Page 1 Probiotics Restoring the balance Claims under pressure

Cosmetic Focus Marketing products in Southern Africa

Volume 7 Number 2

March/April 2011

Functional Bakery, Sports Nutrition, Cognitive Health and More

Women’s Health Supplementing the fairer sex

ingredients • functional foods • nutraceuticals • supplements • raw materials •


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Volume7 Issue2

03 32



From the Editor 05 Softer Health Claims in the Offing for 2011 Dr Kevin Robinson

22 38


Show Preview 06 Geneva Set for Success Hanna Leerink

News 08 All the Latest News and Updates

GOED Report 12 A Valuable Exchange Adam Ismail and Harry Rice

30 Supplementing the Fairer Sex


Liz Campbell

14 Functional Foods and Drinks: A Cholesterol Lowering Alternative to Statins

Infant Nutrition 32 The Best Start in Life Anna-Maria Stiefel and Dr Birgit Hoeft

David Peters

Gut Health 16 Controlling Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Naturally Derived Approach

Health Management 34 Bakery and Cereals with Benefits Tim Van der Schraelen

Steve Morrison

Cosmetic Focus

18 Probiotic Claims Come Under Pressure

38 Developing and Marketing Cosmetic and Cosmeceutical Products in Southern Africa

Olivia Sant’Angelo

Sybille Buchwald-Werner and Sabrina Scholz

Sports Nutrition 44 Building Muscle and Strength with Whey Protein Bridget Holmes

Animal Nutrition 46 A New Era for Animal Nutrition Craig McIntosh

Last Word 48 Meeting the Cognitive Health Challenge Rob Winwood

Regulatory Review 50 Which Disinfectant is Right for Me? Cheri M. Turman and Benny McKee

22 Probiotic Chocolate: Restoring the Balance Alex Landuyt

Women’s Health

New Product Development

40 Efficacy Studies of the Future Andrew Thompson and Gunter Schmidt

24 Designing Healthy Products for Women

42 Fuzzy Edges Make for Sloppy Thinking

Ram Chaudhari

Mary Harrington


March/April 2011




Volume 7 Issue 2 March/April 2011 ISSN 1745-8307



Editorial Director

General Manager

Kevin Robinson +44 (0) 1392 202 591

Miranda Docherty +44 (0) 1372 364 122

Managing Director


Simon Jones +44 (0) 1372 364 131

Gill Healy +44 (0) 1372 364 128

Art Director/Production

Heba Hassanatou +44 (0) 1372 364 127

Paul Andrews +44 (0) 1372 364 126

Financial Controller Web Design/Marketing Claire Day +44 (0) 1372 364 129

Catherine Swainson +44 (0) 1372 364 123

Editorial Advisory Board FIBERS

Susanne Fässler Marketing Communication Manager Frutarom Switzerland Ltd Jörg Grünwald President Analyze & Realize ag Dr Michelle H. Jones Manager, Regulatory and Scientific Affairs Archer Daniels Midland Company John Kurstjens Marketing Manager Lipid Nutrition

• Natural dietary fiber with documented health benefits

Chris Lee Event Director IIR Exhibitions

• Proven and recognized prebiotic effect

Ulla Freitas Manager Scientific Affairs, Nutrition Lonza AG

• High digestive tolerance

To subscribe

• Easy to use in any application • Low caloric value, safe for teeth

Theodor Graser Head Pharma Industry DSM Nutritional Products Ltd Denzil Phillips Founder Denzil Phillips International Pedro Vieira Marketing Manager Kemin Health Europe Robin Ward Managing Director Excelsa Pharmaceuticals Sagl John Wilkinson Consultant Phytochemist and Director Herbal Sciences Int. Ltd Dr Paul Berryman Chief Executive Leatherhead Food International Norbert Weitkemper Managing Director Vital Solutions GmbH

Professionals working within the industries we cover may purchase a year’s subscription by sending a cheque for £100.00 made payable to Via Media UK Ltd, Wesley House, Bull Hill, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT22 7AH No part of this magazine may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without permission. Copyright © 2011, Via Media UK Ltd. All Rights Reserved

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The publisher endeavours to collect and include complete, correct and current information in Nutraceutical Business & Technology, but does not warrant that any or all such information is complete, correct or current. The publisher does not assume, and hereby disclaims, any liability to any person or entity for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions of any kind, whether resulting from negligence, accident or any other cause. Nutraceutical Business & Technology does not verify any claims or other information appearing in any of the advertisements contained in the publication, and cannot take any responsibility for any losses or other damages incurred by readers in reliance on such content.

