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Volume 7 Number 5 September/October 2011

Essential Fatty Acids A sustainable future The rise of algal DHA

Cardiovascular Health The science behind soy Sodium reduction

Getting the good health glow

Herbals and Botanicals

Anti-inflammatory support Spiking and adulteration

Gut Health

Where man meets microbes

Omega-3s: Fish versus the World • ingredients • functional foods • nutraceuticals • supplements • raw materials •

Newtrition  — fitness for fun. ™

Drinks, spoonable foods and more with a feel-good factor: just some of the many ways Newtrition™ turns your products into a well-being experience for your customers. Let’s talk about concepts for tomorrow’s nutrition—fitness that tastes good and feels good based on product concepts such as Tonalin® conjugated linoleic acid and our Xangold® lutein esters, Covitol® natural-sourced vitamin E, Betatene® natural mixed carotenoids and Plantalin™ range of highquality plant extract. Newtrition™ — Eat. Feel. Live.

Cognis – SF art of BA is now p

COGNIS GmbH, Nutrition & Health Europe +49 7303 13 572 North America +1 708 579 6150 Asia Pacific +61 3 9584 4588

Volume7 Issue5







Guest Editorial

05 Dissecting the Emerging Nutraceutical Market and New Compliance Regulations



Duane Sword


06 The Latest News and Updates


Executive Profile 12 Q&A with IRB

Dr Kevin Robinson with Roberto Dal Toso

GOED Report

14 Why is EFSA Evaluating the Safety of Long-Chain Omega-3s? Adam Ismail and Harry Rice

Gut Health

32 The Gut: Where Man Meets Microbes

Marine Nutraceuticals

Jacoline Gerritsen

Emily Kimber

36 Sodium Reduction: The Heart of the Matter

18 The Battle of the Omega-3s

Essential Fatty Acids 20 Algal DHA Omega-3 for Every Stage of Life Anthony Martin

22 Our Omega-3 Future: Sustainable, Clean and Healthy

28 Inflammatory Support Products: Innovative Insights

Women’s Health

Ajax K. Mohamed

54 Calendar

Last Word

Natural Colourants

56 Creating Opportunities in Food Production with Enzyme Technology

42 True Colours: The Good Health Glow of Beta-Carotene Colourants

Saskia Nuijten

Kimberly J. Decker

Vitamins and Minerals 44 The Vitamin Arena Robin Wyers

Mark Neville

Prof. Pierfrancesco Morganti, G. Morganti and A. Morganti

Dr Garry Mendelson

Alex Shnaiderman

48 A Simple Guide to Whey Protein

50 Chitin Nanofibrils: A Natural Nanostructured Compound to Save the Environment

38 The Science Behind Soy and Heart Health Benefits

Herbals and Botanicals

Sports Nutrition Technology

John Brodie

40 Soy Awareness, Soy Safety

George Pontiakos

Dr Cees Vermeer

Cardiovascular Health

Dr Mark Edwards

26 Spiking and Adulteration of Herbs and Botanicals

46 Know the Differences: Vitamin K1 and K2

Regulatory Review 58 Analytical Testing Method Madness Dr Cheri Turman

September/October 2011





Volume 7 Issue 5

September/October 2011 ISSN 1745-8307

Contributors Editorial Director

General Manager

Kevin Robinson +44 (0) 1392 202 591

Miranda Docherty +44 (0) 1372 364 122

Assistant Editor


Charlotte Hodgson +44 (0) 1372 364 130

Gill Healy +44 (0) 1372 364 128

Art Director/Production

Heba Hassanatou +44 (0) 1372 364 127

Paul Andrews +44 (0) 1372 364 126

Financial Officer Web Design/Marketing Claire Day +44 (0) 1372 364 129

Cherelle Saunders +44 (0) 1372 364 123

Editorial Advisory Board Susanne Fässler Marketing Communication Manager Frutarom Switzerland Ltd Jörg Grünwald President Analyze & Realize ag Dr Michelle H. Jones Manager, Regulatory and Scientific Affairs Archer Daniels Midland Company

Carnipure™ Purity you can trust Carnipure™, Lonza’s L-carnitine, is a natural nutrient essential for energy metabolism. Products displaying the Carnipure™ quality seal on the packaging show the consumer that they contain pure L-carnitine from Lonza Ltd, Switzerland.

Visit our stand 1F39 at FiE Paris.

John Kurstjens Marketing Manager Lipid Nutrition Chris Lee Event Director IIR Exhibitions Ulla Freitas Manager Scientific Affairs, Nutrition Lonza AG

Theodor Graser Head Pharma Industry DSM Nutritional Products Ltd Denzil Phillips Founder Denzil Phillips International Pedro Vieira Marketing Manager Kemin Health Europe Robin Ward Managing Director Excelsa Pharmaceuticals Sagl John Wilkinson Consultant Phytochemist and Director Herbal Sciences Int. Ltd Dr Paul Berryman Chief Executive Leatherhead Food International Norbert Weitkemper Managing Director Vital Solutions GmbH

To subscribe Professionals working within the industries we cover may purchase a year’s subscription by sending a cheque for £100.00 made payable to Via Media UK Ltd, Wesley House, Bull Hill, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT22 7AH No part of this magazine may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without permission. Copyright © 2011, Via Media UK Ltd. All Rights Reserved

Carnipure™ offers purest L-carnitine and is a trademark of Lonza Ltd, Switzerland. September/October 2011

The publisher endeavours to collect and include complete, correct and current information in Nutraceutical Business & Technology, but does not warrant that any or all such information is complete, correct or current. The publisher does not assume, and hereby disclaims, any liability to any person or entity for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions of any kind, whether resulting from negligence, accident or any other cause. Nutraceutical Business & Technology does not verify any claims or other information appearing in any of the advertisements contained in the publication, and cannot take any responsibility for any losses or other damages incurred by readers in reliance on such content.

guest editorial


Dissecting the Emerging Nutraceutical Market and New Compliance Regulations Increasing consumer concerns about the quality, strength and label claims of active ingredients in dietary supplements have caused the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to implement tighter controls over manufacturing practices in the nutraceutical market, the value of which is expected to reach $176 billion by 2013, according to BBC research. Specifically, FDA is enforcing strict policies to make it necessary for nutraceutical companies to set processes and records that prove inspection protocols were followed, in addition to heightened measures for quality control.


n 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) placed the industry regulation of the manufacturing and labelling of dietary supplements under the control of FDA. Whereas the passing of DSHEA was a progressive move for the nutraceutical market, it wasn’t until June 2010 that FDA issued a ‘final rule’ on the current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) for dietary supplements. According to this final rule, manufacturers must conform to good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure quality standards. These regulations prepare manufacturers to minimize liability and anticipate audits, which, if failed, can be extremely costly and severely impact business. As a result, global nutraceutical manufacturers are seeking technology that will allow them to effectively inspect incoming raw material, ensuring the quality of finished products and the minimization of costs. The onus is now on manufacturing companies to safeguard the quality and safety of their products while simultaneously providing evidence that they are following proper inspection processes. But how can nutraceutical companies be sure they’re taking the right steps to meet compliance standards? Where do they start — and are technologies available that can help to authenticate incoming materials? The nutraceutical market is not the first to struggle to comply with FDA regulations; the pharmaceutical industry has paved the way by using cutting-edge technology to guarantee compliance and ensure that reliable, safe pharmaceutical products end up in the hands of consumers.

Technologies to Comply with the FDA Beast Prior to the establishment of these regulations, nutraceutical manufacturers were not required to test raw materials or the authenticity of their supplements and were therefore not held accountable for their quality. To date, the industry’s primary method for authenticating products has been to create sophisticated packaging that makes imitation more difficult, such as barcoding and RFID. The problem with this approach, however, is that it only secures the packaging, rather than the product itself, and can be costly. There are a number of analytical techniques that may be used to verify raw materials and finished products, but most require the use of trained chemists in a laboratory, precluding the effective monitoring of products in the supply chain to a meaningful level. Although some companies have introduced products using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), it is near infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy that have proven to be invaluable in performing accurate incoming raw material inspection.

Handheld spectrometers have changed the way manufacturers perform material identification and finished product inspection. By utilizing vibrational spectroscopy, users are able to compare the material’s ‘fingerprint,’ obtained from a sample, with an authentic reference contained within the instrument. The purpose of this technology is to enable fast, efficient material identity verification at the point of receipt without direct contact with the substance — through sealed glass, plastic bottles, bags and blister packs at ports of inspection, loading docks, points of sale and manufacturing plants. Handheld spectroscopy is successfully being used in 9 of the top 10 global pharmaceutical companies — as well as by regulatory bodies around the world — for the inspection of incoming materials and finished products. Although FDA now requires the nutraceutical market to follow proper procedures for authenticating products, manufacturers must carefully evaluate technology options to ensure that the final solution fits their needs and budget. The industry should step back, evaluate current internal procedures and recognize that such a solution can be integrated into existing processes. Unfortunately, drug and dietary supplement counterfeiting is a problem that shows little sign of abating. Although compliance with FDA regulations is an arduous task, taking the appropriate steps to perform accurate inspections of incoming raw material ultimately protects consumers and mitigates the risk of unknowingly using a substandard, degraded or counterfeit raw material. The emergence of government regulations and the proven capability of handheld technologies, however, demonstrate that the nutraceutical industry is moving in the right direction.

For more information Duane Sword Senior Director, Strategic Growth Portable Analytical Instruments Thermo Fisher Scientific

September/October 2011



Enabling Technologies and Services

New Hydroxytyrosol Website

Roquette is a long-established supplier of actives and excipients to the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Our new slogan, Simply formulate your wishes, emphasizes our service offerings and the strength of our underlying support. Whatever your requirements and aims, we are committed to providing the guidance you need to make the best possible use of our excipients, throughout the development process, from the creation of prototypes to scale-up, in areas such as injectables, solid dosage forms, film forming and coating, syrups, suspensions, granules and sachets, orodispersibles, nutraceuticals, toothpastes and mouthwashes. Direct formulation scale-up offers a new way to reduce the time and cost of drug development. To further strengthen this drive, Roquette and the Institut de la Garonne have pooled their expertise to provide a new compression modelling service. On-site assistance is now available for LYCOAT and Readi LYCOAT, our new natural, inert polymer and readyto-use coating system for fast aqueous film coating. In addition to the Kleptose cyclodextrin range, Roquette now offers a new tastemasking technology: KLEPTOSE Linecaps, a pea maltodextrin that’s capable of masking the bitter taste of drugs by decreasing the overall amount of drug particles that are exposed to the taste buds. Roquette looks forward to welcoming you to CPhI (Stand 42G24), where our specialists will be ready to answer any of your questions about our enabling technologies and services (

To facilitate public access to more natural, powerful, effective and bioavailable formulations of hydroxytyrosol, Creagri, Inc. has launched a new website for its Olivenol Plus 2X product (www. The new site offers users a comprehensive overview of Olivenol Plus 2X, the science behind its success and enables visitors to find content more quickly and easily. In addition to these enhancements, the site also chronicles consumer and health professional testimonials, as well as the company’s certifications, scientific studies and clinical trials. A stronger formulation of Olivenol and Olivenol Plus, the new line of dietary supplements is the result of safety and efficacy research conducted by Creagri in the field of olive polyphenols and hydroxytyrosol. Totally safe and derived from the juice of organic olives, each capsule delivers double the concentration of hydroxytyrosol and sets a new bar for any existing dietary supplement available on the market today for a truly bioavailable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating natural formula. “Packed with even greater power, one capsule of Olivenol Plus 2X provides the same quantity of polyphenols contained in 8–12 fluid ounces of the best extra virgin olive oil … but without the fat and the calories,” explained Dr Crea. The blend of hydroxytyrosol and other natural olive polyphenols (Hidrox) contained in Olivenol Plus 2X is easily and rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and transferred into the bloodstream and surrounding tissues and cells where it fights the accumulation of free radicals and their toxic effects on human health. According to worldwide users of dietary supplements, Olivenol provides a dramatic range of health benefits, particularly when used to support joint mobility, to fight skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema, and to improve and enhance immune health and general well-being. Olivenol Plus 2X is produced in GMP-certified facilities with strict adherence to manufacturing, safety and quality control guidelines. In addition, Olivenol Plus 2X is organic certified, Kosher and Halal (

Chicory to Help Fight Obesity A recent article in the British Journal of Nutrition has recorded that oligofructose (a carbohydratebased dietary fibre extracted from chicory roots) has a significant influence on food and energy intake, based on a study involving 31 healthy volunteers with a BMI of around 25. These encouraging results highlight the potential for oligofructose to be used as a sugar and fat substitute in the prevention and treatment of obesity — one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. The research, done by scientists at the University of Maastricht, was financed by Sensus (, a leading producer of chicory-based inulin and oligofructose. During a period of 13 days, the volunteers received either a placebo or a dose of oligofructose — 5 g or 8 g twice daily — and their food intake was measured at the beginning and end of the period. After 13 days, the energy consumption of those taking the higher dose of oligofructose had decreased by 10%. Moreover, higher concentrations of the satiety hormones PYY and GLP-I were measured in the blood, whereas feelings of hunger and satiety remained the same. Oligofructose can be extracted from chicory roots on an industrial scale. As it cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes, it has the same impact in the bowel as dietary fibre and, owing to its low caloric value, it is ideal as a fat and sugar substitute in all kinds of food products. Use of this ingredient facilitates legitimate nutritional claims such as ‘reduced fat,’ ‘no sugar,’ or ‘high in fibre.’ September/October 2011

The world’s first clinically supported PAC standardized whole cranberry powder 500 mg significantly reduce E. coli load in urine 500 mg effectively reduce UTI frequency 500 mg equals 300 ml Cranberry Juice Cocktail in anti-adhesion activity Full traceability – sourced and produced in the US by Decas Botanical Synergies

9 Unique patented formula 9 100 % natural no residual solvents 9 Full body of scientific evidence 9 2 randomized clinical trials 9 Supporting ex-vivo studies 9 No adverse effects



Probiotic Product Support for Immune Health in Children Anlit Advanced Nutrition, in collaboration with Frutarom Ltd, has developed a child-friendly probiotic supplement for immune health. The new product is based on Frutarom’s BLIS K12 — the world’s first probiotic for sore throats and otitis media (ear infections). BLIS K12 supports the body’s immune system by providing an innovative, natural and active defence against bacterial imbalance in the mouth, fighting antagonistic bacteria that cause sore throats, ear infections, colds and bad breath. Anlit will launch the new supplement at CPhI (Hall 5.1 Stand F43). BLIS K12 is supported by extensive research and peer-reviewed papers reaching back more than 30 years. One large study showed that children who carry BLIS K12-like S. salivarius have about 50% fewer episodes of strep throat. A second in vitro study of BLIS K12 showed activity against otorespiratory infection pathogens, which are typical to children and frequently cause ear infections. And, in a small in vivo study of children with recurrent acute otitis media waiting for surgery for the insertion of ventilation tubes, BLIS K12 appeared to show benefits in reducing total event numbers. “BLIS K12 is an oral probiotic with an excellent safety record that has been used in studies with children,” says Shai Karlinski, vice president of sales and marketing for Anlit. “Otitis media is the most common bacterial infection in young children and the main reason for visits to the doctor. Most cases of otitis media result in antibiotic treatment. Consuming one child-friendly, bear-shaped supplement each day can help to prevent common ear infections and sore throats in children.” Each package contains 20 vanilla-flavoured chewable BLIS K12 bears, sweetened with xylitol, a natural sugar substitute. Children should take one BLIS K12 supplement each day to avoid otitis media and bacterial throat infections. This recommended dosage provides 17–20 mg of BLIS K12 per serving (

Positive EFSA Opinion for Vegetal Chitosan In June, EFSA issued a series of evaluations regarding Article 13.1 “general function” health claims, including a positive evaluation for chitosan and the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol. The evidence, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of chitosan consumption on blood lipids, was evaluated by EFSA and showed a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It was concluded that a cause and effect relationship had been established between the consumption of chitosan and the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. To obtain the claimed effect, 3 g of chitosan should be consumed daily. Given chitosan’s efficacy, KitoZyme has successfully designed KiOnutrime-Cs, a unique, vegetal chitosan dedicated to the nutraceutical industry. KiOnutrime-Cs, a vegetarian fibre, is ideal for all weight management and cholesterol products because of its unique characteristics: unbeatable fat binding power (at least 800 times its own weight in fat), high quality and purity, safe, non-allergenic, Kosher and Halal certified. In addition, KitoZyme has also received official notification from the US FDA that vegetal chitosan is GRAS for beverage applications. FDA issued a notice confirming that its panel of experts has no objection to the use of chitosan as processing aid in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Developments with KiOnutrime-Cs and vegetal chitosan products are triggering new advances in chitosan-based dietary supplements, which broaden the scope for innovative functional food products, particularly in the area of dietary supplements for sports nutrition, cholesterol management, functional beverages and Halal and Kosher products . For more information, visit or discover KiOnutrime-Cs at SupplySide West 2011 (Stand 20100) and Food ingredients Europe (Stand 2D59).

