communications .............................................. 64 The Television (poem) Lesson 7 The Prolific Tilapia ........................................................ 67 A Turning Point for Tilapia Culture (informative article)

Unit

IV Experiencing the Arts.......................................................72

Lesson 1 Music, the Language of the Soul ................................... 73 The Notes of Note-Re Dame (short story) Lesson 2 A Way to Instill Discipline.............................................. 74 The Gift of Dance (short story) Lesson 3 Gifts from the Earth ...................................................... 76 Sculpturing (informative article) Lesson 4 Message from a Painting ................................................ 79 The Painting (short story) Lesson 5 The Unread Lines of Poetry ........................................... 81 The Language of Poetry (informative article) Lesson 6 The Haiku...................................................................... 82 The Memory of Beauty (third-person account) Lesson 7 Painters of Rural Philippines ......................................... 84 Fernando Cueto Amorsolo, First National Artist Awardee,1972, Mauro Malang Santos, and Jun Martinez (biography)

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 70

Skill Focus ...................................................................................... 86

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 71

Linking Reading with Writing ......................................................... 87 VPHI Feedback Form for Evaluating Textbooks and Teacher’s Manuals .............................................................. 89

xxi 1


UNIT

I Old-time Favorites

Show the pupils the different book jackets about children’s fairy tales. Tell them that we call these stories as old-time favorites because children and even old ones love reading these stories. Have the class open their books to page 2. Ask them to read the unit title. Ask them: “What do the pictures show?” Have them share some of their adventures and what made these experiences memorable to them. Have the pupils read the poem. Ask: “What do hunters do? What makes hunting an adventure? Why is traveling considered an adventure?” Let the pupils be aware that life itself is an adventure. Tomorrow always brings a surprise to us. Many of the events in our lives are unexpected. Let them also be aware that this unit will discuss stories of different adventures of people from different lands.

LESSON

1 A Make-believe Story No. of Teaching Hours: 5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce meanings of words through context 2. Use synonyms correctly in sentences B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recognize personification in a story 2. Recall details in a story read C. Values 1. Be appreciative of creativity 2. Demonstrate a sense of humor

II. Subject Matter Selection: Alice in Wonderland (short story)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 3-13 Books and book jackets of children’s fairy tales displayed on tagboard CD-ROM 6 A picture of Alice with the other characters in the story Alice in Wonderland IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils what make-believe or imaginary stories they are familiar with. Have them tell about these stories briefly. Ask them how they know these are just make-believe stories. Show the books or book jackets to the class. Have the pupils read the titles of the books jackets. Ask: “Which of the make-believe stories do you know?”. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section. Then, ask the pupils to answer the following questions: • What is a fantasy? • What is the purpose of a fantasy? C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases. Direct the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell them to look out for these phrases as they read the selection. Tell them that they will get the meanings of the italicized words from context. D. Set a Goal for Reading Before telling the pupils to read the story, ask: “What makes the story a fantasy.” Tell them that they will answer this question after they have read the story. Ask the pupils to read the boxed text at the bottom of page 3. Check comprehension by asking them to answer the following questions. • Who is the author of the story?


What is meant by pseudonym?

How did he come to write Alice in Wonderland?

What other stories did he write?

Let the pupils know that the story they will read is an excerpt or part of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Recall what personification is. Tell the class that as they read the story, they will try to find out how personification is used in the story. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that these are additional questions they will answer after they have answered the question in Set a Goal for Reading. E. Read Have the pupils read the selection silently.

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Recognizing Personification Ask the pupils to think about the story they have just read. What strange quality did they notice about the rabbit and the doorknob? The boxed sentences will help them find the correct answer. Have the class take note that the rabbit wore clothes as though it were a person. Have them note further that both the rabbit and the doorknob could talk. The rabbit and doorknob were given the qualities of a person. Tell the pupils that the technique of giving human qualities to an object, an animal, or an idea is called personification. Take up the other illustrative examples of personification. Emphasize that personification is a figure of speech that gives human qualities to an animal, an object, or an idea. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 7 and 8. The expected answers are: _✓_ _✓_

1. feeling of loneliness (of the elephant) 2. feeling tired, growing up, shivering in the night, feeling lonely (of the skyscrapers) _✓_ 3. a brown bird singing; the wind sighing and tossing the grasses; the rainbow holding outits hand;the leaves calling out none 4. _✓_ 5. the moon walking in the night, peering and seeing slver fruit upon silver trees none 6. _✓_ 7. night doing the acts of trading, learning, pawning, swooning, and dying _✓_ 8. the sea laughs, sobs, and sleeps _✓_ 9. the wind talking to the leaves _✓_ 10. the animals having a meeting

F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to check comprehension. •

What happened while Alice was perched on the crook of a big oak tree?

Why did she follow the white rabbit?

How did she get into the bottom of the hole?

How did she become a giant? How did she become so tiny? Did she ever return to her own size?

Did Alice find the white rabbit? Support your answer.

Recall the motive question and have a class discussion of why the story is a fantasy. Then, have the class form four groups. Have each group select a discussion leader and a recorder. Assign one question to each group. Have the groups engage in group discussions to answer the questions assigned to them. The recorder records the results of the discussion and then present the results of the discussion to the class.

Using Synonyms Remind the pupils that synonyms are words which mean nearly the same as each other; some synonyms can be used in place of each other, but some cannot.

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Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 9-10. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. hedges 6. crook 2. vanished 7. perch 3. shrink 8. bounced 4. bragging 9. toss 5. shutter 10. searched Exercise B 1. Yes 2. Yes 3. Yes 4. Yes 5. No

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Recalling Details in a Story Read Make sure the pupils understand that details are small bits of information in a piece of writing; some details in a story are important, while others are not too important. Explain that a reader must take note of the important details in a piece of writing and he/she has to remember them in order to recall them later. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 10-11. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. a 5. b 2. d 6. a 3. b 7. b 4. b 8. a

1. True

6. False

2. False

7. False

3. True

8. False

4. True

9. True

5. True

10. True

Provide more practice on the skill of inferring character traits. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Old-time Favorites, then, Alice in Wonderland, then, Inferring Character Traits. For each item, the pupils will read an excerpt from the selection. Then, they will click on the trait that the character reveals based on the given excerpt.

No Yes No No Yes

Give the pupils further practice on the skill of inferring character traits. Instruct the pupils to run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Old Time Favorites, then, Alice in Wonderland, then, Inferring Character Traits. For each item, pupils will read an excerpt from the selection. Then, they should click on the trait that the character reveals based on the given excerpt. •

Exercise B

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Old-time Favorites, then, Alice in Wonderland then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence based on the selection. Pupils then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. H. Do What’s Right •

Having a Sense of Humor Ask the pupils if they found the story humorous. Explain that if they did, they are said to have a keen sense of humor. Tell them that having a keen sense of humor is important to make one’s life more pleasant. As the popular saying goes, “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” Tell them that when we do not know how to laugh and when to laugh, people will find us dull and uninteresting. Tell the pupils that some stories are written to make people enjoy literature. They need not be true, but we find pleasure in reading literature. Have the pupils work on the task on page 12. Have the pupils bring to class a humorous story and share it with their classmates.


I. Make Connections •

LESSON

Illustrating Fairy Tales Make sure that the pupils understand that fairy tales are figments of the imagination. They are not really true. They are fantasies. The reader usually takes off from what is real to what is imaginative. Fairy tales have a way of enriching and developing the creative thinking of the readers. Point out to the pupils that pictures that go with fairy tales are of different kinds. Show some examples. Tell the class that many have details that make the reader realize that the story is fantasy. Ask the pupils if they have books of fairy tales at home. Tell them to look at the pictures and examine the details in the pictures that let them realize that the story is a fantasy. Have the pupils work on the task on page 12. Tell them to put their drawings together, arranging them in the order of the scenes in the story. They can then make an Alice in Wonderland picture book.

J. Spin Off Have the pupils write a reading report about Alice’s other adventures in the strange place. Tell them to read Alice in Wonderland or Through the Looking Glass. Ask them to find out: “Will Alice be able to go home?” Have the pupils read the poem Jabberwocky (An Excerpt). The pupils will enjoy reading the poem with many invented words with no meanings at all. It is a well-enjoyed poem because of its rhyme and rhythm.

2 Kindness to Animals No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meanings of words through context 2. Identify meanings and pronunciation of words B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall the important details of a story read C. Values/Science Illustrate kindness to animals

II. Subject Matter Selection: Black Beauty (novel) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 14-23 Pictures of horses showing how they help people in different ways IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils pictures of horses. Have the pupils tell which of the pictures show how horses are used in the community. Have the pupils read the two questions in this section and have a class discussion on the two questions. Point out that some horses are used for transportation, especially in places where there are no roads/ cars. Others are used for horse racing. This would be an opportunity for the pupils to discuss ways of treating horses properly, e.g. not overworking them, giving them enough hay and water, giving them adequate shelter and not whipping or beating them.

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B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the short paragraph in this section. Ask the pupils to name some places where the horse-drawn rig is still a common means of transportation. Have them point out the advantages/disadvantages of using horses as a means of transportation. For example, horse-drawn rigs do not consume gasoline, so we don’t need to use up money for transportation. On the other hand, the horse is a slower means of transportation and will not be able to cover far distances the way cars can. Besides, horses dirty up the streets with their manure. C. Search for Correct Meaning Tell the pupils to use a dictionary to get the meaning of the italicized word in each phrase. Give an exercise similar to the following: Replace the underlined words with one from the study words. 1. The mountain climbers had to hold on to sharp rocks as they climbed the high and sharply sloping mountain. 2. The cottage was hidden behind a group of trees. 3. Young horses sleep beside their mothers. 4. Horses that are not used to wearing head harness may rear up and charge. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to read the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Ask the following questions to check comprehension: • Who is the author of the story? • Why did she write about horses? Have the pupils read the motive question. Tell the pupils that they will answer the question after they have read the story. Then, have them read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to keep the questions in mind as they read the story so they can answer them later. Tell the pupils that the story they will read is about a horse, at the time when cars were not available yet. E. Read Ask the pupils to read the story silently.

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F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to check comprehension: • Why was the young horse named Black Beauty? • How did Black Beauty know that there was something wrong with the low bridge? • Why did Black Beauty get sick? • Why did he feel sad at the end of the story? Have the pupils recall the motive question. Have a class discussion of the question. Have the pupils form five groups. Have each group select a leader and a recorder. Assign a question to each group. The leader leads the discussion and the recorder records the results of the discussion. Have each group present to the class the results of their group work. This may be followed by a class discussion and evaluation of the responses. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing the Meanings of Words Through Context Make the pupils understand that when they deduce or get the meanings of words through context, they should be able to determine how such unfamiliar words are used in a sentence or sentences. Sometimes the words surrounding the said word “give away” the meanings of the word. Take up the exercise on page 18 with the class. Have the pupils identify the words in each sentence that serve as context clues that can enable a reader to get the meaning of the informative word. The expected answers are: 1. group 2. high and sharply sloping 3. young horses 4. seat on a horses’ back 5. head harness 6. a vehicle pulled by horses 7. porridge 8. get 9. took care 10. a kind of hard black wood


Identify Meanings and Pronunciation of Words Emphasize to the pupils that it is important for them to know the meanings of the words they use. Aside from knowing their meanings, it is also a must that they know their correct pronunciation. Pronunciation errors may lead to differences in meaning. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 19. The expected answers are: 1. grove; groove group of trees; a narrow passage 2. steep; step high and sharply sloping; a short movement with foot 3. carriage; courage a vehicle pulled by a horse; ability to face danger without being overcome by fear 4. break; brick to become damaged and separate into pieces; a hard block 5. stamping; stomping to bang a foot down forcibly; to walk with heavy steps Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that a good reader should be able to identify which details of a piece of writing are important and which ones are not too important. The important details have to be remembered for use at a later time. Have the pupils work on exercises A and B on pages 19-22. The expected answer are: Exercise A 1. b 6. d 2. c 7. a 3. d 8. a 4. a 9. b 5. d 10. b

Exercise B 1. d 2. d 3. a 4. a 5. b

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a c a d d

H. Do What’s Right • Showing Kindness to Animals Have the pupils read the popular rhyme “I Had a Little Pony.” Conduct a class discusion to answer the three questions. The first and second questions show how Dapple Gray was cruelly treated. The third question elicits suggestions on how kindness should be shown to horses and other animals. Have the pupils work on the task on page 23. Knowing More About Horses Have the pupils answer the questions on the importance of horses. Have them work on the research task given on page 23. Ask the pupils to share their findings with their classmates. J. Spin Off Tell the pupils that horses, like other animals, have many uses. In the field of medicine and science, horses are used to produce anti-venom medicine used on patients bitten by snakes. Snake venom is injected on animals such as horses, rabbits, sheep, and goats which produce antibodies used for the production of snake anti-venom. Have the pupils think of the most important contribution of horses to them. Ask them to develop this into a short paragraph with the title: Horses: Their Importance to Me This activity aims to develop the pupils’ love for reading good books and to make them become more kind and thoughtful to animals.

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LESSON

3 A Fantastic Adventure No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Deduce meanings of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall details of a story read C. Values Illustrate the importance of respect for a person’s dignity

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Prince and the Pauper (novel) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 24-31 Pictures of a prince and of a pauper A picture of a royal family IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they have watched the movie The King and I. Tell them that the movie shows life in a royal palace. Show to the pupils other pictures of royal families. Tell them to ask questions about the pictures. Call on volunteers to answer the questions before you answer them. Ask the pupils to read and answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the short paragraph in this section. Stress the idea that to an onlooker, the other side of the fence may look greener and better. Being a member of a royal family may seem fantastic, but the members are bound by strict rules which restrict their freedom. On the other hand, ordinary citizens may

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enjoy freedom, but may not have enough money to enjoy the things money can buy. Have the class read the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check comprehension by asking the pupils the following questions: • Why were kings and their families treated differently from others a long time ago? • Do they still enjoy the same treatment today? Explain. • Who is the author of the story? What other story written by this author have you read? C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Have them look out for these words as they read the selection. Ask them to get from context the meanings of the italicized words. If they fail to get the meanings of the unfamiliar words, have them use the dictionary. Ask the pupils to look for the meaning of the word offal. Have them infer why the place where Tom lived was called Offal Court. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions in this section. Let them be aware of the meaning of pauper (very poor). Have them study the illustration and the title on page 25. Have them note the clothing worn by each, and identify who the pauper is and who the prince is. Ask them what else in the picture shows who the pauper is. (The pauper is eating the food greedily, an indication that he must be very hungry.) Tell the pupils to remember the important details as they read the selection. Then, ask them to read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Let them be aware that they will answer these questions after they have read the story. E. Read Have the pupils read the excerpt silently. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the following questions to find out whether or not they understood the story.


• • • •

Who was the pauper in the story? What was he thinking of as he wandered in the city? Why were the people near the gilded gate? Why did the Prince want to be a beggar for just a day? Why did Tom want to be prince for a day? • How do you think did the prince feel when he was treated like a beggar by his soldiers and the cheering crowd? Have a class discussion of the motive questions. Then, have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Questions 1 and 2 develop the pupils’ ability to recall details. Question 3 allows them to infer character traits from a character’s words and actions. Question 4 develops the ability to make conclusions based on details. The discussion to this question should bring out the idea that the prince envies the pauper Tom because of the freedom Tom and his friend enjoy in playing rough games. Ask the pupils to read the sentences which show that the prince would like very much to do what Tom does with his friends (page 26). (“I’d like to do that, too.” “Oh, it’s glorious!” “If I could only wear…”) Have the pupils read the part in the story which shows that Tom envies the prince for the splendor of his clothes. Question 5 requires the pupils to predict an outcome when the prince went out of the gate dressed in a pauper’s clothes. Question 6 develops their ability to evaluate whether or not it is realistic for a rich boy to want to change places with a poor boy. For a culminating activity, have the pupils form four groups. Each group will select a leader. Group 1 will dramatize the story, Group 2 will draw pictures of the different members of the royalty, Group 3 will compose a song about the prince and the pauper. They may use a popular song for the melody, and Group 4 will present a dance number using the costumes of a prince and a pauper. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that when they deduce the meaning of a certain word, they try to derive its meaning by reasoning or inferring. This is done by studying how the word is used in a sentence. Other words in the sentence can lead to the meaning of the unfamiliar word.

Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 28-29. The expected answers are: 1. b 6. d 2. a 7. b 3. b 8. c 4. b 9. c 5. a 10. d •

Recalling Details of a Story Read Point out to the pupils that details are bits of information in a piece of writing. Details which have been remembered may be recalled at a later time. Have the pupils work on exercises A-C on page 30. The expected answers are: Exercise A Check sentences 1,2,3,4, and 5. Exercise B 1. a. sympathy for the poor 2. d. He is kind. Exercise C Prince Prince of limitless plenty Live in limitless plenty His royal highness Prince of Wales

Tom Prince of poverty Live in offal court beggars spawn Prince of pauperdom

H. Do What’s Right • Acting Justly Tell the pupils that in the story they have read, they learn that somehow people could be unjust especially to the poor. Ask them if they can cite cases of injustice in their community and in the country. Ask:“What causes injustice.” Divide the class into several groups. Have each group discuss the situation given.

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I. Make Connections • Linking Literature with History Tell the pupils that some stories are linked with history. Realistic stories based on historical facts are called historical fiction. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 31. Have the class do a research on Edward Tudor VI of England and his father. Ask them to share their findings with their classmates. J. Spin Off Have the pupils find the answers to the questions by reading the novel “The Prince and the Pauper.” They may also watch the movie version, if available. This activity aims to develop in the pupils a love for reading good books. For a culminating activity, have the pupils form four groups. Each group will select a leader. Group 1 will dramatize the story, Group 2 will draw pictures of the different members of the royalty, Group 3 will compose a song about the prince and the pauper. They may use a popular song for the melody, and Group 4 will present a dance number using the costumes of a prince and a pauper.

LESSON

4 Two Fun Poems No. of Teaching Hours: 5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Deduce the meanings of words through context Determine words that rhyme B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Make inferences from a poem read C. Values Demonstrate sportsmanship through desirable actions

II. Subject Matter Selections: Sliding; Hideout (poems)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 32-39 Pictures of a slide and an oak tree Pictures of children doing all sorts of recreation IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of children engaged in different kinds of recreational activities. Have the pupils identify each recreational activity. Ask them what they do for fun. Have the pupils tell about these fun activities. Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Have them tell about the fun activities they engage in after school and after working at home. Have them tell why they like these activities. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the short paragraph in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check on comprehension by asking the following questions: • What is another word for doing things for fun? • Why is recreation good for health? • What are the two forms of recreation? Which of these two do you prefer? Why? Have the pupils give other examples of passive recreation and of active recreation. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the italicized words in the phrases. Ask them which words they know. Remind the pupils that they can infer the meanings of these words from context. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils look at the pictures on page 33, then let them read the titles of the two poems. Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Ask them to look for the answer to this question in the poems they will


read. Tell the class to make inferences on the poem they will read. Tell the class to also read the questions in Share Your Ideas. They will answer these questions after they have read the story. E. Read Read the first poem to the pupils. Ask them what game/activity is the poem about. Then, have the pupils read the poem in unison. Check the pupils’ understanding of pop. Compare the action to that of bread in a bread toaster. Ask them if they play on a slide in the same way as that expressed in the poem. Have the pupils tell what feeling they get when they play on a slide. Have the pupils look at the second picture again. Ask what the poem may be about. Then, have them listen to the poem as you read it to them. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the words slits, nook, and acorns. Ask the pupils to read the poem in unison. Then, ask them the following questions. •

What game is described?

Which words give clues to the answer?

Who is speaking in the poem?

Where is the speaker in the poem?

How did his or her playmates know he or she was up in the tree?

F. Share Your Ideas Have a class discussion of the questions in Share Your Ideas. Note that Question 4 develops awareness of sportsmanship as a desirable value. Have the pupils name actions which show sportsmanship in the following situations. • When they lose a game. • When they win a game. • When they are mere spectators. Have the pupils answer the question concerning the recreational activity enjoyed by each of the speakers in the poem.

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing the Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that they can deduce or infer the meaning of a word by considering how the word is used in a sentence. They can also determine the relationship of the word with the other words surrounding it. Have the pupils answer Exercises A and B on pages 34-35. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. b 3. f 5. c 7. a 9. b 2. a 4. d 6. e 8. d 10. c Exercise B 1. pop up 2. hideout 3. nook 4. slits 5. acorn

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

oak tree hideout slits pop up hideout

Making Inferences from a Poem Read Tell the pupils that the details in a piece of writing, for example, in a poem, will help them make appropriate inferences. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 35-36. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. c 5. a 7. b 9. c 2. b 4. c 6. c 8. b 10. b

Determining Words that Rhyme Remind the pupils that words whose terminal or ending sounds are alike, or almost the same are said to rhyme. Rhyme is used in poetry to give it a musical quality. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 37. The expected answers are: from Sliding from Hideout 1. slide – ride 4. nook – look 2. pop – top 5. leaves – shelves 3. then – again town – down

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H. Do What’s Right • Being a Good Sport Point out to the pupils that when they lose a game, they should not be angry with their opponents. They should not make excuses for not winning. They are poor sports if they do. Tell the class also that if they win a game, they should not boast of their achievement. They should not make fun of their opponent. Again, they are poor sports if they do. Ask the pupils why people do not like to play with poor sports. Have them work on the exercise on page 37. The expected answers to be checked are 1 and 2. Have the pupils explain their choices. 1. Talk to your friend nicely explaining what he/she should have done for the team. 2. Ask someone who watched the game to talk to him or her. I. Make Connections • Playing “The Gift of Friendship” Explain to the pupils how “The Gift of Friendship” is played. Then, divide the class into several groups. The pupils will play the game in their respective groups. J. Spin Off The activities develop the pupils’ creative abilities. Note that some of the original words are crossed out and new words are used in their stead. Have the pupils read the original poem sliding. Then, have them read the new poem, Playing on a Swing. Then, have them write another poem telling about going boating in a lake. Down the lake We glide, we glide Round we row, and then up we go To reach the bend Down we glide again.

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LESSON

5 The Need to Live No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use synonyms correctly 2. Deduce the meanings of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Infer character traits 2. Recall details of a story read C. Values Recognize the importance of courage, patience, perseverance and initiative in order to survive

II. Subject Matter Selection: Robinson Crusoe (novel) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 40-49 A picture of Robinson Crusoe IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Recount to the pupils stories about people who have experienced being in a sea mishap. Tell how these people were able to survive in the disaster. Have the pupils read and answer the question in this section. Ask them to tell what these survivors did to survive their ordeal. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read and answer the question in this section. Cite situations to lead them to the idea that courage, patience, initiative, perseverance, endurance, and faith in God are needed for survival.