from the editor


Softer Health Claims in the Offing for 2011 As predicted by Innova Market Insights towards the end of last year, driven by the ongoing uncertainty surrounding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claims, new product development in the European supplements sector is slowing down and food product manufacturers are switching to more general claims in the healthy foods space.


he company tracked 384 new supplement products in West Europe in the first half of 2010 (January to June), compared with 405 in the corresponding period in 2009, in an analysis of the top five positioning categories for supplements. The leading positioning category for new supplements in H1 2010 was weight management (99), followed by immune health (91) and digestive/liver health (86). NBT spoke to Tim Van der Schraelen, Marketing and Communication Manager at BENEO, to get an insider point of view. “This year looks set to be another year of challenges for the functional food ingredients market. With 80% of 2010’s health claims being refused by EFSA, the major challenge for 2011 and beyond for manufacturers will be how to differentiate their products and make them stand out from the crowd? Manufacturers will have to rethink their products to a certain extent if they don’t want to fall into the commodity trap.”

Innova’s research also suggested that functional food innovation in Europe as a whole is also in decline. In terms of new product launches, manufacturers are waiting for EFSA’s opinions on health claims. As such, 1960 new products with an “active health” positioning were tracked between January and June in 2010, compared with 2189 new products with this positioning in the corresponding period in 2009. This decline in “active health” — food plus, such as “fortified” — products came despite a growth in “passive health” — food minus, such as “low and light” — claims on new products, with 10,350 products with a passive health claim tracked (Jan–Jun 2010), compared with 8747 new products during the same period in 2009. Tim commented: “2011 looks set to be an interesting year, as the functional ingredients industry responds to the challenges of EFSA’s existing rulings. I can see a move from benefit-led marketing towards ingredients-led communication as the industry continues to find its feet in this new, challenging environment; to give an example, we will see more ‘with bifidus bacteria’ and less ‘increases natural defences’ in the near future.” “Apart from generic claims of vitamins and minerals, EFSA’s assessment of health claims so far has resulted in mainly negative opinions,” said Lu Ann Williams, Head of Research at Innova Market Insights. “Manufacturers seem hesitant to launch new products with a strong health benefit claim if there is a chance that they will have to make a change to their labelling in the near future. With EFSA now setting a new deadline of the end of June 2011 for

generic Article 13 claims, and opinions on botanicals set to follow at the later stage, this uncertainty is set to last for some time.” Anke Sentko, Vice President of Regulatory Affairs and Nutrition Communication at BENEO, takes a slightly more pragmatic view: “Any items with the seal of approval from EFSA look set to have the competitive advantage in 2011. For those without EFSA sign off, the market will see a move towards the clever reformulation of products to promote nutrient content claims. Combined with consumer demand for weight management products, there will be an increased focus on the caloric value and physiological properties of food and drink products in 2011 and this will mean the rise of sugar replacers and dietary fibres. This will be further driven by the increasing tension between whether we, as an industry, should be countering obesity or catering for it and the fact that those who have ingredients such as sugar replacers, that can do both, will be increasingly sought after in the coming year. In addition, fibre could make a comeback in popularity as consumers continue to link this with feeling fuller for longer.” Tim Van der Schraelen also sees some light at the end of the tunnel: “I believe that 2011 will see new categories appearing in the energy and performance drinks sector as consumers demand more natural products. Red Bull and similar shot drinks have their place, but consumers are looking for different ways to get longer-term energy boosts. Combine this with the trend of an ageing workforce and more people looking for that boost to ‘get them through the day’ and I predict that we will see a sharp increase in energy and performance drinks that not only utilize innovative carbohydrates but also combine fruit and dairy alternative carriers.”

For more information Dr Kevin Robinson is Editorial Director of nutraceutical business & technology and can be reached at

March/April 2011


show preview

Geneva Set for Success Vitafoods Europe and Finished Products Expo make their welcome return.


