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Teaching Strategies in General Science

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V General Science TPS ISBN 978-971-07-2445-1 Copyright © 2009 by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher and the author. Artwork belongs solely to Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Published and printed by Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Main Office: ✉ 1253 G. Araneta Ave., cor. Ma. Clara Street, Quezon City Regional Offices: Cebu City: ✉ Unit 202 Cebu Holdings, Cebu Business Park, Cardinal Rosales Ave., Cebu City Davao City: ✉ Kalamansi St., cor. 1st Ave., Juna Subdivision, Matina, Davao City Iloilo City: ✉ Unit 6, 144 M. H. del Pilar, Molo, Iloilo City Cagayan de Oro City: ✉ Unit 4, Bldg. A, Pride Rock Business Park, Gusa, Cagayan de Oro City Member: Philippine Educational Publishers’ Association; Book Development Association; Association of South East Asian Publishers; Graphic Arts Technical Foundation

PREFACE Teaching strategies are techniques employed to accomplish specific learning objectives. These strategies provide an alternative to the usual lecture method. Dunn and Dunn (1993) claims, “Students can learn any subject matter when they are taught with methods and approaches responsive to their learning styles and strategies.” Different students have different learning styles. Research shows that students learn more effectively when there is a close match between the teaching strategy used and the students’ learning style. While it is important that we cater to the learning styles of our students, it would be impossible to prepare a lesson that meets all the different learning styles of different students. We do not need to. A single student does not rely solely on one learning style. A student has mixed learning styles and can switch between these. Thus, a visual learner can sometimes be a verbal learner. All that the teacher has to do is to vary the teaching strategies used within a lesson so that the student is actively engaged in the acquisition of information. Being actively engaged means that the students are processing information that is presented to them. They are recalling previous concepts learned, learning new ones, and trying to reconcile previous knowledge with the new information. They are interacting with peers, arguing important points, and making decisions. Being actively engaged requires the use of higher level thinking skills. An effective teaching strategy keeps the students actively engaged and allows meaningful learning. The “best” strategy is not just one teaching strategy. We have to rely on a mix of strategies that address the current level of the students with the ultimate goal of developing higher level thinking skills. In this book, several teaching strategies are presented. This is not an exhaustive list and is not meant to be. It is hoped that you will find these strategies useful in the development of your lessons. The strategies are grouped in two: those that develop basic thinking skills and those that develop higher level thinking skills. Take note, however, that this grouping is not absolute and should only be taken as a rough guide. Some strategies that are meant to develop basic thinking skills can be designed to develop higher level thinking skills. In your lessons, always start with the basic and gradually build up to higher level thinking skills.

The Author Teaching Strategies in General Science


CONTENTS PART I A.

B.

TEACHING STRATEGIES .......................................................2

Teaching Strategies for Developing Basic Thinking Skills ..................................2 1. Puzzles .................................................................................................. 2 Kinds of Puzzle ....................................................................................... 2 A. Picture Puzzle .................................................................................. 2 B. Fill the Blanks .................................................................................. 3 C. Word Scramble ................................................................................. 3 D. Hidden Word Puzzle........................................................................... 4 E. Matching Puzzles .............................................................................. 4 2. X and Y Links .......................................................................................... 5 3. Picture Analysis ...................................................................................... 5 4. Codes .................................................................................................... 6 5. Magic Square .......................................................................................... 6 6. Science Tricks and Magic........................................................................... 7 7. Collage Making ........................................................................................ 7 8. Diamante Poetry: Integration with English .................................................. 7 9. Jingle Making ......................................................................................... 8 Teaching Strategies for Developing Higher Level Thinking Skills .....................................................................................8 10. Role Playing ........................................................................................... 8 11. Games and Simulation .............................................................................. 8 12. Science Graphic Organizers........................................................................ 8 a. Concept Map .................................................................................... 8 b. Mind Map ........................................................................................ 9 c. Venn Diagram................................................................................... 9 d. Flow Diagram/Charts ......................................................................... 9 e. Sequencing Illustration...................................................................... 9 13. Video Integration .................................................................................. 10 14. Creative Drawing ................................................................................... 10 15. Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) ................................................................. 10 16. Problem-based Learning (PBL) ................................................................. 11 17. Project-based Learning ........................................................................... 11 18. Practical Work ....................................................................................... 11 19. Cooperative Learning ............................................................................. 11 20. Scenario Building .................................................................................. 11 21. Creative Writing .................................................................................... 12 22. Brainstorming ....................................................................................... 12