Stimulating Measurable Regeneration of Joint Cartilage More than 25% of the world’s population suffers from joint problems — a considerable loss in terms of quality of life. The principal reasons for these problems are the wear and tear of the joint cartilage brought about by increasing longevity, being overweight through lack of activity or the mechanical stress of intensive sport. Owing to the lack of real therapeutic possibilities, especially for osteoarthritis, in most cases only the symptoms are treated rather than the causes. By contrast, after oral administration, FORTIGEL stimulates the cartilage cells to increase the production of both collagen and proteoglycans — the two major components that comprise approximately 90% of cartilage dry mass. By treating causes, rather than just symptoms, FORTIGEL considerably improves joint mobility, reduces pain and thus enables a better quality of life. FORTIGEL Plus, a recent line extension of the successful brand with Cynosbati (rosehip extract) provides an additional anti-inflammatory effect. Visit GELITA at Stand B9 at FiA (21–23 September) in Bangkok (

Cocoa Replacement Solution from Tate & Lyle Tate & Lyle, the global ingredients and food solutions provider, announces the launch of a unique tailor made cocoa replacement solution using a high quality carob powder ingredient, CARCAO. This solution allows food manufacturers to make significant total recipe cost savings. With its familiar cocoa-like flavour and colouring, CARCAO can be used as a partial cocoa replacement in dairy, bakery and ice cream applications. Working to individual manufacturer briefs, Tate & Lyle can develop bespoke products according to the manufacturer’s desired colour or flavour. For instance, by adjusting the temperature and roasting conditions during the production of carob powder, Tate & Lyle’s specialists are able to produce a series of different CARCAO products, ranging from light brown and sweet tasting to dark brown with a strong unsweetened taste. Tate & Lyle’s technologists work hand in hand with manufacturers to develop customized recipes and achieve the desired results. Tate & Lyle has developed case studies to demonstrate the cost benefits of using CARCAO to manufacturers, including a chocolate mousse, a chocolate tasting muffin, a cocoa drink, a chocolate ice cream and a cocoa filling. Those great tasting recipes have similar properties and quality as the full-cocoa alternative and deliver significant cost reductions on the total recipe cost (

Nutritional Lipids Exhibiting at NUCE (Stand C47/A), Polaris, an expert in nutritional lipids, is devoted to the research, development and marketing of high quality health ingredients. The company offers a wide range of natural and highly concentrated marine omega-3 oils that are rich in PUFAs (EPA and DHA), vegetable omega-6 oils and high potency technology for the microencapsulation of active ingredients. Polaris guarantees the purity and stability of its oils, thanks to its patented QUALITYSILVER process, which enables PUFA-rich oils to be stabilized against oxidation. A leader in nutritional lipids, Polaris is your prime partner for the nutraceutical, food, cosmetics and pet food industries ( September/October 2011

World Market Leader for Collagen Proteins GELITA® bioactive collagen peptides stimulate certain body functions GELITA is the leading company for manufacturing and marketing collagen proteins. Coordinated from the headquarters in Eberbach, Germany, GELITA provides customers around the world with products of the highest standard, comprehensive technical expertise and sophisticated solutions. More than 20 sites and a global expert network ensure that state-of-the-art know-how is always available for customers. More than 135 years of experience in the field of collagen proteins are the basis of GELITA’s performance. A strong requirement for innovation is the driving force of the family-owned company that is continually looking for new solutions.

Real beauty comes from within VERISOL®, administered orally, influences the skin’s collagen metabolism directly from the inside. In this way it increases the skin moisture and prevents the formation of wrinkles. VERISOL® can be easily incorporated into the most varied of products.

Scientifically proven to stimulate measurable regeneration of joint cartilage FORTIGEL® stimulates the cartilage cells to increase the production of both collagen and proteoglycans – the two major components of cartilage. Thus FORTIGEL® considerably improves joint mobility, reduces pain and hence produces a higher quality of life.

Anti-catabolic collagen peptides for durable performance PEPTIPLUS® is a valuable source of collagen proteins which provides a longlasting energy supply. It consists of basic building blocks for connective tissue production and comprises a high anti-catabolic effect. PEPTIPLUS® is suitable for manifold applications like nutritional bars or protein enriched beverages.

GELITA AG · Uferstr. 7 · 69412 Eberbach · T: +49 627184 01 · ·


See what’s t: evolutionary change for the food and nutraceutical market!

Whole Cranberry Powder Prevents Recurrent UTIs Women Lallemand Health Ingredients ( and Decas Botanical Synergies (, a subsidiary of Decas Cranberry Products, Inc., presented the results of a second randomized clinical trial substantiating the efficacy of a premium PAC-standardized whole cranberry powder (PACran) in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in women at the recent PhytoPharm congress in Nuremberg. The aim of the 6-month intervention trial was to assess the efficacy of a daily dose of 500 mg of PACran in 165 women with a history of recurrent UTIs. During the trial, there were 22 UTI events in the placebo group compared with 11 in the PACran group. The recurrence rate for the cranberry group was 14.2%, compared with 25.7% in the placebo group. This corresponds to an absolute reduction in UTI recurrence of 15%. These data further validate that a 500 mg daily dose of PACran is effective in reducing the recurrence of urinary tract infections in women and makes PACran the first and only PAC-standardized whole cranberry powder backed by two controlled clinical studies. Julie Rosenborg, product manager for cranberry ingredients, Lallemand Health Ingredients, commented: “A recent market study ranked ‘proven’ as a number one health trend. We are pleased to offer our customers the Whole Cranberry Powder with the strongest pool of clinical evidence on the market and are ready to support them in the development and marketing of innovative products addressing the urinary health segment.” Rahul Shinde, research scientist for Decas Botanical Synergies, added: “PACran has been built from the ground up to deliver cranberry products that support urinary tract health. This is the second clinical trial to show positive results for PACran’s support for women with urinary health issues. These results build on the extensive library of science we have developed in support of PACran.”

Ingredia Nutritional at SSW

Visit us to learn more at FIE • Booth 3D33 September/October 2011

Ingredia Nutritional, through IDI Inc. the American subsidiary of the Ingredia Group, delivers premium, innovative nutritional ingredients and solutions to the health and nutrition industry on the domestic market, and will be exhibiting its latest developments at SupplySide West (Stand 26065). • T he amount of relaxation drinks sold in the US in 2010 is twice what it was in 2008 and Ingredia Nutritional happens to have the perfect ingredient to make sure those drinks keep their soothing promises. Lactium, the flagship ingredient of the Unique Bio-Actives range is a patented ingredient with strong scientific and clinical evidence of its efficacy and it can indeed now be incorporated into all kinds of beverages, even translucent ones. •U  sing proteins from its Nutritional Solutions range, the company offers its exclusive Refuel & Repair recovery drink, so that those in the development market can see and experience for themselves the amazing possible applications of these proteins. With 30 g of protein in each 250 mL (8.45 oz) bottle, Refuel & Repair shows how greater levels of protein can be combined in a drink. • Ingredia Nutritional and Gumlink have joined forces to develop a new concept of finished product. Zen & Free has been created using Gumlink’s patented bilayered compressed chewing gum, which is a particularly suitable delivery system for active ingredients such as Ingredia’s Lactium. This brand new concept is intended to reduce stress-related symptoms and could, for example, be used as an efficient nutritional support in the management of tobacco withdrawal. Beyond those concepts, Ingredia Nutritional will be happy to discuss the company’s other ingredients, from generic and customized specialty proteins and hydrolysates to colostrum, lactoferrin and, of course, Lactium (



September/October 2011


executive profile

NBT Awards Celebrate Green Biotech Innovation

In light of their resounding success at the NBT Awards, NBT magazine heard from Roberto Dal Toso, research and development manager at IRB, to learn more about the product and submission that clinched them the award. Can you briefly describe HTN technology and its application and benefits? Although our product, Echigena PluS (Echinacea angustifolia), won the award for Most Improved Product Safety and Quality at the NBT Awards 2011, this winning product is facilitated and supported by the HTN green biotechnology. This unique process, exclusively owned by IRB, is a revolutionary alternative in the production of food metabolites, such as plant extracts, and boasts a number of advantages over the open field cultivation of plants, including a superior level of quality and safety and a dramatic reduction in environmental impact. Based on non-GMO plant cell cultures, the HTN process has the capacity to physiologically orientate plant cells towards the production of specific substances involved in defensive responses of the plant against environmental, physical and biological stress. These substances are the same as those produced by the plant, but, owing to the sterile bioreactors in which the fermenting process takes place, they are guaranteed to be free of pesticides, heavy metals, aflatoxins and other environmental pollutants. Whereas the quality and quantity of traditional extracts has previously been hampered by the plant’s biological cycle and seasonal or environmental variations, it is now possible to ensure a standardized and reproducible composition profile and thus the unlimited availability of the extract. The overall eco-sustainability of IRB’s HTN process is another important issue; taking Echinacea angustifolia plants as an example, a reduction of up to 1000 fold water consumption and 400 fold soil occupation was achieved, both of which can be made available for food crops. HTN technology has achieved the production of the first and only biotech plant extracts to be authorized in Europe as food supplement ingredients; a true breakthrough for the nutritional market. Can you briefly review the points of your submission? Despite continuous improvements in plant cultivation and product manufacturing procedures, the nature of the traditional

Roberto Dal Toso

production process itself, which is affected by a number of critical environmental variables that are only partly controllable, means that the required safety, availability and purity standards of plant ingredients cannot be guaranteed. In light of this, EFSA have drawn attention to the numerous problems that plague botanicals; environmental, chemical and microbiological contaminations have been widely documented and recently associated with products supplied from Asia. In contrast, the application of HTN green biotechnology in botanical production has allowed IRB to improve safety, standardize quality and availability in addition reducing the environmental footprint. In fact, plant cells selected and cultured on an industrial scale in sterile bioreactors effectively act as nurseries for rare, but extremely active, plant substances, such as phenylpropanoids (e.g. echinacoside). The first, and unique, biotech Echinacea angustifolia extract (Echigena PluS), authorized by European authorities as a nutritional ingredient under novel food regulation, is a prime example of these improvements; batch–to-batch reproducibility in terms of composition and efficacy can be strictly September/October 2011

controlled and, owing to the sterile biotech manufacturing process, no environmental pollutants are detectable. There were a number of challenging issues to be overcome to facilitate this achievement, such as the industrial scale up of the plant cell culture technology, which is diffused mainly on a laboratory scale, and consequently the lowering of the industrial cost to enable the production of economically sustainable ingredients for the market.

Why do you think the judges selected your nomination as the winning entry in the Most Improved Product Safety and Quality category? Principally, because IRB is the first and only company in Europe to have set an economically sustainable industrial benchmark for the production of biotech plant extracts with an unsurpassed level of safety, quality standardization and availability and a dramatically reduced environmental impact. Furthermore, Echigena PluS is the first and only biotech Echinacea angustifolia extract to be authorized in Europe as food supplement ingredient. What does the award mean for IRB as a company and for the technology itself? Winning this award is a particular source of pride, as it rewards 10 years of investment in research and the truly single-minded and masterly work of an excellent team. As pioneers of this technology, we believe that HTN can initiate a new era in the nutritional sector, offering unrivalled advantages to mankind and the environment. What do you have in the pipeline as a submission for next year’s NBT Awards? We are working on a number of different projects for the nutritional field but the identity of next year’s potential submission for is still a secret...

For more information Roberto Dal Toso Via Lago di Tovel 7 I-36077 Altavilla Vicentina, Italy. Tel. +390 444 371 463

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cular health. In a recent human study, Superba™ Krill Phospholipid EPA & DHA had a significantly improved Omega-3 index compared to ordinary fish oil. AkerBioMarine is the only krill harvester that has been awarded the prestigious Marine Stewardship Council certification for its eco-friendly harvesting and traceability from sea to shelf.

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GOED report

Why is EFSA Evaluating the Safety of Long-Chain Omega-3s?

The levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in functional foods and dietary supplements have been accepted as safe for many years, thanks in part to an assessment the United States Food and Drug Administration completed in 2002, which concluded that intakes of up to 3 g/day of EPA and DHA were safe. As most supplements contain 300–500 mg of EPA+DHA per capsule, the FDA opinion has served as a global marker of safety. A report recently issued by Norway, which found that intakes of up to 6.9 g/day were safe, reflects the current state of the science. Within the EU however, low upper limits are being proposed that could threaten portions of the market.


n 27 June, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) received a letter from the European Commission (EC) requesting that it “review the existing scientific data on the possible link between the intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, alone or combined (DHA and/or EPA and/or DPA) and adverse health effects, and to advise the Commission on a tolerable upper level of intake (UL) for omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, alone or combined (DHA and/or EPA and/or DPA) for the general population and, if appropriate, for vulnerable subgroups of the population.” On July 7, EFSA acknowledged receipt of the letter and informed the Commission “that the finalization of the request by the NDA Panel is foreseen within the proposed timeline of 9 months, in March 2012.” Earlier this year, during the 21 February meeting of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health Section on General Food Law, an exchange of views was held in response to the request of Germany to initiate a procedure under Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 in relation to the addition of EPA, DHA and DPA to foods. The request was based on the scientific opinion of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), which concluded that long-chain omega-3 intake via fortified food could reach levels of two to three times greater than those expected to be ingested under normal conditions in a balanced and varied diet. According to the German Delegation, the worst case scenario would see 16.7% of the German population consuming greater than the upper intake level of 1.5 g/day of the long-chain omega-3s set by the BfR. Interestingly, the BfR describes its assessment as “a conservative procedure with a high

degree of certainty that nonetheless is not necessarily achieved in reality.” Does this not boil down to being essentially unrealistic? To initiate the procedure of Article 8, “a substance other than vitamins or minerals, or an ingredient containing a substance other than vitamins or minerals, is added to foods or used in the manufacture of foods under conditions that would result in the ingestion of amounts of this substance greatly exceeding those reasonably expected to be ingested under normal conditions of consumption of a balanced and varied diet and/or would otherwise represent a potential risk to consumers.” Although it was concluded that there was a need to reflect on the request by Germany, the Commission’s ultimate request of EFSA was not based on the procedure of Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, but on Article 29(1)(a) of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002, laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and setting out procedures in matters of food safety. Specifically, the Commission cited the following reasons for the request: • Concern (albeit unfounded) from several Member States about adverse health effects associated with the long-chain omega-3s • EFSA’s 6 July 2005 scientific opinion on nutrition claims concerning omega-3 fatty acids, which refers to adverse effects of high omega-3 consumption • EFSA’s scientific opinions on health claims requiring 2–4 g/day • The absence of an EU-wide tolerable upper intake level. Unofficially, the Commission has voiced its opinion that it has no concern about the safety September/October 2011

of the long-chain omega-3s; nevertheless it submitted the request to EFSA for a formal review. One can only assume that the request was politically motivated. Like most in the industry that live and breathe EPA and DHA, GOED does not believe there is any scientific basis for the Commission’s request. In the unlikely event of an unfavourable review from EFSA, the final approval of the Article 13 claims for the maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 502) and blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 517) could be jeopardized. In fact, during the 21 March meeting of the European Commission Working Group on Nutrition and Health Claims, those claims came under increased scrutiny because of the perceived ‘high’ proposed conditions of use — 2 g/day of EPA/DHA for a triglyceride lowering effect and 3 g/day for a blood pressure lowering effect. It was at this meeting that a few Member States expressed an interest in EFSA conducting a safety review on high intakes. The Commission was unsuccessful in its attempts to resolve the issue by suggesting that the claims include safety warnings or that, as 2 g/day was safe, the triglyceride claim move forward. In addition, it was even proposed that neither claim be approved as another Article 13 claim, stating that “DHA and EPA contribute to the normal function of the heart,” encompasses more and was likely to be approved with a lower intake level (250 mg/day).