Let the pupils be aware that the story they will read is about an imaginary shipwrecked sailor and was marooned in an island for many years. Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of the page for more information about the main character of the story. Ask them the following questions. •

Who is the main character in the story?

How did Robinson meet the man who later became his trusted friend and servant?

What did Robinson call this new man? Why?

Have the pupils know that today, the expression man Friday or girl Friday refers to a trusted subordinate. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Ask them to look out for these expressions as they read the story and to get the meanings of the words from context. Tell the class that they will also have to look out for the words that serve as clues to the meanings of the words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section, tell them that they will answer this question after they have read the story. Tell the class that in this lesson they will also infer character traits and recall important details of the story. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that they will answer the questions after reading. E. Read Have the pupils read the story silently. F. Share Your Ideas Check on pupils’ comprehension of the meanings of the vocabulary expression by giving them the following exercise written on the board. The exercise makes use of synonyms.

Give a synonym for the underlined word. The first letter is given as a clue. d_______ 1. The courageous pilot made several swoops. p_______ 2. For convenience, some soaps and shampoos are packed in small bags. s_______ 3. The group posed for pictures on the hind part of the ship. b_______ 4. The noon day sun burned and made sores on our skin. a_______ 5. We took shelter under the roof-like cover of the house. Ask the following questions to find out whether or not the pupils understood the story. •

How many years had Robinson Crusoe been on the island at the beginning of the story?

How did he survive on the island during the last four years?

Why couldn’t he use the first boat he built?

What kind of sailor was Robinson Crusoe?

Did he have other exciting adventures? Support your answer. Have a class discussion to answer the motive question. Have the pupils form four groups. The members select their discussion leader and a recorder. Assign a question to each group. The leader leads the discussion while the recorder records the answer to the question assigned to their group. Ask each group to present to the class the results of their discussion. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Synonyms Tell the pupils that writers often make use of words that have almost the same meanings to make their written work more interesting. These words are called synonyms. For example, the words radiating and reflecting light may be used in place of bright or shiny.

13


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 44. The expected answers are: 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b •

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Deducing the Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that sometimes, other words in the sentence give away the meaning of a new word. Those words are called context clues. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 44-45. The expected answers are: 1. push 6. umbrella 2. swellings 7. paddles 3. hatchet 8. pole 4. small bag 9. rear end 5. guns and bullets 10. brief view

Selecting the Appropriate Title of a Given Image Provide the pupils with an enrichment exercise on selecting a title based on a given image. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Old-time Favorites, then, Robinson Crusoe, then, Selecting the Appropriate Title of a Given Image. In this exercise, pupils will be presented with an image based on the selection. They must then choose the caption that best describes this image by clicking on the letter of their choice.

H. Do What’s Right •

Appreciating the Gift of a Comfortable Life by Being Thankful Tell the pupils that after reading the story of Robinson Crusoe, they may have realized how difficult it is to live when amenities are not available.

For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Old-time Favorites, then, Robinson Crusoe, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence based on the selection with a vocabulary word. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice.

Point out to the class that many times, although they enjoy the comforts their parents give them, they still complain about many things they don’t have.

Inferring Character Traits Point out to the pupils that character traits can be inferred by using logic or intelligent guessing. These traits can be deduced through the character’s own words and actions or through those of the other characters. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 45-46. The expected answers are: 1. a 2. a 3. a/c 4. c

This activity will enable the pupils to show gratitude to parents.

Recalling Details of a Story Read Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Call on volunteers to answer the exercise on pages 46-47. The expected answers are: 1. a 3. a 5. d 7. d 9. c 2. b 4. b 6. d 8. d 10. d

Say: “If you were Robinson Crusoe, would you also have tried to survive or would you have given up? Have the class work on the exercise on page 48.

I. Make Connections •

Learning About Different Kinds of Boats Point out to the pupils that in this section, they will learn about different kinds of boats from small ones to big ones. This part of the lesson would be a good opportunity to acquaint the pupils with the scientific explanation on why a boat floats. Explain to them that when an object is placed in water, it loses weight. The water exerts an upward force (upthrust) on the object thereby reducing its weight. Why does this happen?


LESSON

When the object is placed in water, it puts aside, or displaces some of the water. It will be found out that the weight of the object equals the amount of weight lost by the object (or is equivalent to the upthrust of water). The upthrust (force upward of water now equals the weight force downward) of the object. In other words, the forces are balanced, and so the object doesn’t sink. It floats. This “law of flotation” is the basis of ship design. A ship is built with such a shape that it displaces an amount of water equal to its own weight. This scientific principle was discovered by the famous Greek mathematician, Archimedes, more than 2000 years ago. Source: Let’s Investigate Science – Transportation Marshall Cavendish Corporation

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 49. Check their albums on different kinds of boats. J. Spin Off The activities are expected to lead to an awareness of the progress of communication technology. Had the incident happened today, Robinson Crusoe could have easily used a cellphone, if it was not destroyed by seepage of salt water. Many boats today are equipped with two-way radio which makes communication with people at sea easier. The not-so-new technology of using flares may also be useful today as islands would already be populated and people would, then, be able to see the flares. Have the pupils write a report on the progress of communication technology. Ask them to share this with their classmates.

6 Shipwrecked! No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Recognize context clues 2. Deduce meanings of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recognize true and false statements 2. Recall details of a story read C. Values Illustrate calmness in the midst of a dangerous situation

II. Subject Matter Selection: Gulliver’s Travels (novel) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 50-60 A picture of a shipwreck A picture of Gulliver and the Lilliputians IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show a picture of a shipwreck. Ask them: “Can you imagine what happened to the people in the ship? If ever someone survived, he or she would find himself or herself on the shore of a strange island, with different people and probably speaking a different language.” Have them read the paragraph and answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the paragraph in this section. Many stories have been told about imaginary adventures met by people at sea.

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Let the pupils be aware that they will read about an imaginary sailor who was shipwrecked and who found himself on the imaginary island of Lilliput. Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of the page for more information about the main character of the story. Ask them the following questions. •

Who is the main character in the story?

Who wrote Gulliver’s Travels?

What other exciting voyage did Gulliver have?

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Let them be aware that they will come across these expressions as they read the story. They will then try to get the meanings of the words through context. Tell the pupils that they will have to look out for the words that serve as clues to the meanings of the italicized words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Then, have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details to enable them to answer the questions after they have read the story. Tell them that they will also identify true and false statements based on the story. E. Read Have the pupils read the selection silently. F. Share Your Ideas Check on the pupils’ understanding of the phrases through the following exercise. Replace the underlined word or phrase with a word from Search for Correct Meaning. 1. The people were starved for food. 2. The boy attendant is carrying the messages for the guests.

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3. The man pulled away with force the bag on the lady’s shoulder. 4. He looked very small from a distance. Ask the following questions to find out whether or not the pupils understood the story. • What happened to Gulliver during his travel? • What did the Lilliputians do to him when they found him on the shore? • Why was Gulliver later treated nicely by the Lilliputians after tying him down the shore? • Why do you think was the emperor of Lilliput angry with him? Explain your answer. Have a class discussion to answer the motive question. Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Questions 1 and 2 are for helping the pupils make conclusions based on given details. Question 3 is for helping the pupils give and support opinions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Recognizing Context Clues Tell the pupils that one way of getting the meaning of a certain word is by looking at the other words near it. These words can serve as clues to the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 55. The expected answers are: 1. plans 6. fastened 2. small bag 7. small people 3. never-ending noise 8. drink 4. king 9. drew the ship after me 5. brave 10. a good sight •

Recognizing True and False Statements Tell the pupils that determining the truth or falsity of statements is one way of evaluating ideas. When one evaluates an idea, he or she assesses the correctness or wrongness of a given statement. In some instances, the meaning of a word can make a statement true or false.


Exercise B

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 56. The expected answers are:

1. false

6. false

2. false

7. true

3. false

8. true

4. true

9. true

5. true

10. true

Recalling Details of a Story Read Point out to the pupils that when they read a story, some details remain in their mind much longer than other details. They recall those details at a later time. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 56-58. The expected answers are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2

3

4

answered in a few words but in the most submissive manner

considered myself bound by laws of hospitality found my arms and legs tightly fastened to the ground

6

wondered at the courage of these diminutive mortals

7

made another sign showing I wanted to drink

I shouted for joy and danced

5

ran back in fright and some were hurt

8

ran off a second time

9

shot a volley of arrows into the air

10 threatened and sometimes made promises of pity and kindness

a c a a b

Maintaining a Positive View Tell the pupils that in the story of Gulliver, we see a person who was calm in the midst of the extraordinary situation he found himself in. He refused to act violently; instead, he used his reason. He kept calm and quiet in the face of misfortune. Through this, Gulliver won the admiration of the Lilliputians. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 58. Have them share their opinions with their classmates.

Lilliputians 1

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

H. Do What’s Right

Exercise A Gulliver

c c c c b

I. Make Connections •

Visualizing Gulliver’s Travels Tell the pupils that literature can stimulate the imagination. While reading a story, they can picture in their mind the events that are happening and the characters involved. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 59. This activity is expected to draw out and/or develop the pupils’ creative and artistic abilities.

J. Spin Off This activity develops the pupil’s ability to form opinions.

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LESSON

7 Living a Good Present to Have a Good Future No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Infer meanings of words through context 2. Use synonyms correctly B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Make inferences 2. Use the present for a good future C. Values Be ready to live well every moment of our life

II. Subject Matter Selection: A Christmas Carol (novel) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 60-69 A picture of Scrooge A picture/cut-outs of the three spirits IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils if they know the meaning of the word miser. Show the picture of Scrooge to the pupils. Tell them that Scrooge is a miser and a very unhappy person. He keeps every single cent he earns. Have a class discussion of the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know A miser hoards his money and hates spending it. He is always selfish or greedy. He is probably not happy and not many love or care for him.

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A miser is compared to a body of water. Have the pupils read the comparison between a flowing body of water and a stagnant body of water. Ask: “What body of water are you like? How about a miser? What body of water is he similar to? Let the pupils be aware that the story they will read is about a miser named Scrooge who didn’t believe in Christmas.” Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of the page for more information about the story and the author. Ask the pupils to answer the following questions. • Who is the author of our story? • What is one of his most popular story? • What kind of people are being shamed by the story A Christmas Carol? C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases. Tell them that they will come across these phrases as they read the selection. Tell them to get from context the meanings of the italicized words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions. Tell them that they will answer these questions after they have read the story. Have the pupils to read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that they will answer these questions after they have read the story. E. Read Ask the pupils to read the story silently. F. Share Your Ideas Check the pupils’ comprehension of the meanings of the vocabulary expression by giving them the following exercise: Give a synonym of the underlined word. The first letter is the clue. w_____ 1. The unhappy person was made to suffer. s______ 2. The dead body was wrapped with a piece of cloth.


u______ 3. The man arranges funerals for the dead. d______ 4. The phantom disappeared little by little from view. Ask the following questions to find out whether or not they understood the story. • What kind of a person was Scrooge? • Who were the three spirits who visited Scrooge? • What did the third spirit show him? • Did Scrooge learn something from the third spirit? Explain your answer. • Did Scrooge have a merry Christmas? Support your answer. Have the pupils form four groups. Ask each group to select their discussion leader and a recorder. Assign a question to each group. The leader leads the discussion as the recorder records the results of the discussion. Ask each group to present to the class the results of their group work. Follow with a class discussion and evaluation. G. Sharpen Your Reading • Using Synonyms Tell the pupils that a word can be used in place of another word. This is one way speakers and writers give color to their way of speaking or writing. The ability to use words with the same or similar meaning is very useful if one is to be an efficient reader and writer. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 67. Possible answers may be similar to the following sentences: Exercise A 1. The unfamiliar/unusual incident happened last night. 2. The wretched man cried out in sorrow. 3. A strong fence surrounded the wild animals. 4. It must be frightening to meet a ghost. 5. The shroud was surrounded with white cloth. Exercise B 1. c 2. d

3. 4.

b a

5. 6.

e f

Making Inferences Point out to the pupils that to infer is to make a logical guess. When one makes an inference, he or she tries to make an intelligent guess based on the reasonableness of the possible results. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 68. The expected answers are: 1. a 4. c 2. b 5. a 3. c Hone the pupils’ inferring skills through this Web site using advertisements: http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/reading.cfm?s Tr=readingnum=4sact.

H. Do What’s Right • Using the Present for a Good Future Ask the pupils: “If Scrooge had not changed his ways, do you think he would have a good future? Explain your answer.” Tell the pupils about poet Goethe who once said that we should use the moment well so that we can have a pleasant past to remember and a good future to look forward to. This means that we live our present lives well, people will remember us for what we have done. Have the pupils work on the task on page 69. Answers may vary. This activity will help the pupils use every moment of their lives well. I. Make Connections • Fund-raising Through Christmas Decorations Ask the pupils if they have tried making Christmas decorations from recycled materials? They could sell the Christmas decorations to raise funds for charity. Have the pupils work on the tasks on page 69. This activity will hopefully make pupils kinder and more generous as they help charitable institutions.

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J. Spin Off The first activity aims to develop the pupils’ love for reading good books. The second activity helps them to sequence events correctly as they happen in the story.

Skill Focus A. Meaning-getting and Word Formation An essential understanding that pupils must be aware of is that they can arrive at the meanings of words in different ways. They can ask someone’s help or they can use a dictionary. They can also figure out the meaning of the word themselves. They can use context clues or they can analyze the words into its word parts, that is, the base word and the affixes. A base word is a word that can stand alone. Affixes are meaningful elements that can be attached to base words. There are two kinds of affixes in English—prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is an affix, a meaningful element attached to the beginning of a base word. A suffix is an affix, a meaningful element attached to the end of a base word. Tell the pupils that they can also form new words by putting together bases and the appropriate prefixes and/or suffixes. B. Using Prefixes for Meaning-getting and Word Formation Have the pupils read the following sentences. Have them take note of the pairs of words in italics. What do the words mean? How are the words alike? How are they different? What made the difference in meaning? 1. The white rabbit disappeared as Alice was following it and reappeared several adventures later. 2. Alice was too oversized to pass through the little door; after drinking the contents of the bottle, she became undersized to reach the key.

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In Sentence 1, the words are alike in that they have an identical base – appeared. They differ in that the first word begins with the prefix dis- while the second word begins with the prefix re-. Disappeared means to vanish from view or not to be seen or to appear. Reappear means to appear or to be seen again. The prefixes dis- and re- make the difference in meaning of the two words. In Sentence 2, the italicized words have the same base word, size. The prefix in the first word is over- and the prefix in the second word is under-. Over- means above or more than; under- means lower, below, or less than. Oversized means above the required size while undersized means below or less than the required size. Stress to the pupils that they can get the meaning of some words by putting together the meanings of the base words and the prefixes attached to them. Ask the pupils what each word means. relocate overage

reallow overpay

dislocate underage

disallow underpay

Have the pupils study the chart on page 71. Note that it shows some prefixes, their meanings, and examples of words which have prefixes. Have the class try figuring out the meanings of the words in the last column. Tell the class that new words can be formed by attaching a prefix to the base word as in the words in the chart. Read the words all over again. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 72. The expected answers are: Exercise A Answers may vary. Exercise B 1. miscalculate 2. misappropriate 3. bimonthly 4. tricolor 5. underage

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

misfit preview biweekly uniform interisland


C. Using Suffixes for Meaning-getting and Word Formation Have the pupils read the boxed sentences in their textbooks. Tell them to take note of the italicized words. Ask: “What is the smaller word in each big word? What element is added to each small word?” The smaller words in the sentences are amaze and strange. They are the base words. The elements -ment and -ness added to the words are called suffixes. The element -ment means the action or process of; -ness means the state of being or condition. Point out that the meaning of some words can be arrived at by putting together the meanings of the base and of the suffix. So amazement means the action or process of being amazed or surprised. Strangeness means the state or condition of being strange or unusual. Ask the pupils what each of the following word means: calmness achievement

peacefulness imprisonment

Make the pupils understand that new words can be formed by adding affixes to base words. The newly-formed word may or may not have the same part of speech as the base word. Direct the pupils’ attention to the examples in the chart. The word part in normal print is the base. The italicized part is the affix. Direct the pupils’ attention to the chart on page 74. Have the pupils read all the words in the third column. Ask: “What are the base words? To what part of speech does each one belong?” Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 74-75. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. possession 5. relation 2. imagination 6. adornment 3. excitement 7. invention 4. production 8. selection Exercise B Sentences may vary.

Give the pupils enough time to study the words so they can spell them correctly. Point out that /sh n/ can be spelled -tion or -sion. Have them note the words where each form is used. Help the pupils construct well-formed sentences using the words in the list. Tell the pupils to bring dictionaries to class. They will use these dictionaries in getting the meanings of the affixes. Divide the class into groups. Have them work on Exercise B in groups. You can instruct them to assign several items to each member then they put all their answers to the exercise together. Take up Exercise B, item by item, with the whole class. Call on volunteers from each group to present their answers to the class. Direct the pupils to the chart on page 76. The suffixes in the first column are said to be adjective-forming suffixes. Tell them that when any of these suffixes is added to a base word, the new word formed would be an adjective. Ask the pupils to read the words in the third column. Ask them: “What are the base words? To what part of speech does each one belong?” Explain to the pupils how they can figure out meanings of words with suffixes. Follow the procedure used in working on Exercise B on page 75. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 76-77. Answers may vary. Direct the pupils to look at the chart on page 78. Explain to them that the suffixes in the first column are said to be verb-forming suffixes. When any of these suffixes is added to a base word, the new word formed would be a verb. Ask the pupils to read the words in the third column: Ask: “What are the base words? To what part of speech does each one belong?” Have the pupils work on Exercises A, B, and C on pages 78-79. Exercise A Answers: Newly-formed verbs and sentences vary. Exercise B 1. happiness 4. boyish 2. agreeable 5. sincerity 3. breathless 6. dependent

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Exercise C 1. bicycle – a two-wheeled vehicle 2. misfortune – bad luck 3. tricycle – a three-wheeled vehicle 4. precautions – something done in advance to avoid risk 5. microphone – an instrument to make soft sounds louder 6. anteroom – a room leading to a more important room 7. microscope – an instrument that makes small objects look bigger 8. postponed – put off to a later time D. Using the Dictionary Tell the pupils that a dictionary is a reference book used for many purposes. It gives the meanings of words, their pronunciations, parts of speech, inflected forms, etymology, variants, and many other bits of information. Ask the pupils: “How well can you use a dictionary?” Have them examine the facsimile of a dictionary page on page 80. Then, ask them to answer the questions that follow. Guide the pupils in answering Questions 1-8. Then, have the pupils check their own work to find put if they answered all questions correctly. A dictionary gives the spelling, syllabication, pronunciation, meanings, synonyms, and etymology of a word. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 82. The expected answers are: 1. spring, squaw 5. squander 2. sake no squalid squalid yes 6. sprout intransitive verb stairs no squabble intransitive verb squaw no sprint noun sprout yes 7. sprout Old English shrink no spring Old English 3. how squalid Latin 4. cry

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8. foul, filthy wretched, untidy 9. squaw 10. a. 4 b. 1 E. Stating the Main Idea of a Set of Paragraphs Point out to the pupils that often, when they are reading to get information, they will need or want to remember afterwards what that information was. Usually, they will not have to remember every little fact that was given, only the big ideas that were mentioned. To do that, they will need to know how to figure out what the big idea and the main idea of a paragraph or a number of paragraphs is. Tell the class that the main idea of a paragraph or a set of paragraphs is a sentence that summarizes or puts together in one sentence all the important things that are said in the different sentences in the paragraph. Take up the examples given in the text. Have the pupils read the first boxed paragraph on page 84. Explain that in this paragraph, the first sentence is the main idea: A hobby is anything that one does during his or her leisure time. The main idea of a paragraph may be directly stated in that paragraph. That sentence may be found at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a paragraph. In the second paragraph, the first sentence is the main idea: One kind of hobby is engaging in the arts. In the third paragraph, the last sentence is the main idea: Handicrafts attract hobbyists who can work skillfully with their hands. Explain that these sentences are the main ideas. Have the pupils read the next two paragraphs on page 85. Have them copy the main idea of each paragraph. a. Another kind of hobby is collecting things. b. Games and sports are popular with those who enjoy competition, physical activity, and exercise. Tell the pupils that in some paragraphs or set of paragraphs, no sentence states the main idea. In that case, they will have to form a sentence stating the main idea.


Ask the pupils to read the second boxed paragraph on page 85. Point out that the main idea can be something like this: There are many other kinds of hobbies. Have the pupils think of one sentence that summarizes the main ideas. That sentence would be the main idea of the set of paragraphs on Hobbies. The main idea of the set of paragraphs on Hobbies can be something like this: Hobbies, for whatever purpose, are of different kinds. Take up Exercise A on pages 86-87, item by item, with the class. Point out to them that each boxed text is made up of several paragraphs. The expected answers are: Exercise A c. We can figure out if a dog is likely to bite through its gestural code. Exercise B 1. Par. 1 Collecting stamps is one of the most popular hobbies in the word. Par. 2 Since then, many catalogs of stamps have been published. Main Idea: People young and old are engaged in collecting stamps and stamp catalogs as hobbies. 2. Par. 1 Fishing is one of the most popular forms of recreation. Par. 2 Some common methods of fishing include casting, still fishing, trolling, and float fishing. Main Idea: Fishing with the use of some common methods is one of the most popular forms of recreation. 3. a. So, they needed to find a way to keep a record of numbers of things. b. People tried many ways of keeping records. c. In early times, different people used different symbol systems. d. Our modern number symbols came from those used by the Hindus.

Possible Main Idea: Today, keeping a record of numbers is a necessary part of our lives. Tell the pupils: “This time, let us read a narrative. A narrative is a story of events or experiences. It may be true or fictitious.” Point out to the class that most narratives do not have directly stated main ideas. It is up to the reader to form a sentence stating its main idea. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 88-89. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ ability to form a sentence stating the main idea of each paragraph in a narrative and to state the main idea for the whole narrative.

Linking Reading with Writing •

Writing a Book Review In this textbook series, the genre-process approach is used in teaching writing. The following steps are followed: 1) Preparation, 2) Modeling and reinforcing, 3) Planning, 4) Joint Constructing, 5) Independent Constructing, and 6) Revising. The process approach is followed in the pupils’ textbook. Reference is made to these stages in the discussion below. 1. Preparation Have the pupils read the introductory paragraph on page 90 of the pupils’ textbook. Ask the pupils who among them have read the books mentioned. Encourage them to read the books in their entirety. Tell the pupils that they, too, are going to write a book review. To be able to write a good book review, they have to follow some steps. 2. Modeling and reinforcing Tell the pupils that the first step they can do is to read an example of a book review and study what is discussed in each paragraph of the review.