PART II UNIT I

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS .................................................. 13

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 13 LESSON I-1 Science and Its Branches...................................................... 13 LESSON I-2 Science and Superstitious Beliefs .......................................... 15 LESSON I-3 Science and Technology ....................................................... 17 LESSON I-4 Scientists and Scientific Attitudes ......................................... 18

UNIT II SCIENTIFIC METHOD ....................................................................................... 21 LESSON II-1 Formulating a Hypothesis ..................................................... 21 LESSON II-2 Presentation of Data in Appropriate Format............................. 22 UNIT III COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN THE LABORATORY ...................................................................................... 25 LESSON III-1 Common Laboratory Apparatuses and Safety Precautions ........... 25 LESSON III-2 Special Properties of Matter .................................................. 27 LESSON III-3 Elements ........................................................................... 29 LESSON III-4 The Molecular Theory ........................................................... 32 UNIT IV FORCE AND ENERGY ....................................................................................... 35 LESSON IV-1 Energy Forms and Transformation .......................................... 35 LESSON IV-2 Work ................................................................................. 37 LESSON IV-3 Simple Machines ................................................................. 38 LESSON IV-4 Compound Machines ............................................................ 41 UNIT V LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT ............................................................... 43 LESSON V-1 Components of an Ecosystem ................................................ 43 LESSON V-2 Food Chain and Food Web .................................................... 44 LESSON V-3 Biogeochemical Cycles ......................................................... 46 LESSON V-4 Maintaining Balance in Nature .............................................. 48 UNIT VI CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................... 50 LESSON VI-1 Rock and Rock Cycle ............................................................ 50 LESSON VI-2 Soil Formation and Soil Profile .............................................. 52 LESSON VI-3 Plate Tectonic Theory .......................................................... 54 LESSON VI-4 Volcanoes .......................................................................... 56 UNIT VII EARTH’S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE ........................................................................ 58 LESSON VII-1 Locating Places .................................................................. 58 LESSON VII-2 Telling Time ....................................................................... 59 LESSON VII-3 Solar System ...................................................................... 61

Teaching Strategies in General Science

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PART I

TEACHING STRATEGIES 2. Find how the pictures are related to each other to come up with the word asked for.

A. TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING BASIC THINKING SKILLS 1. Puzzles Puzzles are devices that stimulate the mind and encourage logical thinking through abstract problems that students need to solve. They provide opportunities for the student to develop valuable skills while having fun. Students need to look for the patterns, sequence and reasons behind each problem thus making them think critically. Some puzzles expand their vocabulary.

Hi (Clue: Waving of hand to greet)

Pooh (Clue: Cartoon character)

Tee (Clue: Used in golf)

Sis (Clue: A nun)

Kinds of Puzzle A. Picture Puzzle This is a puzzle in the form of a picture or series of pictures. This puzzle is solved by: •

Finding the word from the drawing Example: Find the letters in the drawing and form the correct word.

Word: HYPOTHESIS •

Finding a hidden word in a rebus Rebus is a picture representation of a name, work or phrase. Each rebus puzzle box portrays a common word or phrase which requires creative thinking and extensive vocabulary to solve. Example:

Word: NEWTON •

Finding the word through the given pictures Example: 1. Analyze the pictures to know what they represent.

2 Teaching Strategies in General Science

H to O (H2O)

ice cube

partly cloudy


diamond in the rough

many are called but only few are chosen

sand box

B. Fill the Blanks Procedure: 1. Complete the word for each number by writing the correct letters using the given clue. 2. Then, use the letters inside the squares and arrange them to form the magic word. Example: a. The human genome project b. Father of geothermal energy in the Philippines c. Laws of motion d. Moon buggy e. The sun is at the center of the solar system. f. Theory of relativity g. Telescope

C. Word Scramble Procedure: 1. Arrange the letters in the box to form the correct word on the space provided. 2. Use the letter inside the circle to answer the question. Question: How do you conserve energy? U

N

T

S

G

R

O

F

F

N

A

A

D

M

B

K

I

1) Jam s W_ts_n 2) A_t_ro A_

_ raz

3) I a a _ N _ wt _ n 4) Ed San J _ _ 5) Ni_ _ la_

oper_ _ c_ _

6) A _ b _ rt E nst _ _ n 7) G _ lil o Galil _ _ Letters inside the squares: e c s n c i e

E

Magic Word: SCIENCE

Teaching Strategies in General Science

3


Answer here: An appliance should be to conserve energy.