For more information Adam Ismail, Executive Director and Harry Rice, VP, Regulatory and Scientific Affairs Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) 1075 East Hollywood Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah 84105, USA Tel. +1 801 746 1413

The leader of the pack Stay out in front when you choose EPAX condition-specific EPA/DHA concentrates. For over 170 years, we’ve led the pack in implementing global purity and quality assurance processes to keep our products ahead of the competition. As a leading global supplier of omega-3 marine oils, EPAX can provide the manufacturing expertise and services you need to be successful, including clinical documentation, local sales people and on-time deliveries. Experience the alpha of the omegas, contact your EPAX representative today. For information and free samples contact us at + 47 70 13 59 60 or


marine nutraceuticals

The Battle of

the Omega-3s With more than 20,000 scientific papers published on the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids to date, there is little doubt of their importance to human health. Studies have suggested that omega-3 reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, supports normal brain development and promotes overall health and wellness. Not surprisingly, the popularity of omega-3 supplements has soared in recent years — and with it, so has the range of omega-3 choices. Today, consumers can obtain their omega-3 from fish, flax, krill and even algae. Although it’s easy to view these sources as interchangeable, the truth is that not all omega-3 is created equal: in the competition for the best source of omega-3, fish oil is the clear winner. Not All Omega-3 is the Same When comparing sources of omega-3, it is important to understand that this class of essential fatty acid comes in different forms. Marine sources such as fish provide omega-3 in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas plant sources, such as flax, provide omega-3 as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). The health benefits attributed to omega-3 are based on the functions of EPA/ DHA in the body, to which ALA must be converted. It is for this reason that experts speak in terms of EPA/DHA when making recommendations for omega-3 intake.

• The International Society for the Study of Fats and Lipids (ISSFAL) recommends a minimum daily intake of 500 mg of EPA/DHA for cardiovascular health. • The Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments recommends that for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, adults should take 500–700 mg of EPA/DHA. • The European Food Safety Agency recommends that adults and children older than 24 months consume 250 mg of EPA/DHA. • The American Heart Association recommends 1 g of EPA/DHA daily for coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease patients and 2–4 g for patients who need to lower their triglycerides.

Omega-3 Dosage Recommendations

Fish Oil versus Flax Oil

Several organizations and government bodies have set forth recommendations for the daily intake of omega-3:

Superficially, flax oil appears to provide a high content of omega-3; every tablespoon contains 6900 mg of omega-3, compared with the 2800 mg contained in the same amount of cod liver oil.1 However, although fish oil provides omega-3 in the usable form of EPA/DHA, flax oil provides it in the form of ALA, which must then be converted to EPA/DHA. Unfortunately, that conversion process is extremely inefficient. Studies have shown that humans convert only 0.3–21% of ALA into EPA and 0–9% of ALA into DHA.2–4 In other words, at least 70% — and perhaps as much as 99% — of ALA goes unused as an omega-3 source. Why do different studies report different conversion rates? Because each person’s ability to transform ALA into EPA/DHA depends greatly on the individual. Women of reproductive age seem to have the most efficient conversion rate, whereas men tend to have a lower capacity for ALA conversion. One study found that men did not convert any ALA into DHA at all!4 With fish oil, there is no guesswork; one tablespoon provides approximately 2800 mg of EPA/DHA. The International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids agrees that fish oil, rather than flax oil, is the preferred source of omega-3. In fact, the organization recently issued a statement claiming that the “conversion of ALA to EPA is very low and to DHA is even less — essentially negligible. These very low conversion rates mean that ALA cannot meet the body’s need for DHA.”5 September/October 2011




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marine nutraceuticals

To date, there are in excess of 20,000 published studies on omega-3, more than 8000 of which are human clinical trials. Fish Oil versus Algae A newer entry into the omega-3 category is marine algae. Like fish oil, algal oil contains high levels of naturally occurring DHA. However, most algal oils contain minimal quantities of EPA and therefore only provide half of the omega-3 fatty acid equation. DHA has gained a reputation for supporting brain health, whereas EPA is better known for its role in promoting cardiovascular function. However, it would be more accurate to say that DHA is important for cell structure and EPA is important for cell function. DHA is the most abundant fatty acid in the brain and is absolutely crucial for the development of the central nervous system.6 However, need for it declines with the slowing of brain growth that occurs at about 2 years of age and it is overtaken in importance by EPA, which supports cognitive function and heart health. In combination, EPA and DHA provide health benefits at every stage of life.

Fish Oil versus Krill Oil A final alternative to fish oil is krill oil, which is derived from small shrimp-like crustaceans. Purveyors of krill oil claim that, like fish oil, it provides both EPA and DHA but is more absorbable as a result of it being bound to phospholipids; the omega-3 in krill are thought to pass through the cell membrane more easily than that contained in fish oil. When it comes to comparing the oils, however, it’s a question of getting bang for your buck. Krill oil is only available in one concentration — 30% EPA/DHA — unlike fish oils, which are available in a wide range, from 30–70%, and in a variety of ratios of EPA:DHA. A higher concentration of EPA/DHA allows for meaningful quantities to be contained in a single capsule. Furthermore, the ratio of EPA and DHA can be adjusted to address specific consumer demands, whether that be a preference for a high DHA, a high EPA or a balanced EPA/DHA oil. As a result of the chemical structure of krill oil, it cannot be concentrated and thus contains only 30% EPA/DHA — equal to the lowest concentrate of fish oil — a ratio that is fixed and does not provide scope for specific consumer September/October 2011

needs to be targeted. An additional drawback of krill oil is its cost. Krill is harvested and processed in the waters of Antarctica by giant factory trawlers that require significant capital investment and operating costs. Whereas a fish oil with 30% EPA/DHA may cost around $6/kg, krill oil of the same concentration can cost from $140–230/kg.

The Research Card There is a final reason — bringing us full circle — why fish oil trumps flax, algal and krill oils. To date, there are in excess of 20,000 published studies on omega-3, more than 8000 of which are human clinical trials. The overwhelming majority of these trials have been performed using fish-derived omega-3. In fact, we owe much of our knowledge about the benefits of omega-3 to the research that has been conducted on fish and fish oil. The same quantity of research has simply not been done to demonstrate the benefits of flax, algal or krill oil when compared with fish and fish oil.

Making Fish Oil Palatable One of the complaints traditionally levelled at fish oil — in addition to krill and algal oil — relates to the unpleasant smell and taste. New technology, however, makes that concern a thing of the past. Ocean Nutrition Canada (ONC), the world’s largest supplier of omega-3 EPA and DHA ingredients from fish oil, offers its pure, high-quality MEG-3 omega-3 EPA/DHA as MEG-3 fish oil concentrates for dietary supplements and MEG-3 powder, emulsion and foodgrade oil for functional foods. The company’s patented Powder-loc microencapsulation technology allows fish oil to be added seamlessly to foods and beverages. Through a double-shell protection system, EPA and DHA are locked into the microcap and the fish taste and smell are locked out. Fish oil has the benefit of research to support its health claims and the technology to deliver nutrients efficiently without affecting taste or odour. Get your omega-3 EPA/DHA from fish oil — it is the one your body uses best.

References 1. Nutrition/Infection Unit, Tufts University ( 2. Hussein, et al. “Long-Chain Conversion of [13C] Linoleic Acid and AlphaLinolenic Acid in Response to Marked Changes in their Dietary Intake in Men,” J. Lipid Res. 46(2), 269–280 (2005). 3. G.C. Burdge, et al., “Conversion of Alpha-Linolenic Acid to Eicosapentaenoic, Docosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids in Young Women,” British Journal of Nutrition 88(4), 411–420 (2002). 4. G.C. Burdge, et al., “Eicosapentaenoic and Docosapentaenoic Acids are the Principal Products of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Metabolism in Young Men,” British Journal of Nutrition 88(4), 355–363 (2002). 5. S. Starling, “ALA-DHA Conversion Negligible, Say Fatty Acid Experts,”, 25 March 2009 ( 6. L. Lauritzen, et al., “The Essentiality of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids in Relation to Development and Function of the Brain and Retina,” Progress in Lipid Research 40(12), 1–94 (2001).

For more information Emily Kimber Marketing and Communications Manager Ocean Nutrition Tel. +1 902 480 3245



September/October 2011


essential fatty acids

Algal DHA Omega-3 for Every Stage of Life

Algae play a larger part in our lives than most of us realize. A naturally high producer of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), it is an omega-3 fatty acid that has an essential role in infant brain and eye development and adult health. DHA is one of the ‘good’ polyunsaturated fats and ensures that cells in the brain, heart, retina and other parts of the nervous system develop and function properly throughout all stages of life. September/October 2011

essential fatty acids



here are three major omega-3s — DHA, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) — each of which offers distinct health benefits. DHA provides important brain, eye and heart benefits throughout life and EPA supports cardiovascular function. ALA has no known independent benefits for brain or eye health; although the body can convert ALA to DHA, the process has an efficiency rate of less than 1%. DHA is a major structural fat in the brain and eyes, accounting for up to 97% and 93% of the fatty acids in these areas, respectively. DHA is also a key component of the heart. Numerous scientific studies confirm that everyone, from infants to adults, benefits from an adequate supply of DHA throughout life; in fact, many governments and expert organizations now recommend including it in the daily diet. Traditionally, the primary dietary source of DHA has been fatty fish and organ meats, making it difficult for most people to obtain recommended levels. Additionally, several government bodies recommend that children, as well as pregnant and nursing women, limit their intake of fish to two servings per week, owing to concern regarding oceanborne contaminants that may be found in it. Fortunately, DHA is now available from another source — microalgae. As research continues to demonstrate just how important DHA is, more and more fortified foods, beverages and supplements are being introduced to the market, allowing consumers to increase their intake of this important nutrient with ease.

From Womb to Crib: DHA Omega-3, Pregnancy and Nursing Important for the optimal development of the infant brain, eyes and nervous system and shown to support a healthy pregnancy, DHA is received from the mother through the placenta while in utero and in breast milk after birth. Supplementation with DHA during pregnancy also benefits mother and baby by extending the length of gestational age. Meta-analyses of studies conducted to date show that maternal DHA supplementation was associated with a greater length — 1.6–2.6 days closer to term — of pregnancy. Infants rapidly accumulate DHA from their mother during the last months of gestation and those born prematurely do not have time to accumulate the same level as their full-term counterparts. When fed formula supplemented with DHA and ARA, preterm infants achieved normal growth in terms of weight, length and head circumference,

and showed improved visual and mental development compared with those who were not. It is very important to supplement an infant’s diet with DHA because their ability to produce it may well be inconsistent and inefficient; infant blood DHA levels decrease significantly following birth, unless it is received through breast milk or supplemented infant formula.

DHA Supplementation Beyond Infancy The benefits offered by DHA are not limited to pregnant women and infants; it continues to be important for the support of optimal visual and cognitive outcomes. Uptake of preformed DHA by the brain between the ages of 2 and 5 is significant and supports its substantial accumulation during this critical growth period. Including DHA in the diet is associated with higher scores on tests of visual and neural development in infants and children, and DHA supplementation has been shown to improve lipid profiles and restore endothelial function in children with high cholesterol levels. It has also been seen to reduce blood pressure in the early years of life; as blood pressure tracks from childhood to adult life, supplementation may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years.

DHA in Adult Health Research has begun to show that DHA plays a role in maintaining good health throughout every stage of life. The omega-3 fatty acid is especially concentrated in the hippocampus, which is responsible for complex thinking skills; low levels in red blood cells have also been associated with cognitive decline in healthy elderly people. In a recently published

large, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association has demonstrated the benefits of algal DHA in improving memory in older adults. In the clinical study, healthy adults above the age of 55 with a mild memory complaint consumed 900 mg of DHA per day for 6 months. DHA is also a key component of the heart and cardiovascular system and one of the omega-3 fatty acids recommended by the American Heart Association and USDA Dietary Guidelines for good cardiovascular health.

Summary DHA is beneficial to all people during every stage of life. As the primary dietary source of DHA has been fatty fish and organ meats, it is difficult for most people to obtain recommended levels. As research continues to demonstrate how important DHA is, more and more fortified foods, beverages and supplements are being introduced to the market, making it easy for people to increase their intake of DHA. Because life’sDHA from Martek is derived from algae and not fish, it provides vegetarians with the option to take a DHA supplement that is not fish oil and comes without fear of ocean-borne contaminants. Derived from a source that has not been genetically modified, life’sDHA is both Kosher and Halal.

For more information Anthony Martin Press Relations Manager Martek Biosciences Corporation Tel. +1 410 740 0081

September/October 2011


essential fatty acids

Our Omega-3 Future Sustainable, Clean and Healthy Omega-3 fatty acid advocates continue to win over hearts and minds — not to mention numerous other body parts; the health benefits of omega-3s when consumed are widespread and substantial. A research team led by Dr Jorn Dyerberg first documented their heart benefits in the early 1970s in The Lancet and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. And recent studies confirm that polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called omega-3s, provide therapeutic solutions for a wide range of health challenges in areas that include the heart, eyes, brain, lungs and the vascular system.


owever, the increasing demand for omega-3 oils has created a need for new, sustainable sources beyond the traditional standby of oily fish. Around the world, fish stocks are declining and harvesting fish for oil deprives local people of much needed food. Some alternative oil sources contain contaminants from human pollution, whereas others yield low-quality omega-3 oils. Algae Biosciences Corporation, a new player in the global microalgae industry, has designed an innovative and groundbreaking algae oil cultivation process that produces sustainable, clean and healthy omega-3 fatty acids containing high quality EPA and DHA. This proprietary cultivation system, currently in operation in northern Arizona, near the Painted Desert, USA, uses water from an ancient brine aquifer that contains no human or agricultural contaminants. The cultivation of algae in this pristine water yields extremely clean omega-3 oils. A recent report by American market research publisher, Packaged Facts, predicts that American retail sales of omega-3-enhanced food and beverage products, which rose to nearly $4 billion in 2010, will approach $7 billion by 2015. “Another boom phase for omega-3-enhanced products is on the horizon,” reads the June 2011 report. Thanks to its pristine water source, its

proprietary growing and extraction technologies, its naturally biodiverse strains of algae and its plentiful Arizona sunlight, AlgaeBio can produce ultra-pure, low-cost omega-3 oils to promote better health.

What Are Omega-3s? Omega-3 fatty acids are not just a single nutrient. The term refers to a family of compounds that are naturally abundant in fish, seafood and algae. Fish and other seafood do not biosynthesize omega-3 — they accumulate it from their diet of algae and algae feeders. Crucially, the surprising chemical variety of omega-3 oils may hold the key to improving our health. Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are considered to be nutritionally essential. The main types of omega-3 fatty acids, ranked in ascending order by the length of each molecule’s carbon chain, include alpha linolenic Acid (ALA), stearidonic Acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). The first two — ALA and SDA — come from land-based vegetable seed oils that are precursors to omega-3. The human body biosynthesizes a small amount of such precursors, but the magnitude and pathway remain unknown. September/October 2011

EPA and DHA are the omega-3 fatty acids that have received the most research, because they appear to provide the highest level of health benefits. Evidence suggests that each type of omega-3 plays a different role, and that benefits depend on the oil quality, type, amount ingested, life stage, specific medical conditions and source — be it fish oil, vegetable oil or algae oil.

Health Benefits The Los Angeles Times ran an investigative series on omega-3 fatty acids, most notably EPA and DHA, based on the latest medical research. The Times research linked omega-3s to a wide range of health benefits, including heart health, a reduced risk of certain cancers, foetal development, joint health and improved behaviour and mood. Research demonstrates that omega-3s reduce pain in people with rheumatoid arthritis, improve circulatory problems and promote respiratory health. Recent brain research also suggests that omega-3s promote brain development in infants and may help to treat autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, depression and Alzheimer’s disease. Studies show that for every extra gram of EPA and DHA a person takes per day, triglyceride levels drop by 8%, with benefits appearing

September/October 2011


essential fatty acids

within 2 weeks; high triglyceride levels are a major risk factor for heart disease in Americans older than 35. EPA and DHA are both essential for heart health because they can lower blood pressure, reduce fat levels in the blood, slow the development of clots and avoid abnormal heart rhythms. Women who eat at least four servings of fish a week or take supplements of up to 1.1 g of DHA daily while pregnant have children who display higher IQ scores at age 4. Their babies have lower rates of allergies, experience better sleep patterns and enjoy superior vision. In addition, mothers ingesting DHA have lower rates of postpartum depression. Meanwhile, the British Journal of Nutrition’s meta-analysis, published in July 2011 and based on 10 clinical trials, has demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids reduce blood vessel stiffness.