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3. Planning Make a survey of the books the pupils have read and the number of pupils who have read each book. Tell the pupils that the class will jointly construct a review of the book which most of the pupils have read. They will follow the model they have just read to write their own book review. 4. Joint Constructing Have the pupils read Step B: Drafting. Ask questions on the book and write the pupils’ answers as notes on the board. Call on volunteers to suggest a beginning sentence for the review. Write the suggested sentences on the board. Have the class select one which best states their opinion of the book. Call on several volunteers to give the main ideas of the story. Guide the pupils in writing the one-paragraph summary of the story and the recommendation. Have the pupils read Step C: Revising. Have the pupils read each question and go through the paragraph with the class. Have the pupils read Step D: Writing the Final Book Review. Call on a volunteer to write the revised book review on the board. 5. Independent Constructing Tell the pupils that they will now write their individual book reviews. Tell them to think of a book or a story they like and about which they will write a review. Tell the class to read the book or story all over again. Tell them to read all over again the steps in writing a book review on pages 90-91. Tell the class to follow these steps when they write their reviews. 6. Revising Tell the pupils to self-check their reviews following Step C. Then, tell them to ask a classmate to go over their papers also following the procedure in Step C. Then, have them do Step D. Have the pupils read Step E. Call on volunteers to read their reviews to the class. Posting the pupils’ work on a bulletin board is one way of publishing their written work.

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Unit Test Answer Key: A. Rhyming Words, p. 92 1. torment

6.

2. orchard

7.

bridle

3. manager

8.

mop

4. recognition

9.

cook

5. wedge

10.

couches

B. Literary Information, p. 92 1. A Christmas Carol

6.

Mark Twain

2. fantasy

7.

passive recreation

3. personification

8.

active recreation

4. fantasy

9.

Robinson Crusoe

5. Anna Sewell

10.

Jonathan Swift

C. Deducing the Meanings of Words Through Context, p. 93 1. hopeful 2. comfortable 3. splashing 4. disappeared 5. courage D. Making Inferences, p. 93 1. a 2. c 3. a


UNIT

II Nature’s Wonders

Direct the pupils to the picture on page 94. Ask: “What is the picture about?” (It is about the wonders of nature.) Have the pupils read the verse. Let them give objects or things that made the world “beautifully dressed.” Then, ask: “Why do you think did the poet regard the world as a wonderful place? What things make the world wonderful? Have the pupils name some natural phenomena that fascinate those who witness them (e.g. eclipses, rainbows, comets, auroras [northern and southern lights], the metamorphosis of a frog or a butterfly, human beings, etc.). Let the pupils be aware that these mysteries in nature are proofs that there is one Great Creator who made all these things possible. Let the pupils be aware also that the stories in this unit tell about many of nature’s wonders, and what we can do to conserve them.

LESSON

1 Nature and It’s Mystery No. of Teaching Hours: 5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify homonyms 2. Deduce the meanings of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Make inferences from a poem read 2. Identify major and minor ideas C. Values Demonstrate care and concern for the ecosystem

II. Subject Matter Selection: Isn’t It a Wonder (poem)

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (2nd Edition), pp. 94-103 Pictures of things in nature: plants, insects, animals, the Arctic region, sea anemones, frogs, tadpoles, butterflies, etc. IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pictures of nature. Have the pupils identify them. Ask the pupils what makes each one wonderful. For example, that plants grow is something wonderful. How they propagate is also wonderful. The rising and setting of the sun; the rainbow; the rain; the breeze. These are all wonderful things. Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section, as well as the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check on comprehension by asking the following questions: • What do you learn when you study nature? • When can you observe nature? • Where can you observe nature? Let the pupils be aware that the poem for study is the result of the poet’s observation of the natural world. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words. Tell the pupils to mark the phrases whose meanings they know. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the meaning through the following exercise. Replace the underlined word or phrase with the correct italicized word. 1. The tadpoles move from side to side like fishes in the water. 2. The cactus has many prickly thorns. 3. The aerial plants send long, thin roots down. 4. The long leaves are hanging loosely from the branches. 5. The hairy caterpillars eat the leaves of plants.

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D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask: “What things seem wonderful to the speaker in the poem?” Tell the pupils that they will answer this question after they have read the poem. Have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to remember the details in the poem so they can answer the questions in this section. E. Read Have the pupils listen as you read the poem to them. Then, ask the pupils to read it themselves. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils think about the poem they have read, then ask them what things are a source of wonder to the speaker in the poem. Have a class discussion of the questions in this section. Tell the pupils that they will read each stanza again to find out why these things are wonderful. Ask what each stanza is about. (Stanza 1–seeds, 2–underwater animals, 3–corals, 4–desert plants and animals, 5–living things—the jungle, 6–Arctic life, 7–animals that have “lights,” 8–pond animals. Have a group read the first stanza. Then, ask the class why the speaker thinks that seeds are a wonder. This would be a timely opportunity to discuss with the pupils the different ways of seed dispersal. a. Many plants depend on the wind to scatter their seeds. Dandelions and thistles produce seeds with “tiny parachutes” attached to them, making them blow away with the wind. b. Seeds that are in pods suddenly burst and hurl the seeds away, giving the impression that they have wings. c. Juicy fruits have seeds inside them. They rely on animals, particularly birds, to spread their seeds. Birds feasting on the fruits take in the tiny seeds and, eventually, the seeds are deposited with their droppings. d. Some seeds are covered with tiny hooks that stick on the fur of animals and can be carried off long distances before they come off.

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e. The sycamore tree produces seeds with “tiny wings” attached to them so that they can glide through the air like a helicopter. f. Seeds start to form in a flower when the egg cells in its ovary are fertilized. The process of fertilization begins when the pollen settles in the stigma and sends out into a tube to the ovary. Male cells then travel down the tube and combine with or fertilize the egg cells. The fertilized egg cells develop into seeds. Each seed has the beginnings of a new plant (embryo). It contains the food to nourish it when it begins to grow, and it has an outer covering to protect it. (Let’s Investigate Science: Plant Life) Ask a second group or row to read the second stanza then discuss what the “flowers of the sea” are. Show the class pictures of sea anemones, sea lilies, etc. Emphasize that these plant-like things are really underwater animals. Continue with the other stanzas, discuss the wonder told about in the stanza after it is read. Some science concepts to take up with each stanza are: • The sea anemones live near the shore—in shallow waters, in tide pools, and on rocks. (World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. I) • Coral is a limestone formation formed in the sea by millions of tiny animals. They spend their lives anchored in one place. Many kinds of corals remove calcium from ocean water and produce a hard material called coralite or calcium carbonate. This material forms a cap around soft coral polyps. When the coral polyps die, they leave limestone “skeletons” that form the foundation of barriers and ridges called coral reefs. Sometimes, coral masses build up until they rise above the water to form coral islands. Often, soil lodges on the coral and vegetation begins to grow. Many Pacific islands were formed this way. (World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 4; Young Students Learning Library, Vol. 6) • Plants and animals adapt to their environment. For example, the typical desert plant, the cactus, has tough, fleshy stems covered with spines. These stems are filled with a sponge-


like tissue that is able to hold water, so that the plant can soak up any moisture that appears. The plants have no real leaves, and photosynthesis takes place in the stems. In the equatorial regions of the world, there is warmth and constant moisture. Rain falls almost every day. In such regions—as in the Philippines—rainforests grow. Broad-leaf evergreens such as mahogany and teak are most common trees. Their upper branches and leaves form a dense layer called the canopy about 18-21 meters high. This layer blots out most of the sunlight, making the forest floor dark. Fungi abound, living on the decaying vegetation but flowering plants are scarce. (Let’s Investigate Science: Plant Life) But high up on the trees of the forest, flowers grew from plants, which grow on crevices in the bark. These plants use the trees for support, but they made their own food by photosynthesis and by obtaining moisture directly from the humid air. The most spectacular of these air plants are the epiphytes or orchids which send out roots that dangle into the air. They take in water directly from the damp atmosphere. (Let’s Investigate Science: Plant Life) The Arctic is the region of continuous cold around the North Pole. Long ago, people believed that the Arctic was nothing but a cold barren place where human beings could not live. But today, it is known that nine-tenths of the Arctic lands (except Greenland) have no snow and ice in summer. The sun never shines on much of the Arctic during the winter months. However, it shines on the entire region for at least part of the day from March to September. Because animals adapt to their environment, the Arctic animals are covered with thick fur. This protects them from extreme cold. (World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 1) Firefly is called so because of the cold light emitted from its abdominal glands. The light is actually a mating signal. Each species has a distinctive signal pattern, thus enabling fireflies to find mates of the same species. Fireflies are also called lightning bugs. Some species have wingless females

that stay only on the ground. These, along with firefly larvae, are often called glow worms. (Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, Vol. 8; Time Life Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Nature; Insect Life) The electric eel is a long narrow fish that can produce a strong electric discharge. It uses its electric discharges to detect underwater objects, to signal other electric eels, and to stun their prey. Although it resembles other eels, it is not a true eel but is related to catfish and carp. Tadpoles are baby frogs. Like butterflies and moths, tadpoles undergo a metamorphosis (transformation) or change in their life cycle.

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Homonyms Tell the pupils that some words sound the same but do not have the same meanings or spelling. These words are called homonyms. Examples of homonyms are the words horse and hoarse. Ask them if they know the meanings of the two words. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 98. Then, have them give the meaning of each word in each pair of homonyms in the list. The expected answers are: 1. heir – air 9. course – coarse 2. scent – sent 10. one – won 3. pare – pair 11. seen – scene 4. stares – stairs 12. due – dew 5. write – right 13. ate – eight 6. main – mane 14. banned – bond 7. groan – grown 15. site – sight 8. come – calm •

Deducing the Meanings of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that the meaning of a word can be deduced by considering how the word is used in a sentence. At times, the surrounding words would “give away” the meaning of the new word.

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Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 99-100. The expected answers are: 1. d 6. c 2. c 7. b 3. a 8. d 4. c 9. d 5. b 10. a •

Making Inferences from a Poem Read Point out to the pupils that very often, they can make general statements from details that a writer gives. We say that they make inferences. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 100-101. The expected answers are: 1. c 4. c 7. c 2. a 5. b 8. a 3. b 6. a 9. b Identifying Major and Minor Ideas Tell the pupils that ideas may be classified as major or minor. Major ideas are the most important ideas which are supported by minor ideas. These minor ideas are supporting details that build up the major idea. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 101-102. The expected answers are: 2. In the Jungle - insects look like bones 3. Store water - plants atop trees 4. Land of Ice and Snow - fireflies 5. Live in the Water - caterpillar 6. Kinds of Seeds - light in their bodies Tell the pupils to practice skimming for the major idea in a paragraph by doing the interactive exercise in this Web site. http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/etc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp1.htm. Have them report to the class the results they obtained.

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H. Do What’s Right • Thanking God for His Goodness Ask: “What do you ever thank God for?” Tell the pupils that they should thank God for their parents, for the food on their table, for their homes, for their school, for their church, for their friends, and for many other things. Ask the pupils if they have thanked God for His goodness— for having loved them with His everlasting love, for the wonderful things He created—the vast universe where our planet moves, even for the little worms, insects, and flowers around us. Have the pupils write a short prayer thanking God for the things mentioned in their list. I. Make Connections • Becoming Aware of the Mysteries of Nature Through Science Point out to the pupils that science explains some of the mysteries of nature. For example, some scientists have discovered the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle which makes it possible for human beings, animals, and plants to exist. Ask: “What other mysteries of nature have been explained by science?” Stress to them that many things have been explained by science but there are still a lot of mysteries surrounding creation and the Great Creator. Have the pupils work on the task on page 103. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to research on the life cycle of a frog, the life cycle of a moth or a butterfly, and how animals adapt to their environments. Have the pupils share their findings with their classmates. J. Spin Off This activity provides opportunity for pupils to construct sentences expressing thanks.


LESSON

2 Save Wildlife, Save Ourselves No. of Teaching Hours: 6

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Get the meanings of words with multiple meanings B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Determine the topics and main ideas of paragraphs 2. Recall details of an informative article C. Values Demonstrate commitment to the preservation of wildlife

II. Subject Matter Selection: Wildlife in Danger! (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 104-111 Pictures of dinosaurs, the Philippine tamaraw, the Philippine eagle, and other wildlife Pictures of people cutting down trees, building houses, and making furniture Chart of the food chain IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils pictures of endangered wildlife. Have them identify each wildlife in the picture and tell what they know about it. Lead the discussion to the idea that these animals are endangered. Ask what probably has prevented them from becoming extinct. Show the class picture of the dinosaur. Have the pupils talk of the probable situations which may have led to their extinction. Have the pupils answer the question in this section.

B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the explanatory text in this section. Have them answer the following questions to check on their comprehension. Define the following terms: environment habitat ecosystem • • •

What compose a community in an ecosystem? Why do plants and animals live in their own habitats? Have a brief discussion about the answers to the questions.

C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases. Have them note the italicized words. Find out if the pupils know the denotative meaning of each word. If not, tell them to try to get the meanings of the words as they read the article. Give the class an exercise similar to the following to increase their ability to use the words correctly. Complete the sentences below by using the italicized words in the vocabulary list. 1. The forest is the ______ of many wildlife. 2. Lumber is used to make houses more ______ to live in. 3. Wild plants and animals are the ______ forms of life in the forests. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to study the picture on page 105. Have them identify the animals in the illustration. Have the pupils read the background information in the box at the bottom of the page. Check comprehension by asking the pupils to: • explain the terms environment, ecosystem, community, and habitat. • give examples to illustrate each scientific term, and • describe the Philippine tarsier and explain why it may soon become extinct.

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Have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. These questions will help them know what details to remember as they read the article. After reading the article, have the pupils recall the topics and the main ideas of the paragraphs and recall the details of this informative article which they have read. E. Read Have the pupils read the informative article silently. Ask them to note the key concepts set forth in the article as well as the details that support each key concept. F. Share Your Ideas After reading the article, ask the pupils to answer the motive question and the questions in this section. The discussion of the answers to these questions should be able to achieve the aim or goal for reading the selection as stated on page 104. Question 5 aims to develop the pupils’ interpretation and critical thinking skills as they apply the question to themselves. Help the pupils discuss the following topics by asking them to recall instances of landslides and floods and the destruction these calamities have caused. •

landslide – the causes and effects on human life (e.g. quarrying, excavation due to mining, building of roads, and subdivisions, etc.)

proliferation of insects or rodents which destroy farmers’ crops and which is probably caused by an upset ecological system (e.g. lack of animals to eat up the destructive insects, loss of habitat due to loss of forests, swamps, pastures)

This would be a good opportunity to have the pupils recall the food chain so that they will be better aware of the interdependent relationships among people, plants, and animals. Show the class a diagram or chart similar to the following which may help the pupils understand the food chain.

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Ecology The food chains on land and in the sea are all powered by the sun, and the first link in each chain is always a plant. Grasses and other plants on the prairie (1) are grazed by prairie marmots (2), which are themselves eaten by the coyote (3). Young coyotes are preyed upon by the golden eagle (4). The dead bodies and droppings of all these animals feed armies of bacteria (5), which release nitrates for the plants to absorb again. In the sea, the sun’s energy is absorbed by floating algae (6). These are eaten by the animal plankton (7), which form the basic food of fish such as the herring (8). Larger fishes (9) eat the herrings and, as on land, all the dead bodies are consumed by scavenging animals or by bacteria (10). Have the pupils understand that the food chain is called so because sooner or later, we return to the place where we started. We already know that plants use the energy of the sun to produce food from water and other substances in the soil together with the gas,


carbon dioxide, from the air. Plants produce oxygen as waste product in the process of making food. So, animals depend upon green plants for their life-giving oxygen. They also depend upon green plants for their food. For example, rabbits, mice, grasshoppers, cows, carabaos, etc. eat plants. Then, bigger animals eat these planteating animals. Next, much stronger animals eat these animal-eating animals leading back to the beginning– green plants because the animals provide the fertilizer for the plants through their droppings, and the bacteria or chemicals that they produce when they die and decompose. from Young Students Learning Library, page 796 Let the pupils be aware of this science concept: “Each part of nature needs every other part in order to exist. If one part of nature dies out or becomes too strong, every other part of nature is affected by the change.” This may help the pupils to understand the importance of keeping the balance of nature. Question 6 is designed to develop the pupils’ concern for the preservation of wildlife and awareness of ways to protect wildlife. Planting trees is an activity that a Grade 6 pupil can easily do. Trees encourage birds and other wildlife to live in the forests as they give shade, food, and shelter. Grade 6 pupils should also learn to avoid using things and decorations made from endangered species. Disseminating information related to environmental concerns is also a good way of showing care for wildlife. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting the Meanings of Words with Multiple Meanings Tell the pupils that many words have more than one meaning. The meaning of a word depends on how the word is used in a sentence. Tell them that being aware of the other meanings of a word and using context to determine the intended meanings is particularly valuable for readers.

Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. b 5. a 9. b 13. 2. a 6. b 10. a 14. 3. a 7. b 11. a 15. 4. b 8. a 12. b 16. Exercise B 1. ecosystem 2. conservation 3. open

pages 107-108.

b a a b

4. wildlife 5. extinct

Determining the Topics and Main Ideas of Paragraphs Tell the pupils that when they read an informative article, very often, the title gives the topic of the article. The topic tells what the article is about. Tell them that every paragraph in the article Wildlife in Danger! also has a topic. This topic tells what the paragraph is about. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 109. The expected answers are: 1. e 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. c

Recalling Details of an Informative Article Point out to the pupils that reading informative articles is as important as reading poems and stories. Being able to recall the important details of an informative article helps one to truly understand the essence of that piece of writing. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 110. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. O 3. O 5. O 7. O 9. O 2. N 4. N 6. O 8. O 10. O Exercise B Answers vary.

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H. Do What’s Right • Caring for Wild Animals Point out to the pupils that in the past, the word wildlife carried with it the image of wild and fierce animals which should be shot or killed because they pose danger to humans. Today, however, we are taking a second look at the word wildlife. We know that many wild animals have their uses. Some can even be domesticated. We have heard of people who take care of lions, snakes, lizards, and tigers as pets. Ask: “What is your reaction to this kind of people? How about those who study and look after animals in zoos, sanctuaries, and reservations?” Have the pupils work on the task on page 111. This activity will encourage pupils to show concern for wildlife. Ask them to give ways of caring for wildlife. I. Make Connections • Saving Our Endangered Animals Remind the pupils that many wildlife are near extinction and many are said to be endangered or threatened. Ask the class to name some endangered Philippine wildlife. Ask them: “What is being done to save animals like the Philippine eagle and the tamaraw from becoming extinct?” Have the pupils work on the task on page 111. Tell the pupils which species of Philippine wildlife are endangered. This includes the eagle, the dugong, the civet, the tamaraw, tarsier, mouse deer, orchids, coral reefs, and whales. If possible, show pictures of these wildlife. Have the pupils choose one to report on. These reports may be collected into an album for future reference. J. Spin Off Discuss with the pupils ways by which wild animals can be of real benefit to humans. This task should develop the pupils’ ability to write a good paragraph about the benefits brought to us by wild animals such as snakes, tamaraws, wild pigs, monkeys, bees, butterflies, etc.

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LESSON

3 A Heavenly Wonder No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce the meanings of words through context 2. Classify synonyms correctly B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Interpret a poem 2. Use figurative description C. Values Show appreciation for heavenly wonders

II. Subject Matter Selection: Aurora (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 112-117 A picture of aurora borealis A tag board with exercises IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils a picture of an aurora. Ask them: “When and where do you see this occurrence? What do you call it?” (It appears in the night sky. It is called aurora.) What can you say about it? (It is bright and colorful.) Ask the pupils to answer the question in this section. Some examples may be solar and lunar eclipses, tidal waves, and volcanic eruptions. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Ask the following questions.


• • •

What are polar lights? What polar light is found in the Northern Hemisphere? What polar light is found in the Southern Hemisphere?

Check comprehension by asking the pupils these questions. • When does an aurora occur? • What causes the particles and molecules to emit light? • What is the name of the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology? Let the pupils be aware that the poem for study is about the beautiful light in the night sky called the aurora. C. Search for Correct Meaning The words in this section should be given as a homework assignment. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the meaning by having them answer the exercise below. Replace the underlined phrase with an italicized word in the vocabulary list in your textbook. 1. Human beings enjoy watching the aurora in the sky. 2. The fast rate of movement of an electron made it orbit around the nucleus of an atom. 3. The charged atoms moved around stable protons. 4. The steady protons carry a positive charge. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Let them be aware that they will answer this question, as well as the questions in Share Your Ideas after they have read the selection. E. Read Have the pupils close their books and listen as you read the poem to them. Then, have them read the poem themselves. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to find out whether or not the pupils understood the poem. • What is that splendid curtain that moves across the sky?

• •

What created the aurora in the night sky? Who enjoy watching the beautiful phenomenon?

Have the pupils answer the motive question. Have a class discussion of the questions in this section. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Classifying Synonyms Tell the pupils to think of the poem Aurora. Ask them: “Which words rhyme with curtain? What are words like curtain, drapes, and streamer called?” The pupils already know that words with similar meanings are called synonyms. They also know that synonyms are used in a selection to avoid boring repetition of words. Ask them other synonymous words in the poem Aurora. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 114. The expected answers are: Exercise A synonymous words; sentences vary awe, wonder sparkling, brilliant, bright magnificent, impressive, splendid walk, trudge, plod, amble gaze, stare humans, earthlings, people, peer, men and women Exercise B 1. atom •

2.

electron

3.

proton

Interpreting a Poem Point out to the pupils that the poem Aurora is about the natural phenomenon also referred to as northern light. The poet used groups of words that have meanings different from what the reader may expect. A good reader is able to recognize these words and interpret them in literal language. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 115. The expected answers are: 1. a. stanza 1 b. stanza 2 c. stanza 3

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Questions 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 aim to develop the interpretative and critical thinking skills of the pupils. H. Do What’s Right • Appreciating Heavenly Wonders Have the pupils study the verse on page 116. After studying or reading the poem, have them answer the questions that follow. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 116. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ ability to interpret and appreciate poems about natural phenomena. Ask the pupils to present to the class poems about natural phenomena. They may read one from a book of poems. I. Make Connections • Learning More About Auroras Tell the pupils that aurora borealis is seen in the northern hemisphere while the aurora australis is seen in the southern hemisphere. Have the pupils work on the task on page 116. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ ability to do research and give scientific explanations for natural phenomena. J. Spin Off Activity A aims to develop the pupils’ love for reading. Activity B helps pupils become more knowledgeable about natural phenomena because of the research work they have to do.