T

U

R

N

E

D

O

F

F

D. Hidden Word Puzzle Procedure: 1. Select the words. 2. Place the word in a grid. 3. Let the students find the word in the grid. 4. The remaining letters in the grid will form the hidden word.

E. Matching Puzzles These are puzzles with pictures that should be paired to unravel a hidden picture underneath them. Example: Match the correct picture to the word given. Then place the picture in the proper position below to reveal the second picture.

core

radiative zone

convective zone

prominence

Example: Find and circle all the energy-related words that are hidden in the grid. The remaining letters spell out a secret message. N

M

E

C

H

A

N

I

C

A

L

U

T

L

H

E

A

T

I

N

G

I

C

H

E

M

I

C

A

L

H

E

G

L

W

C

F

O

I

G

A

S

R

H

E

I

T

W

A

T

E

R

H

I

T

A

N

R

M

H

E

A

T

E

R

S

R

D

I

S

D

N

U

O

S

O

F

T

C

C

E

N

I

W

I

N

D

E

O

A

A

R

G

K

Y

C

O

I

L

Y

R

L

A

I

T

N

E

T

O

P

Secret Message: The Forms of Energy

4 Teaching Strategies in General Science


photosphere

2. X and Y Links This strategy is similar to the concept of a line graph, where x and y coordinates are used to form the correct word. Reading always starts with the x-axis to be followed by the y-axis.

flare

sunspot

Procedure: 1. Find the letter based on the given x and y values. In the first set of coordinates below, x is 1 and y is 2. 2. Find 1 in the x-axis then the 2 in the y-axis. The point where the 2 coordinates meet gives the first letter of the hidden word. 3. Write the letter on the blank above the first set of coordinates. 4. Do the same in looking for the letters of the missing word. Y-axis

7 E 6 L 5 M 4 P 3 N 2 W 1 A 1

prominence

convective zone radiative zone

L T A A M U B 2

C H E T P Y C 3

T F S R E T E 4

M E S I Q X C 5

O C M A U Z D 6

T O U R L F E 7

A R A J A H O 8

X-axis

core

Answer: W A 1,2

2,5

T

E

R

C

Y

C

L

E

7,7

4,1

4,4

5,1

3,2

6,6

7,3

5,6

sunspot flare

photosphere

corona coronal hole

3. Picture Analysis Students are shown a picture or series of pictures related to the lesson to be discussed. In this strategy, the student will be given the opportunity to think, analyze and judge.

chromosphere

Teaching Strategies in General Science 5


A =

H= •

O =

V =

P =

W=

B =

I =

C =

J =

Q =

X =

D =

K =

R =

Y =

E =

L =

S =

Z =

••

F =

M=

T =

G =

N=

U=

Decode the message using the clues above. My secret destination: •

P Before

L

A

N

E

T

U P

I

T

E

R

After

Questions presented by the teacher for the students to analyze must: a) involve the students; b) inspire the students to think; c) make them analyze critically; and d) focus their attention toward the specific idea you want to employ 4. Codes Students enjoy decoding messages prepared by their friends. Use this strategy to motivate the students to recite since the answers to the question can be decoded. Example: You have been contacted by NASA for a secret mission. Because of its secrecy, NASA cannot give your destination through phone. Instead, you must figure out the clue. Find your next destination.