How Do They Work? Scientists have clues, but not a firm explanation. The most telling effect — avoidance of inflammation — could explain why high doses of DHA and EPA may reduce morning stiffness and joint pain in arthritis patients and reduce the amount of pain medication people need to take. Avoidance of inflammation provides a logical explanation for similar benefits to the heart, eyes, respiratory system and brain; when omega-3 oils help cells to behave in a more optimal way, tissues behave properly, in turn reducing the occurrence of disease. As fuel oil lubricates moving parts in an engine, decreasing heat and wear, omega-3 may provide cell lubrication that reduces inflammation and the associated irritation and wear.

Sources Traditionally, fish has been the source of most omega-3 on the market. However, fish-sourced oils have disadvantages that include taste, health and sustainability. Many people experience the unpleasant fish taste — and, even more disgusting, fishy burps — after ingesting omega-3 from fish. Omega-3 sourced from fish may carry heavy metals, such as mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and cadmium, which are harmful to health. Equally significantly, fishsourced omega-3 competes with food sources. Harvesting small fish diminishes the resource that larger fish need to thrive. The small fish caught for oil reduces the number of larger fish, which local fishermen depend on for their livelihood. Fish stocks globally are declining, making fish-sourced omega-3 oil increasingly expensive and unsustainable. Despite substantial benefits, ensuring an adequate omega-3 supply from fatty fish — such as fish oil capsules, which include the fatty extracts of anchovies, sardines or salmon — has become problematic. To meet

growing demand, it is necessary to develop new, renewable sources of omega-3 to ensure resource security and market feasibility.

Renewable Sources Renewable sources of omega-3 oils offer alternatives to that extracted from wild or farmed fish. Four non-fish sources of omega-3s are available that contain EPA and DHA or precursors to these key essential fatty acids: other marine sources, vegetable seed oils, transgenic oilseed crops and algae. Other marine sources of oil could provide some omega-3s, including by-catch and marine invertebrates such as krill and copepods. More than 30% of processed seafood is inedible and may contain high levels of omega-3 oils, including EPA and DHA. However, contaminants in the oil from seafood byproducts, such as PCBs, PBDEs, heavy metals, furans and dioxins, have the potential to bioaccumulate in fish, undermining their health value. Vegetable oils often contain biosynthetic precursors, such as stearidonic acid (SDA), which the human body may biosynthesize to omega-3. However, scientists and nutritionists do not understand the cellular metabolism for SDA and prices for vegetable oils containing biosynthetic precursors are currently about five times those of fish oil prices. Transgenic oilseed crops can be genetically engineered (GE) to produce omega-3s by inserting various genes encoding desaturase or elongase enzymes. However, GE oilseed crops are not acceptable in the EU, where GE crops are not approved. In addition, consumer awareness of GE products in the US will be significantly amplified in the future when producers are required to label genetically modified nutritional products.

Algae Omega-3 Algae are the number one producers of omega-3 on Earth and, if grown specifically for this purpose, may provide the best sustainable source. Fin- and shellfish do not biosynthesize omega-3 fatty acids; they accumulate them from eating algae or algae feeders. Krill, for example, are tiny shrimp that are extremely rich in omega-3 oils and serve as food for fish, birds September/October 2011

and mammals near both poles. Unfortunately, one of the lesser publicized impacts of global warming is the 80% loss of krill stocks in arctic waters. Algae producers can grow algae and extract the omega-3 oils directly. Some producers use fermentation to grow algae in the dark with sugars, rather than sunlight, as the energy source. However, fermentation — an old technology — has the disadvantages of high infrastructure cost for the fermenters, high operational costs and increasing costs from sourcing sugars. Whereas sugars are relatively cheap today, using sugar to grow algae competes with food resources and becomes uneconomical as fuel and commodity prices rise. The omega-3 product produced by a leading fermentation-based producer contains DHA, but not EPA. AlgaeBio has developed a sustainable cultivation system that uses photosynthetic algae — which derive their energy from the sun, rather than sugars — to produce ultra-pure omega-3 fatty acids containing both EPA and DHA. The AlgaeBio cultivation system uses salty water from a pristine brine aquifer, which is cleaner than surface water, having had no exchange with human or agricultural pollution and does not compete with freshwater needs. The algae are naturally biodiverse, which avoids the need to use genetically engineered varieties and the desert land does not support food or feed crops, eliminating competition with cropland. Furthermore, wind power across the high desert provides most of the power needed, minimizing fossil resource consumption. These design elements make the AlgaeBio omega-3 production system economic, clean and sustainable. Our omega-3 future requires sustainable oil sources that are clean, healthy and naturally biodiverse. Other new omega-3 producers will grow algae for oils because the market is expanding so rapidly. Informed consumers must recognize that not all omega-3 oils are created equally — and seek out vegetable-sourced oils that are clean and without contaminant residues. Such customers prefer oils that contain both EPA and DHA and naturally biodiverse products with no genetic modifications. The ideal omega-3 oils will come from sustainable sources — such as algae — that do not consume sugars or compete with food crops.

For more information Dr Mark Edwards Contact Todd Kimberley Director of Media Relations Algae Biosciences Corporation Tel. +1 403 815 2752



herbals and botanicals

Spiking and Adulteration of Herbs and Botanicals

Adulteration continues to be a significant source of concern within our industry. Although scrutiny has increased by orders of magnitude with the cGMP compliance requirements, the impact of adulterated raw materials on the industry continues to impact costs, credibility and confidence in the products we offer.


dulteration is a “you” problem; you have the responsibility to know your suppliers, understand the market and the factors that drive pricing, the harvest or manufacturing process involved in delivering your component and, most importantly, the impact your business has in enabling an adulteration mindset. It has been my experience that the number one driver of adulteration is your business model. Is it PPV Driven? Do your specifications allow for creativity? Do you test the incoming component? How thorough is that test? And are your parameters for validation sophisticated enough to discourage adulteration?

If you are buying solely on purchase price per kilo and not factoring in the cost of a rejection, line down condition or the interruption of a product launch then your procurement model is doing your wealth vehicle a huge disservice. Calibrate your infrastructure first, ensure that all the dependencies of delivery, R&D, quality, procurement and operations have input into the specification development. Do your procurement personnel have the professional acumen to determine a professional supplier from the grifters and cobblers that infect our space? Is your procurement team incentivized on total cost? Do they understand the impact of a rejection? A

professional buyer is a strategic asset affecting your bottom line; a bad one will kill your company. Now focus on your supply chain. Who are they? Who are the companies you are supporting with your purchase orders? Have you visited them? Do they have a processing facility or are they working out of their home or neighbourhood coffee shop? Do they have resident laboratory facilities and the professionals to run them and do your suppliers “know” their suppliers? If you must buy from the broker representative market, determine how many other brokers are in the chain of custody before your supplier. The answer is generally disturbing!

Understanding Adulteration Adulteration occurs in two ways: • Through your supply chain – inadvertently added through specsmanship – in transit contamination – ground water contamination – economic adulteration. • Poor hygiene within your contract manufacturer or co-packer – metal shavings from processing equipment – poor batch control – poor testing. Professionally managed suppliers will have the process and safeguards to mitigate most of the issues above; however, the economic adulterer is the wild card in this process and specific strategies need to be employed to reduce your exposure.

Know Your Market Pricing No purchasing model is that proficient to buy 15% below market. If you are buying far lower September/October 2011

herbals and botanicals

than market, the potential for adulterated, aged product or obsolete inventory scales dramatically.

Know Your Supplier Are they marketing on price? Do they understand your specifications and how you test? Do they even have a factory? Are there laboratory professionals proficient with the industry requirements and do they provide feedback on your specifications? How does the factory show? Does your supplier own it or is it a “strategic alliance” between a tolling house and your broker?

Audit, Audit, Audit Nothing creates chaos in a cobbler’s shop like an audit. There are few places to hide when evaluating process sheets, batch control, incoming receipts, shipment records, quality data, etc. Know what to look for and demand to see it.

between indigenous systems of medicine and local dialects: Black Cohosh grown in North America, Bilberry in Europe; they do not grow in China or South America – lack of knowledge about the authentic plant type – unavailability in volume of the authentic plant – similarity of aroma or morphology – careless collection or harvesting. • Spiking a marker compound to increase assay – How much do you want to pay? You want a low price? You’re going to get a bad product. • Injecting a low cost filler to stretch an ingredient: Goldenseal is mixed with barberry root or Oregon grape root, Ginkgo biloba is mixed with chlorophyll, chondroitin trachea mixed with other parts or even spiked with heparin. • Using an irradiated or ETO-treated process to sterilize or mixing a percentage thereof.

Understand the Adulteration Process

Adulteration and Spiking are Global Issues

Become conversant on the ways to adulterate including the following: • Mixing or mislabelling species types – confusion in the vernacular names

Recognize that adulteration is not a geographic issue; it is a global issue. Just because your supplier operates in your region or country does not mean


you can let your guard down. The recent protein spiking of melamine, substituting prickly pear for Hoodia, gaming the results of Stevia, pomegranate extract spiked with elegiac acid and ginseng root with ginsenosides from the leaf are just a few examples of adulteration that have impacted our industry. There is no upside when consumers and regulators are suspicious of the quality and efficacy of the products we market. Much of the scrutiny and media hysteria has been self-inflicted by our own processes. Our businesses, wealth vehicles and employees’ families are dependent on the continued acceptance of the efficacy and benefits within our products. We have a professional obligation to provide safety and value. Driving the adulteration dynamic out of our process benefits all.

For more information George Pontiakos President and CEO BI Nutraceuticals 2550 El Presidio Street Long Beach, California 90810, USA. Tel. +1 310 669 2100

September/October 2011


herbals and botanicals

Inflammatory Support Products Innovative Insights

It is a fact that the majority of degenerative diseases are driven by chronic subclinical inflammation. Traditionally, this inflammation is viewed as part of the healing process but, although this is true to a certain extent, when inflammation becomes chronic, it becomes a disease. The study of inflammation has now extended beyond tissue level to encompass the nuclear. Nuclear Factor窶適appa B (NF-kB) is a cell signalling molecule for inflammation and its activation induces the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that triggers tissue inflammation. NF-kB activation is a major mediator of inflammation in most diseases and its inhibition can help to prevent or delay the onset of the condition. Formulations for Anti-Inflammatory Support

NiLitis SR is a sustained release bilayered tablet and a proprietary composition comprising Curcumin C 3 Complex, boswellin and ginger extract to naturally support the management of pain and discomfort without undesirable side-effects. The sustained release ensures that the nutrients are released and absorbed in efficacious amounts during a period of 8 hours, supporting the management of inflammation and pain throughout the day.

Ingredients Curcumin C3 Complex is obtained from the dried roots and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and standardized for a minimum of 95% curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin). In the Indian system of Ayurvedic medicine, turmeric has a long history of use in the treatment of painful

Figure 1: Distance covered in 6 minutes. September/October 2011

herbals and botanicals

Figure 2: VAS pain scale.

Figure 3: WOMAC scores.

conditions, ranging from sore throats to arthritis. It is a patented and clinically evaluated ‘bioprotectant’ and has been recognized for its antioxidant benefits. Curcumin helps to suppress NFkB activation and, as a result, inflammation and a host of its manifestations. In a series of experiments, rats were treated with different preparations and dosages of turmeric extracts. The results — mainly measured in terms of joint swelling — suggested that a turmeric extract containing more than 94% of the three major curcuminoids was more potent in preventing arthritis than crude turmeric extracts. Only curcuminoid-containing formulae appeared as safer and more effective at lower doses. Curcuminoids also prevented bone loss in addition to joint inflammation. Boswellin — obtained from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and standardized for 40% acetyl 11-keto beta boswellic acid (AKBBA) — is used in Ayurvedic medicine in the management of inflammatory disorders. Boswellic acids — with AKBBA being the most potent — are reported to be non-competitive inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme and block Human Leukocyte Elastase (HLE) activity; a unique dual inhibition. The antiarthritic potential of B. serrata extracts is also a result of its ability to reduce various inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α, IL1-β and nitric oxide. It can be recommended in patients suffering from osteoarthritic knees and may also possess therapeutic utility in the management of other forms of arthritis, such as joint, rheumatoid and spondylosis. Ginger extract is derived from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, standardized for 35% gingerols and is well documented in Ayurvedic medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger helps to reduce inflammation by inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis, specifically COX-1 and COX-2. These effects


The results — mainly measured in terms of joint swelling — suggested that a turmeric extract containing more than 94% of the three major curcuminoids was more potent in preventing arthritis than crude turmeric extracts. make ginger comparable with non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory medications, although it does not cause their typical side-effects. Ginger also suppresses the immune system’s production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reducing disease severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A single centred, open-labelled study was conducted in 30 osteoarthritic subjects between the ages of 40 and 65, during a 56 day period. Subjects were given two tablets of NiLitis SR orally twice a day. Parameters assessed — including WOMAC scores, VAS pain scale and distance covered in 6 minutes — displayed significant improvement and no adverse effects were noted. ArthriBlend-SR is a sustained release composition containing glucosamine sulphate, boswellin and Curcumin C3 Complex — ingredients that work synergistically to support the management of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. In addition, it contains BioPerine ( Piper nigrum ), a patented bioavailability enhancer. ArthriBlend-SR has also undergone clinical evaluation. A double blind, randomized study was designed to evaluate its efficacy and the results suggest that, compared with glucosamine sulphate alone, a combination of glucosamine sulphate, Boswellia serrata and curcuminoids is more effective in relieving pain and stiffness in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

For more information Ajax K. Mohamed Vice President, Sales Sabinsa Europe GmbH Tel. +49 6103 2701 117

September/October 2011


Oct. 25 – 27, 2011 FRANKFURT Hall 4.2 Stand 42G 24 September/October 2011

Film forming and coating polymers Fast dissolve and chewable tablets Diluents and fillers for tablets/capsules Direct compression Binders for wet granulation Molecular encapsulation, taste-masking and dissolution enhancer Syrups, semi-solids and softgels Disintegrants and superdisintegrants Dietary fiber, protein and mineral supplements Pyrogen-free carbohydrates for injectable and dialysis solutions

Whatever your requirement, you can rely on ROQUETTE. We deliver !

September/October 2011


gut health

The Gut Where Man Meets Microbes Recent technological advances have provided new opportunities to study the composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota, causing the link between micro-organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and human health to become increasingly evident. Such advances also make it possible to assess the impact of functional foods — including probiotics — on these microbiota and, subsequently, more general health and well-being. Future research into the potential of probiotics to steer the intestinal microbiota will result in possibilities for the development of tailor-made probiotics designed for specific disorders and diseases.


hereas the internal milieu of the human body is sterile, virtually every surface area — which, owing to its open connection with the outside world, the gastrointestinal tract can be regarded as — is colonized by micro-organisms. In fact, the GI tract is the largest surface area of the human body (200 m 2), equating to the size of a tennis court. In addition to its size, it is the area most densely colonized by micro-organisms, in numbers (10 14) that are 10-fold greater than the number of body cells. The complex communities of microorganisms residing in the GI tract are known as the intestinal microbiota. Their archaic term was flora or microflora but, as bacteria do not belong to the kingdom of plants, this was inappropriate. The microbiota plays important functional roles in several metabolic, nutritional, physiological and immunological processes in the human body, an involvement that has resulted in the frequent positing of a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of several human diseases

and disorders. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition, also known as dysbiosis, have been observed in diseases or disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity. However, their influence appears to extend beyond the GI tract; differences in microbiotic balance are also associated with diseases such as autism, colorectal cancer and atopic and allergic diseases. As a result, the scientific community and food and nutrition companies have become increasingly aware of the potential for functional foods to modulate the intestinal microbiota to benefit and even restore human health.