LESSON

4 Wonders of the Wind No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Determine meanings and pronunciation of homographs 2. Deduce the meaning of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Infer the meanings of poetic passages C. Values Illustrate precautions to take on windy days to avoid getting sick

II. Subject Matter Selection: Wind (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 118-125 A picture of things, trees, and roofs of houses blown by the wind A picture of flowers, leaves of trees, tall grass blown by a soft breeze A picture of an anemometer IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of a windy day. Ask the pupils how the picture shows that the wind is blowing strongly. Ask the pupils if they like windy days or days when there is only a soft breeze. Have them give their reasons. B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to read the text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Have them answer the following questions to check comprehension of the passage.

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• • •

What are trade winds? monsoon winds? doldrums? (Make the pupils aware that the word doldrums is also used to describe a state of being depressed or bored as “I’m in the doldrums.”) Who invented the first instrument for measuring wind? What is the name given to the instrument for measuring wind? How does an anemometer look like? (Show a picture of an anemometer to familiarize the pupils with it.)

Make the pupils aware that the poem for study is about the wind. C. Search for Correct Meaning Check on the pupils’ understanding of the meaning of the italicized words by having them use the words in sentences. An exercise similar to the following may also be given. Replace the underlined words or phrases with an appropriate italicized word. 1. There was a very loud explosion nearby. 2. The bellowing of the strong wind awakened me. 3. The strong wind destroyed the framework of the windows. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils to study the picture on pages 118 and 119. Have them describe what they see. Ask the pupils to study the text again in this section. Let them be aware that they will answer the motive question as well as the questions in Share Your Ideas. E. Read Ask the pupils to close their books and listen as you read the poem to them. Then, have them read the poem themselves. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the motive questions in Set a Goal for Reading.

Then, have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Question 1 develops the pupils’ ability to make inferences. Question 2 allows the pupils to make conclusions from a set of details. Question 3 elicits a personal response from the pupils. This would be a good opportunity for the pupils to further understand what the wind is and why it moves. The excerpt below should help you explain the phenomenon. Why the Wind Blows Wind is air that is moving in relation to the Earth’s surface. It moves because of the differences in air pressure in the atmosphere. Without these differences, no wind would blow. Differences in pressure develop over areas where the sun hits the earth’s surface unevenly. Wherever Earth is warmer, air heats up and expands, and air pressure increases compared to the pressure over cooler places. Air can be imagined as lying over Earth in layers between constant surfaces within the densest layer at the bottom. Sometimes, the air is still and the layers are even and flat. But when one area absorbs more heat, the air expands, air pressure rises, and the air pressure layers also expand and become curved. Air then begins moving from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area, producing a wind high above the ground. The greater the temperature difference and the pressure difference between two places, the stronger the wind that blows between them. Are There Regular Breezes? Winds are unpredictable, but some breezes are regular. These breezes depend more on local changes in temperature than on the presence of large scale, high and low pressure systems. For example, near an ocean, sea, or large lake, breezes blow because the sun warms land faster than it does water. By the same token, land loses heat faster than water when the sun stops shining. In a

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valley, the air rises and sinks over the course of one day, as the surrounding mountainsides gain and lose heat. The up draughts and down draughts that are created by this temperature change produce valley and mountain breezes that blow virtually every day the sun is out.

Deducing the Meaning of Words Through Context Tell the pupils that they have learned that a new word may be understood by considering how it is used in a sentence. The surrounding words may lead to its meaning. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 121. The expected answers are: 1. a 3. b 5. c 7. h 9. d 2. f 4. g 6. j 8. e 10. i

Inferring the Meanings of Poetic Passages Point out to the pupils that poems usually make use of figurative language, that is, the ideas that the writer wants to impart to the readers are not directly stated. In such cases, tell the pupils that the reader has to infer what ideas are being conveyed in the poem. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 122-123. The expected answers are: 1. d. The wind can be either gentle or strong. 2. c. Strong winds begin as gentle breezes. 3. d. The wind can easily do the things that we find hard to do. 4. a. The wind makes clouds move. 5. a. The wind is strong enough to rattle the window panes. 6. a. Wind is all around us.

from Time-Life Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Nature: Weather and Climate, pp. 40-41

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Determining Meanings and Pronunciation of Homographs Tell the pupils that words with the same spelling, but which have different meanings and pronunciation are called homographs or homonyms. For example, fair in fair lady and fair in go to the fair have the same pronunciation. But bow in bow and arrow and bow in bow to the audience have different pronunciations. The context will help the class determine the meaning and pronunciation of homographs. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 120-121. Examples of responses are the following: 1. Robinhood’s bow and arrow – bow to the class 2. feeds the sow – sow on the field 3. live in the Philippines – live broadcast 4. present a program – a red present 5. learned from the teacher – a learned person 6. tears flow down her cheeks – tears the piece of paper 7. submit his resume – resume the program 8. has a good record – record their progress 9. takes only a minute – a minute detail 10. feel the wind – wind the cord

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H. Do What’s Right • Coping with the “Winds of Change” Ask the pupils: “Have you heard the expression ‘winds of change’?” Tell them that those changes are like winds that come and go. They may be big changes like strong winds, or small changes like breezes. The changes may be in their home, school, or in other parts of the environment. Have the class read some changes that may take place in the lives of young people like them. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 124.


This activity aims to develop the critical thinking of the pupils for them to explain how they can cope with the changes in their young lives. I. Make Connections • Learning More About the Wind Have the pupils read the explanatory paragraphs. Then, have them answer the two questions that follow. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 124. This activity allows the pupils to increase their knowledge about the “wind.” J. Spin Off The activities are expected to draw out the pupils’ artistic and linguistic creativity.

LESSON

5 Keep Our Waters Pollutant Free No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Get the meanings of words through the use of context clues 2. Give the meanings of terms related to pollution B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details of an informational article 2. Identifying supporting details C. Values 1. Show concern for proper garbage disposal 2. Show concern for the conservation of our water resources

II. Subject Matter Selection: Water Pollution (informative article)

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 126-133 Pictures of bodies of water Chart showing the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle in water CD-ROM 6 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of bodies of water. Help the pupils identify them. Ask them if these bodies of water are clean or dirty. Have the pupils explain what people do to make them clean or dirty. Have the pupils read and answer the questions in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read and answer the questions in this section. Have them tell where the water supply in their community comes from. Let the pupils be aware that the lesson for study is about water pollution. Have them read the boxed text at the bottom of the page, then, let them answer the following questions. • When does water become polluted? • In what instance can water look clean, but actually polluted? C. Search for Correct Meaning Check on the pupils’ understanding of the words by asking them to give their meanings and to use the phrases in sentences. They may also be asked to work on the following exercise. Answer with yes or no. Explain your answer. 1. Does thermal pollution refer to dirty water coming from a thermos? 2. Is acid rain good for planet Earth? 3. Is a leaching field used for outdoor sports?

37


D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils study the pictures on pages 126-127. Ask them what they show. Have the pupils read the motive question. Then, tell them to read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that there will be a class discussion of these questions after they have read the selection. E. Read Have the pupils read the selection Water Pollution silently. F. Share Your Ideas Divide the class into three groups: one to report on “Sources of Water Pollution;” another to report on “Effects of Water Pollution;” and the third to report on “How to Control Water Pollution.” The groups may be asked to render their reports in any creative way they wish–as a radio or TV news report, as a panel discussion, as a round table discussion, as a report of the Secretary of Health, etc. After the pupils have given their “reports,” have them answer the question in this section. The discussion may be done in the form of “phone-in question,” or as query from a “reporter,” etc. The questions develop the pupils’ ability to analyze a report and apply what is said. The discussion may include an explanation of the oxygencarbon dioxide cycle and the food chain, e.g. natural cycles work to absorb small amounts of natural wastes in bodies of water. During a cycle, wastes are turned into useful or at least, harmless substances. Bacteria called aerobic bacteria use oxygen to decay natural wastes such as dead fish and plants, and break them into chemicals, including nitrates, phosphates, and carbon dioxide. These chemicals called nutrients, are used as food by algae and green plants in the water. The algae serves as food for microscopic organisms called zooplankton. Small fish eat the zooplankton. The small fish, in turn, are eaten by larger fish. When the larger fish die, they are broken down by bacteria. The cycle then, begins again.

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The same natural cycles work on waste poured into water by people. But if too much waste matter is poured into the water, the whole cycle will begin to break down, and the water becomes dirtier and dirtier. The bacteria that work to decay the wastes use up too much oxygen during the decaying process. As a result, less oxygen is available for the animals and plants in the water. Sea animals and plants die, adding more wastes to the water. Finally, the water’s entire oxygen is used up. This is what has happened to the Pasig River and almost all rivers in Metro Manila as well as the seas surrounding our islands. The discussion on the effects of water pollution is aimed to awaken the pupils’ awareness of environmental concerns, and to stimulate them to show care and concern for our waters. Encourage them to discuss ways of proper garbage disposal. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Giving the Meanings of Terms Related to Pollution Tell the pupils to study the various forms of pollution. Tell them that science makes use of words or phrases which have special meanings. These are called scientific terms. Have the pupils do Exercises A and B on pages 129-130. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. leaching field – the area where the waste water in a sewage disposal system goes down through the soil dissolving out humus and soluble salts and depositing them in the underlying layers of soil. 2. acid rain – rain consisting of water vapor contaminated with chemical wastes that enter the air. This kind of rain increases the acid in water. 3. thermal pollution – pollution caused by too hot water. Heated water cannot hold as much oxygen as cold.


4. oil spills – the oil spilled in the seas and oceans coming from the leaks of tanks of ships and offshore wells.

2. Three effects of water pollution a. causes illness and death b. prevent water recreation c. upsets natural processes of producing oxygen 3. Some ways of minimizing water pollution a. using proper pretreatment process b. setting proper standards for drinking water c. Industries reduce pollution by treating wastes to remove harmful chemicals before dumping them into the water.

5. drain-off fertilizer – is another oxygen-killing agent coming from farmlands which causes the growth of algae and such plants as pondweeds and duckweeds. As more algae and plants grow, more aquatic life die and will not survive. Exercise B 1. f

3.

h

5.

j

7.

a

9. e

2. g

4.

i

6.

d

8.

c

10. b

Give the pupils an additional exercise on using context clues. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Wonders of Nature, then, Water Pollution, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence based on the selection with a vocabulary word. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. •

Identifying Supporting Details Point out to the pupils that a good paragraph is made up of a main idea and supporting ideas. Sometimes, irrelevant ideas are included in a paragraph. As a reader, they must be able to identify the supporting ideas and ignore or remove the irrelevant ones. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 132. the expected answers are: 1. d 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. d

Selecting the Appropriate Title of a Given Image Give the pupils an enrichment exercise on selecting titles based on a given image. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Wonders of Nature, then, Water Pollution, then, Selecting the Appropriate Title of a Given Image. In this exercise, the pupils will be presented with an image based on the selection. They must then choose the caption that best sums up this image by clicking on the letter of their choice.

Recalling Details of an Informational Article Point out to the pupils that the informational article Water Pollution provides many interesting points about this topic. In order to fully understand the various points made in the article, one has to take note of the important details in it. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 131. The expected answers are: Exercise A

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Exercise B 1. The four chief sources of water pollution a. household wastes b. industrial wastes c. oil spills d. agricultural wastes

H. Do What’s Right • Valuing Our Water Resources Emphasize to the pupils that oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers are bodies of water. These bodies of water serve us in many ways—as waterways for ships and boats, as sources of water for household purposes, as places for rest and recreation, and many others. Tell the pupils that many instances of water pollution

39


have been reported in many parts of the world. Stress to them that varied measures have been undertaken to conserve our water resources. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 123. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ concern for conserving water resources in their home and community. It also aims to develop their ability to write a good paragraph about conservation of water resources. I. Make Connections • Undertaking a Project on Water Pollution Have the pupils work on the task on page 133. Tell the pupils to think of a project which each group can undertake in their community to: • stimulate awareness of the problems caused by water pollution, and • encourage the people to prevent pollution of water. Tell the pupils to fill in the first column of the chart when they have decided on the project to work on. They fill in the second column every day to show the progress of the project. J. Spin Off In this section, the pupils will be working on a project task: “The Best Things in Life are Free.” They are supposed to take this as their motto for their rescue mission for Planet Earth. Explain to the pupils how they will work on the project.

LESSON

6 Regaining Our Fishing Grounds No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Get meaning through context clues B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall details of an informative article C. Values 1. Be aware of the importance of the bodies of water 2. Appreciate what Maqueda Bay gave its people 3. Demonstrate commitment and concern in preserving and conserving the abundance found in Maqueda Bay

II. Subject Matter Selection: Losing Paradise (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 134-141 A picture of Maqueda Bay A picture of the abundance of Maqueda Bay: fish, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, crayfish, etc. IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of fish, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crayfish, etc. Ask: “Where do we find them in abundance? (We find them in the seas, oceans, lakes, and bays.) Do we still find them in great abundance in the different bodies of water?” Have the pupils read and answer the questions in this section. This activity will make them more aware of how bodies of water are of help to people.

40


B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils recall what they have learned about the causes of pollution and its harmful effects. Have them read the questions in this section. Ask the pupils to read the boxed text at the bottom of page 134. The text is a short description of Maqueda Bay. Check comprehension by asking the following questions: • What bay lies off the coast of Samar near the city of Catbalogan? • What was Maqueda Bay known for? • Why was this bay severely depleted? Let the pupils be aware that the selection they will read is about Maqueda Bay. Show a map of the Philippines and have the pupils locate Maqueda Bay. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases in this section. Let them focus their attention on the italicized words. Tell them to get the meanings of these words as they read the selection. They may also use a dictionary. Give the following exercise to increase their ability to use the words correctly. Complete each sentence below by using the appropriate word from the vocabulary list. 1. Japan becomes a ______ market for shrimps from Maqueda Bay. 2. This bay used to be a ______ ground for fish and crustaceans. 3. Shrimps, crabs, lobsters, and crayfish are ______. 4. The use of explosives by some fishermen is a ______. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils study the picture on pages 134-135. Ask them to imagine how Maqueda Bay looked. Have the pupils read the motive question in this section as well as the questions in Share Your Ideas. Let them be aware that they will answer these questions after they have read the selection. Tell the class to also remember the important details of this informative article.

E. Read Tell the pupils to read the story silently. Have an oral reading of the selection after the questions have been answered. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to check comprehension. • What did Maqueda Bay provide the people some years ago? • Why did Maqueda Bay become much accessible to markets in Mindanao, Luzon, Manila, and Japan? • Why was Maqueda Bay depleted? • Is there hope for Maqueda Bay to survive and become bountiful again? Ask the pupils to answer the motive question. Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Questions 1 and 2 develop the pupils’ ability to interpret phrases or sentences. Question 3 develops pupils’ concern for and awareness of the importance of Maqueda Bay as a body of water. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting Meaning Through Context Clues Tell the pupils that there are times when they encounter difficult words in a sentence. Although they may not be familiar with the word, they may still discover its meaning by looking at the rest of the words near it, that is, the context in which the word is used. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 137-139. Sentences may be similar to the following: Exercise A 1. Samar’s fishing industry was so well-developed it became one of the foundations of the economy of the province. 2. The bounty of the sea seemed to be without end for though the fishers always caught enough for their daily subsistence, there was more left. 3. The fish traders could easily reach markets in Mindanao and Luzon because of improved roads.

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4. Fish was very much in demand and fishing became a profitable industry. 5. Because of overfishing, the catch became less and the traders abandoned Maqueda Bay. 6. An island-wide prohibition was imposed on logging but the prohibition came too late to save the people from floods and famine. 7. Big fishing boats called trawlers went through every place in Maqueda Bay catching all forms of marine life in their big nets. 8. The relation or close attachment among parents and children developed as they shared together experiences both joyful and sorrowful. 9. Japan’s demand for shrimps was so big that fishers went after them with the wild or violent excitement of a gold rush. 10. Maqueda Bay turned red with minute plants and animals that turned out to be toxic making everything in it inedible. Exercise B 1. bequest 2. better 3. spawning 4. lucrative 5. trawling •

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

dwindled abated planktons inedible bane

Recalling Details of an Informative Article Tell the pupils that the informative article Losing Paradise recounts the splendor and richness of Maqueda Bay. Tell them that in order to be able to appreciate the main points of the article, they have to pay attention to the important details in it. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 139140. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. fishing, logging, mining 2. fish, crustaceans

3. 4. 5. 6.

greed trawling trawling, dynamite, cyanide hook and line

Exercise B I. A. It gave subsistence to fishers more than they could eat and commercial fishers more than they could sell. B. Its bounty seemed inexhaustible. II. A. Good roads were built connecting Samar with Luzon and Mindanao. B. Fish traders had easy access to lucrative markets in Japan. III. A. The fishermen scraped every nook and cranny of the bay. B. They left for other profitable shores. IV. A. They used dynamite. B. They used cyanide. V.

A. Every morning, a woman tends to her farm of seaweeds. B. Every evening, a man goes out to fish with his hook and line.

H. Do What’s Right • Respecting Nature Emphasize to the pupils that if one truly appreciates things given to him or her, he or she should preserve and conserve them. The carelessness of the people is evident in Maqueda Bay and in our other food sources. Tell the pupils that Maqueda Bay gave the people food and livelihood. However, because it was abused, nature took its vengeance. The abundance the people once enjoyed has been diminished.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 140. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to do research on ways of conserving our waterways. Have the pupils present their findings in class. I. Make Connections •

Regulating the Fishing Industry Ask: “What is the government doing to regulate the fishing industry? Do you think Samar could regain its lost paradise if these regulations were followed?” Explain. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 141. This activity develops pupils’ ability to evaluate and classify the different methods of fishing and identify the places where these fishing methods are used.

LESSON

7 A Message from a Butterfly No. of Teaching Hours: 5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Get the meaning of words through context 2. Get the meanings of compound words B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Sequence events 2. Infer feelings or emotions 3. Recall details of a play read C. Values Show care and concern for insects and animals

J. Spin Off Activity 1 aims to elicit the pupils’ ideas on how to catch fish in a good way. It also develops their ability to support their opinion with logical reasons. Activity 2 aims to develop the pupils’ creativity. Tell the pupils that they can learn more about the fishing industry in the Philippines by accessing this Web site: http:// en.wikipilipinas,org/index.php?title=BureauofFisheriesandAquaticR esources.

II. Subject Matter Selection: Alley at the Back of Things (play) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 142-153 A picture of a butterfly Tagboard with sentences for unlocking of difficulties IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the class a picture of a butterfly. Ask: “Where do we find butterflies?” This discussion should bring about the concept that butterflies feed on nectar, that is why they are often seen among flowers. B. Add to What You Know Inform the pupils that some people use butterflies for scientific experiments. Others catch butterflies to be able to teach children of the parts of a butterfly, or the different kinds of butterflies. In

43


the past, biology teachers used to require their students to submit a set of preserved butterflies. Today, however, students who study butterflies are advised to set the butterflies free after they have studied them. Tell them also that some butterflies migrate, and when doing so, they will fly hundreds of meters up in the sky. Some people have reportedly seen monarch butterflies flutter by their windows high up in the 450-meter high Empire State Building. If caught in an up drought, butterflies can hit over 300 meters and survive. Some species, like the Alpine Apollo, live in the mountains at up to 2000 meters above sea level. from Reader’s Digest, April 2002 Have the pupils read the text at the bottom of the page to help them visualize the setting of the story. Point out that this alley is similar to what we call eskinita. C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to study the phrases in this section. Ask the pupils to watch out for the words in italics as they read the literary piece Alley at the Back of Things. Let the pupils think of synonyms of the italicized words. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to read the goal for reading the selection. Ask the pupils to study the pictures on pages 142-143 to give them further background of the play. As the pupils read the story, tell them to remember to sequence events correctly, infer feelings or emotions, and recall details of the play read. Have them also read the questions in Share Your Ideas to be able to answer them after reading the play. E. Read Have the pupils read the play silently in order to familiarize themselves with the story. Check on their understanding of the meanings of words by asking them to give synonyms to the italicized words in Search for Correct Meaning. They may also be asked to use the words in sentences. As further exercise, the class may be

44

asked to substitute a study word for the underlined word in the sentence below. These sentences may be written on a tagboard or a loose board for convenience. • We see many tall buildings in Makati. • Insects are brought to school as examples to be studied. • I will open the cover of this bottle. • He walks with heavy steps around. • The old man moves limply or heavily as he sits down. Assign the speaking parts to good readers. Have also a narrator read the narrator’s part in the introduction of the play. Tell the pupils reading the speaking parts not to read the stage directions (the words in italics placed in parentheses). These may or may not be read by the narrator. The other pupils may follow along silently. F. Share Your Ideas Give the pupils a preliminary check up to find out whether or not they understood the play. Have them answer the following questions. • Who had a butterfly in the jar? • Why did Marilou want to have a butterfly? • Why did Butch want to take the butterfly to school? • Why did Robin pay 85 cents for the butterfly when it was his in the first place? • Why do you think did Robin and Marilou say that the butterfly was lucky when it flew away? Have the pupils answer the motive question with a brief discussion. Then, have them answer the questions in this section. Questions 1-2 develop the pupils’ abilities to analyze detail and make inferences. Question 3 develops their ability to evaluate and make judgments. Question 4 awakens pupils’ concern and care for insects and animals. It helps them to be more sensitive to the needs of creatures of nature. Have the pupils form five groups. Have them present the play by groups as a culminating activity. The best three groups to present the play will receive ribbons or golden stars (or any award you intend to give).


G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Getting the Meanings of Compound Words Tell the pupils that compound words are formed when two or more words are combined to form a new word which may have an entirely different meaning. Emphasize to the class that the meaning of the new word may be a combination of the meanings of the two smaller words. For example: housedog, hairbrush. Or the meaning may be entirely different from the meanings of the two smaller words. For example: butterfly. In such case, you may figure out the meaning of the word yourself or you may have to use the dictionary. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 148149. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. without care 2. resistant to fire 3. obedient to the law 4. guidebook small enough to be carried about 5. a man who is considerate, courteous, and socially correct 6. wood floated by water, especially by the sea 7. kind of clothing with many pockets, worn for rigged travel 8. a steep downward plunge Have the pupils use a dictionary to help them write compound words correctly. Exercise B Down 1. specimen Across 1. skyscraper 2. mourning 3. lid

2. stomp 4. peculiar 5. unscrew

Give the pupils an interactive exercise on using context clues to get the meanings of words. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Wonders of Nature, then, Alley at the Back of Things, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence based on the selection with a vocabulary word. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word based on its context by clicking on their choice. •

Sequencing Events Tell the pupils that the events can be ordered or sequenced beginning with the earliest and going on to the latest. Stress to them that they can also be sequenced starting from the latest and going on to the earliest. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 150. The expected answers are:

_3_ a.