5. Magic Square Write the number of the word which fits a clue in a box on the grid. If you have matched the correct numbers in all 9 squares, the sum of the rows, columns and diagonals will be the same. This is called the magic square. 1. stratosphere 4. jet stream 7. troposphere 2. convection 5. carbon dioxide 8. nitrogen 3. wind 6. front 9. exosphere The most abundant gas in the atmosphere 8 The moving air

The layer of the atmosphere where ozone layer can be found 1

The imaginary line where air masses meet

The gas responsible for global warming

The zone of the atmosphere which is closest to the ocean 7

3 The high-velocity wind in the atmosphere used by pilots to save fuel 4 15

5 The window to outer space 9 15

The magic number is: 15 6 Teaching Strategies in General Science

J

6

The rising of the warm air and sinking of the cold air 2 15

15

15

15


6. Science Tricks and Magic Learning science is fun. Teachers can adapt the work of a magician using science tricks which can arouse the interest of the students. Tricks motivate students to learn the science concepts behind them. The emphasis here is less on explaining the concept involved and more on simply describing some fun and interesting things to do, especially things that can make the student say “wow” or “cool”. Example: Oozing Bubble Bomb Procedure: 1. Fill the plastic bag with baking soda. 2. Slowly pour the vinegar on the plastic bag. (Picture B) Bubbles in the bubble bomb are filled with carbon dioxide (CO2), a gas formed when vinegar (an acid) reacts with baking soda (a base).

7. Collage Making Using old magazines or newspaper pictures, the students can make a symbolic art. This strategy allows the students to be creative and be independent thinkers. Through collage making students learn to express themselves and communicate their feelings and experiences to their friends and classmates. Example: Make a collage using different pictures of new inventions or innovations on existing products or technology. 8. Diamante Poetry: Integration with English This is a Science and English integration technique wherein the prior knowledge of students about nouns, adjectives and participle of the verb is prerequisite in performing the task. Diamante poetry consists of seven lines, shaped like a diamond. Line 1 one word (Subject/noun that is contrasting to line 7) Line 2 two words (Adjectives that describe line 1) Line 3 three words (Action verbs that relate to line 1)

A

B

Line 4 four words (nouns) First 2 words relate that to line 1 Last 2 words relate to line 7 Line 5 three words (Action verbs that relate to line 7) Line 6 two words (Adjectives that describe line 7) Line 7 one word (Subject/noun that is contrasting to line 1)

C

D

Teaching Strategies in General Science 7


The pattern looks like this: Noun Adjective, adjective Participle, participle, participle Noun, noun, noun, noun Participle, participle, participle Adjective, adjective Noun Example: Volcano Diamante Poetry Hibok-Hibok Composite, eruptive Harming, damaging, burning Houses, trees, animals, people Charring, glowing, terrifying Fertile, majestic Mayon 9. Jingle Making This is a tune or melody with a fast rhythm in 4-10 lines sang repeatedly as in a commercial jingle. This strategy can be used to summarize the concepts learned using a tune common to them. Jingle can be the best mnemonic device to reinforce concepts.

8 Teaching Strategies in General Science


PART II

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS Applied Sciences include: a) Electronics b) Environmental Technology c) Material Science and Engineering d) Microtechnology e) Nanotechnology f) Nuclear Technology

UNIT I INTRODUCTION Lesson I-1: Science and Its Branches I.

OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4.

II.

Define science Categorize the different branches of science Show the importance and limitations of science Cite some careers in science

LEARNING CONTENT A. Topic: Science and Its Branches B. Concepts • Science is a special field of information or knowledge organized systematically in definite fields of study. • These fields can be placed into larger groupings as: a. Natural Sciences b. Social Sciences c. Applied Sciences Natural Sciences can be grouped into: a) Physical Science b) Biological Science Social Sciences include: a) Anthropology b) Economics c) Education d) Geography e) Law

f) g) h) i)

Linguistics Political Science Psychology Sociology

Careers or scientific work can be acquired for each specific branch of science.

III.

MATERIALS pictures of different works that will lead the students in defining science strips of paper containing branches of science job guide

IV.

PROCEDURE A. Motivation A science graphic organizer (flowchart) may be used to capture the interest of the students. This will also gauge their ability to sequence events or processes in connection to what they have learned. 1. Prepare five sets of paper strips with the stages in the development of science written on them. See the sample below. Atomic Age

Prehistoric Times

Dark Age of Science

Computer Age

Modern Science

Ancient Times

Space Age

Teaching Strategies in General Science 13


C. Generalization Use a concept map to present the different branches of science Example:

2. Divide the class into five groups. Give each group a set of the paper strips. 3. Let each group arrange the paper strips chronologically. 4. Let each group present and explain their arrangements. B. Lesson Proper 1. Pre-activity a. Divide the class into five groups. b. Group the students randomly. c. Discuss the task for the day.