It’s All About Diversity Although the intestinal microbiota is a focus of intense clinical and fundamental studies, several key aspects of the interaction of these micro-organisms with the human body are still unknown. In establishing exactly which micro-organisms are present in the GI tract, the obvious initial questions to answer are: “What is present?” and “At September/October 2011

what levels are they present?” In the past, conventional microbiological culture-based techniques — either aerobic or anaerobic — were the principle methods available to address these questions. Even now, however, a large proportion of the intestinal microbiota — potentially as high as 90% — simply will not grow on a Petri dish. Thanks to recent advances in molecular methods and high-throughput technologies it is now possible to get a notion of the complete (phylogenetic) diversity of the intestinal microbiota. The application of these cultureindependent methods, including next generation sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays, have so far revealed that the human intestinal microbiota is an even more complex ecosystem than previously thought. Using the most sensitive molecular techniques, more than 1000 different bacterial species can be detected in the human intestinal tract, although a single person probably has only 150–200.1 A limited number of microbial species appear to be more prevalent amongst individuals (the so-called phylogenetic core), which

gut health

suggests that these specific bacterial species fulfil important functions in the human body. The remainder of the intestinal microbiota display a large inter-individual variation; detailed analysis shows that individuals may have singular intestinal microbiota, as unique as a fingerprint but of far greater complexity. Although a focus issue of Science on the gut and gastrointestinal biology (25 March 2005) carried the subtitle “The Inner Tube of Life,” it is important to realize that the GI tract is not a simple hollow tube. Each region has its own specific physiological and functional characteristics, which are also reflected in the presence of different microbial species in the various areas. Until now, information on the composition of the intestinal microbiota has been largely derived from the analysis of faeces; in the future, new technological advances will make it easier to obtain samples from previously inaccessible regions of the GI tract such as the small intestine. This will allow for more in-depth analysis of the intestinal microbiota to answer the question: “What is present where?”

only provide information on the genetic potential of the intestinal microbiota; to demonstrate their real functional contribution to the maintenance of health and well-being, other approaches such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are required to examine the production of microbial mRNA, proteins and metabolites, respectively. It is, however, still difficult to link the presence of individual microbial species to specific effects of microbial gene products on human health. Thus we arrive at another question: “How can we modulate them?”

Restoring the Balance Functional foods, including probiotics, are becoming increasingly popular amongst health conscious consumers.


Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization as “live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is one of these potentially beneficial effects. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which probiotic micro-organisms are able to modulate the intestinal microbiota, which include the reduction of luminal pH, competition for nutrients, secretion of antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins), prevention of bacterial adhesion, the evasion of epithelial cells and induction of the production of antimicrobial compounds (defensins) by the host. The number of different micro-organisms currently applied as probiotics is still limited; the most commonly used belong

Functional Microbial Diversity Recently, it was estimated that the collective genome of the human intestinal microbiota (the microbiome) consists of 150 times more genes than the human genome. The presence of this enormous array of genes, in addition to our own, suggests that intestinal micro-organisms exert a profound influence on the human body. Indeed, the presence of an intestinal microbiota is essential for the metabolism of compounds within food that would otherwise be indigestible and the metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota also include the synthesis of vitamins and the detoxification of carcinogens. However, we are only just beginning to understand the full contribution of the intestinal microbiota on the metabolic, nutritional, physiological and immunological functions of their human host — posing the important question of what their actions really are. Recent developments have now provided the possibility of conducting an in-depth study into the functional contribution of the intestinal microbiota to those processes that are important to human health; based on analysis of the microbial genomes, predictions can be made with respect to their possible functions within the GI tract. However, such predictions

September/October 2011


gut health

Although the intestinal microbiota is a focus of intense clinical and fundamental studies, several key aspects of the interaction of these mirco-organisms with the human body are still unknown. mainly to the bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . In addition to these genera, members from some additional lactic acid bacterial genera, such as Streptococcus and Enterococcus , and members from the genera Bacillus and Propionibacterium are being used and marketed as probiotics. Furthermore, some Gram-negative bacteria (for example E. coli Nissle 1917) and yeast (such as Saccharomyces ) are also being used as probiotic micro-organisms. Nowadays, multistrain and multispecies probiotic mixtures, which contain more than one probiotic strain, are becoming increasingly popular. On the one hand, compared with single strain probiotics, probiotic mixtures have the possible advantage that the properties of individual strains may have additive or even synergistic effects when put in a mixture. In addition, compared with a single strain probiotic, a wider range of health benefits could be accomplished. On the other hand, combining probiotic strains might also result in reduced efficacy as individual strains may have opposite effects or even inhibit each other. It is therefore important to understand the individual contribution of each microbial species in the complex ecosystem present in the human GI tract and carefully select the strains to be combined. The clearest demonstration of the health benefits of probiotics can be found in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and travellers’ diarrhoea. In both conditions, the sudden and gross disturbance of the microbial balance in the GI tract allows the outgrowth of intestinal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile . A number of independent studies have shown that probiotics have the ability to maintain or restore the balance of the intestinal microbiota and thus prevent or control these forms of diarrhoea. Meta-analyses of the clinical trials that have been performed in these areas also reveal these significant health benefits.

The effectiveness of probiotic intervention has also been studied in a number of other human diseases and disorders, including the inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pouchitis, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, obesity, metabolic disorders, necrotizing enterocolitis and immune-mediated diseases. In relation to some of these diseases or disorders, the mechanisms of action probably also include modulation of the mucosal and systemic immune system and systemic metabolic effects. The desired outcome of probiotic intervention in most of the examples listed above is the modulation of the intestinal microbiota in such a way as to achieve a healthy microbiota composition. The number of studies that demonstrate an effect of probiotics on the intestinal microbiota composition and a subsequent improvement of human health, however, is still very limited. Studies performed are difficult to compare owing to the large variation in probiotic species and strains that have been used, the use of different dosages of probiotic microorganisms and the lack of standardized methods to study the intestinal microbiota. 2

Revolution in Probiotic Research In most studies into probiotics, conventional microbiological culture-based methods have been used to study the influence of probiotics on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Recently, however, technological advances have found their way into probiotic research. High-throughput molecular approaches can be applied to identify potential members of the healthy microbiota that can be used to counteract microbial dysbiosis in specific target populations. In addition, these molecular approaches will provide new insights into the potential effect of probiotic intervention on the intestinal microbiota. Overall, understanding September/October 2011

the molecular mechanisms of action attributed to commensal, pathogenic and probiotic bacteria will contribute to better designed probiotic products. In the future, this knowledge can be applied to the development of tailor-made probiotics designed for clearly characterized target populations (personalized nutrition). It is always difficult to predict the future. This certainly holds true for the precise impact of the intestinal microbiota on human health — even specialists from regulatory authorities such as EFSA admit that they “don’t know what a healthy microbiota is.” For a growing number of human diseases, the altered composition of the intestinal microbiota is now being characterized and levels of knowledge on this subject are currently growing by leaps and bounds. This offers enormous opportunities for producers of functional foods to improve their existing products, for new product development and for substantiating the evidence for the beneficial effects of their products. 3

References 1. J. Qin, et al., “A Human Gut Microbial Gene Catalogue Established by Metagenomic Sequencing,“ Nature 464, 59–65 (2010). 2. S. Rabot, et al., “Guidance for Substantiating the Evidence for Beneficial Effects of Probiotics: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Research,” J. Nutr. 140, 671S-676S (2010). 3. Additional references can be found in J. Gerritsen, et al., “Intestinal Microbiota in Human Health and Disease: The Impact of Probiotics,” Genes Nutr. 6(3), 209–240 (2011).

For more information Jacoline Gerritsen Contact Linda Mulder Head of R&D Department Winclove Bio Industries BV Hulstweg 11, NL-1032 LB Amsterdam Tel. +31 20 435 0235

September/October 2011


cardiovascular health

Sodium Reduction The Heart of the Matter Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in the world today, with the World Health Organization (WHO) estimating that it accounts for more than 17.1 million deaths each year.1 Although many people are predisposed to heart disease, external factors such as poor diet, smoking and lack of exercise significantly increase the risk of it developing in individuals without existing conditions. With the cost of treatment putting pressure on governments and health establishments, preventing CVD has become a major challenge for global public health authorities. The food industry has come under particular scrutiny and strong links between diet and heart disease have led to consumer advocacy groups and regulatory bodies calling for a change in the way we eat. Salt reduction is high on the agenda and initiatives such as the 2012 salt reduction targets in the UK have increased consumer awareness of the need to improve dietary intakes. Here, Dr Robert Finn, senior staff scientist at Innophos, examines the benefits of reducing sodium intakes for a healthier population.


onsumer awareness of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors has increased dramatically during recent years. Claims relating to the positive promotion of heart health through ingredients such as omega-3s and wholegrains are well received by consumers. However, it is equally important to cut out ingredients that increase the risk of developing serious heart conditions. As a consequence, government initiatives such as Change4Life have boosted consumer awareness about eating healthily and avoiding ingredients such as fat and salt. Manufacturers are meeting targets set by regulatory bodies and leveraging the benefits of using ‘reduced’ claims that appeal to health conscious consumers.

blood pressure (hypertension) is the leading preventable risk factor for death worldwide, linked to diseases such as strokes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and kidney disease.3,4 Statistics demonstrate that 32% of males and 27% of females suffer from hypertension in England.5 Prehypertension was recently identified as a precursor to the condition in the US; studies suggest it is present in 28% of American adults, in addition to the 29% that already suffer from hypertension.6 Figures such as these highlight the importance of reducing the incidence of hypertension through preventive measures.

Heart Disease: A Global Problem Heart disease has become a top priority for governments, NGOs and advocacy groups concerned with decreasing high death rates and easing the pressure exerted on public healthcare systems. The British Heart Foundation suggests that in the UK alone, CVD costs the economy £30.7 billion each year in direct healthcare costs, productivity losses and informal care — similar figures can be seen in other countries.2 The case for preventing CVD is therefore huge in both human and economic terms. One means of tackling it is by minimizing the risk from external factors. Scientific studies have highlighted the crucial role that diet plays in heart health, indicating that a poor diet can have a significant impact on blood pressure levels. A particular issue, elevated

Figure 1: Major food group contributors to sodium intake. September/October 2011

Cutting Down on Sodium Excess sodium intake — most commonly consumed in the form of salt — is one of the biggest contributors to high blood pressure. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that even a modest decrease in salt consumption may substantially reduce cardiovascular events.7 The researchers project that the reduction of salt intake by up to 3 g a day (1200 mg of sodium) could result in a decrease of 44,000 in the annual number of deaths in the US.8 More recently, the case for decreasing salt intakes has been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA)

cardiovascular health

positive opinion, published in June this year, which concluded that there is a cause and effect relationship between low sodium intake and blood pressure. Recognizing the significance of such studies and the potential benefits for people and the economy, governments have pushed for population-wide sodium reduction. Recommended daily intakes are currently at no more than 6 g a day in the UK, although statistics show that actual consumption can be up to 10 g per day. Similarly, in the US, consumers are advised not to exceed 2300 mg sodium per day, with 1500 mg being the adequate intake level.9

You Are What You Eat It is not enough to merely educate consumers about the recommended levels of salt to be added to their foods; in fact, everyday foods such as breads, cereals, crisps and sauces contribute significantly to overall daily sodium consumption. Figure 1 indicates the major food groups — most notably bread and bakery products — that contribute to sodium consumption. The high levels of salt in baked goods such as cakes, muffins, scones, bakery mixes and tortillas is, in part, a result of the functional role it plays in delivering appealing taste and texture. A greater proportion of sodium content, however, is derived from the use of traditional sodium-based leavening agents. Manufacturers in the bakery industry

therefore face a significant challenge — to decrease the sodium content of their products without compromising taste or texture. Innophos has worked extensively in the sodium reduction arena from both a scientific and technical perspective. Most recently, the company has developed Cal-Rise, a calcium-based, slow acting leavening agent that is a 1:1 replacement for SAPP 28. Cal-Rise can be used across a range of bakery applications and enables a reduction in sodium of up to 25%, with the added benefit of boosting calcium content. The ingredient also delivers exceptional taste and texture properties to ensure ‘reduced’ products remain appealing to consumers.

Conclusion Cardiovascular disease is responsible for thousands of preventable deaths each year and should remain a top priority on the health agenda. Countrywide and global initiatives have already increased consumer awareness of the dangers of excess sodium and salt consumption, whereas ingredient suppliers are constantly innovating to deliver cost-effective solutions for food manufacturers that do not compromise on overall product appeal. By working with ingredient partners, such as Innophos, who have insight into the salt and sodium reduction trend, the food industry can meet sodium and salt reduction targets and help to make our nations healthier.


References 1. World Health Organization ( cardiovascular_diseases/en/). 2. The British Heart Foundation, Coronary Heart Disease Statistics 2010 (www.bhf. aspx?ps=1001546). 3. World Health Organization ( 4. American Heart Association, “The Importance of Population-Wide Sodium Reduction as a Means to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke” ( early/2011/01/13/CIR.0b013e31820d0793.full. pdf+html). 5. B ritish Heart Foundation, “Blood Pressure Levels by Sex and Age 2008 England” ( 6. American Heart Association, “The Importance of Population-Wide Sodium Reduction as a Means to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke” (http:// CIR.0b013e31820d0793.full.pdf+html). 7. K. Bibbins-Domingo, et al., “The Effect of Dietary Salt Reductions on Future Cardiovascular Disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 590–599 (2010). 8. Ibid. 9. Institute of Medicine (

For more information John Brodie Innophos, Inc. Tel. +1 609 366 1235

September/October 2011


cardiovascular health

The Science Behind Soy and Heart Health Benefits Today, the number one cause of death globally is cardiovascular disease; the World Health Organization has estimated that it killed 13.5 million people in 2008 — a figure that represents 24% of all deaths worldwide. Europe is not immune to the problem; the European Heart Network states that nearly half of all deaths in the region were caused by cardiovascular disease and identifies it as the main cause of mortality in women in all European countries.


lthough the statistics appear grim, there are lifestyle changes that can alter the direction of this damaging trend; ceasing smoking, limiting alcohol consumption and healthy eating — including a moderate intake of cholesterol — can all help to reduce the risks. Incorporating soy protein into the diet is an example of a healthy diet change; from nutrition bars and beverages to vegetarian ready meals — including burgers — soy protein can now be found in a variety of foods available in supermarkets. “Lifestyle changes such as reducing the intake of saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol, maintaining a healthy weight and moderate physical activity are widely acknowledged as strategies to lower blood cholesterol,” commented Dr Garry Mendelson, Solae’s senior research scientist and applied nutrition manager. “There has been an extensive cohort of scientific studies around the world clinically proving that soy helps to lower cholesterol. For every 1% decrease in serum cholesterol, there is a 2–3% reduction in the rate of coronary heart disease.” Increased scrutiny into food health claims have caused some to be skeptical regarding the heart health claim for soy; does the September/October 2011

research support it — or is it simply an instance of over zealous marketing? Soy protein’s ability to lower total and LDL — or ‘bad’ — cholesterol has been extensively studied, but the mechanism that enables soy protein to actually effect this change is not entirely understood. A 2010 study by Jenkins et al. addresses two components that may be involved in the cholesterol lowering effects of soy.1 Consuming soy protein can directly lower blood cholesterol — termed the ‘intrinsic’ effect — and soy food consumption in place of foods that contain high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol can give an additional meaningful LDL cholesterol reduction, referred to as the ‘extrinsic’ effect. The extrinsic effect of soy in displacing foods that are higher in saturated fat and cholesterol was investigated by substituting the animal protein present in normal foods consumed in Western diets with soy protein, in increments from 13–58 g per day. The replacement of meat or dairy protein with 13 g of soy protein resulted in an LDL cholesterol reduction of 3.6% and a maximum lowering of 6% was seen with the replacement of 50 g of soy protein; this demonstrates the

cardiovascular health

extrinsic property of soy protein, which can replace foods higher in saturated fat and cholesterol rather than functioning as an addition to the daily diet, to lower LDL cholesterol. This displacement value, or extrinsic effect, of soy protein can help to further lower plasma cholesterol. Numerous studies have demonstrated that consuming 25 g of soy protein per day can reduce blood cholesterol concentrations. In their meta-analysis — a study that compiles the results from many studies and assesses the body of research on a particular topic — Jenkins et al . evaluated 22 studies from the American Heart Association’s Soy Advisory and revealed a mean LDL cholesterol decrease

of 4.3% (corrected to account for average baseline) after soy consumption. This would be a direct or intrinsic effect. Soy protein is a high quality, plant-based protein that’s comparable with meat, dairy and eggs. Its intrinsic activity in lowering cholesterol is similar to that of other plantbased food ingredients such as almonds and oat beta-glucan. Whereas each food ingredient may modestly lower cholesterol in isolation, collectively they can contribute to achieving substantial LDL reductions, as shown by the study. The 25 g of soy protein at which heart health benefits have been observed can be obtained by including 236 mL of soymilk (typically containing 7 g of soy protein) and a soy-containing


energy bar (containing 10 g of soy protein) in the diet, and replacing a serving of meat with a soy-burger or soy chicken (providing approximately 14 g of soy protein each). Incorporating these foods into the daily diet can provide both intrinsic and extrinsic benefits by replacing foods higher in saturated fat and cholesterol. “This research further confirms the heart health benefits of including soy protein in the diet,” Mendelson remarked. “Research continues to show that consuming 25 g of soy protein per day results in significant and meaningful reductions in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Soy-based foods can easily be a part of a healthy, lowcholesterol, low-fat diet.”