ith the global nutrition industry currently worth an estimated €117 billion, it’s no surprise that Vitafoods Europe and Finished Products Expo (FPE) are growing rapidly year-on-year. And 2011 looks set to continue this trend, as the leading nutraceutical and dietary supplement events make their return to Geneva Palexpo from 10–12 May with more exhibitors and visitors than ever before.1 Still with 3 months to go until the show opens its doors, stand space for Vitafoods Europe is already 95% sold, leaving just a short period of time for potential exhibitors to book their stand. Leading nutraceutical, functional food and drink ingredient suppliers such as DSM, Cognis, Croda, Naturex, Frutarom and Glanbia Nutritionals will join a host of first-time exhibitors in presenting their latest innovations and extensive product ranges to an audience expected to top 8500. The same is true of sister show, Finished Products Expo. The event, which also enjoyed one of its most successful editions ever in 2010, is hoping to build on the autonomy and status it achieved last year to draw in more than 2500 attendees. More than 100 companies will showcase their latest innovative functional food and drink products, including Zuccari, Nutribio, VSI, Aromtech, Friesland Campina Creamy Creation, Medex and NOW International, all sure to catch the attention of the event’s high profile visitors. Event Director, Chris Lee, commented: “As ever, we’re really excited about both shows this year. We’ve got a great raft of exhibitors signed up and new companies are committing to stands all the time. Although we had successful shows last year, we’re certainly not resting on our laurels. We’re channelling our energies into coming up with new and different ideas to ensure that the shows remain fresh and current. We are working very closely with key industry figures, including members of our Steering Committee, Leatherhead Food Research and our media supporters to put together the most informative and captivating visitor programme that will appeal to the ever-evolving nutraceutical and dietary supplement industries.” March/April 2011

The Vitafoods Europe Conference has built an international reputation within the nutraceuticals industry as a high-quality platform that delivers a programme covering the hottest topics and themes in ingredients. Organized by Leatherhead Food Research, this year’s programme will focus on a number of brand new themes, including Food Allergy and Intolerance, Beauty Foods and Ingredients

“New to the show this year will be The Nutraceutical Business & Technology Awards, a gala dinner event to recognize excellence in R&D, marketing, business and technology in the areas of ingredients, finished products, applications and business practices (”

from Nature, as well as previously popular topics such as Appetite Control, Gut Health, Mental Health and Physical Performance to name a few. High profile speakers from leading global universities, academies, research houses and organizations will come together throughout the event to equip delegates with the knowledge to help them build their business for the future. Also offering visitors an insight into the latest research, innovations and services will be the Supplier Seminars, whereas the New Products Zone will highlight the very latest innovative products on the market.

What’s more, VitaTrend will bring together the most exciting trends and themes on nutraceuticals and functional foods in several presentations to visitors. EAS will once again play a key role in the show, hosting the Discussion Forum on the third morning (12 May). Entitled “Top 10 Opportunities and Challenges for Bringing Functional Foods to Market in the Next Decade,” the forum will provoke another exciting debate when it returns to Geneva Palexpo. EAS will also be offering free one-onone sessions from its experts, meaning visitors can benefit from sessions tailored to any aspect of their business including regulations, strategy, labeling and claims. Finished Products Expo will host its own dedicated features including the ever-buzzing Tasting Bar @ FPE, which offers visitors the opportunity to sample the latest innovations in the functional food and drinks market and establish the next big product to hit the market. The New Products Zone will also showcase revolutionary developments launched within the last 12 months. Attendees to FPE will also be able to benefit once again from the Distributors Wanted online matchmaking scheme, connecting exhibitors with new distribution partners before and during the show. Chris Lee concluded: “There’s a real buzz in the industry about both shows this year. We certainly set our stall out in 2010 and are doing everything we can to replicate and build on that success to make sure Vitafoods Europe and FPE are once again the must-attend shows in everyone’s diaries for 2011.”

Reference 1. A&R Nutrition Business Journal (www.docstoc. com/docs/21629928/The-Global-NutraceuticalIndustry--A-Perspective).

For more information Hanna Leerink IIR Exhibitions Tel. +44 203 377 3111



March/April 2011


New Facilities Support Growth Reporting growth of 40% in 2010, Herbarom Laboratoire has recently moved to new premises. The company, founded in 1994 in a region traditionally known for its aromatic and medicinal plants, and as a pioneer in organic farming, specializes in producing essential oils and liquid dietary supplements, plant extracts, packaging for liquids and animal phytotherapies. As a dynamic and reactive SME, the company now has 40 employees, three dedicated industrial sites and a turnover of €7.8 million, 38% of which was derived from export sales. To support its growth and further improve its quality of service, Herbarom Laboratoire has built a new 3200 m2 building, just behind its former Aouste-sur-Sye premises in the heart of the Drôme region. Serving the needs of customers in the perfumery, parapharmaceutical, dietary supplement and cosmetics industries, the site now offers 400 m2 of offices, 1980 m2 of production area and 820 m2 of storage (