_2_ d.

_1_ b.

_6_ e.

_4_ c.

_5_ f.

Inferring Feelings or Emotions Emphasize to the pupils that they can infer the feelings or emotions of a character in a story by paying attention to what he or she says or does. You can also infer feelings or emotions through descriptions given by the author of the story. Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 150-151. The expected answers are: 1. dissatisfaction

5. belligerence

2. worry

6. happiness

3. anger

7. curiosity

4. boastfulness

8. disgust

Tell the pupils that they will be able to determine if they understood the play they read if they can answer some questions about it.

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Have the pupils work on the exercise on pages 151-152. The expected answers are: _d_

1.

It did not eat the leaves in the jar.

_c_

2.

There are high walls around him and a small patch of sky on top.

_d_

3.

She was sure it would get hurt as it flies around the city.

_a_

4.

He believed it would die in the jar.

_d_

5.

Robin did not recognize the challenge.

_b_

6.

He bought it back with all his money.

_a_

7.

His plight in the city and longing for the country.

_a_

8.

He set it free.

_a_

9.

Put it out of its misery.

Give pupils further practice exercise for inferring character traits. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click Wonders of Nature, then, Alley at the Back of Things, then, Inferring Character Traits. For each item, pupils will read an excerpt from the selection. Then, they should click on the trait that the character reveals based on the given excerpt. •

Recalling Details of a Play Read Tell the class that one way to determine if one understood a play is by answering some questions about it. Have the pupils answer the exercise on pages 151-152. The expected answers are: 1. d

6. b

2. c

7. a

3. d

8. a

4. a

9. a

5. d

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H. Do What’s Right • Valuing Small Animals Ask the pupils: “What is the important role of the butterfly in the story Alley at the Back of Things?” Usually, pupils take insects like butterflies and bees for granted. However, insects play a great part in their life cycle. Ask the pupils to name some uses of insects like butterflies, dragonflies, and other small creatures. Ask them the important role each insect plays in the environment or in the ecosystem. Ask them to find out and share this with their classmates. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 153. This activity helps the pupils enrich their knowledge on the value of garden insects. I. Make Connections • Illustrating Metamorphosis Tell the pupils that there are stages which a butterfly goes through before it reaches its adult form. This process is called metamorphosis, meaning transformation. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 153. The drawing of the life cycle of a butterfly develops their creative and artistic abilities. J. Spin Off Have the pupils do some research from the library or other sources. Have them find out about different butterflies and their habits. Ask them to report their findings to their classmates. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to write a good paragraph and to enrich their knowledge on the physical appearance, its feeding habits, and other interesting things about it.


Skill Focus

Exercise C

A. Identifying Synonyms and Antonyms, pp. 154-157 Tell the pupils to think about the poem Isn’t It a Wonder?. Ask them: “How are the spines of desert plants described? the roots of flowers that grow in the air? the caterpillar?” Ask the pupils the name of the place where trees and grass grow so abundantly that birds and animals on the ground never see the sun. Ask the pupils to think of words similar in meaning to prickly, spindly, fuzzy, and jungles. Ask them to think of expressions opposite in meaning to these words. Remind the pupils that words with similar meanings are called synonyms while words with opposite meanings are called antonyms. Have the class study the list of synonyms and antonyms on page 154. Tell the pupils that there are times when they can get the meaning of a synonym or of an antonym by studying the other words in the sentence. Have the pupils work on Exercises A-F, pages 154-157. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. S

6.

S

2. S

7.

A

3. A

8.

A

4. S

9.

A

5. A

10.

S

Exercise B 1. weary

6.

downpour

2. parched

7.

traveler

3. wood

8.

receptacle

4. plants

9.

walked

5. frustration

10.

entreaties

1. sturdy

6.

smooth

2. city

7.

cowardly

3. dinginess

8.

old

4. arid

9.

cheap

10.

noisy

5. awkwardness

Exercise D Write the italicized words on the board. Then, tell the pupils to give the synonyms of each word. Explain the directions to the class. The class may jointly construct one version of the poem. Then, have them work on their own versions. Call on volunteers to present their versions to the class. You may ask them: “Which version do you like better, the original or your version? Why?” Exercises E and F Explain the directions for Exercises E and F. Present to the class an enlarged clipping of a newspaper article and of an advertisement. Have the class jointly reconstruct the texts. Ask which version is better. Through these exercises, pupils should be made to understand that one must use the right word in speaking or when one is writing. Tell them that using inappropriate words does not give a good impression of a speaker or a writer. B. Using Library Resources Effectively Have the pupils read the explanatory notes on page 158-159. Ask comprehension questions on each paragraph. Explain the paragraphs further, if necessary. Have the pupils study the cards on page 159. Ask: “How can you identify the author card? the subject card? the title card?” Take the pupils to the library for them to see a real card catalog. You may ask the librarian to explain to the class the uses of the card catalog and the difference among the author, subject, and the title cards. Ask the librarian to explain to the pupils the procedures for using the library resources.

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In preparation for the next topic, ask the librarian to show the class the different sections in the library—the general reference section, the reading section, the circulation section, and all the other sections.

4. Nonprint Resources

Have the pupils do Exercises A and B on page 160. Then, take up the exercises item by item, with the whole class. The expected answers are:

7. Dictionary

Exercise A M-T

6.

author

LER-ROS

2. subject

T-Z

7.

author

A-FEL

3. author

LER-ROS

8. Title

M-T

4. Title

A-F

9.

Subject

M-S

5. Title

A-F

10.

Subject

H-L

Exercise B 1. Title

7.

Quezon City

2. Tina Gonzales

8.

2001

3. Jose Rizal—His Life and Works

9.

Card Catalog

4. A Biography of Jose Rizal

10.

Title

5. c.900.5

11.

author

6. Vibal Publishing House, Inc.

12.

subject

C. Using General References in the Library, pp. 161-163 Have the pupils read the explanatory text on pages 161-163. Ask comprehension questions on each paragraph. Show to the class samples of the general references. Demonstrate how to use each reference. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 163. The expected answers are: 2. Thesaurus 3. Almanac

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6. Encyclopedia 8. Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature 9. Nonprint Resources 10. Dictionary

1. title

1. Atlas

5. Newspaper and Magazines

D. Making an Outline, pp. 164-167 Have the pupils recall information that they got from the article Water Pollution. Ask: “What are the sources of water pollution? What are its effects? How can pollution in water be minimized?” Tell the pupils that to recall the details of an informational article, read more easily. It is best to write them down in outline form. There are many ways to make an outline. The most common is shown on pages 164-165 with the explanatory notes on the second column. Explain each note and at the same time, direct the pupils’ attention to its operationalization in the outline. Tell them that the outline they have just studied is called a topic outline. If sentences are used instead of topics, the outline is called a sentence outline. For example, instead of writing Sources, they write the sentence Industrial waste is a source of water pollution. Take up Exercises A, B, and C on pages 166-167 with the whole class. Note that in Exercise A, the topics and the supporting details must be stated in sentence form. The outline for Wildlife in Danger! is as follows: Wildlife in Danger I. Causes of the extinction of wildlife A. Nature B. People 1. Population 2. Pollution


II. Protection of Wildlife A. Passage of conservation laws B. Passage of other Laws 1. Laws that limit catch 2. Laws that set aside areas for national parks 3. Laws that set aside areas for game refuge and bird sanctuaries III. Reasons for Protecting Wildlife A. Economic B. Artistic C. Genetic-based D. Ecology-based

Kinds of Volcanoes I. Cinder Cone Volcanoes A. Simplest and smallest B. Composed of cinders and ashes C. Less than 1000 feet high D. Funnel-shaped depression on top II. Strato-volcanoes A. Larger than cinder cones B. Composed of alternating layers of lava and volcanic ash C. Examples: Mt. Shasta, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Etna, Mt. Fuji, Mt. Mayon III. Shield Volcano A. Made up of many layers of lava B. Broad and gently sloping C. Much broader than high D. Example: Mauna Loa

Linking Reading with Writing In this section, use the genre-process approach in teaching writing. The steps are as follows: A. Preparation Have the pupils read the first three paragraphs in the section. Recall the wonders of nature described in this unit. Ask the pupils to name some wonders of nature that they may want to describe. Write the suggestions on the board. B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read the boxed example under Prewriting. Point out what each paragraph is about. All the sentences in the paragraph tell about the topic of the paragraph. C. Planning Tell the pupils that the whole class will write a descriptive composition so they can see how it is written. Have the class suggest a place in the school campus or in the community that they would want to describe. D. Joint Constructing Have the pupils read the activities under Drafting. Call on volunteers to suggest subtopics, and a main idea for each subtopic, and supporting sentences for each main idea. Have the pupils read the activities under Revising. Have the class go over the composition and make the revisions. Call on a volunteer to rewrite the composition on the board and another to write it on a good paper for posting on the English bulletin board. E. Independent Constructing Tell the pupils that they will now write their individual compositions. Have them read the steps in the writing process— that is Prewriting, and Drafting. Tell the pupils to follow these steps when they write their own compositions. Emphasize that their compositions will just be considered drafts.

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6. Revising

B. Forming Compound Words, p. 170

After the pupils have written their drafts, direct them to Revising. Have them read the procedure and tell them to carry out the directions. Tell them to read the last two steps—Writing the Final Descriptive Composition and Sharing Publicly. Tell them to follow the instructions. Provide opportunities for the pupils to share and publish their compositions.

Unit Test A. Identifying Homographs, p. 170 1. heir – air a. heir – legal inheritor b. air – atmosphere we breathe—fresh air 2. sent – scent a. sent – past tense, past participle form of send b. scent – a pleasant distinctive odor 3. course – coarse a. course – one of the two or more different dishes b. coarse – rough to touch 4. groan – grown a. groan – a long low cry expressing fear or misery b. grown – having developed and matured 5. come – calm a. come – a verb expressing movement towards a specified place or person b. calm – without anxiety or strong emotion; peace and quiet

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1. fairytale

6.

wildlife

2. butterfly

7.

seagull

3. lukewarm

8.

water proof

4. school bus

9. ice cream

5. nosebleed

10.

fancy free

C. Identifying Meanings of Words, p. 171 1. b

5.

b

2. c

6.

a

3. c

7.

c

4. d


UNIT

III Turning Point

This unit will discuss many of the advantages and disadvantages of technological advancements made by man. Direct the pupils to the pictures on page 172. Ask them what each picture is about. Then, have a pupil read the title of Unit III. Ask the pupils what “Turning Point” means (a change, a beginning, etc.). Let them cite world events that can be considered as turning points for mankind (launching of the first satellite, Sputnik I; the successful moon landing; the first atomic bombing; the cloning of the first mammal; etc.). Have the pupils read the lines from a poem by John Donne. Call on several volunteers to explain the lines. Guide them by asking questions such as: “What do you think is symbolized by the word ‘net’? How can man ‘throw a net upon the heavens’? What did man do that made him ‘own the heavens’?” Make the pupils be aware that as man explores space, many of the things he used in his explorations were left floating in space. Let the pupils be aware that many technological discoveries have served as turning points for a convenient life, but we should learn to value earth’s natural resources, or we will lose all of them in the end.

LESSON

1 A Time Machine Experience No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Deduce meanings of words through context 2. Recognize vivid words B. Comprehension 1. Recognize correct and wrong statements 2. Scan a story for details C. Values Be aware of the importance of calmness and presence of mind.

II. Subject Matter Selection: What Time Is It? (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 173-183 A picture of an imaginary time machine Tag boards with sentences for vocabulary IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Ask the pupils to imagine how a time machine (which is also called a time traveler) looks like. This machine will take people to the past or to the future with just a touch of a lever. Call on volunteers to draw their concepts of a time machine. Have a brief discussion of the question in this section. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section. Tell them that many writers have created imaginary stories about the past and how life would be in the future. Let them know that the story they will read is one of these stories. Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of the page. It has something to do with a very significant world event. Check comprehension by asking the following questions: • When did human beings set foot on the moon for the first time? • What is data from space research used for? • Will these data help scientists go back to the past or go forward to the future? C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to study the italicized words in the phrases in this section. Let them be aware that as they read the story, they may deduce the meanings of the words through context.

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Check on the pupils’ understanding of the meanings of the italicized words after they have read the story. Ask them to explain what each phrase means. Then, give them an exercise. Replace the italicized words with one of the same meaning. 1. A wide view of the landscape can be seen from the unobstructed windows. 2. The long bridge has supporting framework and braced towers to make it strong. 3. The harsh grating noise woke me up. D. Set a Goal for Reading Ask the pupils to study the illustrations on pages 173-174 and the title on page 174. Have them think about what they would possibly learn from the story based on the title and the illustrations. Have the pupils read the motive question in this section and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Have them be aware that they will be looking for the answers to all these questions as they read the story. They will also be scanning the story for details and recognize correct and wrong statements.

The first and second questions develop the pupils’ ability to make comparisons. The third and fourth require them to give personal responses and to analyze and evaluate situations. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Recognizing Correct and Wrong Statements Tell the pupils that statements may be considered as conveying correct or wrong ideas depending on the meanings of the words used. Ask the class if they can identify statements which convey correct or wrong ideas. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 180. The expected answers are: 1. No 6. No 2. Yes 7. Yes 3. No 8. Yes 4. No 9. No 5. Yes 10. No •

E. Read Have the pupils read the story silently. Remind them to keep in mind the motive question and the questions in Share Your Ideas as they read the story. These questions will be answered later in a class discussion. F. Share Your Ideas Conduct a comprehension checkup to find out whether the pupils understood the story or not. Ask the pupils the following questions: • Where did the time machine take Chuck and Tom first? • Where were the boys taken when they overshot their machine for the present time? • How did they find out that they were in the future? • How did the people in the building learn the presence of the two boys? • Were Chuck and Tom able to return to the present? Support your answer.

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Recognizing Vivid Words Tell the class that writers use words that help a reader see people, actions, objects, and events more vividly. For example, scurried, bounced, trudged, and hollered are more vivid than ran, jumped, walked, and shouted. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on page 180. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. darted, elderly, suddenness, unprepared, raced, burst, scurried, dusk, shrubbery 2. sirens, whirled, jumped out, ran up Exercise B Answers may vary.

Scanning a Story for Details Tell the pupils that they can quickly find specific bits of information or details in a printed text by scanning the text. That is, they can run through the lines of the text very rapidly until they find the information or detail they want.


Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 181182. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. Tom and Chuck 6. auditorium 2. Dr. Haley 7. themselves 3. Time Traveler 8. plastic 4. lever 9. helicopter 5. gigantic 10. metal Exercise B 1. an airport 2. they had earphones 3. robots with cleaning instruments 4. unarmed old men 5. It was kept open. 6. not very differently from theirs except for the shiny and colorful material 7. a model of an instrument that absorbs cosmic rays 8. the police of this new age

I. Make Connections Let the pupils know that scientists today are conducting research in various fields. Tell the class that some researchers aim to find ways of improving people’s lives. Other researchers aim to find answers to questions that have bothered many great thinkers of our time. Others hope to come up with machines that can make work easier for a lot of people. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 183. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to do some research in a field he or she is interested in. J. Spin Off Have the pupils read again the story What Time Is It?. Have them compare the things as described in the present and in the future. Have them present their answers in a chart similar to the one on page 183. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to make comparisons.

LESSON

2 The Filipino Ingenuity No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

H. Do What’s Right • Demonstrating Presence of Mind Ask the pupils if they know the meaning of the phrase presence of mind. Tell them that a person who shows presence of mind does not panic in the face of danger or difficulty. His actions are quick but well-controlled. Ask the class if they have watched a film that portrayed a difficult or an emergency situation. Ask: “What was the emergency situation? What did the characters do in that situation?” Call on volunteers to tell how the pupils responded to an emergency situation. Ask how they showed presence of mind. Have the pupils ask a knowledgeable person or do research on what is the right thing to do in emergency situations such as being caught in a burning home or building.

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Use idiomatic expressions 2. Infer meanings of words through context B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall details of a story read C. Values Demonstrate creativity, resourcefulness, diligence, and vision with determination and hard work in achieving success

II. Subject Matter Selection: Bonifacio Isidro: Inventor and Entrepreneur (informative article)

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III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 184-193 Pictures of Filipino inventions IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show pictures of some Filipino inventions. Talk about each invention and its inventor. Ask the pupils to name some inventors they know and their inventions. Ask how their inventions are of help to people. B. Add to What You Know Tell the pupils that there are many inventors in our country. One of them is Roberto del Rosario. Have the pupils read about him in this section. Have the pupils read the boxed text at the bottom of this page. Ask them to answer the following questions to check comprehension. • What did Roberto del Rosario invent? How does his invention function? • Who invented an inexpensive incubator? • Who invented a bread toaster? • What did Dr. Gregorio J. Zaer invent? • What did Eduardo Sta. Ines invent? Let the pupils be aware that the story they will read is about one of our Filipino inventors. C. Search for Correct Meaning The words in this section may be given as a homework assignment a day earlier. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the phrases by having them use the phrases in sentences. An exercise like the following may be given. Direction: Replace the underlined word or words with one from the list of phrases. 1. The boys like playing mischievous tricks among themselves.

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2. He made a remarkable or great invention. 3. Bonifacio loved to work with machines. 4. He finances and sets up a new commercial enterprises. He is a business person. D. Set a Goal for Reading Check the pupils’ comprehension by asking the following questions. •

Why did Bonifacio become the slowest learner in class?

What degree did he finish in college?

What did Bonifacio want to do most?

Why did he create a crude-looking electric water pump?

What were his other inventions?

Have the pupils read the motive questions as well as the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them to keep the questions in mind as they read the story. Tell the class that they will answer the questions in the discussion after the reading of the story. E. Read Tell the pupils to read the selection silently. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the motive questions and the questions in this section in a class discussion. Questions 1 and 2 develop the pupils’ ability to recall details. Question 3 helps the pupils to give supported opinions and Question 4 develops the ability of the pupils to make choices and give reasons for their choices. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Idiomatic Expressions Tell the pupils that an idiomatic expression is a phrase or sentence whose meaning is different from the literal meaning of the words that make the expression. Ask them to identify the idiomatic expressions used in the selection.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 189. The expected answers are: 1. apple of …eyes 6. head in the clouds 2. get along well 7. icing on the cake 3. out of her head 8. turn up 4. down in the dump 9. turn down 5. head over heels 10. in the pink of health •

Evaluating Sentence Meaning Emphasize to the pupils that knowing the synonyms and antonyms of words will help them determine sentence meaning. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 190. The expected answers are: 1. No 6. No 2. Yes 7. No 3. Yes 8. Yes 4. No 9. Yes 5. Yes 10. Yes

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that the selection narrates a number of achievements and experiences of a great Filipino inventor. Ask them if they can recall details in the selection. Have the pupils do Exercises A and B on pages 190-192. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. a 3. c 5. c 7. b 9. c 2. a 4. b 6. a 8. c 10. a Exercise B Place stars before the following phrases: ✩ entrepreneur ✩ resourceful ✩ keen observer ✩ naughty schoolboy

✩ ✩ ✩ ✩ ✩ ✩

wise spender inventor creative winner of many awards responsive to farmers’ needs liked to repair things

H. Do What’s Right • Showing Initiative and Resourcefulness Ask: “What is initiative? When can we say that a person has initiative? What is resourcefulness? When can we say that a person is resourceful?” Tell the pupils that a person has initiative if he or she has the ability to start an action or take the leading step or action. A good example is one who takes the lead in putting things in the classroom in order. Let the pupils know that one who is skillful in dealing with a situation or in overcoming difficulties is said to be resourceful. A pupil who regularly runs errands for others in order to have additional school money may be said to be resourceful. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 192. Have them use their notebooks. This activity aims to help the pupils recognize resourcefulness and initiative. I. Make Connections • Knowing Discoverers and Inventors Ask the pupils the difference between a discovery and an invention. Tell them that throughout the centuries, people have made discoveries and invented things. For example, fire was discovered while the wheel was invented. Let the pupils know that many things around us today are the results of discoveries and inventions. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 193. This activity helps the pupils to do some research work in various fields of science where discoveries have been made and things have been invented.

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J. Spin Off Motivate the pupils to put up a Discoveries and Discoverers, Inventions and Inventors Exhibit. The pupils will post pictures of inventors and their inventions, and discoverers and their discoveries. The pictures can later be placed in an album for future reference. To help the pupils in their research, direct them to the Web links suggested in the text.

LESSON

3 Innovations: Boon and Bane No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use similes 2. Use idiomatic expressions B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Recall details of a dialogue read

IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Write the letters ATM on the blackboard. Ask the pupils what comes to their minds when they hear or see the acronym ATM. Have them read and answer the question in this section. Show them a picture of an ATM and an ATM card. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check on comprehension by asking the following questions. • What does ATM stand for? • What is automation? • How does an automated system work? • How is a bank client with ATM protected? • Have you heard of difficulties incurred by one who banks through ATM? Tell about them. • If you were to open a savings account, would you prefer an ATM or one where you have to use a passbook? Why or why not? Have the pupils answer the two questions in this section. Let the pupils be aware that the selection they are about to read is a “dialogue” between a person and an ATM account.

C. Values Exhibit honesty II. Subject Matter Selection: Brother ATM (Dialogue) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 194-201 Picture of an ATM A real ATM card

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C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases in this section. Ask them to determine the meanings of these phrases as they read the dialogue. Check the pupils’ comprehension of the idiomatic expressions. Have them use the expressions in sentences. An exercise like the following may be given. Direction: Complete the sentences by filling in the blanks with phrases from this section. 1. The manager of a certain company was worried. The figures on his worksheets showed that he had spent more than what he had earned. He was ________.


2. Some children give us nothing but trouble. They are real _______. 3. We were really surprised to find out that our little income lasted us until the next payday. We were able to _______.

D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive questions in this section and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that they will answer these questions after reading the selection. E. Read Ask two good readers to read the dialogue while the rest of the class reads along silently. Let the pupils be aware that the text in capital letters is to be read by the pupil playing the role of the ATM while the text in normal print is to be read by Mr. Priero. The part of the ATM should be read in a loud staccato manner.

Exercise B Sentences will vary. Some examples are: 1. The dancers were as graceful as the tall grass on an open field. 2. The long road is like a long winding ribbon. 3. The speed of a running boy is like a lightning. 4. The voice of the angry patient is as loud as a roaring thunder. 5. A new day is like a blank piece of paper for painting on. 6. A computer is like a brain. 7. The earth is like a colored ball. 8. An angry person is like an erupting volcano.