Reference 1. D .J.A. Jenkins, et al. , “Soy Protein Reduces Serum Cholesterol by Both Intrinsic and Food Displacement Mechanisms,” J. Nutr. 140, 2302S–2311S (2010).

For more information A5 quer-4c-D-F-E:Layout 1


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Dr Garry Mendelson Regulatory and Nutrition Science Support — Europe Solae (

We’re taking a (super)critical look at extract quality

FLAVEX ® Naturextrakte GmbH · ·

September/October 2011


women’s health

Soy Awareness, Soy Safety The World Health Organization estimates that by 2025 as many as 1.2 billion women will have reached the age of 50, a common point of menopause onset. This will be nearly triple the number that attained their half century in 1990 and further demonstrates that the market for products addressing menopause symptoms will demand attention both now and in the future. All too often, such symptoms diminish quality of life, robbing skin of suppleness and elasticity, rendering bones vulnerable to fracture, making a good night’s sleep harder to achieve and raising a sweat with hot flushes. However, women entering menopause today have been conditioned by a lifetime of good health to expect nothing less from their menopausal years than the vitality they’ve always enjoyed … and they’re hungry for therapies that deliver just that.


he most common conventional therapy is hormone replacement using oestrogen, which has a record of improving skin condition, protecting against osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and alleviating hot flushes. Although oestrogen replacement may be conventional, it is by no means the only therapy available. Epidemiological studies reveal that women in soy consuming cultures suffer fewer hot flushes than those in the West — an inverse relationship that

was demonstrated in a 2001 study of Japanese women published in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

The Isoflavone Advantage The substances responsible for this benefit are isoflavones, which are nonsteroidal compounds found naturally in soy. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are soy’s primary isoflavones and, as a result of their structure, which is similar to that of oestrogen, they bind weakly to the September/October 2011

hormone’s receptors in skin, bones and blood vessels, where research shows they lessen the same menopause symptoms. A prospective study conducted on 30 postmenopausal women, published in 2009 in the journal Clinics, found that 6 months after treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of isoflavone rich soy extract, 23 of the subjects experienced a 9.46% increase in epidermis thickness, 25 saw an increase in collagen fibres and 21 displayed an increase in the number of dermal blood vessels, clearly indicating improved skin condition. In the same year, Italian researchers conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial that appeared in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research , during which 180 postmenopausal subjects received either a daily 80 mg isoflavone tablet (equivalent to 60 mg of genistein) or a placebo. The researchers determined the mean daily number of ‘moderate to severe’ hot flushes and found a drop in the isoflavone group of 36.2% at 6 weeks and 41.2% at 12 weeks, compared with drops of 24.0% and 29.3% at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively, in the placebo group.

women’s health

Safety First Results such as these should provide encouragement to women eager to ease menopausal symptoms. However, given that prolonged oestrogen treatment may increase the risk of endometrial and breast cancers, the structural similarity between oestrogen and soy isoflavones raises the question of whether they too might pose some risk. In fact, studies vindicate the safety of isoflavones. One, published in 2010 in the journal Climactric, found that among 197 postmenopausal subjects, no cases of endometrial cancer and only one of simple endometrial hyperplasia arose after 3 years of treatment with a standardized 70 mg per day dose of soy isoflavone extract. Mammography results also registered no change from baseline, leading the researchers to declare the extract safe for both endometrium and breast. Hadar Sutovsky, global sales manager for isoflavones at Solbar and an expert in proteomics and structural biology, is happy to see the latest research dispersing the foggy rumours of risk that cling to isoflavones. She believes “that the elucidation of isoflavones’ low affinity for breast and womb oestrogen receptors, as well as our increasing understanding of isoflavones’ selective binding, strongly supports the clinical research published in Climactric ,” and does not hesitate to “claim without doubt that we supply a safe alternative.”

“the beauty of our production,” which is “merely an alcoholic extraction and standardization.” The company offers a microencapsulated slow release product, Solgen SR, which liberates small particles of isoflavone into the blood for 12 hours. “The gradual absorption of Solgen SR avoids momentary peaks in concentration, which might cause undesirable effects, in addition to the possibility of excretion in body fluids,” Sutovsky adds. A 2005 study published in the Journal of Agricultural

and Food Chemistry demonstrated the pharmacokinetics of the slow release formulation in healthy women. A growing body of evidence also suggests that soy


isoflavones exert cardioprotective effects to improve blood lipid profiles — another reason to accept isoflavones as an option in the creation of products that will allow the active lives of today’s women to continue into the future.

For more information Alexandra Shnaiderman Marcom Manager and Trader Solbar Industries Ltd 2 Hahadarim St, Heavy Ind. Zone PO Box 2230 Ashdod 77613, Israel. Tel. +972 8 863 2111

Isoflavones in Action Sutovsky also draws attention to the fact that Solbar’s products contain high levels of genistin and genistein in a glycoside conjugate to aglycone ratio that matches the profile of isoflavones as they naturally occur in the soybean. The fact that there is “no synthesis of artificial molecules, no de novo design or chemical manipulation, no genetic modifications or fermentations” constitutes, for her,

September/October 2011


natural colourants

True Colours The Good Health Glow of Beta-Carotene Colourants Here’s a question: when was the last time you heard someone speak with unequivocal confidence about the safety of synthetic food colours? It’s been a while, hasn’t it? Now, consider how often you witness everyone from neighbourhood mothers to scientists quoted in the evening news who discuss the topic in tones of concern.


LycoRed, notes that: “A key advantage of this new colourant is its high stability, both in the powder itself and when released into the food matrix.” With 18 months’ stability, even under conditions of high heat, light, oxygen and a pH

ince a 2007 study conducted at the University of Southampton linked the artificial colourants sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmosine, allura red, ponceau 4R and tartrazine — subsequently dubbed the Southampton Six — to increased hyperactivity in children, a prevailing sense of latent uneasiness has risen to the level of outright alarm. Add to this discomfort the regulatory move by the UK’s Committee on Toxicity to recommend the voluntary abandonment of the additives by UK manufacturers, in addition to the European Food Safety Authority’s decision to cloak them in warning labels, and it’s a wonder anyone formulates with synthetic colourants at all.

of 2.7 to neutral, the beta-carotene colourant dissolves in cold water to yield shades from light yellow to a deep, vibrant orange in products across application categories such as carbonated beverages, cake icings, ice cream, fruit preps, confectionery and more.

Antioxidant Protection

No Excuses There was a time when the answer would have been “because synthetics work.” Now, however, the implication that, by contrast, natural alternatives don’t work is no longer credible. Improvements in quality, stability and functionality have made natural colourants, such as the carotenoids, powerful competitors with synthetics. Combine this with their proven and perceived health benefits and they leave manufacturers with no option but to switch. “There was a great deal of stress in the early days when people made the move away from synthetics and everybody was concerned about how brands would perform,” recalls Andrew Kendrick, PhD, international technical development manager at LycoRed Ltd, Israel. “Now it’s difficult to find products with synthetic colours in supermarkets.” Simply put, choosing to go natural “is not the high profile business decision it used to be,” he states; “natural colouring is just one of the things that people expect to see.” The colour industry should be acknowledged for its hard work in developing a pipeline of natural, label friendly alternatives that not only perform as reliably

as synthetics but provide a broad spectrum of shades for products that both consumers and manufacturers can feel good about.

Improved Formulations It has not always been thus. Even today, ‘off-the-shelf’ beta-carotene may arrive as a “thick, viscous, concentrated liquid that is not very stable and completely unusable,” Kendrick remarks. But by no means does that reflect the state of the carotenoid art. We need only to look to the applications expertise of a savvy supplier for signs of how far the industry has come. “It’s about understanding both our products and our partners’ applications,” Kendrick explains; “the shelf-life, the processing, the packaging: all of that comes into play.” When you purchase one of his company’s carotenoids, for example: “You get the same strength and the same shade every time. We deliver a functional product that can go into your application, dissolve very evenly and rapidly and colour the whole batch.” The newest natural beta-carotene in the line is Lyc-O-Beta 1% CWS. Udi Alroy, vice president of global marketing and sales at September/October 2011

Alroy notes that the company achieves such stability “by optimizing the carotenoid formulation and the antioxidant system that protects the colour.” That antioxidant protection extends to the consumers who enjoy foods coloured with the ingredient, as well, because beta-carotene — even in the form of colourants such as Lyc-O-Beta 1% CWS — aren’t just great natural alternatives to synthetics; they’re powerful antioxidants in their own right, helping consumers to meet the daily requirements for vitamin A. “As a powerful antioxidant, natural beta-carotene helps to protect against oxidative damage at the cellular level,” Alroy points out. And as a natural alternative to synthetics, it gives an all-around healthy halo to any food or beverage in which it appears. Lyc-O-Beta 1% CWS — a natural fermentation product — is GMO- and GMM-free as well as free from all allergenic ingredients listed in EU Directive 2003/89/EC. What better ingredient to offer picky parents and health-aware consumers who are not only looking for a hearty hue in the foods and beverages they love, but also for a clean, synthetic-free label to go with it?

For more information Kimberly J. Decker Contact Sam Bernhardt, PhD Director of New Food Ingredients, LycoRed



Innovation at your fingertips

IDI Inc. (Ingredia Group) - 625 Commerce Drive - Wapakoneta - OH 45895 - USA Tel:

+(1) 419 738 4060 - Fax: +(1) 419 738 4426

Web: - Email: September/October 2011


vitamins and minerals

The Vitamin Arena

These are tough times to be in the European functional foods sector; the fourth batch of generic EU health claim opinions delivered by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in April — only 20% of which were successful — saw the trend for negative opinions continue. This uncertainty surrounding health claims has corresponded with a slowing of new functional food product activity. Innova Market Insights tracked a 4% decline in the number of ‘active’ health claims — such as functional and fortified foods — launched in Western Europe in 2010 compared with the previous year, despite a 25% growth in the number of ‘passive health’ — “food minus” — launches. The market researcher also reported a 36% increase in the number of products with a health positioning tracked in western Europe during this period that featured the word “proven.”


he vitamin space, however, supported by huge bodies of scientific evidence, has hardly been affected by claims troubles and the majority of its generic Article 13 claims have cleared the EFSA hurdle. Innova Market Insights has also reported a recent increase in the use of words such as “proven,” a trend that vitamin suppliers could capitalize on. It is worth noting, however, that the benefits of incorporating many vitamins and minerals in the diet are well known to consumers, so numerous products with a predominantly soft claim will include the vitamin contact as a secondary positioning, rather than boldly promoting the it on the front of packaging. An analysis of western Europe’s top market categories for vitamin/mineral fortified

launches between September 2010 and March 2011 demonstrated that the market was led by juice and juice drinks (12%), dairy drinks (9.2%), breakfast cereals (8.1%), yoghurt (5.9%) and baby meals (5%). A glance at recent European launches suggests that products with this kind fortification help to address vitamin and mineral shortcomings in the diet, but avoid explicitly making this the core of their positioning. This secondary positioning focus is particularly relevant in the case of products aimed at children who, although the nutritional message appeals to their parents, will be attracted to illustrative packaging. There are many examples to be found, including the following: • Heinz DreamWorks Madagascar Pasta Shapes in Tomato Sauce (UK) is fortified with

vitamins and iron, with a strong front of pack claim noting that the can “contains 1 of your 5 a day.” • Lu Petit Children’s Biscuits (Belgium, Kraft) consists of packs of wheat biscuits that are enriched with vitamins and iron and made using a special recipe for kids. • HiPP Honey Moby Knusperflakes (Germany) is a whale shaped honey flavoured breakfast cereal with eight added vitamins and honey. • “Added vitamins and minerals” is a key front of pack message on Kellogg’s Coco Pops Choc ‘N’ Roll, which was launched to much fanfare in the UK last year. The nutritional credentials of the lower salt, sugar and saturated fat, high fibre, wholegrain and fortified product meets the UK Food Standards Agency’s stringent nutrient profile criteria. Some products, however, take the health message one step further. In Germany, PEZ Smart Vitamin Fortified Hard Candies, from the age old confectionery brand, feature “individually wrapped vitamin and mineral fortified hard candies for boosting brain power” and contains “7 vitamins, selenium, zinc, magnesium and glutamin.” There is also an increasing push for the silent incorporation of certain vitamins to meet

Market Category Juice & Juice Drinks Dairy Drinks Breakfast Cereals Yoghurt Baby Meals Table I: Top market categories for “vitamin-mineral fortified” products. September/October 2011

Count in (%) 12.06 9.21 8.11 5.92 5.04

Table II: Top market categories for “vitamin-mineral fortified” products.

vitamins and minerals

nutritional shortcomings; it is notable that ingredient supplier DSM recently partnered with the International Osteoporosis Foundation to encourage an increased intake of vitamin D in Europe. This could potentially be achieved by a similar mandatory fortification programme to that implemented for folic acid in certain applications. Although Innova Market Insights reported a slight decline in the number of fortified products containing vitamin D — from 492 in 2009 to 433 in 2010 — these numbers did include significant launches. Running in line with new vitamin D intake recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine, Yoplait (General Mills) announced a product innovation that will make it

easier for women to add more calcium to their diet. The reformulated Yoplait Original yoghurt is claimed to contain double the calcium of the market leading yoghurt, with 50% of the daily requirement (500 mg) in every cup. News of this launch coincided with Pfizer Consumer Healthcare’s introduction of new Caltrate Soft Chews, a “great tasting and convenient way to help reach the new, higher daily vitamin D goals.” In the UK, the Modern Milk line targets the adult market for flavoured milks, employing options such as Smooth Coffee with a Hint of Vanilla Flavour Milk. The product features a strong front of pack claim and displays the words: “enriched with extra calcium and vitamin D to help the body absorb calcium better.” Currently a niche ingredient but increasingly used in dietary supplements, vitamin K2 has been identified by Innova as being of future importance, a view encouraged by its recent attainment of GRAS status for dairy foods in the US, its EU Novel Food approval in 2009


and the rising number of natural and synthetic branded ingredients that are now appearing on the market. The key focus of launches thus far has been dietary supplements, including sports nutrition lines, and a growing range of products are appearing that focus, in particular, on the use of natural K2 derived from the traditional soy-based Japanese health food, natto. Turning once more to the global vitamin and mineral picture, the most popular vitamins for inclusion in new products bearing claims continue to be C and A, although others are catching up; significant rises were reported in the incorporation of vitamins E, B1, B12 and B3 between 2009 and 2010. Vitamins B9 and K, however, remain niche areas for new products. Regardless of whether vitamins or minerals are incorporated into active or passive health launches, the high rate of health claims approvals will provide strong advantages for suppliers and manufacturers.

For more information Robin Wyers Chief Editor Innova Market Insights BV Marketing 22 NL-6921 RE Duiven, the Netherlands. Tel. +31 26 319 2000


vitamins and minerals

Know the Differences Vitamin K1 and K2 Almost 90% of vitamin K in the human diet occurs in the form of K1. Although modern technology has enabled its quantification in food for several decades, it was only 11 years ago that the equivalent information could first be gained for K2. This data was subsequently published by Schurgers et al., and the resulting table continues to be used worldwide to estimate human vitamin K2 intake in study cohorts.1 Protective Effect Against Cancer The differences between K1 and K2 are not restricted to the prevention of cardiovascular disease; 2008 and 2009 saw the publication of two important papers demonstrating that a high dietary intake of K2 has a strong protective effect against prostate cancer and all other major forms of cancer, excepting breast cancer.4,5 Again, K1 had no effect and — as with cardiovascular disease — the effective dose of K2 was reported to be around 45 µg/day. It is of course intriguing

that K2, which constitutes only 10% of our total dietary vitamin K intake, can have such dramatic effects. To understand this, we must first realize that K1 has its origins in plants, where it is tightly bound to the chloroplasts; this means that dietary sources of K1 are green, leafy vegetables. Chloroplasts are poorly digested, however, which results in only 5–10% of the ingested K1 entering the circulation and becoming available for the body. In comparison, K2 is produced by bacteria and occurs in the fat fraction of foods


16 Circulating Vitamin K in triglycerides (ng/mL)


he first study cohort in which vitamin K intake was differentiated into K1 and K2 was the Rotterdam Study, which analysed the dietary habits of 4500 elderly men and women (above the age of 55) using food frequency questionnaires and monitored their health throughout a follow up period of 10 years. The results were astounding; whereas dietary vitamin K1 intake had no effect on cardiovascular health, there was a strong inverse association between K2 intake and the extent of aortic calcification, the occurrence of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality (50% lower in those consuming 45 µg/day or more of K2). In addition, a 25% reduction of overall mortality was registered in this group.2 At this time, the underlying mechanism of these outcomes was not understood, prompting disbelief in the scientific community. As a result, the study was repeated by a different research group in an independent and much larger cohort known as the Prospect Study. The total number of subjects was more than 16,000 and, again, the observation period was 10 years or more. Once more, no effect on cardiovascular health of K1 was observed, in contrast to the major effect that K2 displayed. With far more certainty and confidence than those involved in the Rotterdam study, the researchers went so far as to calculate that each extra intake of 10 µg/day of K2 resulted in a 9% decreased risk for cardiovascular mortality and that the so-called long-chain menaquinones were the most active forms in this respect.3 September/October 2011

12 K1 8



0 0




Time after ingestion (h) Figure 1: Postprandial vitamin k uptake in circulating triglyceride fraction.



vitamins and minerals

predominant dietary forms of K2 — 3 days or longer.8 The increased half-life time,

such as cheese, curd, eel and flat fish (where it originates from the decaying organic matter consumed by them), and is taken up from the digestive tract rapidly and completely.6 Thus, it may be calculated that there is a comparable influx of K1 and K2 in our system.

probably related to that of its carrier LDL, results in K2 being available for uptake by the extrahepatic tissues for a much greater period of time than K1.