DSM Gears Up in Cultures DSM Food Specialties ( announces the following appointments in its Cultures business: Mr Jan Boeg Hansen has been appointed as Sales Director, Cultures, effective 1 February. Mr Hansen has been working in the cultures and enzymes industry for many years in several senior marketing and sales positions with various global biotech companies. Mr Peter Wagner has been appointed as Production Director, Cultures, with effect from 1 March. Mr Wagner has extensive experience in the production area of cultures, having worked in several management positions in this industry. Mr Hans Holm has been appointed as Innovation Manager, effective 1 January. Mr Holm brings more than 18 years of experience from the cultures industry with him. “The cultures market is one in which we see a strong match with our capabilities,” says Hans-Christian Ambjerg, President, DSM Food Specialties. “DSM is an industry leader in the scientific and commercial application of biotechnology. Our unique competencies in this field, combined with the experience and knowledge of Jan Boeg Hansen, Hans Holm and Peter Wagner, puts DSM Food Specialties in an advantageous position to bring new value-creating solutions to our customers. Our cultures portfolio, as you know it today, is just the start.”

Efficacy and Safety of Meriva Confirmed in OA Study In a study published in Alternative Medicine Review, Meriva, a proprietary formulation of curcumin with soy phospholipids from Indena (, has been shown to relieve pain and increase mobility in patients with osteoarthritis, as well as reduce a series of inflammatory markers. In this new registry study, 100 patients with X-ray-confirmed osteoarthritis (OA) were divided in two groups. The first one was managed using the “best available treatment” and the second group used the best available treatment plus Meriva, at a dosage corresponding to 200 mg of curcumin/day. The results showed that the Meriva group had a statistically significant reduction in all primary clinical end-points, WOMAC score, Karnofsky Performance Scale and the treadmill walking performance test. These results were complemented by the evaluation of a series of inflammatory markers that also showed a marked reduction in the Meriva-treated group, whereas no significant variation was observed in the “best available treatment” group. Commenting on the results of the study, Giovanni Appendino, Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of Eastern Piedmont and Indena Scientific Adviser, said: “This study represents the most ambitious attempt to date to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Although no direct comparison study of Meriva and NSAIDs has been conducted, the decreased use of these drugs observed in the treatment group provides a rationale for evaluating whether the biochemical improvement in the inflammatory status associated with Meriva could eventually translate to a phase out of NSAID use, at least for mild-to-moderate OA.” March/April 2011

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March/April 2011



IADSA Highlights 2011 Agenda Growing market sizes, a stronger focus on product safety and the continuing harmonization of food supplement regulations show a global trend towards more regulation, not less, IADSA has said ( The International Alliance of Dietary/Food Supplement Associations (IADSA) said that whereas food supplement harmonization is already under way in the European Union, decisions are expected this year on key aspects of the Association of South East Asian Nations’ (ASEAN) similar process towards regional legislation. “Many countries are in the process of developing new regulatory frameworks, and regulators are increasingly monitoring the successes and challenges of similar initiatives across the globe,” said IADSA Chairman Peter Zambetti. “Therefore, there is a greater need for high quality scientific and technical regulatory information to be shared among decision makers, and IADSA facilitates this flow of information.” At the national level, IADSA’s plans this year include working in China, Eastern Europe and Russia with regulators and academia to discuss regulatory issues related to food supplements. Regionally, IADSA will continue to focus on Latin America. At the global level, IADSA’s focus will remain on food additives, as the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) meets in March to consider whether to adopt key draft provisions for food additives used in food supplements worldwide. IADSA has also identified technical changes in relation to the Codex review of Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for vitamins and minerals, and some other initiatives such as the proposal to develop a standard for marine oils. Mr Zambetti said: “There was an overwhelming support from Codex member countries for IADSA’s request that FAO/WHO provide the most recent NRVs from internationally authoritative scientific bodies, to ensure that the values reflect the latest research on nutritional requirements. Consequently, the World Health Organization has been commissioned by Codex to undertake this compilation.” Mr Zambetti said: “This revision of all NRVs is important because the revisions agreed by Codex will be implemented by governments worldwide and will have an impact on the labelling of most nutrition claims.”