SCIENCE is subdivided into

include Physics

2. Activity Proper a. Give each group a picture that shows a science activity (i.e., doing experiment in a laboratory, researchers gathering data in the field). Let them analyze the picture. b. Let them define science operationally using the picture. Let them write the descriptions of science in a cartolina. c. Give each group a copy of job opportunities from the newspaper or the internet. Let them identify the jobs which are related to science. 3. Post-activity a. Let each group present a cheer or a jingle to define science. b. List some professions. Let the students identify the kind of work in each profession. Let them relate these to the different branches of science. c. Discuss the importance of science. Mention how the Philippine government values the study of science (i.e., Article XIV, sections 10 to 13). You may also give additional information about how other countries support science.

14 Teaching Strategies in General Science

Life Sciences (Biology)

Physical Sciences

Chemistry

include

Astronomy

Botany

Zoology

Genetics

Medicine

Earth Science include Geology

Oceanography

Paleontology

Meteorology

D. Valuing/Application Mention some problems in our society like pollution, incurable diseases, poor water drainage, high fuel price etc. Ask: Can science solve all these problems? Why or why not? (This will lead to the discussion on the limitations of science.)

V.

EVALUATION Copy the following boxed list of branches of science and their corresponding related work on the blackboard. Let the students choose the pair of words which satisfy the descriptions that follow: 1. Studies the composition of matter 2. Studies the heavenly bodies 3. Makes weather forecast 4. Studies chemistry in relation to biology 5. Studies the structure and composition of the earth


Chemistry - Chemist

Physics - Physicist

Biology - Biologist

Biochemistry - Biochemist

Geology - Geologist

Astronomy - Astronomer

II.

A. Topic: Science and Superstitious Beliefs B. Concepts • Superstitions are beliefs and practices that have been passed on from one generation to the next without questions. • One should not be too dependent on superstitious beliefs in decision making.

Meteorology - Meteorologist

VI.

REINFORCEMENT Let the students make a portrait of their ambition. The one below is an example.

III.

Picture/portrait of profession you want in the future

Branch of Science:

My Work Description:

VII.

ASSIGNMENT Ask the students to write a reflection on how the planet earth could benefit from the career they want to pursue in the future.

Lesson I-2: Science and Superstitious Beliefs I.

OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss the basis of some superstitious beliefs and practices 2. Express the proper attitude towards superstitious belief 3. Classify some local beliefs according to the category given in the task assigned

MATERIALS manila paper

My Exciting Career Profession:

LEARNING CONTENT

IV.

pentel pen

cardboard

PROCEDURE A. Review Prepare game cards. Write the branches of science on some cards and description of these branches on the other cards. Let the students match the cards. B. Lesson Proper 1. Pre-activity a. Unlocking Difficulty: Matching puzzle Let the students match column A with column B. A 1. superstition 2. belief 3. practice

B a. a firm conviction b. habitual action c. a belief without scientific basis 4. tradition d. beliefs and practices handed down to the next generation Discuss their answers. Summarize the definitions. Give one or two examples to make sure the students understand. b. Discuss the procedure of the activity.

Teaching Strategies in General Science 15


D. Generalization Let the students arrange the following phrases to form the correct sentence. 1. to the next without question that have been passed from one generation superstitions are beliefs or practices 2. scientific basis some beliefs or practices have 3. on superstitions one should not be when making a decision too dependent

2. Activity Proper a. Group the students according to their provinces. b. Assign a leader, a secretary, and a quack doctor (albularyo) in each group. c. Let them cite five beliefs (pamahiin) in their own provinces. d. Let them classify each belief according to the following categories: • food and nutrition • livelihood • health and medicine • finance and wealth • love and marriage • others(specify) _______ e. Record the result in a table similar to the one below. Benefits/Practices

With Scientific Basis Yes (✓) No (✗)

Category

3. Post-activity a. Let the groups present their group outputs. b. Discuss the following guide questions. • What particular beliefs and practices are you familiar with? • How do these beliefs and practices affect you? • Should you believe in superstitions? Why? C. Present some beliefs that have a scientific basis to prove that not all beliefs and traditions have no scientific basis. 16 Teaching Strategies in General Science

E. Valuing/Application: Role Playing The albularyo would relate a case in which he was able to cure some ailments by prayers, chants, and oils and herbs. He will also elaborate that these ailments are due to the anger of bad spirits upon an individual. Let the students hypothesize the possible explanation to all these situations. Let one of them role-play as a doctor from whom medical help is asked. Discuss which of the two methods the students most probably would rely on. Ask them to explain their stand. Ask how one person’s superstitious beliefs affect his judgment regarding seeking medical help on illnesses and ailments.