Uptake and Biological Half-Life

Japanese Food Natto

When the transport of the vitamins following intestinal absorption is compared, a second difference becomes clear. Both vitamins are fat soluble and require transportation to the liver, which is accomplished by triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (triglyerides). In a second step, the long-chain forms of K2, the most lipophylic of the K vitamins, are incorporated into low density lipoproteins (LDL) that transport them to other tissues, including bone, vessel walls, prostate and lungs. K1, however, is hardly found in LDL (Figure 1); this difference in transport mechanisms is the reason behind the prominent health effects of K2 in extrahepatic tissue in comparison with it.7 A third major distinction may be drawn in relation to the half-life times in circulation; K1 has a half-life of about 1.5 hours, which is brief when compared with that of the

Although large population-based studies have demonstrated the significant health effects associated with K2 at intakes of 45 µg/ day and higher, 75% of the healthy adult population falls short of this level. In addition, it is important to note that, in the Western diet, K2 is almost inevitably found in saturated fats, which are regarded as unhealthy. A healthy alternative can be found in the Japanese foodstuff, natto, which is low fat and extremely rich in K2. However as, natto is often difficult to procure and, owing to its pungent taste and aroma, frequently rejected, fortified foods containing extracts from natto or its K2 producing bacteria, Bacillus subtilis natto, are a useful and healthy alternative.

Clinical Trials Norwegian company NattoPharma has supported major human studies at VitaK


BV and Maastricht University, which reveal that in the majority of the healthy adult population, bone and arteries are insufficient in vitamin K — a risk factor for osteoporotic hip fractures and cardiovascular mortality.3,9 Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that long-chain menaquinones (vitamin K2) are the preferred form of vitamin K for combating agerelated diseases, owing to their preferential distribution to the extrahepatic tissues.7,10

References 1. L.J. Schurgers and C. Vermeer, “Determination of Phylloquinone and Menaquinones in Food: Effect of Food Matrix on Circulating Vitamin K Concentrations,” Haemostasis 30, 298–307 (2000). 2. J.M. Geleijnse, et al., “Dietary Intake of Vitamin K-2 Reduces the Risk of Cardiac Events and Aortic Atherosclerosis: The Rotterdam Study,” J. Nutr. 134, 3100–3105 (2004). 3. G.C.M. Gast, et al., “A High Menaquinone Intake Reduces the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease,” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 19, 504–510 (2009). 4. K. Nimptsch, S. Rohrmann and J. Linseisen, “Dietary Intake of Vitamin K and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Heidelberg Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg),” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87, 985–992 (2008). 5. K. Nimptsch, S. Rohrmann and J. Linseisen, “Dietary Vitamin K Intake in Relation to Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Results from the Heidelberg Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPICHeidelberg),” Am. J Clin. Nutr. 91, 1348–1358 (2010). 6. B.L.M.G. Gijsbers, K-S.G. Jie and C. Vermeer, “Effect of Food Composition on Vitamin K Absorption in Human Volunteers,” Brit. J. Nutr. 76, 223–229 (1996). 7. L.J. Schurgers and C. Vermeer, “Differential Lipoprotein Transport Pathways of K-Vitamins in Healthy Subjects,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1570, 27–32 (2002). 8. L.J. Schurgers, et al., “Vitamin K-Containing Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Synthetic Vitamin K1 and Natto-Derived Menaquinone-7,” Blood 109, 3279–3283 (2007). 9. H. Luukinen, et al., “Strong Prediction of Fractures Among Older Adults by the Ratio of Carboxylated to Total Serum Osteocalcin,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 15, 2473–2478 (2000). 10. J.C. McCann and B.N. Ames, “Vitamin K, an Example of Triage Theory: Is Micronutrient Inadequacy Linked to Diseases of Aging?” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90, 889–907 (2009).

For more information Cees Vermeer, PhD Associate Professor of Biochemistry VitaK BV, Maastricht University Tel. +31 43 388 5865

September/October 2011


sports nutrition

A Simple Guide to Whey Protein

The sports nutrition industry has grown rapidly in recent years. Previously perceived as applying only to elite athletes and bodybuilders, it has become increasingly relevant — with supported growth — to more mainstream sport and exercise participants. The magnitude of the opportunity available to those within the industry has generated huge interest and is unlikely to diminish in the foreseeable future, particularly in this modern era of fitness, health and wellness promotion.


rotein is one of three essential macronutrients required in the daily diet, and its importance has long been recognized as being synonymous with sports nutrition — essentially, protein provides the building blocks for the human body, particularly the muscles. In relation to sport and exercise, whey protein is used to facilitate gains in muscle mass, muscle tone and, more recently, enhanced recovery following strenuous endurance training. To most people’s minds, protein is derived from food, typically meat and fish. Although these foods provide a good source of protein, the busy schedule of many sports people and recreational athletes can make it difficult to consume adequate levels of protein at the time at which the body requires it. This difficulty — combined with the benefits of using whey protein as a convenient source of complete protein that is tasty, mixes well and has great acceptance amongst consumers — has been recognized by the manufacturers of sports nutrition products. Whey protein is a soluble protein found in milk and, for the last 50 years, the dairy industry has been innovating processes to filter out this valuable nutrient, separating it from fats and sugars to provide an ideal protein for human health. Whey protein is considered to be of great biological value as it contains high natural concentrations of essential amino acids, which cannot be produced by the body and are necessary building blocks for the development and reconditioning of muscle. The soluble nature of whey protein makes it one of the fastest proteins to be absorbed by the body, reinforcing its claim as the ideal protein for consumption immediately after exercise — a strategic time when the human body requires protein for muscle repair.

How Much Should We Consume? Guidelines for the average individual suggest that they require 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day (56 g for a 70 kg individual).

It is accepted, however, that physical activity can double the recommended daily requirements of protein to 1.7 g per kilogram of body weight

drink (RTD) formats — containing ingredients such as Volactive Hydrapro — which allows the application of protein in clear beverages.

— indeed, high intensity training can potentially increase the requirement to as much as 2 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. This means that, to achieve their daily requirement of protein, a 70 kg individual may need to eat five small chicken breasts. Although protein should be present in most, if not all, main meals, the principle of consuming protein for sport and exercise applies to the timing of consumption in addition to the diet as a whole. The ideal time for protein intake is immediately after exercise; between 10–20 g of protein is required to obtain optimal results in improving the capability of recovery and adaptation.

The importance of the RTD or snack formats cannot be underestimated; in a recent consumer research study by Volac, 53% of respondents who stated an interest in whey protein products as a means of assisting exercise recovery identified that a bottled drink would be their preferred choice. This may be because people perceive the consumption of powders as inconvenient or ill suited to them.

How Does Whey Protein Fit into Daily Life? Although it is technically possible to obtain all the protein requirements from the everyday diet, the practical considerations of consuming it immediately after exercise cause it to be difficult to achieve in hectic lifestyles. Owing to this difficulty, the concept of sports nutrition ‘supplements’ has developed to boost a diet that, for varying reasons, may not fully address the requirements of the body. Whereas protein products, particularly whey protein, are often consumed after training, products such as whey protein-based cereal bars or drinks can be used to enhance protein intake throughout the day while recovery is still taking place.

Available Formats Whey protein has typically been produced in powdered formats, packaged in tubs of varying sizes. However, as technology has advanced and the industry has responded to consumer demand for variety and flexibility, whey protein is now available in bars — using ingredients such as Volactive ProCrisp — and ready to September/October 2011

Dispelling the Myths Perhaps the most frequently asked question across the range of consumers is whether protein is relevant to them. Whereas whey protein use in sports nutrition has become a huge industry, associated stigma has hindered its relevance to everyday exercisers. In reality, the functional benefits of protein are widespread and relevant to everyone, notably those seeking to support an active lifestyle or achieve sporting goals. In the Volac study, 77% of those respondents who had used a protein product agreed that it was “very or fairly easy to see or feel the benefits of taking protein.” It seems that the word is spreading; protein has certainly seen an increased level of popularity and there is now an opportunity for sports nutrition manufacturers to expand exercise recovery into a more mainstream arena. This may be only the beginning, as the benefits of protein are also of huge interest to other population sectors, particularly the elderly, where the maintenance of muscle is a concern.

For more information Mark Neville Head of Lifestyle Ingredients Volac International Ltd Tel. +44 1223 208 021

ESSNA Calls for Industry Unity in the Sports Nutrition Sector At the recent Bridge2Food Sports and Nutrition Conference, Suzane Leser, vice chair of the European Specialist Sports Nutrition Alliance (ESSNA) and nutrition manager for lifestyle ingredients at Volac (, outlined the current status of impending new EU legislative developments affecting the sports nutrition sector. As the industry organization of this specialist sector in Europe, ESSNA’s ( role is to protect the market, ensure innovation and sustain growth, as well as to negotiate and secure appropriate legislation in the interests of companies involved in it. Leser outlined the background to the draft Sports Foods Directive, policy options and ESSNA’s preferred solutions — in addition to a call to action, encouraging companies with a vested interest in this area to join the groundswell of support and become members of ESSNA. In the EU, sports foods fall under the dietetic foods umbrella, which requires products to be clearly distinguishable from normal foods and intended for specific population groups with particular nutritional requirements — in this case defined as “foods intended to meet the expenditure of intense muscular effort, especially for sportsmen.” Four options are being considered as changes to the legislation, with ESSNA speaking out in favour of the option that would repeal the dietetic foods umbrella, retaining the existing legislation on other groups of dietetic foods but regulating sports nutrition products as normal foods. Leser concluded by stressing the importance of companies with a vested interest in sports nutrition joining with ESSNA to ensure the best possible outcomes for the industry. She commented: “Industry organizations such as ESSNA support businesses by establishing a dialogue with policy makers to protect their market. At Volac, we are committed to supporting the sports nutrition market and believe in the possibilities that working closely with ESSNA can give us all — to ensure a united and positive front that is in everyone’s interests.”

September/October 2011



Chitin Nanofibrils

A Natural Nanostructured Compound to Save the Environment After cellulose, chitin is nature’s second most abundant polysaccharide, existing as a structural component of the exoskeleton of invertebrates and the cell walls of fungi. Worldwide production of this natural biopolymer is estimated to be approximately 1 trillion tons per year, making it one of the most abundant natural compounds on Earth; shrimp, crabs, lobsters, krill and squid are today’s major chitin-containing resources. It is important to emphasize, however, that more than 25% of the total annual processed catch of these resources is waste. Furthermore, this discarded material, equivalent to roughly 250 billion tons each year, is considered to be hazardous as a result of its highly polluting effect and perishability if disposed of off-shore; in the ocean, it rapidly leads to eutrophication, whereas on land it is rapidly colonized by pathogens and spoilage organisms. What is Chitin? Chitin, a cationic polysaccharide, is a copolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine, where N-acetyl-Dglucosamine units are predominant in the polymeric chain. Displaying a similar structure to hyaluronic acid (Figure 1), it possesses a reparative/equilibrating role in nature, owing to its ability to entrap growth factors, active endogenous and exogenous substances and water molecules. Recognized by human and environmental enzymes such as lisozyme, chitinase, acetyl-glucosaminidase and lipases, chitin is easily transformed to oligomers and/ or reduced to glucose and glutamic acid. In line with today’s industrial processes, three steps are required to isolate chitin from a source crustacean: demineralization, deproteinization and the elimination of lipids and pigments (Figure 2). Moreover, a new patented methodology (Figure 3) has made it possible to industrially isolate the crystalline structure of chitin (Figure 4) from its allomorph parallel sheets

to obtain the so-called chitin nanofibrils (CN). Using this process, the purest portion of this natural biopolymer may be employed for different purposes, utilizing the valuable characteristics it possesses as a result of its nanodimension. CN, being a natural polymer with an average size of 240 x 7 x 5 nanometres — that is, one quarter the size of a bacterium — may be considered to be a natural molecular factory. “Molecular factoring,” according to Eric Drexler, “won’t come trickling out of conventional factories as computers did; it will replace factories and replace or upgrade their products. It will arise out of twentiethcentury trends in science, but it will break the trend lines in technology, economics and environmental affairs.” With this remark in mind, CN could be posited as an innovative natural polymer, set to shape future scenarios in various industrial sectors (Figure 5), addressing as it does different aspects of the modern world: advanced technology, environmental issues, human health concerns and intellectual property protection

Figure 1: Chitin, which has a similar structure to hyaluronic acid. September/October 2011

Technology In terms of technology, the ability of this polymer to complex many different molecules, increasing their effectiveness at a human cell level and ameliorating their penetration of skin layers and mucous membranes, has been demonstrated. It has also been shown that, owing to its high levels of efficacy and safety and the ability of its nanofibrils to traverse the intercellular lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum, CN may be complexed and incorporated into a number of biological agents capable of different combined functions. The ample evidence of chitin’s biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-allergenicity, and its particularly favourable effect on human tissue cells, supports the applicability of CN in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotextile industries, as well as in food applications.

The Environment Today, almost everything we build and every move we make involves the consumption of something that has been ripped from the Earth; a central problem in environmental restoration is reversing this encroachment. Solving this problem means restoring the land as much as possible to its earlier state, removing that which has been added and, when possible, replacing that which has been lost. The global use of fishery waste as a raw material to produce nanostructured CN will go a long way to limit environmental damage and make recycling easy, replacing the ‘dirty’ with the ‘green.’ To this purpose, many studies have shown that chitin and all its derivatives (chitosan, CN, oligosaccharides, glucosamine etc.) may be produced by the bioconversion of mushroom



Chitin nanofibrils could be posited as an innovative natural polymer, set to shape future scenarios in various industrial sectors. Figure 2: Isolating chitin from a source crustacean.

Figure 3: An industrial process to isolate the crystalline structure of chitin.

Figure 4: Isolating the crystalline structure of chitin from its allomorph sheets.

and crustacean waste to food products. Other applications include the preservation of foods and foodstuffs from microbial deterioration, the formation of biodegradable films, the recovery of waste material from food processing discards and the purification of water.

Health Concerns The human body is filled with intricate, active molecular structures residing in billions of cells, continually growing, healing and renewing its different tissues. During tissue construction, whole cells communicate with each other

using the NICE systems (Nervous, Immune, Cutaneous and Endocrine) and move about as an amoeba-like organization. Some molecular structures in the cell specialize in the digestion of molecules that show signs of damage, allowing them to be replaced by fresh, genetically programmed molecules. Specific genes, in fact, are switched on soon after damage occurs and some proteins, known as transcription factors, position themselves near its regulator regions, allowing RNA polymerase enzymes to duplicate the genetic code. Failure to complete this transcription and construction increases with age; teeth and bones crack, hair follicles stop working, skin sags and wrinkles. A controlled environment, a positive lifestyle, the use of appropriate cosmetics and the consumption of healthy food, however, all contribute to improve the quality of life. To this end, it has been shown that, through the use of CN and some of its complexes, it is possible to regulate keratinocyte turnover, promote Langerhans cell protection and increase ATP production, thereby slowing the skin’s ageing process. In its activity, CN appears capable of coordinating cells, connecting the immune with the endocrine system and integrating them

September/October 2011



Intellectually Property Protection

Figure 5: The wide variety of industry applications for chitin nanofibrils.