F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the questions during the class discussion. Questions 1 and 2 in Share Your Ideas enable the pupils to analyze and evaluate a situation as to whether it is fiction or nonfiction. Question 3 the develops the pupils’ ability to evaluate an author’s purpose. Question 4 enables the pupils to make choices and to defend those choices. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Idiomatic Expressions Remind the pupils that idiomatic expressions are expressions whose meanings are far from their literal meaning. The meaning of the idiomatic expressions can be deduced or inferred according to the way they are used in the sentence. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 197. The expected answers are: 1. d 4. e 2. b 5. f 3. c

Using Similes Emphasize to the pupils that similes are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Similes use the words as...as or like to make the connection between two things that are being compared. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 198199. The expected answers are: Exercsie A Answers will vary but possible responses are: 1. Christmas tree, rainbow 2. sheep, cats, rabbits, etc. 3. wild boar, beast 4. flower 5. craters

Recalling Details of a Dialogue Read Tell the pupils to try to recall the events or significant happenings in the story and answer the exercise on pages 199200. Underline the sentence that comes after the following letters: 1. a 3. b 5. d 7. d 2. c 4. d 6. a

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H. Do What’s Right • Practicing Honesty Ask the pupils if they have heard of people with ATM cards losing their money. Ask them: “How does this happen? What trait is exhibited by people who withdraw money from another person’s account?” Tell the pupils that the disadvantaged person will surely complain to the authorities. A trap will then be set for the dishonest person. When caught, he or she can be given a stiff penalty. Have the pupils work on the task on page 201. This activity develops pupils’ ability to write a good paragraph and to give his or her personal explanation on why it pays to be honest. I. Make Connections • Using an ATM Card Have the pupils read the questions in this section and the instructions for the task that follows. A resource speaker may also be invited to explain to the class how an ATM works. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to interview someone who is knowledgeable in banking or computer technology. They also learn how an ATM works.

LESSON

4 A Step Forward for Humankind No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills 1. Deduce the meanings of phrases through context 2. Evaluate sentence meaning B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Identify supporting details 2. Recall details of a story read 3. Infer character traits C. Values Value the importance of having an inquisitive mind

II. Subject Matter Selection: Archimedes and His Great Discovery (informtive article) III. Materials

J. Spin Off The activities aim to make the pupils more familiar with the advantages and the drawbacks of banking with an ATM. They will also help the pupils develop their creative abilities when they write stories based on various experiences with an ATM.

Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 202-209 A transparent container with water IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show to the class a transparent container with water. Have one of them mark the waterline. Have another pupil put an object into the container. Have the pupils observe what happens to the water. Have a third pupil mark the new waterline. Ask the pupils what they observed about the water in the container. Ask the pupils what could be the reason for this phenomenon. The discussion will answer the questions in this section.

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B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and that in the box at the bottom of the page. Check comprehension by asking the following questions: • Who discovered the principle related to buoyancy? (Explain to the class that buoyancy is the tendency of an object to float or rise in a fluid.) • Why is Archimedes called the “Father of Experimental Science?” • What other scientific theories and principles did Archimedes discover? • Why are Archimedes’ discoveries turning points in human life? Let the pupils be aware that the selection they will read is about Archimedes and one of his discoveries. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the phrases in this section. Ask them to infer the meanings of the italicized words in each phrase. Check their understanding of the meaning of each italicized word by having them work on this exercise. Direction: Choose the meaning that fits the italicized words. 1. Cotton is not as dense as gold. a. compact b. light c. loose 2. The miner found a lump of gold. It was as big as a baby’s closed fist. a. a small bundle b. irregularly shaped solid mass c. big pile 3. A goldsmith made the queen’s crown. a. one who sells gold b. one who gathers gold c. one who makes articles or things out of gold The pupils may also be asked to use the words in sentences.

D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Have them also read the questions in Share Your Ideas to give them an idea of what details to look out for. Let them be aware that they will answer all these questions after they have read the selection. E. Read Ask the pupils to read the story silently. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to find out whether the pupils understood the selection or not. • Who was Archimedes? • Why did the king ask Archimedes’ help about his new crown? • How did Archimedes solve the king’s problem? • How did Archimedes prove that an object underwater weighed less than when it is above water? • What is the Archimedes principle? Have the pupils answer the motive question in Set a Goal for Reading and the questions under this section. Point out that the Archimedes principle states that: • an object loses weight under water. • the amount of water lost is the same as the weight of the water that the object pushes away. Question 8 makes the pupils think about the fields of science that interest them most. At the same time, they are made aware that they need to have an inquisitive mind, patience, and perseverance for them to be successful. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Deducing the Meanings of Phrases Through Context Tell the pupils that difficult or unfamiliar words used in sentences or selections may be deduced by using other words or phrases in the text. This is using context to determine the meanings of words.

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Example: The playwright was used to receiving nothing but accolades from critics, but this time around, the critics were harsh and called his work uninspired and boring. The word accolade is unfamiliar. Here a contrast is being made between the past and present works of the playwright as shown by the phrase but this time around. This time the critics were harsh. It can be deduced that in the past they liked the playwright’s works. It may be deduced that accolades means praises. Use praises in a sentence and show that the word fits the context. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 205. The expected answers are: 1. c 3. b 5. f 2. a 4. e 6. d Give the pupils an interactive exercise on context clues. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Turning Point, then, Archimedes and His Great Discovery, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, the pupils will read a sentence based on the selection. The pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the unfamiliar word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. •

Evaluating Sentence Meaning Tell the pupils that to determine the meaning of a sentence, it is important to know the meanings of the words that compose it. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 205. The expected answers are: 1. No 5. Yes 2. Yes 6. Yes 3. No 7. Yes 4. Yes 8. Yes Have the pupils confirm their answers. Tell them to look up the meanings of the unfamiliar words in the sentences in a dictionary.

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Identifying Supporting Details Emphasize to the pupils that the main idea of a paragraph, series of paragraphs, or a selection is a general statement that summarizes a paragraph or a number of paragraphs. Tell them that several sentences support the main idea. These sentences are called supporting details. Have the pupils do the exercise on page 206. The expected answers are: 1. b 2. a 3. b 4. d 5. a

Recalling Details of a Story Read Tell the pupils that some details in a selection are important. Have them try to identify the important details in the selection and underline them. Tell the class to read the details they have marked. The important details are then recalled at a later time. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 207. The expected answers are: 1. Archimedes’ Principle 2. Mathematician and inventor 3. crown 4. using cheaper metal 5. dense 6. twice as much as 7. measuring water displaced by the crown 8. less 9. goldsmith 10. King Hieron of Syracuse Give the pupils further practice on inferring character traits. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Turning Point, then, Archimedes and His Great Discovery, then, Inferring Character Traits. For each item, the pupils will read an excerpt from the selection. Then, they will click on the trait that the character reveals based on the given excerpt.


H. Do What’s Right • Having an Inquisitive Mind Explain to the class the meaning of the word inquisitive. Ask the pupils if they themselves are inquisitive. Tell them that one who is inquisitive has a strong desire or eagerness to know things. When one has questions in mind, he or she may do several things. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 208. When they are finished doing the task, point out that if they checked statements 2, 5, 6, and 7, they have the marks of an inquisitive mind. I. Make Connections • Knowing More About Archimedes Tell the pupils that Archimedes, one of the great discoverers of ancient times, still has a great influence on present-day civilization. His discoveries and inventions still help scientists, engineers, and even business people of today. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 208. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ ability to do research work on other discoveries and inventions of Archimedes based on his now famous principle. J. Spin Off Have the pupils read the notes for tasks A and B. The activities develop the pupils’ ability to do research work, familiarize them with more innovations based on Archimedes’ Principle, and helps them to be more creative.

LESSON

5 Plastics: Useful and Harmful No. of Teaching Hours: 5-6

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use context clues to get the meanings of words 2. Be acquainted with the meanings of some words used in the production of plastics B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Sequence events 2. Recall details C. Values Show commitment and care for the environment through proper use and disposal of plastic products

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Story of Plastics (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 210-215 Plastic products: comb, bag, glass, etc. IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show different kinds of plastic products. Ask the pupils what materials each one is made from. Ask the pupils to read and answer the questions in this section. Ask them what makes plastic products attractive to users. This activity will familiarize the pupils with the different plastic products currently in use. They will also become aware of the convenience in using plastic products.

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B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils to read the introductory text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check comprehension by asking the following questions: • What are plastics? • Why are plastics popular materials for making products? • What care and caution do we need to look into when using plastics? Why? Let the pupils be aware that the selection they will read traces the development of plastics. C. Search for Correct Meaning The vocabulary items in this section should be given as a homework assignment before this lesson is to be taken up. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the denotative meaning of the italicized words by giving them the following exercise. Direction: Replace the underlined expression with a word from the box. synthetic apparatus

recycling inflammable

1. Using again paper that has already been used is one way of saving our trees. 2. The used plastic cups, glasses, and bottles are placed in the recycling machine. 3. Materials that are easily burned should be kept far from the surface of the stove. 4. The cloth is made out of chemically produced material. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils look at the illustrations on pages 210-211. Ask them to identify each object. Tell the pupils that these are examples of things that are made from plastics. Have the pupils read the motive questions in this section. Let the pupils be aware that they will answer these questions after they have read the selection.

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To ensure comprehension of the informative article, ask them to go over the questions in Share Your Ideas so they will know what details they have to take note of as they read. E. Read The whole class may be asked to read the whole article silently or the class may be divided into four groups with each group reading and reporting on the section assigned to it. Reporting may be done in any creative way, e.g. as an interview, a panel discussion, a news report on radio or TV, a dialogue, etc. F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to check comprehension: •

What did people use to wrap their food, mold pots, and make cloth thousands of years ago?

With the advent of science and technology, what replaced paper, clay, and natural fibers?

Who invented celluloid? What useful items can be formed from celluloid?

Who invented Bakelite plastic? Why is this product widelyused?

How did the growth of plastic expand?

Why are plastic products endangering our environment?

Have the pupils answer the motive questions. Then, have the pupils answer the questions in Share Your Ideas. Question 1 develops pupils’ ability to recall details. Question 2 helps the pupils to make supported generalizations and Question 3 develops their ability to give personal reactions and opinions to significant issues. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Naming a Word Referred To Tell the pupils that the selection The Story of Plastics introduces a number of important and unfamiliar scientific words. Ask them if they can identify these new words.


Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 213. The expected answers are: Down Across 1. residue 2. synthetic 3. inflammable 5. apparatus 4. thermosetting 6. photo 7. plastic 8. BIO 9. recycling Give pupils more practice on vocabulary skills by having them take an interactive exercise on using context clues. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Turning Point, then, The Story of Plastics, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, pupils will read a sentence based on the selection with a vocabulary word. The pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. •

Sequencing Events Tell the pupils that one way of remembering the sequence of events in a text is by putting the events on a time line. The events can be sequenced from the earliest to the latest or viceversa. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 214. The expected answers are: 1. c 4. a 2. e 5. b 3. d 6. f Recalling Details Tell the pupils that reading questions on a selection before actually reading the selection itself can help you recognize the important ideas and details in that selection. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 214. Work on the exercise with the whole class. Have them carry out the instructions sentence by sentence. Give the pupils enough time to perform each instruction.

Give the pupils an enrichment exercise on selecting a title based on a given image. Instruct pupils to run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Turning Point, then, The Story of Plastics, then, Selecting the Appropriate Title of a Given Image. In this exercise, pupils will be presented with an image based on the selection. They will then choose the caption that best sums up this image by clicking on the letter of their choice. H. Do What’s Right • Disposing of Plastics Properly Emphasize to the pupils that it is a fact that plastics have their uses but, at the same time, they can also be harmful in some ways. Tell the class that plastics have made life very convenient to many of us. Have the pupils be aware that it would not be easy to think of an area in the life of a person which has not been affected by plastics. From the simplest plastic bag, to children’s toys, housewares, office equipment, and medical supplies and equipment--name it, plastics are there. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 215. This activity aims to develop the pupils’ ability to find ways and means of disposing of plastic properly. Conduct a whole-class discussion of these ways of plastic disposal. I. Make Connections • Researching on Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastics Ask the pupils what plastic containers they have at home. Ask them if they have plastic furniture and find out some of the ways in which plastics have been useful to them. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 215. This activity develops pupils’ ability to surf the Net in order to find out how plastics can become a “bane” to society. J. Spin Off The activity helps to develop the pupils’ creativity by making posters that can make more people aware of the harmful effects of the improper use and disposal of used plastic products.

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LESSON

6 Modern Communications No. of Teaching Hours: 5-6

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Infer meanings of words through their contexts 2. Use words with similar meanings 3. Learn words related to TV B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation Interpret details of a poem read C. Values Practice television viewing in moderation

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Television (poem) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 216-221 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils talk about the television programs they like to watch and how many hours they spend each day watching television. Ask the pupils who among them spend a lot of time watching TV. Ask them also what the television set would probably say to them if it could talk. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and the one in the box at the bottom of the page. Check on the pupils’ comprehension by asking the following questions: • What word parts make up the word television? What does each part mean?

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• • •

How does television affect our daily lives? What are the good effects of TV? the harmful effects? What should we do to minimize the harmful effects of watching TV?

The discussion could go on to how TV works, e.g. The rays of light that enter the photographic camera strike a piece of film in the camera. The film captures the image (picture) formed by the light rays. A television camera also takes pictures by capturing the rays of light that pass into the camera. But a television camera does not use film to capture the image. Instead, it uses a thin plate of glass or other materials that have been made sensitive to light. Whenever a ray of light strikes a spot on the plate, it knocks electrons off the plate. This gives the plate a certain electrical charge at that spot. The amount of charge varies with the number of electrons knocked loose, and the number of electrons varies with the brightness of light. So, the charges at all the different points on the plate capture an electronic image of the pattern of light striking the plate. The glass plate is inside a long tube. All the air has been taken out of this tube. At the other end of the tube is a small electric wire. When the television camera is turned on, this wire turns white-hot, like the wire inside a light bulb. The hot wire shoots out a beam of electrons. Magnets can attract and repel electrons and cause them to change direction. Magnets surrounding the beam of electrons direct the beam to the glass plate. The magnets make the beam of the electrons scan—travel in a line, left to right, across the plate of glass. When the beam gets to the right side, it jumps back to its left side and down to the next line. The beam of electrons travels across the glass plate and jumps back to the top to scan the net frame, or image, formed on the plate. The electrons strike the glass plate and bounce back to a collecting plate. If the beam of electrons hits a “bright” or highly charged spot on the glass plate, the electrons will be absorbed (soaked up). When the reflected beam of electrons strike the


collecting plate, it creates a current of electricity. The current of electricity carries a signal that tells how light or dark the glass is at different spots. The electric current or signal, travels from the television camera to the transmitter. The transmitter sends the signal to a television antenna. The current travels to the antenna; this sends the electric signal into the air as a wave of electromagnetic radiation. When this wave of radiation reaches a home television antenna, the antenna turns the radiation back into the electric signal again. The electric signal travels into the television set or receiver. First, the television set makes the electric signal much stronger. The electric signal then goes to the picture tube in the television set. At the back of the picture tube is an electron gun. A hot wire at the back of the electron gun shoots out a beam of electrons, just as in the television camera. The beam of electrons hits the inside of the glass of the picture tube. This side of the glass is coated with phosphorous—chemicals that glow when the light strikes them. The magnets make the electron beam travel across the screen in a series of line. The electron beam travels across the screen 525 times in 1/30 of a second, just as in the television camera. Special signs inside the television set make the electron beam move exactly in step with the beam inside the television camera. Wherever there is a bright spot of light on the glass plate, the electron beam leaves a dark spot on the face of the picture tube. You cannot see all these spots one by one because the beam moves too fast. But if you look closely at a TV picture, you may see the 1525 lines that run across the picture tube. Some countries use a different number of lines. Color Television. Color television cameras and receivers work the same way as black-and-white television sets do. But color television is about three times as complicated as blackand-white. Mirrors inside the color television camera divide the light coming into the camera into three parts. There are three filters inside the camera, one for each part of the light.

One filter allows only red-colored lights to pass. The second filter allows only blue-colored lights to pass. The third filter allows only green-colored light to pass. Each color goes to a different camera tube. Each tube has a separate glass plate and electron beam. From the three tubes, three signals go to the transmitter. The color television transmitter multiplexes the three signals—combines them into one. Then, a black-and-white signal is added to the multiplexed signal, and the combined signal is sent to the broadcasting antenna. The color television set uses three electron beams instead of only one. One electron beam is for red colors, another is for green colors, and the third is for blue colors. The inside face of the color picture tube is covered with groups of three different kinds of phosphors. One phosphor glows red, one glows green, and one glows blue. Each different color of electron beam makes only its own phosphor glow. When everything is working just right inside a color television set, the three colors mix together. You can then see a picture in full color on the screen. Source: Young Students Learning Library, Vol. 20

Let the pupils be aware that the poem they will read tells of an imaginary situation where a TV set comes to life. C. Search for Correct Meaning Ask the pupils to study the phrases in this section. Let them be aware that they can infer the meanings of the italicized words in the phrases as they study the poem. Check on pupils’ comprehension of the meanings of the words by having them work on the following exercise. Direction: Give another word which means the same as the underlined expression. 1. People in temperate countries are not used to our typhoons. 2. We raised the bamboo curtain to let the light in. 3. Some sea animals have long, slender growth on their heads which they use as defense against enemies.

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D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils study the illustrations on pages 216 and 217. Then, ask them to relate it with the title of the poem. Have them think of what the poem would probably tell about based on the title and the illustrations. Then, have them read the motive question and the questions in Share Your Ideas. E. Read Have the pupils listen (with books closed) as you read the poem to them. Then, have them read the poem. Have them note that there are no punctuation marks to guide them on the correct places to pause. Tell them they must read by thought units. It may be a good idea to point out to them where they should pause, e.g., after life, window, and tentacle. This should enable the pupils to read together without some going ahead of others. This will also help them get the thought of the poem. The pupils may be asked to read the poem twice.

Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 218. The expected answers are: 1. tentacles 6. unaccustomed 2. blinds 7. tentacles 3. unaccustomed 8. blinds 4. blinds 9. unaccustomed 5. unaccustomed 10. blinds •

Learning Words Related to TV Stress to the pupils that the invention of television has brought new words to our vocabulary. These include cable television, satellite broadcast, and closed-circuit television. Tell the pupils that sometimes, schools teach special lessons through closed-circuit television. Hospitals use closed-circuit television to monitor the condition of patients as well as to give medical students a closeup view of a surgical operation. Banks and prisons are equipped with closed-circuit television so that the guards can observe many people at the same time. Businesses sometimes train their employees through closedcircuit television. Sometimes, they use the teleconference for nationwide meetings and conferences. Have the pupils read the vocabulary related to TV in their books. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 219. The expected answers are: 1. closed-circuit television 4. soap operas 2. satellite broadcast 5. documentary 3. sitcoms

Interpreting Details of a Poem Read Tell the pupils that the details in the poem may be stated using literal language. Others are stated using figurative language. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 220. The expected answers are: 1. a, b, d 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. c

F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the motive question. Then, have the pupils answer the questions in this section. Question 1 requires them to note details. Questions 2 and 3 help the pupils to interpret figurative language. Note that personification is used in the poem. Question 4 helps them to recognize author’s technique. Point out that the poem is made up of only one sentence. Questions 5 and 6 help the pupils to realize that one should respect even non-living things. One way to show this respect is not to abuse the use of TV and to be well-mannered-and not sloppy while watching TV. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Words with Similar Meanings Tell the pupils that a variety of expressions can be used when we speak or write. It can reduce monotony and can give color or excitement to our way of communicating. Variety can be achieved through the use of words with similar meanings. For example, instead of simply saying, “The lady is beautiful,” we can say “The lady is dressed up in a colorful and elegant attire which accented her features very well.”

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H. Do What’s Right • Practicing Television-viewing in Moderation Tell the pupils that television is a good source of entertainment as well as information. It keeps us company during moments of boredom. It gives us needed information on current events. Through cable television, we can assess programs from all over the world. Stress to the pupils that these advantages cannot be ignored. Many pupils nowadays do not balance the time for watching television and studying lessons. Furthermore, they view programs that are unfit for them. It is therefore important that they choose which TV programs to watch. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 221. Answers may vary. This activity aims to help the pupils evaluate their choices of TV program. Ask if they suppose they should go on watching the TV programs they watch. Tell them to explain their answers. I. Make Connections • Knowing More About Television Inform the pupils that television came into being based on the inventions and discoveries of many scientists. The “first generation” television sets were not entirely electronic. The display (TV screen had a small motor with a spinning disc and a neon lamp, which worked together to give a blurry reddishorange picture about half the size of a business card!) The period before 1938 is called the “Mechanical Television Era.” This type of television is a far cry from today’s fully-electronic television system. Have the pupils work on the task on page 221. This activity develops pupils’ ability to do research work to find out how television works. Have them find out more about using the television for education in the Philippines through this article at wikipilipinas.org: http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index. php?title=Philippine Educational broadcasting.

J. Spin Off This activity motivates the pupils to be imaginative. Tell them that the conversation depends on their current TV-viewing practices.

LESSON

7 The Prolific Tilapia No. of Teaching Hours: 3-4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Identify the meanings of words B. Comprehension/Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details of a story 2. Infer character traits C. Values Show admiration for resourcefulness and humility

II. Subject Matter Selection: A Turning Point for Tilapia Culture (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 222-229 Picture of a tilapia Picture of a tilapia farm IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Show the pupils a picture of a tilapia. Have them identify this kind of fish. Show them also the picture of a tilapia farm. Then, ask them to answer the questions in this section.

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B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Check on their comprehension by having them answer the following questions. • What makes tilapia a popular delicacy? • In what way does the fry or baby tilapia differ from other fishes? Let the pupils be aware that the selection for study is an article on tilapia.

F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following questions to find out whether the pupils understood the article or not.

C. Search for Correct Meaning The phrases in this section should be assigned a day before the lesson is to be taken up. Check on the pupils’ understanding of the denotational meanings of the words by giving them the following exercise. Direction: Replace the underlined expression with an appropriate word in the box.

Have the pupils answer the motive question. Then, have them answer the questions in Share Your Ideas. Questions 1 and 2 require the pupils to relate the selection to their personal lives. Question 3 helps the pupils to evaluate details and arrive at a conclusion. It also familiarizes them with science concepts related to raising tilapia. Question 4 develops pupils’ awareness of values that spell success as well as the values one must retain when one has achieved recognition and success.

tedious tether

fingerling hydrology

1. The boy’s duty was to tie the carabao in a shady place. 2. Work in a factory can be tiresome because it is repetitive. 3. In a fish pond, the young fish are separated from the adult ones. D. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils study the pictures on pages 222-223 and have them relate these to the title of the selection. Ask them what they expect to learn from the selection. Have them read the motive question as well as the questions in Share Your Ideas. Let the pupils be aware that they will answer the questions after they have read the selection. E. Read Have the pupils read the article silently.