V.

EVALUATION Put a cross (✗) on statements which are purely superstitious beliefs and a check (✓) on statements which have scientific/reasonable explanations behind them. ____ 1. Walking under a ladder is bad luck. ____ 2. Paying debts at night spells bad luck. ____ 3. It is good to plant when there are many stars.


____ 4. Clothes with polka dots on New Year’s Day bring prosperity. ____ 5. When large number of ants emerge from the ground, this means that a typhoon or flood will soon happen.

VI.

IV.

PROCEDURE A. Motivation: Technology Basket Show the picture of a technology basket.

REINFORCEMENT Discuss some known ailment/medical misconceptions. Why do people believe such things?

VII.

ASSIGNMENT 1. What is meant by “technical innovations”? Cite three examples.

Copy the words in the box below in strips of paper.

2. Cut out pictures of different technologies.

Lesson I-3: Science and Technology I.

OBJECTIVES 1. Give examples of science and technology activities or products that affect our daily life 2. Make a collage of different technologies 3. Classify technology as products, gadgets/machines and processes

II.

LEARNING CONTENT A. Topic: Science and Technology B. Concepts • Technology is the application of science concepts and principles to solve certain problems. • Technology can be classified as products, processes and gadgets.

toothbrush rice terraces mais con yelo

twig clouds toys

Let the students place the strip of paper, which they think is an example of technology, in the technology basket. B. Lesson Proper 1. After the students placed the examples of technology in the basket, post the question: Why do you classify each object as technology? Why are rocks, twigs and clouds not considered as technology? 2. Lead the discussion to the definition of technology and how it is related to science. 3. Distribute a copy of a science article from a newspaper. Let them classify the technologies mentioned and place these on a chart similar to the one below. Gadgets/Machine

III.

a piece of rock DVD player banca

Products

Processes

MATERIALS strips of paper drawing of a basket paste or glue

cartolina cut-out pictures of different technologies

Teaching Strategies in General Science 17


4. Let the students cite the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies mentioned in the article. 5. Let the students make a collage by group using the cutout pictures of different technologies and paste them on a 1/2 sheet of cartolina. Present the output to the class. C. Generalization Let the students construct a concept map on the following: technology lotion gadgets process television tocino making washing machine bagoong making toothpaste computer products cars shampoo induced fruiting

V.

A. Essay writing. Composite is a product of technology which helps us in solving our problem with nonbiodegradable waste. What is the science concept behind it? B. Identify whether the following is a product, a process, or a machine/gadget. 1. barbecue 2. computer 3. baby powder 4. canned juice 5. tapsilog

VI.

VII.

may be gadgets/machine examples are computer

cars

examples are

television

washing machine

bagoong making

tocino making

ASSIGNMENT Ask the students to answer the following questions: 1. What are genetically modified organisms(GMOs)? What are genetically modified (GM) foods? 2. Make an essay on: Is it safe to eat genetically modified (GM) foods? 3. Bring pencil, pens, crayons and construction paper.

process

products

REINFORCEMENT Discuss biotechnology and its applications. How does biotechnology help us? Ask the students to research on products of biotechnology in the Philippines and on biotechnology pioneers. Relate this to the topic.

Answer: Technology

EVALUATION

induced fruiting

examples are toothpaste

shampoo

Lesson I-4: Scientists and Scientific Attitudes

lotion

D. Valuing/Application Show the following objects in the class. disposable diapers food wrappers

I. plastic bags

Ask: Why do you use these products? Build a scenario—What do you think would happen if we continue to use these products? 18 Teaching Strategies in General Science

OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss the importance and application of scientific values in decision making and problem solving in daily life 2. Role-play the ways of solving problems used by scientists 3. Appreciate the contributions of local and foreign scientists to technological advancement


II.