The registration of patents and trademarks is fundamental to protecting product innovation, recouping R&D costs and creating an industrial profit. The conventional goal of avoiding counterfeiting and establishing eventual licensing agreements to expand a business or create a new one is also vital. Moreover, a function of the patent or trademark is to guarantee the quality of a product both for the consumer and the eventual licensee. The chief menace to businesses’ intellectual property assets is undoubtedly the ever increasing instances of counterfeiting and piracy — a trend that has been boosted by the global distribution of goods. Despite significant international recognition of the gravity of the problem and successful efforts to strengthen national enforcement and anticounterfeiting laws globally, counterfeiting remains a booming business everywhere. The protection of trademarks, industrial processes and innovation is therefore a necessity, demonstrated by the increasing number of patents filed each year for nanotechnology innovations (Figure 6).

Conclusive Remarks

Figure 6: The increasing number of nanotechnology innovation patents filed each year.

with the mental and biological activities of both brain and skin. Therefore, using the NICE approach that is triggered by CN, it seems possible to develop cosmetic and dietetic formulations that act in perfect harmony with the daily life of skin cells. This is also in accordance with the Eastern concern for well-being that is seen in traditional Chinese medicine and it is not surprising that CN has found a niche in the food sector. As a biopolymer of glucosamine, CN complexed with chitosan should be recommended for osteoarthritis prevention and treatment. In

addition to this, existing data unequivocally indicate that the reaction of bile acids with aminated polysaccharides (in the form of CN and chitosan) is a fundamental step in weight management and the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. A multicentre study, undertaken by our organization into orally consumed CN, has revealed an interesting weight management application; owing to its mucoadhesive property and capacity to reduce the absorption of fat, simultaneously binding a great quantity of water, CN induces a sense of satiety (unpublished data). September/October 2011

To conclude, CN and its derivatives, patented worldwide for their associated production processes and varying potential uses, are a source of great interest owing to their broad range of potential industrial applications. Their first commercial application in the cosmetic industry and the field of medical devices is already in operation and we await future interesting applications in the areas of food supplements and water waste treatment. It is important to highlight the necessity to further utilize CN and its derivatives — together with chitin, chitosan and other oligosaccharides — to reduce or totally eliminate the huge quantity of waste material that results from the crustacean and mushroom industries. Further research studies are necessary for a better understanding of the many characteristics of this interesting biopolymer, to allow the conversion of processing waste into food that will benefit humans and the environment in the years to come.

For more information Pierfrancesco Morganti, Professor of Applied Cosmetic Dermatology, University of Naples, G. Morganti, R&D, Mavi Sud srl and A. Morganti, LLM in Intellectual Property, Max Planck Institute. Corresponding author is Pierfrancesco Morganti ISCD Via Innocenzo XI, 41 I-00165 Rome, Italy. A complete list of references to support this article is available from the authors.




September/October 2011




A round-up of events, trade shows and conferences in the global nutraceutical and functional foods sector during the coming months 12–13 August

25–27 October

26 October

Elderly and Medical Foods 2011 Amsterdam, the Netherlands Contact Bridge2Food Europe, the Netherlands T. + 31 30 225 2060 F. + 31 84 832 7225 E. W.

CPhI Worldwide Frankfurt, Germany Contact UBM International Media, the Netherlands T. +31 20 409 9544 F. +31 20 363 2616 E. W.

European Outsourcing Awards The Industry’s Gala Dinner Event Frankfurt, Germany Contact Via Media UK Ltd, UK T. +44 1372 364 122 F. +44 1372 364 121 E. W.

12–14 September

25–27 October

27–28 October

Beyond Beauty Paris Paris, France Contact ITEC France, France T. +33 1 4469 9569 F. +33 1 4469 9568 E. W.

Food and Function 2011 The International Scientific Conference on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Kosice, Slovakia Contact PAMIDA International Ltd, Slovakia T. +421 904 837 153 F. +421 41 400 0123 E. W.

Tea and Health 4th World Congress Berlin, Germany Contact ISANH, France T. + 33 1 5504 7755 F. + 33 1 5504 7757 E. W.

10–14 October SupplySide West Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Contact Virgo Publishing, USA T. +1 480 990 1101 F. +1 480 990 0819 E. W.

27–30 March 2012 Anuga FoodTec Cologne, Germany Contact Koelnmesse, Germany T. +49 2 2182 12901 E. W.



ThE Global busiNEss PlaTFoRm AFRICA FoR Food & bEvERaGE iNGREdiENTs

RegisteR online foR fRee

Number of exhibitors at FiE & Ni 2011:

Fi Europe & Ni 2011 29 Nov-1 Dec 2011 Paris Nord Villepinte, Paris, France P S S

Join the 25th anniversary of Fi Europe & Ni, the business platform that brings together the global food industry. Whether you are looking to control costs, reformulate existing products, or develop products in your pipeline, Fi Europe & Ni is the event of 2011. Global innovations: More than 30,000 m² showcase of product developments and innovations, presented by the leading ingredients manufacturers worldwide Wide range of features: Priceless industry knowledge across a wide range of conference modules, exhibitor seminars, New Product Zone displays, expert innovation tours and more The entire industry: From beverages to bakery, dairy to confectionery, no matter in which sector you are, at Fi Europe & Ni 2011 you will find the right solutions for your business.

REGisTER oNliNE aT: September/October 2011

Creating Opportunities in Food Production with Enzyme Technology Food production technology changes at a rapid pace to meet the demands and evolving tastes of consumers. This article outlines some of the latest innovations in enzyme technology and examines the industry drivers behind the growing use of enzymes in baking, beverage and dairy applications. Focusing on Consumer Demand


Alongside legislative change relating to natural sourcing and food safety, it is shifts in consumer habits and demand that trigger the biggest changes in food production. A culture of snacking and a preference for convenience has led to increased demand for processed food that still meets consumer expectations in terms of taste, texture and safety. The necessity of delivering the food desired by customers drives innovation and establishes new areas for growth. Such innovation offers an exciting opportunity for the industry to embrace new technologies and solutions. Producers must meet the challenges of fluctuating material, energy and transport costs as well satisfying ever-changing consumer demand with products that offer improved taste, flavour and texture, and address the requirement for convenience. Balancing such necessities with the need for more efficient and cost-effective production that maintains product quality and reduces environmental impact is now a main focus for the industry. The impact of regionalization — serving consumers’ local tastes — is another important factor, alongside providing healthy foods that are produced in a sustainable manner and with natural ingredients. Enzyme technology can assist manufacturers to respond to consumer needs and extend the reach of their brands. By keeping abreast of consumer trends, food ingredient providers and suppliers can ultimately provide the most appropriate solutions for manufacturers looking to improve quality, reduce costs and increase operational efficiency.

In baking applications, enzymes can be used to enhance the shelflife of bread and cake products, maintaining softness for longer and thus addressing the increasing consumer consciousness of portion size and demand for convenience. Baking enzymes unlock the natural emulsification properties of lipids that are present in wheat flour; using this technology can help manufacturers to effectively replace emulsifiers and improve the softness, quality, crumb structure and overall shelf-life of their products. The Panamore range from DSM includes a range of solutions that are able to deliver these improvements. Panamore Golden offers an effective substitute for DATEM emulsifiers and Panamore Spring provides a sustainable alternative to the emulsifiers CSL and SSL (calcium and sodium stearoyl lactylate). Panamore Soft is an enzymatic solution specifically designed to improve the shelf-life of bread. In addition to developments within its baking portfolio, DSM is also expanding its CakeZyme range to accommodate new solutions. CakeZyme Sublime is a specialty lipase that harnesses advanced technology for improved softness in cake products and is suitable for a wide range of cake types, including muffins, pound cakes and sponges. CakeZyme Majestic is DSM’s latest innovation in enhancing shelf-life and providing a softer texture and crumb structure in cakes. Particularly suited to denser cake types, this blend of lipase and amylase maintains oven-fresh qualities and delays the onset of crumb firmness.

Innovations for the Baking, Beverage and Dairy Industries Enzymes have been used in food production to improve the quality, texture, shelf-life and yield from raw materials for decades, and advances in enzyme technology present an effective option to reduce costs and maintain consistent quality. Although cost and efficiency remain key drivers for many manufacturers, the need to offer ingredient quality and safety has become equally as important. Enzymatic processing aids can be used across a wide range of applications throughout the baking, beverage and dairy industries to provide a range of benefits from improved quality, reduced costs and energy consumption to increased production cycles. September/October 2011

Beverage Enzymatic processing in fruit drink production can have a significant impact on juice yield — not only in terms of extraction mass, but nutritional value, colour and flavour. DSM’s range of fruit processing enzymes, Rapidase, helps manufacturers to deliver high quality berry and apple juice products that meet consumer preferences and increase production efficiency. In

last word


particular, the Rapidase Smart Color enzyme offers benefits in berry juice applications to ensure optimal filtration and boost the extraction of natural phenolic compounds, aroma and colour. The brewing sector is one of the key growth markets for enzymes — they can be used in the brewing process, in addition to other stages, to improve the clarity of the finished product while reducing the environmental impact of beer production. As natural catalysts and processing aids, enzymes complement, speed up or replace traditional treatments throughout the various brewing stages to accelerate conversions and reduce the levels of raw materials required. DSM has developed a strong brewing enzymes portfolio using the latest enzyme technology. Brewers Clarex is a breakthrough enzymatic solution that prevents chill haze formation while maintaining beer quality. This solution helps to significantly reduce or completely remove the costly and time consuming cold stabilization phase, which requires high energy consumption to chill beer to sub-zero temperatures. The use of Brewers Clarex can save brewers up to €100,000 per million hectolitres per year by increasing maturation capacity. DSM recently launched its innovative Brewers Compass enzyme solution for brewing with 30–100% unmalted barley. The use of this raw material offers interesting opportunities for the brewing industry to diversify and segment product portfolios, and significantly reduce its environmental impact — savings typically being in excess of 60 kg of CO2 per ton of barley. Brewing is a highly competitive and cost sensitive business and Brewers Compass enables the creation of new products, such as fruit flavoured beers, or beer with (super) fruit juice mixes, using a cost effective barley base beer.

Dairy Enzymes can play a key role in a wide range of applications in the production of milk, yoghurts, ice cream and cheeses. In cheese applications in particular, enzymes can enable producers to accelerate ripening times, increase production efficiency and improve flavour and texture. The dairy and cheese industries have particularly regionalized demands and are subject to differences in consumer tastes across a range of territories, which must be catered to by producers, typically using specific brands to target audiences. In Asia for example, many consumers suffer from lactose intolerance, which affects the digestion of dairy products. DSM’s range of Maxilact enzymes provide a solution for milk, ice cream and yoghurt products free from lactase and also add a natural, sweet flavour that can replace added sugars. This enables producers to target a new market segment — one that seeks healthy solutions for vital living. DSM has also developed an innovative range of enzymes for the cheese industry, which reduce ripening periods and help producers to meet the demands of the modern consumer without compromising on flavour and texture. These enzymes can be used in a variety of cheeses around the world, providing the right balance for local preferences.

Improving Sustainability Performance with Enzymes Enzymes play a vital role in helping food and beverage manufacturers to achieve their sustainability and efficiency goals. Improvements and innovations in enzyme technology do more than deliver processing benefits; they also help producers to reduce their environmental impact. DSM’s range of enzyme solutions for the baking, beverage and dairy industries contribute significantly to improvements in sustainability and product differentiation. By enabling beer stabilization to take place at a higher temperature and/or during a shorter period of time, and as a result reducing the energy consumption required to cool the beer and

maintain a conditioning temperature, CO2 emissions in the brewing process may be reduced by the use of Brewers Clarex. Consequently, brewers are able to increase their cold conditioning capacity without the need for CAPEX and reduce the CO2 footprint of their beer manufacturing stage by up to 8%. Analysis has shown that if Brewers Clarex was used in all global beer production for one year, the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions avoided would be equivalent to 160,000 trips around the world in a car. In the baking industry, DSM’s Panamore range of enzymes has replaced DATEM, CSL and SSL emulsifiers. A lifecycle analysis has shown that the required amount of the enzyme has a carbon footprint that is 80% lower than the quantity of emulsifiers it replaces. In global terms, if Panamore were to replace all bread emulsifiers, the resulting reduction in carbon emissions would be equal to the annual carbon footprint of 15,000 Western Europeans. DSM continues to study the environmental impact of all its products as part of its commitment to creating a more sustainable future. Developments in enzyme technology spark exciting opportunities for the food and beverage industry as it adjusts to ever changing regulations and consumer trends. By understanding these factors, food ingredients suppliers are actively engaged in improving the quality and standard of food, as well as providing solutions that can enhance food production efficiencies.

For more information Saskia Nuijten Communications Manager DSM Food Specialties Tel. +31 15 279 2685

September/October 2011


regulatory review

Analytical Testing Method Madness

When it comes to compendial methods such as USP, EP, JP and AOAC, we often try to force the issue. Despite being the best way to keep things simple with easy audits, they are not always appropriate methods for many of the new specialized products on the market today. Of course, they are always the best starting point for any analysis; frequently, however, a compendial method is used only to find that the results deviate from the expected.


he cGMPs for dietary supplements do not specifically require the use of official validated methods (USP, AOAC, etc.), although the verbiage does state that the method must be “scientifically valid” — the definition of which, according the cGMPs, incorporates specificity, accuracy and precision, and closely resembles method validation. So, how does one determine if an official validated method is fit for purpose — it is applicable for a specific product? First, determine if the method is valid for the sample matrix. The matrix refers to the components of the sample other than the analyte; it is these components that can cause interference of the analyte in question. This matrix effect is a thorn in the side of all analytical chemists and contributes to almost all erratic data generated in analytical laboratories. Unless exactly the same components analysed in method validation are found in the product, there is the possibility of a matrix effect. Therefore, it stands to reason that the probability of matrix interference occurring is highly likely, considering the multitude of products on the market, all of which contain different materials. A single official validated method cannot possibly cover this broad range, so it is obvious that a new method or

at least modifications of the official methods must be used. It is not surprising that matrix effects happen so frequently, especially for new products — formulators are becoming Dr Cheri Turman

more creative in the encapsulation of actives and they may contain mixtures of synthetic actives with botanical extracts. These present a challenge for the analytical chemist attempting recover all the analyte with traditional validated methods such as those found in the USP or AOAC. A prime example is the new trend of preparing fat-soluble vitamins to become stable and dissolve in aqueous solutions; such modifications alter the chemical environment and can potentially interfere with the current accepted method of detection for the vitamin. Encapsulation techniques have been used in the pharmaceutical industry for decades, but it is important to remember that this industry is highly regulated and generates more in revenue than dietary supplements. A pharmaceutical company must demonstrate that the original accepted analytical method for an unaltered active performs equally as well with the altered encapsulated form and if any interferences are noticed, a new method must be developed and undergo a complete validation. This process is not practical for the wide variety of products in the dietary September/October 2011

supplement industry and poses a huge cost and time challenge. The nutraceutical industry really seems to be approaching a crossroads in terms of proper method selection and the extent to which method validation is pursued. Auditors and inspectors pressure companies to use compendial methods; yet, it becomes rapidly obvious when results are extremely low for a properly manufactured product or laboratory batch sample, that the accepted method is inadequate for the new product. Method development and validation for every product would be very expensive, especially when manufacturing hundreds of various products. If every dietary supplement had to go through this process, the cost of products would inflate to unimaginable levels (similar to pharmaceutical drugs). A single method development and validation can sometimes cost $50,000 or more and take months to perform. Most nutraceutical companies are not in a position to incur this cost burden, especially before knowing the popularity of the product and ultimate sales figures. It remains to be seen how most inspectors and auditors will handle the issue of modified or new methods for chemically modified forms of dietary ingredients. Hopefully, the approach will be to use scientific reasoning to accept methods that are fit for purpose and realize that the industry is trying to generate quality products through adequate testing. The best way to prepare is to use sound scientific principals, document all steps in method development and validation and have someone on staff who can explain the reasoning behind the testing decisions.

For more information Dr Cheri Turman Director of Chemistry Analytical Food Laboratories Tel. +1 800 242 6494




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Key benefits of KiOnutrime-Cs® Unbeatable fat-binding capacity, at least 800 times its own weight in fat in vitro

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Safe and non-allergenic: 100% animal-free, GMO-free, allergen-free High purity ingredient (90%) Leaves all the good nutrients Scientifically-designed ingredient

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Discover KiOnutrime-Cs® at SupplySide West 2011 - Booth 20100 and at Food Ingredients Europe - Booth 2D59 September/October 2011


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NBT Sep 2011  

Volume 7 Number 5 September/October 2011

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