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Why are many people interested in cultivating tilapia?

Who is Rafael Dineros Guerrero III?

What was the main problem of cultivating tilapia?

What was Raffy’s remarkable accomplishment?

Why did he want to restore Manila Bay?

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying the Meanings of Words Tell the pupils that an idea or a thing can be expressed using words or phrases of similar meanings thus giving variety to our way of speaking. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B on pages 225226. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. tether

6. dump sites

2. fingerlings

7. carp

3. tedious

8. tilapia

4. differentiate

9. tedious

5. stimulus

10. responsibility

Exercise B 1. b

3.

b

5.

c

7.

c

9. a

2. b

4.

c

6.

a

8.

a

10. b


Recalling Details of a Story Tell the pupils that the selection A Turning Point for Tilapia Culture gives information on the life achievements of Rafael Dineros Guerrero III. Tell the class to test themselves if they can recall details of the selection by working on the Exercises A-C on pages 227-228. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. overpopulation 6. picky 2. responsible 7. three 3. fry 8. aquarium 4. Lingkod Bayan 9. sex reversal 5. hardy 10. Manila Bay Exercise B Check sentences 1, 2, and 4. Exercise C 1. The fishponds become overcrowded, thus limiting the growth of fish. 2. Raffy decided to apply sex reversal to the blue tilapia. He finally succeeded in converting tilapia fry to an all male population. 3. Answers will vary. Pupils’ answers may be similar to the following: He was a responsible person. He did some household chores of milking and tethering the goats. He also washed dishes and cleaned the bathroom for his paternal grandmother.

Inferring Character Traits Tell the pupils that the traits of a character may not be stated directly in a story. The reader has to make inferences about those traits. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 228. The expected answers are: 1. resourcefulness and daring 2. diligence 3. perseverance and industriousness 4. initiative and leadership 5. concern

H. Do What’s Right • Being a Good Role Model Inform the pupils that Rafael Guerrero is a role model especially for the youth. He exemplified the positive values which a young boy or girl should possess for them to succeed. He is not only disciplined but also resourceful, responsible, diligent, patient, and persevering. Indeed, the pupils need these traits to be able to achieve his or her goals. Through the cultivation of these traits, they can also become role models. Tell the pupils that we find many role models among the men and women in our history. Some work in the field of science, others are models because of their patriotism, and still, others, because of their industry and hard work. Ask who among them they would like to emulate? Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 229. This activity requires the pupils to be introspective and to determine how they can be good role models themselves. I. Make Connections • Knowing More About Aquaculture Tell the pupils that many crustaceans, like shrimps and crabs, and fishes, like milkfish and carp, are raised in ponds. Some are taken care of in large aquariums. This way of raising sea creatures for food is called aquaculture. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 229. This activity develops the pupils’ ability to write a letter requesting permission to visit an aquaculture project while on a field trip or for the person in charge of the project to talk about it in class. J. Spin Off The activity aims to encourage the pupils to aspire to succeed which is not just in terms of becoming rich, but more on being able to improve the lives of other people.

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Skill Focus A. Getting Meanings of Homonyms Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Have the pupils give other examples of homonyms. Ask how homonyms are different from synonyms, antonyms, and homographs. Have the pupils give examples. Have the pupils work on Exercises A, B, and C on pages 230231. The expected answers are: Exercise A Answers may vary. Have the pupils give the meaning of the words in the parantheses before they work on the exercise. Exercise B 1. stationary 2. reign 3. cite 4. psalms 5. psalm

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

lane peace calm stationery won

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

vain rain main cymbals pare

Exercsie C Sentences will vary. Check based on grammaticality of the sentences and appropriateness of lexis. B. Getting Information from Newspapers Have the pupils bring a copy of a newspaper (a broadsheet) to class. During the class discussion of this section, have the pupils identify in their respective newspapers the various sections described on pages 232-236. Then have them work on Exercises A and B on pages 236-237. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. Sports Page 2. Business Page 3. General News 4. Entertainment Page 5. Home Art

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Editorial Page Entertainment Page Classified Ads General News Entertainment Page Entertainment Page Business Page Columns Letters to Editors Entertainment Page

Exercise B News articles vary. C. Noting Cause-Effect Relationship Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Take up the examples, item by item, with the class. Explain the concepts more thoroughly. Have the pupils work on Exercises A and B. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. Guerrero succeeded in his undertaking because he was resourceful. 2. He learned to be a responsible person because in his childhood, he had to perform household tasks. 3. Tilapia can be raised without much expense because it is not a picky eater. 4. Fish farmers can have a tilapia harvest every four months because tilapia grows fast. 5. The sex tilapia can be controlled because it is sexless for a certain period after hatching. Exercise B Answers may vary.


Linking Reading with Writing •

Writing About “How Something Came to Be” A. Preparation Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Then have them read the suggestions under Prewriting on pages 240-241. B. Modeling and Reinforcing Have the pupils read the model paragraph on page 240. Point out the information about parachutes given in the paragraph. C. Preparation Tell the pupils that the whole class will write a composition similar to the one in the book. Ask for suggestions on a thing they can write about—for example, the airplane. Ask the pupils what they know about how the airplane was invented. Ask what they can do is they know very little about how a thing came to be. Give the pupils enough time to gather notes on what the class has decided to write about. D. Joint Construction Have the pupils read suggestions 1-4 under Drafting on page 241. Guide the pupils in carrying out the instructions. Have the pupils read suggestions 1-3 under Revising. Guide the pupils in revising the composition the class has jointly constructed. Have the pupils read suggestions 1-2 in Writing the Final Composition. Guide the pupils in rewriting the jointly-constructed composition. Have a copy of the composition posted on the English bulletin board. Tell the pupils that they should now be ready to write their own compositions. E. Planning Have the pupils read the introductory notes again and Prewriting on page 240. Tell them to follow these steps in preparing to write their compositions.

F. Independent Construction Have the pupils read Drafting again. You can ask the pupils to write their compositions in class or you can opt to give it as a homework assignment. G. Revising Have the pupils read the suggestions under Revising on page 241. Revising and rewriting can be done in class or be given as a homework assignment. Have the pupils carry out the suggestions under Sharing/ Publishing.

Unit Test A. Identifying Synonyms 1. city

6.

excessive

2. extraordinary

7.

conceited

3. create

8.

tie

4. gigantic

9.

artificial

10.

reliable

5. annoy B. Evaluating Ideas 11. Yes

13.

Yes

15.

Yes

17.

No

19.

No

12. Yes

14.

No

16.

Yes

18.

No

20.

Yes

23.

b

24.

c

25.

c

C. Inferring Character Traits 21. b

22.

a

D. Passage Comprehension 26. satellite 27. weather 28. communications 29. astronomy 30. Different satellites launched into space

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UNIT

IV Experiencing the Arts

Ask the pupils to cite different forms of art (painting, dancing, sculpturing, acting, music, etc.), then ask them to name local personalities known for their success in the arts. (Liza Macuja, Lea Salonga, Malang, Levi Celerio, Cecil Licad, etc.) Have the pupils aware that artists are very sensitive people. They can find beauty in the most simple things. They are also great interpreters of feelings, emotions, and other abstract ideas. Point out to the pupils that they will learn more about the different forms of art as they go through the lessons in this unit.

LESSON

1 Music, the Language of the Soul No. of Teaching Hours: 3

I.

III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 245-253 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Share stories or experiences with the pupils that show the concept that pooled expertise or organized efforts yield better results than otherwise. Examples: Teamwork in a game, preparing a school project, cleaning the classroom or the house, an orchestra playing beautiful music with a conductor

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Use expressions other than the “commonly” used for purposes of variety and vividness, e.g. Appropriate synonyms and other phrases 2. Expand one’s “knowledge of the world” by being familiar with terms related to music 3. Demonstrate sensitivity to context in the use of synonyms 4. Enumerate main points (information expected to be remembered) in a selection read B. Comprehension 1. Distinguish significant details from non-significant ones in a selection read 2. Demonstrate graphically (concept map or an outline) the big ideas in a selection and the details illustrative or supportive of such ideas C. Values Demonstrate ways of being in harmony with others

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II. Subject Matter Selection: The Notes of Note-Re Dame (short story)

B. Add to What You Know Play any musical instrument on hand by striking notes at random. Facilitate a discussion to make the pupils realize that notes at random don’t produce pleasing sounds. Relate this to your earlier examples saying that notes, like people, have to work in harmony, arranged or directed by somebody so that music can be produced. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the class read the expressions under Search for Correct Meaning. Through discussion, find out if they have an understanding of the expressions in the list. Provide assistance when necessary using the most appropriate strategy for specific expressions. Efforts on self-help should however be encouraged so that the pupils will develop independence in solving problems in reading e.g. vocabulary, on their own as much as possible. End this subpart of the lesson by encouraging pupils to use the expressions in acceptable context after you have done modeling. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the class that they will read a selection that will give them ideas on how “good music” can be produced.


Have them recall big names in the music world and what made these people become famous. Have them also recall songs that made an impact nationally or internationally. Lead the pupils to read the biographical sketch of Bach on page 245.

Exercise A 1. Solo

9. Bach

2. fairy

10. music

3. Note-Re Dame

11. harmony

4. notes

12. sequence

E. Read Have the class read the selection The Notes of Note-Re Dame.

5. group

13. pitch

6. sound

14. composers

F. Share Your Ideas Have the class answer the questions in Share Your Ideas.

7. pitch

15. musicians

G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Words that Are of Similar Meanings Explain to the class that an idea can be expressed at times in different ways. Knowing different words or phrases to express an idea can be helpful in minimizing monotony. It can also help one in choosing the most appropriate way of expressing a concept. Have the class do the exercise on pages 248-249. The expected answers are: 1. pleasant 6. grumble 2. vanished 7. give an angry retort 3. ignore 8. so agitated 4. in unison 9. chiming 5. responded to 10. lined up

Exercise B

Recalling Details of a Story Read Explain to the class that one indicator of having understood what was read is by being able to recall information in the selection read. Explain further that it is not easy to recall every bit of information in the selection. But they can select the main points. Tell them that significant details directly support the main points. Remind the class that they should be able to detect the main points first to help them find out what details are significant because they support the main points. Have the class do Exercises A and B on pages 249-250. The expected answers are:

8. noise Possible sentences are as follows: 1. A note named Solo was sitting all alone in a line until a fairy appears to him. 2. The fairy took Solo to the village called Note-Re-Dame where he met other notes. 3. The notes quarrel with one another. 4. Johann Sebastian Bach came to the village. 5. Bach makes music with the notes. 6. Other composers and musicians go to Note-Re-Dame. When the class is done with Exercise B, have them write each sentence separately. Under each sentence, have them write the related details. H. Do What’s Right •

Being in Harmony with Others Have the class read the introductory notes on page 251 and have them do the exercise on the same page. If available, a CD on Diana Ross’ If We Hold On Together will be fine for listening. John Donne’s No Man Is An Island may be an additional reading for the class.

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I. Make Connections 窶「

LESSON

Using Musical Expressions

No. of Teaching Hours: 3

Ask the pupils to recall one of their favorite music pieces. Tell them to find out who composed it. Have the pupils gather information about the composer. You may direct the pupils to do further reading on great composers窶認ilipino and foreign. Have them share information in class. Tell the class to study the list of terms on page 251 and accomplish the exercises on page 252. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. concert

6. orchestra

2. violinist

7. players

3. bow

8. finale

4. suite

9. movements

5. tempo

2 A Way to Instill Discipline

10. acoustics

Exercise B 1. No

6. Yes

2. No

7. No

3. No

8. No

4. Yes

9. Yes

5. Yes

10. Yes

J. Spin Off Ask the pupils to make a list of some Filipino composers and famous singing groups. Have each pupil select one to report on. Let each one of them write his or her report on page 253. Tell the pupils to attach a picture to their report.

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Use synonyms and other expressions (including idiomatic expressions to express an idea) B. Comprehension Recall details in a story read C. Values Realize the value of self discipline by being able to state illustrative examples

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Gift of Dance (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 254-261 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils read the questions in this section. Show pictures of ballet dancers or film clips of ballet presentations. Ask the pupils who take ballet lessons or who have watched ballet presentations to talk about it. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the explanatory notes in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Ask detail questions to check comprehension. C. Search for Correct Meaning Have the pupils read the phrases in this section. Tell them to look up the meanings of the italicized words in a dictionary. Write

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the word dance. Ask the pupils to enumerate words they can recall when they see the word. Write their responses below dance. Edit the pupils’ responses and have a way of clarifying the meaning of each word they give.

Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Then, have them read the italicized words in the exercise and check those which they are familiar with. Tell the class to look up in a dictionary the meanings of the words they have not checked. Only then should they answer the exercise. Discourage them from making guesses. The expected answers are:

D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question. Tell the class that they are going to read a selection about a girl learning ballet. They will find out what beautiful lessons the girl learned over and above dancing. E. Read Have the class silently read the selection silently. Have the pupils read the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that these questions will be answered when they are done reading the story. F. Share Your Ideas Ask comprehension questions on the selection. Then, have a class discussion of the motive question and the questions under this section. Have the pupils identify the specific page and paragraph that they used as bases for their answers. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Using Synonyms Recall what synonyms are. Have the pupils read the words in the box and check those whose meanings they know. Remind them that they have to look up the meanings of some words in a dictionary. Tell the pupils to use other meaning-getting strategies to get the meanings of the other words. They can go back to the selection to get the meanings by using context clues. Then have the pupils work on the exercise on p. 257. The expected answers are: 1. ballerina 6. passion 2. choreographer 7. barre 3. peasants 8. faint 4. arabesque 9. coach 5. glissades 10. soar

Evaluating Ideas

1. False

6. True

2. True

7. True

3. True

8. False

4. True

9. True

5. False

10. False

Recalling Details in a Story Read Ask the pupils what details are and why it is important for them to recognize and remember details. Tell the pupils to find out how well they can note, remember, and recall details by answering the exercise on pages 258-260. Have them go back to the selection to verify their answers to the items. Read the correct answers afterwards. The expected answers to the exercises are: Exercise A Underline the sentences after the following letters: 1. d

4. b

2. a

5. a, d, e, f, g

3. c

6. d

Exercise B Underline the sentences after the following letters: 1. c

4. d

2. a

5. a

3. b

6. c

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H. Do What’s Right • Showing Self-discipline Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Present situations to the pupils where self-discipline is required, e.g. disposing of garbage, studying one’s lessons, eating, and the like. Examples: • Your mother went shopping. She instructed you to stay home and answer all telephone calls for her. When your mother left, your friend suddenly came asking you to go with him or her to a nearby park where a magician is in town for a show. What will you do? • Your final examination will be tomorrow. Tonight at 8:00 however, will be a special television show featuring your favorite actor and actress. There won’t be any replay of the show. What will you do? Have the class work on the task on page 260. You may divide the class into groups for this purpose. I. Make Connections • Familiarizing Oneself with Ballet Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Demonstrate some of the dance steps if you can. You can also assign some pupils to ask a physical education teacher to show them how the ballet techniques are done. Read and discuss with the pupils the section on page 261. J. Spin Off Have the pupils read this section. Direct them to the Web link suggested in their work text. Encourage the pupils to watch a ballet performance. Help pupils by providing them with a list of possible Philippine ballet artists whose names are found in the list on this Web page: http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Category:Philippine_ Dance_Artists.

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LESSON

3 Gifts from the Earth No. of Teaching Hours: 3

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Identify words with multiple meanings B. Comprehension 1. Recall details in a selection read 2. Sequence processes in the order they should come C. Values Appreciate sculpture as a form of art

II. Subject Matter Selection: Sculpturing (informative article) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 262-271 Sample works of art that can be shown in the classroom IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils recall the selection The Gift of Dance. Ask them what form of art is discussed in that selection. Tell the class that there are other forms of art such as paintings, literary works, musical compositions, sculpture, etc. Show sample of works of art and guide the pupils in identifying the art involved: Examples: a painting a famous poem classical music, etc. Have the pupils read the questions in this section. Name some sculptures found in your community. Point out to the class that images found in Catholic Churches are sculptures. Ask what materials can be sculpted.


B. Add to What You Know Ask the pupils about their experiences in the beach. Ask: “Did they play with sand? Did they create some objects out of the sand?” Have them recall what they see in movies or in pictures about children in cold countries during winter playing with snow. Ask them what the children usually create out of snow. Tell the class that these children are engaged in some form of art called sculpture. This kind of art has been refined by great artists. Have the pupils read the text in this section and the boxed text at the bottom of the page. Ask questions to check comprehension. C. Search for Correct Meaning Call the pupils’ attention to the italicized words in the phrases in the list. Tell them that they are going to meet these phrases in the selection they are about to read. Instruct them to do the following: • When you come across the phrase, try to continue reading and find out if the context will help you figure out the meaning of the phrase. If there are no clues in the text, you may find the dictionary helpful for some individual words. • If you still need help, you may approach the teacher. To develop independent reading, encourage the pupils to solve by themselves, as much as possible, the problems they encounter in reading by using the strategies they learned earlier. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the class that there is another form of art that may interest them. The selection they will read will give information about it. This art is known as sculpture. Have them raise some questions they may want to know about this form of art. The selection may give them the answers. Have the pupils read the motive question in this section. Tell them that they will answer this question after they have read the article. E. Read Have the pupils read the selection silently. Follow this with an oral reading assigning certain pupils to play the roles involved in the interview.

F. Share Your Ideas Have a class discussion of the motive question and have the pupils answer the questions under this section on page 266. Have them recall questions they raised earlier about sculpture as a form of art. Find out if they found answers to their questions. If not, encourage them to use other means of finding answers to their questions. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Identifying Words with Multiple Meanings Have the pupils read the introductory notes on page 266. Explain the given examples further. Have the pupils recall some similar words used in different subjects and have them discuss the meaning of each word as used in a particular subject. Examples: foot (Biology) foot (Mathematics) subject (Social Studies) subject (English) capital (Mathematics) capital (Social Studies-Geography) Have the pupils work on the exercise that follows. The answers to the exercise are: 1. b, c 4. d, c, a, b 2. c, a, d, b 5. d, c, e, a, b 3. e, d, a, b 6. c, a, b, d •

Recalling Details in a Selection Read Tell the pupils to find out how well each of them can remember the details in a selection. The more correct answers they get, the better they are at remembering details. Have them work on the exercises. The answers to the exercise are: Exercise A 1. granite 3. clay 2. limestone 4. marble

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5. goggles 6. oven 7. mask Exercise B 1. sculptor 2. graining 3. shape 4. brown •

5. 6. 7. 8.

riverbeds hard firing net

Sequencing Actions Remind the class that in trying to accomplish something, it is important to be alert on the proper sequence of the steps to be done. A sculptor, for example, follows carefully the steps in producing a desired product. Tell the pupils to imagine themselves as the sculptor and do the exercise on page 270. The answers are: 1. a 3 2. a 2 b 1 b 5 c 2 c 1 d 4 e 3 You may divide the class into groups. Tell each group to provide themselves with modeling clay. Have each group think of a figure to produce from the clay. Have them follow the steps given in the text. For a different kind of sequencing (this time through textual signals), help pupils recreate the text at the exercise on this Web page: http://eolf.univ-fcomte.fr/uploads/ressources/academic/ interactive_reading_exercises/01_schoolyard.htm. You may also ask them to read out their completed text once finished.

H. Do What’s Right • Creating with Your Mind and Heart Tell the class to read the introductory notes on page 271. Explain the directions for the task. Have them make something they very much want to.

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I. Make Connections • Using Different Media for the Arts Tell the class to read the discussion in this section of the text and do what is asked of them.

8. alabaster 9. files and sander 10. hammer and chisel

I. Spin Off Assign the class to do Activities 1 and 2 in this part of the lesson. Give a piece of reading material that tells about a famous sculpture and the sculptor, e.g. UP Oblation or the EDSA Shrine or any similar work. Discuss it with the pupils to stimulate their interest in sculpture. Ask them if they know of other similar works.

LESSON

4 Message from a Painting No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify synonyms of given words 2. Use appropriate terms in given contexts B. Reading Comprehension 1. Present related details using a web or a concept map 2. Note details in a story read C. Values Demonstrate appreciation for paintings by viewing and interpreting sample paintings

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Painting (short story) III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 272-279 Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 Pictures or prints of famous paintings Materials for painting


IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Name some famous Filipino or foreign painters. Show samples of their works if possible. Share brief significant information about each. Ask the pupils to share information about paintings they know. Discuss also painting exhibits held now and then to make the class feel that paintings are something valued. Have the pupils answer the questions in the text. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the text in this section and the boxed text on page 272. Ask questions to check comprehension. C. Search for Correct Meaning Before the session, study the selection and find out if there are context clues that will help the pupils deduce the meanings of the expressions. If there are clues in the selection, just alert the pupils to be conscious about these clues. D. Set a Goal for Reading Have the pupils read the motive question. Tell the class that the selection they are going to read will tell them how a boy came to “discover” how a painting relates to feelings of people. Tell them to find out how this happened. Have them read also the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that the class will have a discussion of these questions after they have read the story. E. Read Have the class scan the story The Painting to determine who the characters in the story are. Explain to the class that the story is told from a first person point of view. That is, one of the main characters is telling the story. Help the class identify the lines of the characters. Call on volunteers to do a dramatic oral reading of the story. Guide the pupil reading the lines of Robert so that he looks at the audience when reading a narration, and looks at Mrs. Spencer when they are engaged in a conversation.

F. Share Your Ideas Ask the following comprehension questions before having a class discussion of the questions under Share Your Ideas. • Who is the woman painter? • How old is she? • Describe the place where she lives. • Describe the painting. • What made Robert afraid of the painting? • Why did the painting seem to change? Have a class discussion of the motive question and the questions under Share Your Ideas. Ask: “Does the woman remind you of anybody? If there is somebody like her in your neighborhood, would you like to visit her and look at her paintings?” G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Determining the Right Term to Be Used Explain to the class that words have synonyms and that, sometimes, synonyms can be used interchangeably. Small and tiny are synonyms. One can say small leaf or tiny leaf. However, there are times when synonyms are not interchangeable, for example, you can say small house, but saying tiny house will sound awkward. Present other similar examples to make pupils careful in the use of synonyms. Have the class do the exercise in this section. The expected answers to the exercise are: 1. an art gallery 6. a canvas 2. blaze 7. limps 3. palette 8. damp 4. stale 9. crackling 5. an easel 10. stare •

Identifying Synonyms in a Narration Have the class read the introductory notes and the directions to the exercise.