LEARNING CONTENT A. Topic: Scientists and Scientific Attitudes B. Concepts: • Scientific attitude is the systematic and objective approach to solving a problem. • Scientists solve their problems through: a. serendipity – accidental discovery b. trial and error method – obtaining knowledge from propositional know-how c. intuition – understanding without deliberate effort d. experimental method – testing of hypothesis • A scientist generally possesses desirable qualities such as curiosity, open-mindedness, critical-mindedness, persistence, patience, and intellectual honesty.

III.

MATERIALS paper pencil sketch pad photocopy of the biography of some scientists

Arrange the letters to form the correct word. Answer: SCIENTIST B. Lesson Proper Activity 1: Paint Me a Picture Group the students into five. Using the sketch pad, let the groups draw a portrait depicting scientific attitudes of scientists. Activity 2: Assign the following scientists to the group: Group 1 – Albert Einstein Group 2 – Galileo Galilei Group 3 – Gregorio Zara Group 4 – Thomas Alva Edison Group 5 – Felix Maramba Ask the students to list all the contributions of these scientists. What traits did these scientists possess? How were they able to discover their contributions to scientific advancement? Fill up the table below: Scientist

IV.

Contributions

Scientific Traits

PROCEDURE A. Motivation: Finding the word from the drawing

Relate the students’ output from Activity 1 to their output in this activity. Did the scientist assigned to them exhibit the scientific attitudes they painted in Activity 1? Activity 3: Role-playing Ask each group to act out a scientific attitude. As they are acting out, let one of their group members act as the narrator to guide the audience on what their group is presenting. Teaching Strategies in General Science 19


that planets follow elliptical orbits. He accepts new ideas in the light of new findings. 5. Luz Oliveros-Belardo dedicated her life in extracting Philippine essential oils and applying these findings in creating new flavors and in herbal medication. Before publishing the result of her study, she logically and systematically studied the details of each of her experiments.

C. Generalization Create a mind map showing the traits and scientific attitudes of a scientist. Let the students put their concepts on the mind map and ask them to explain how important these traits are. Scientist

VI. D. Valuing/Application You have learned that your classmates are organizing a rally against the school policy of prohibiting cellphone usage inside the campus and inside the classroom during class hours. Apply your knowledge in scientific attitude in deciding whether or not to join the rally.

V.

EVALUATION Identify the scientific attitudes or traits exhibited in the following situations: 1. A poultry raiser tries out different feeds to improve the quality and the number of eggs laid by his chickens. After a week, he found out that feed A makes the color of the yolk darker and the chickens lay more eggs. He therefore concentrated on using feed A in his poultry. 2. Benjamin Franklin wondered about the nature of lightning. His experiments on flying a kite during a storm led to his discovery that lightning is actually an electrical discharge. 3. Joseph Henry, a mathematician and scientist, knew from his experiences on electromagnets that electricity creates magnetism. He hypothesized that magnetism can cause a flow of electricity. However, he still conducted several experiments to prove his hypothesis. 4. Johannes Kepler developed the idea that planets moved along a perfect circular path. But after 15 years he said

20 Teaching Strategies in General Science

REINFORCEMENT Let the students make an album of Filipino and foreign scientists. Ask them to include their contributions to science and let them enumerate the scientific attitude/trait exhibited by each scientist.

VII.

ASSIGNMENT Ask the students to write an essay for each of the following items. 1. Choose two scientific traits/attitudes. Compare them. Which of these do you consider as more important than the other? Why? 2. What should the government do to help Filipino scientists and inventors?


REFERENCES Aaron, Grace and Saavedra, Elsa. 1992. Strategies for Effective Physics Teaching. Materials for Inservice and Preservice Teacher Education, pp. 3-4 Burden, Paul R. 2000. Powerful Classroom Management Strategies. Corwin Press, Inc. California, pp. 46-49 Laufer, Ruth. 1996. Creative Methods for Teaching Youth Church Strengthening Ministry. Makati, Philippines, pp. 44-62 Rabago, Lilia, et. al. Science and Technology General Science Teacher’s Manual. SD Publication, pp. 100-101 Sullivan, Ann. 1986. How to Guide the Youth. Nashville, Tennessee, USA Convention Press, p. 210 cooperative_learning.html http://teams.lacoe.edu www.exploratorium.edu/science_explorer/index.html www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/comb/usc-csp/Quickfacts.htm

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