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Explain that the expression meat and potatoes may be associated with stew but may not be a synonym in the strict sense of the term synonym. Emphasize to the class that it is important to use the appropriate word to make oneself better understood. Then have the pupils work on the exercise. The expected answers to the exercise are: 1. dirty – untidy 6. meat and potatoes – stew 2. looked – stared 7. fire – blaze 3. directly – straight 8. retreating – backing 4. peacefulness – calmness 9. fearsome – horrible 5. burning – glowing 10. looking – staring (Erratum: change gathered to looking.) For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Experiencing the Arts, then, The Painting, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, the pupils will read a sentence based on the selection. Pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word, based on its context, by clicking on their choice. •

Noting Details of a Story Read Explain to the class what the graphic organizer on page 277 is. Tell the pupils to go back to the story and look for details to describe the room, the people, and the fire in the painting. Exercise A dark the painting peaceful

the room

the fire the people

warm

few tiny flames

old an old man cleaning a gun

a little girl

Point out to the class that this was how the painting looked the first time Robert saw it.

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Have the pupils draw two other webs. In the second web, have the pupils put in the details the second time Robert saw it and on the third web, the third time he saw it. Ask what they suppose the painting would look in spring. Exercise B 1. d 3. a 5. b 2. a 4. c 6. a (Erratum: change a. the storm to a. the fire) Tell the pupils that they will work on an enrichment exercise on selecting a title based on a given image. Run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Experiencing the Arts, then, The Painting, then, Selecting Appropriate Title of a Given Image. In this exercise, the pupils will be presented with an image based on the selection. They must then choose the caption that best sums up this image by clicking on the letter of their choice. H. Do What’s Right • Seeing Different Scenes in a Painting Have the pupils read the explanation given on why different people may interpret paintings differently. Elaborate by giving concrete examples—like a child’s interpretation of a painting vis-à-vis an adult’s interpretation. Have a class discussion on the question in the exercise. I. Make Connections • Trying to Paint One or two days before, prepare all materials so that the pupils will be able to do some actual painting in the classroom. You may coordinate with the art teacher so that you can get tips and suggestions. Have the pupils engage in simple painting. Prepare them for the activity. You may share these steps with them: 1. Think of a subject for your painting. 2. Think of the feelings you want to express in your work. 3. Find out if you have the materials needed to portray the subject and the feelings you want to express


4. Be sure you are in a comfortable place. 5. Observe good working habits in the classroom. J. Spin Off Have the class do the activity suggested in this section. Take the class to a place where they can view some painting, e.g. library, a museum, somebody’s house, a painting exhibit. Tell the class that each pupil should select a painting he/she enjoyed viewing most. Each will be expected to report this to class and tell what particularly attracted him/her to a particular painting.

LESSON

5 The Unread Lines of Poetry No. of Teaching Hours: 4

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary Deduce the meanings of words from context B. Comprehension Recall details in a poem read C. Values Show appreciation for a poem

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Language of Poetry, pages 281-282 III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pages 280-287 IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Start by reciting a well-known poem to the class, e.g. Trees by Joyce Kilmer. Discuss briefly what makes the poem popular in terms of content and literary craftsmanship.

Ask the class about poems they know and enjoy reciting. Ask them to explain why they like the poems. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the introductory in this section. Present examples of poems to concretize the idea: “The poet can see beauty in an ordinary leaf, hear music in the sound of the wind rustling through the leaves, even light in the darkness, and hope in the midst of despair.”—Wind, A Psalm of Life, Aurora, Isn’t It a Wonder?, etc. C. Search for Correct Meaning Call the pupils’ attention to the phrases in the list. Tell them to find out the meaning of each word in italics in a dictionary. Deepen the pupils’ understanding of the expressions by presenting sentences on the board showing how the expressions may be used. Give situations where the pupils will be able to give their own sentences using the expressions. D. Set a Goal for Reading Share the idea with the class that poems may not easily be understood because poets may use language differently from short story writers. The structure or the way a poem is written may also be different. Tell them that the selection they will read will give them ideas on how to better read poetry. E. Read Call on volunteers to read the selection orally by paragraphs. Explain each paragraph further to ensure that the pupils understand it. Carry out what is said in each paragraph. F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils answer the questions in this section. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Determining the Meanings of Words Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Ask the pupils to do the exercises on pages 283-284. The expected answers to the exercise are:

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Exercise A 1. special 2. benefit 3. think 4. holes 5. wave

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to sound surrounded by wrote say it again show

Exercise B 1. lullaby 2. billows 3. hollow 4. challenges 5. mulled

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

flippers scent gleam humorous reveal

Recalling Details of a Poem Read Discuss with the class the pointers on how to read a poem as listed on page 284. Provide a background information for Tennyson’s Break, Break, Break. Read the poem to the class. Then ask a good reader to read it once more. Have the whole class read the poem silently. Then elicit responses for the questions on page 285. The expected answers to the exercise are: 1. loneliness 5. vanished hand 2. grief voice that is still 3. regret 6. The past will not 4. He is sad. come back.

H. Do What’s Right • Appreciating Poetry Have the class read the introductory text on page 286. You may modify the exercise by asking the pupils to go first to the library and read some poems there. They will then select 5 and then do the exercise on page 286. Or, the exercise can be given as a homework assignment.

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I. Make Connections • Knowing the White Seal Have the pupils go back to the poem The White Seal. Ask them if they are familiar with the white seal. Give the exercise on page 287 as a homework assignment. J. Spin Off Give the activity as a homework assignment. Give sample references that the pupils may use. You may coordinate with the librarian so that he/she may be able to guide the pupils in the choice of references.

LESSON

6 The Haiku No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary 1. Identify synonyms 2. Use context for meaning-getting B. Comprehension and Literary Appreciation 1. Recall details in a story read 2. Understand haikus 3. Infer character traits C. Values Overcome difficulties in various ways

II. Subject Matter Selection: The Memory of Beauty (biography) III. Materials Across Boarders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 288-299


H. Sharpen Your Reading Skills

IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Have the pupils recall poems they know. Tell them that poems may come in different forms. You may cite the poems in the worktext as examples. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Introduce the haiku as a form of poetry. Have the pupils read the boxed text on page 288. C. Search for Correct Meaning Call the pupils’ attention to the list of phrases in the section. Initially, they may be asked to guess the meanings of the words in italics. However for a more accurate meaning of the expression, they should refer to a dictionary. D. Set a Goal for Reading Tell the pupils that the selection they will read is a biography of a great Japanese poet who wrote haikus. Have them read the motive question and the questions in Share Your Ideas. Tell them that they will have a class discussion of the questions after they have read the biography. E. Read Call on volunteers to read the biography orally. Several paragraphs may be assigned to a reader. F. Share Your Ideas Direct the pupils’ attention to the questions on page 293. Have a whole-class discussion of the questions. Have individual selection. Call their line. Encourage the by doing one or two board.

pupils read again the haikus found in the attention to the number of syllables in each pupils to write their own haiku. Lead them cooperatively. Write the group output on the

Identifying Synonyms Ask the pupils on what they know about synonyms. Have them read the introductory notes. Then, have them give examples of synonymous words. Have them do the exercise on page 294. Remind the pupils that synonyms may not always be used with the same words. Example: a big living room

a spacious living room

a big lady

but not a spacious lady

Explain to the pupils that while big and spacious are synonyms, spacious is not used to describe persons or even animals that are big. Present other similar examples. stare

look

Ask: “Will you stare at a dictionary for the meanings of words?” The expected answers to the exercise are: 1. think

7. complain

2. prowess

8. huge

3. dreary

9. flying

4. float

10. gloomy

5. delicate

11. loneliness

6. comfort

12. tiresome

Extend the activity on page 294 by making the pupils try to use the synonyms in acceptable sentences. For an interactive exercise on context clues, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Experiencing the Arts, then, The Memory of Beauty, then, Using Context Clues. In each item, the pupils will read a sentence based on the selection with a vocabulary word. The pupils should then choose the correct meaning of the word based on its context by clicking on their choice.

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Recalling Details of a Selection Read Have the pupils recall what they know about details. Have the pupils work on the exercise on page 295. The answer to the exercise are: Underline the options that follow the following letters: 1. c 6. a 11. a 2. b 7. a 12. c 3. c 8. a 13. b 4. b 9. a 14. c 5. c 10. a 15. b

Play the song The Impossible Dream and ask the pupils to state the message of the song. Incidentally, you can give a background of the song. You may introduce the character Don Quixote and tell them the meaning of the word quixotic. I. Make Connections • Expressing Oneself Through Haiku Have the pupils read the explanatory notes. Tell the pupils to explore other Japanese poets who write haikus. Let them share the information in class. Ask the class to relate stories of people who got what they wanted in spite of obstacles. Have the class focus on the obstacles and how the person coped with the difficulties.

Ask the class to make a character web on Yataro; on his father. •

Understanding Haikus Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Explain what paraphrasing is. Guide the pupils in paraphrasing the haikus on page 297-298. Answers may vary. To practice the skill of inferring character traits, run Reading Interactive CD-ROM 6 and click on Experiencing the Arts, then, The Memory of Beauty, then, Inferring Character Traits. For each item, pupils will read an excerpt from the selection. Then, they should click on the trait that the character reveals based on the given excerpt.

H. Do What’s Right • Overcoming Difficulties Have the class read the introductory notes. Have a class discussion of the situation described in the exercise. Have them interpret sayings like: • “Hitch your wagon to the stars.” • “There will be no Easter Sunday if no good Friday.” • “You’ve got to have a dream. If you don’t have a dream, how are you going to make a dream come true?” Elicit other similar sayings. Accept answers in the vernacular or in Filipino.

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J. Spin Off Direct the class to the activity on page 299. Provide more assistance if necessary.

LESSON

7 Painters of Rural Philippines No. of Teaching Hours: 4-5

I.

Objectives A. Vocabulary and Study Skills Demonstrate sensitivity to words used for accurate interpretation of what one reads B. Comprehension Recall details in a selection read C. Values Demonstrate pride in one’s culture

II. Subject Matter Selection: Fernando Cueto Amorsolo, First National Artist Awardee, 1972, Mauro Malang Santos, and Jun Martinez (biography)


III. Materials Across Borders Through Reading 6 (Second Edition), pp. 300-307 Pictures of famous painters Pictures showing beautiful Filipino traditions, dances Award winning Philippine music in CDs IV. Procedure A. Start with What You Know Talk about some well-known Filipino painters. Have the pupils identify some famous works of art of Filipino painters, e.g. The Spoliarium by Juan Luna. B. Add to What You Know Have the pupils read the explanatory notes in this section and the boxed text on page 300. C. Search for Correct Meaning Call the pupils’ attention to the phrases in the list. Ask them what they can do to find out what the expressions mean. At this stage, it is expected that the pupils have developed metacognitive skills, that is, they know or can anticipate problems they will encounter when reading a selection and be ready to use the tools or strategies they have learned to solve those problems. D. Set a Goal for Reading Say: “As you know by now, just as in other countries, we have famous painters, too. One of them is Fernando Amorsolo. The French are proud of their Renoir as Italians are of their Da Vinci. We are also proud of our own painters. Get to know three of our painters better by reading the selection that follows. Take note of information that you would want to remember about each. You may want to tell others about these great Filipino painters.” E. Read Tell the pupils that they are going to read three biographies of famous Filipino painters. Have them look at their pictures on pages 201-203. Call on volunteers to read each biography orally while the rest of the class follow along silently.

F. Share Your Ideas Have the pupils summarize significant information they learned about each painter, i.e., • The painter’s complete name • Where he is from • What his famous works are • What awards he received Have a class discussion of the questions on page 304. G. Sharpen Your Reading Skills • Evaluating Sentences Tell the pupils that there are times when one has to do careful, slow reading. This is especially true when one reads instructions in order to be able to do something. Careful reading is also needed when one takes an examination or when one is filling out a form or an important document. In this kind of careful, slow reading, one pays particular attention to all the words in the text, unlike when ones does skimming or scanning In the exercise that follows, tell the pupils to do careful reading, paying attention to the words in italics before they write their answers. Allow them to look up in a dictionary the meanings of unfamiliar words printed in italics. The expected answers are: Exercise A Exercise B 1. No 1. False 2. Yes 2. True 3. No 3. True 4. No 4. True 5. Yes 5. True 6. Yes 6. True 7. No 7. True 8. Yes 8. True 9. Yes 9. True 10. Yes 10. True

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Recalling Details of a Selection Read. Direct the pupils to the exercise to be done. Tell them to do Exercises A and B by reading directions and items carefully. The expected answers are: Exercise A 1. sketching 6. cartoonist 2. Fabian dela Rosa 7. self-taught 3. postcards 8. farm 4. scholarship 9. artists by Jose Joya 5. vendors 10. determination Exercise B 1. c

3.

e

5.

i

7.

g

9. d

2. f or b 4.

j

6.

h

8.

b

10. a

H. Do What’s Right • Remembering Our Past Culture Present pictures showing Bayanihan, Philippine folkdances, award-winning Filipino songs/music. Discuss these with the class. Make the pupils listen to good Filipino music. Ask the pupils about other things that we Filipinos can be proud of. Pupils’ responses may include customs, traditions, food, Filipino traits, heroes, other achievers in various fields, etc. Have the class do the exercise on page 306. This can be given as a homework assignment. I. Make Connections • Visiting a Painting Exhibit Try to give the pupils an opportunity to visit an art gallery or an art exhibit that includes paintings and other works of art. Have the pupils prepare a report on what they saw in the art gallery in addition to paintings and sculptures. They can make a report on a painting. It will be all right also if they get attracted to some other forms of art.

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J. Spin Off Have the pupils do the activity in this section of the lesson. Show pictures of other Filipino painters. Say a few significant statements about each painter insinuating strongly that we have great painters comparable to world-renowned painters.

Skill Focus This section focuses on two important skills: Understanding and using figures of speech and following directions. A. Using Figures of Speech Have the class read pages 308-309 and do the corresponding exercises. This is actually a review of what was taken in the pupils’ grade five lessons. Take time to review the class well. Add more examples. Expected answers in Exercises A and B are: Exercise A 1. Personification 6. Personification 2.. Metaphor 7. Simile 3. Personification 8. Hyperbole 4. Personification 9. Hyperbole 5. Personification 10. Hyperbole Exercise B 1. a. crunch b. whoosh c. patter

d. screeching e. boom f. shoo

Answers may vary. Sample answers are: 2. a. clang, clang b. tap, tap c. tap, tap, tap 3. a. a cat fish b. an oven c. an orphan


4. a. b. c. 5. a. b. c. 6. a. b. c. 7. a. b. c.

The sky is blue. The woman is a tiger. My doll is my treasure. An old abandoned house weeps silently in the dark. The mango tree dances gracefully with its branches spreading like a beautiful green carpet up the sky. The sea with its tiny waves gently whispers its prayers in utter loneliness in the darkest of night. I could drink a thousand gallons of water! This book is so expensive that it drained me to my last centavo. The room was so crowded that not a pin would find space in it. Bad cooking makes good business in the university belt. A lazy friend gives me the best company ever. A bare garden can be the source of the most abundant products of fertile imaginations

(Other responses may be encouraged.) Provide examples of figures of speech as found in well selected poems or essays. At this point you may also give more samples on the “less common” ones like: irony. hyperbole. You may introduce oxymoron.. B. Following Directions Have the class do the exercise on pages 312-313. A few tips on how to handle procedural texts may prove helpful before they do the exercise. Present examples of procedural texts that grade six children will find useful. Explain that reading procedural texts– – involve careful reading – a keen awareness of sequence of steps – precise understanding of terms used – failure to follow steps may entail danger as in following directions to operate an electrical appliance, or disqualification to participate in a game or activity Have the pupils work on the activities in the exercise that follows.

Linking Reading with Writing A. Preparation Have the pupils read the introductory notes. Ask what each poem on pages 314-316 is about. Point out that not all poems have rhyming words at the end of several lines. Recall what free verse and haiku are. Have them read the poems and tell them to note how the poets’ description of thunder, clouds, wind, and moon are different from their scientific description. Point out that the poem on elephants tells a child’s thoughts about an elephant when nobody looks at it any longer. Tell the pupils that in this last part of Unit IV, they will try to write a poem. Have them read the suggestions in Prewriting on page 315. B. Modeling and Reinforcement Direct the pupils to page 39 of their work texts. Point out what was done to make another poem. You may also have them read again Isn’t It a Wonder on pages 96-97. Tell them that they can add some more stanzas to the poem. They can write about the sun, the earth, space travel, and the like. They can form definitions of things around them similar to those on pages 314-315. C. Planning Tell the pupils to think of something that the class can cooperatively write about. Ask which of the poems they have read would they want to imitate. D. Joint Construction Call on volunteers to suggest lines for the poem. Write all suggestions on the board and have the class select the more poetic lines. Guide the pupils in revising and finalizing the class poem. E. Independent Constructing The pupils may be asked to write their poems as a homework assignment. Tell them to follow the steps the class went through until they were able to come up with their poems. This should be considered as an optional task.

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F. Revising Have the pupils read their poems to the class. Give time for the pupils to self-check their poems and then the peer-checking. Teacher-checking can be done later. Provide a place in the classroom where the pupils can post their work.

C. Determining the Meanings of Words with Multiple Meanings 1. a. came to know b. very intelligent 2. a. write down b. notebook for writing down grades 3. a. sixty seconds

Unit Test A. Using the right word 1. riverbeds 2. gallery 3. concert 4. sculptor 5. baton 6. flame 7. lullaby 8. canvas 9. danseur 10. haiku B. Identifying synonyms 1. humble 2. exciting 3. a meal 4. to be in agreement 5. in a particular order 6. indistinct 7. an open excavation of stones 8. a long deep breath 9. a place for receiving visitors 10. to analyze well

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b. very small 4. a. disagree b. thing


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Part I General Impressions Please rate the following items by encircling the number of your answer to the question using the following criteria: 1 – hardly; 2 – moderate; 3 – adequate; 4 – very adequate; 5 – outstanding. Encircle the number that corresponds to your answer.

1. Objectives as stated in the Textbook, Teacher’s Manual or both 1.1

Do the objectives reflect national development goals and priorities?

1

2

3

4

5

1.2

Do they conform to the DepEd and the School’s mission and thrust?

1

2

3

4

5

1.3

Are they clearly stated for the learners’ comprehension?

1

2

3

4

5

1.4

Do they cover the basic requirements as given in the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC) of the course?

1

2

3

4

5

1.5

Are they realistic and attainable by the target learners?

1

2

3

4

5

1.6

Can they be verified by a system of evaluation to indicate levels of achievement?

1

2

3

4

5

2. Content 2.1

Do the content cover the subject matter requirements for the year level as listed in the MLC?

1

2

3

4

5

2.2

Are there enough materials for a year’s activities?

1

2

3

4

5

2.3

Are the materials within the comprehension level of the learners?

1

2

3

4

5

2.4

Are the materials interesting to the learners?

1

2

3

4

5

2.5

Are there enough activities and exercises to achieve the objectives of the course?

1

2

3

4

5

2.6

Is there a need for supplementary materials for this purpose?

1

2

3

4

5

2.7

Is the vocabulary load used within the comprehension of the target learners?

1

2

3

4

5

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2.8

Are the facts and information presented correct, accurate and up-to-date?

1

2

3

4

5

2.9

Are the concepts presented logically and in proper sequence?

1

2

3

4

5

2.10 Are the illustrations relevant to the lesson/topic?

1

2

3

4

5

2.11 Are the illustrations effective in making lessons interesting? Are they within the interest level of learners?

1

2

3

4

5

3. Values Orientation 3.1

Do the materials provide adequate integration of values to the subject matter?

1

2

3

4

5

3.2

Does the content reflect Philippine values as they exist in Philippine setting?

1

2

3

4

5

3.3

Were the values presented in the DepEd values framework considered in the learning activities?

1

2

3

4

5

3.4

Do the materials promote nationalism and Filipinism?

1

2

3

4

5

3.5

Do the materials include those that promote a one-world view?

1

2

3

4

5

3.6

Do the materials avoid prejudices and biases like sexism, stereotyping, religious and racial/ethnic discrimination, political propaganda?

1

2

3

4

5

3.7

Do the materials promote and promulgate the ecological campaign of the government?

1

2

3

4

5

4. Study Helps 4.1

Does the book provide a glossary of difficult terms to help the learners to comprehend the content better?

1

2

3

4

5

4.2

Are there varied levels of exercises to help learners of different ability levels?

1

2

3

4

5

4.3

Do evaluation exercises help the learners evaluate their own performance?

1

2

3

4

5

4.4

Are the illustrative materials appropriate and helpful to the learners for understanding the concepts?

1

2

3

4

5

5. Presentation 5.1

Is the layout suitable to the learners’ age?

1

2

3

4

5

5.2

Does the layout make the materials attractive and interesting to the learners?

1

2

3

4

5

5.3

Does the layout help in making the presentation of the materials clear to the learners?

1

2

3

4

5

5.4

Are the letter/font sizes appropriate to the age of the target learners?

1

2

3

4

5

5.5

Is the size of the book suitable for the target learners?

1

2

3

4

5

5.6

Is the book durable enough for handling by the learners?

1

2

3

4

5

Suggestions:

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Part II Specific Comments For specific implementation of your comment, please indicate the lesson and the pages on which your answers to the following questions are based.

1. On the textbook 1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

Which lesson objectives were not achieved by the materials? Lesson

Pages

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Based on your experience in using this textbook, which lessons or activities did the learners find relevant and interesting? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Which lessons or activities did the learners find uninteresting? Lesson

Pages

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Which lessons or activities were difficult for the learners and needed a great deal of help and explanation from you? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Which lessons had very difficult language structures for the learners? Lesson

Pages

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Which activities, exercises, illustrations were most useful for the learners? Lesson Pages _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

Which activities, exercises, illustrations were irrelevant? Lesson

Pages

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

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1.8

1.9

Which lessons need to be simplified? Lesson _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Pages ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Which lessons need enrichment? Lesson _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Pages ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Suggestions: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. On the Teacher’s Manual (TM) 2.1

2.2

2.3

Which sections of the TM’s were most useful to you? Section _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Pages ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Which sections were not useful? Section _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Pages ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

What background materials and information helped you most in teaching the content of the textbooks? Section Pages _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Do you intend to retain this book for School year 2009 - 2010? ________ YES ________ NO Why or why not? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Please submit the accomplished form to Vibal Publishing House Inc. Send it through our Promotion and Marketing Representatives or fax it to numbers (02)711-8852; 711-5853. Thank you very much for helping us evaluate our Textbooks and Teacher’s Manuals! More power to you and your school!

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2009-10-13-16.26.05  

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