Danisco Backs Probiotic Documentary Danisco contributes unique insights into the probiotic world in a new independent documentary that explains the story of probiotics, how they are produced and tested, and the latest research. The global leader in probiotics has both sponsored and participated in the film, “Microwarriors,” which includes clips from Danisco’s probiotic development and production facilities in Madison (WI, USA). Vice President of Health and Nutrition Marketing at Danisco, Scott Bush, is among the featured experts. He welcomes the documentary as an opportunity to reach out to healthcare professionals in particular. “As much as we need to provide consumers with the necessary information about the health benefits and safety of probiotics, it’s important to get the influencers to buy into this, because they are the ones who talk to consumers. One example is when a doctor prescribes antibiotic treatment that, as many people experience, can have unwanted digestive sideeffects. A proper dose of the right probiotics, recommended by a physician, represents a safe and effective way to maintain proper GI function,” Bush states. Executive producer at Health Point Productions, David Knight, thanks Danisco for providing “tremendous support” in getting Microwarriors off the ground. “Danisco is one of the companies responsible for making this whole documentary happen,” he said, adding: “It’s education. We wanted to create a story to show the science and that there are real benefits.” Microwarriors is the first in a trilogy of documentaries on probiotics planned by Health Point Productions. To view the trailer, visit

Diapharm Registers St John’s Wort and Black Cohosh Product Pharmaceutical service provider, Diapharm, has obtained the first traditional herbal registration for a fixed combination of St John’s Wort and Black Cohosh in Europe. Both active ingredients are used to relieve the various symptoms of the menopause, giving the combination a synergistic effect. One coated tablet of the medicinal product, registered by the British MHRA, contains 300 mg of Hypericum extract and 6.4 mg of Cimicifuga extract. “It is the first time that such a fixed combination of Hypericum and Cimicifuga has been registered in Europe as a traditional herbal medicinal product,” says Dr Karim Sultan from Diapharm ( The product is approved by the MHRA for the relief of menopause symptoms, including hot flushes, night sweats, slightly depression and mild anxiety based on traditional use only. “We are now applying for further registrations in countries such as Austria, Hungary and France,” explains Dr Sultan. Approximately one quarter of all traditional herbal registrations in Europe originate with Diapharm. In the UK alone, Diapharm has prepared and documented 35 of the 79 newly registered traditional herbal medicinal products. “As the sell-off period in Europe expires on 30 April 2011, we expect another surge in demand for our dossiers and registrations,” explains Dr Sultan. After this date, it will no longer be possible to sell unregistered herbal products. “For this reason, many manufacturers seek licences for dossiers and registrations to protect their product portfolios for the future.” March/April 2011

Cramer Focuses on Europe Cramer Productos Aromáticos, a well-established specialist producer of flavours and fragrances to the food, pharma and cosmetics industries in South America is entering the European market. The company will work with Kreglinger Specialties in Antwerp, Belgium, to market and distribute products in Europe. Both companies have extensive and longstanding experience in the industry, are family owned and have agreed to work together on a long-term basis. Andrés Berndt, CEO of Cramer, explains: “Working with Kreglinger, we will enter the European market this year and are confident that we can develop our service offering to become a key partner for all our customers.” Cramer Productos Aromáticos and Kreglinger Specialties will offer an attractive package of innovative products, strong customer support, competitive prices and on-time deliveries. Besides having the skills and experience to serve the European flavours and food supplements market, the combined team also has the ability to offer specialties that are completely new to this market. “Wim Arnouts, CEO of Kreglinger, confirms: “Kreglinger has a longstanding presence and expertise in the market as a specialty ingredients supplier. This is further supported by our own logistics organization, including a regular freight consolidation from Chile and local stockkeeping in Belgium. Joining forces with another family owned company will allow a fair and balanced development, building on both companies’ strengths.” Visit for more information.

From biological silos to non-dairy probiotics

In 1983, Yves Delatte managed to implement the first fully successful biological silo in Seinäjoki (Finland), which was followed by probiotics directed at livestock between 1983-1988. These probiotics contained living lactic acid bacteria and carbohydrate and sugar sources, which activate the mixture prior to absorption in the intestines. In fact, the formula was quite simply and logically the same as previously used in silos. The same man was behind the market’s first probiotics, in Holland, France & Scandinavia and these products are still on the market. One of the products was chosen as the Finnish health food of the year in 1997. The background to these products is actually the technology that was developed 30 years ago! Now, Biolatte Oy has a new range of products which differs from such products which have been prepared with the old technology, which has too often been copied. We only make high quality and efficient products, instead of mixtures.

Our products:

Non-dairy probiotics since 1980

carbohydrates are no longer used, as they also bring along moisture and fertilizer residues, which can be harmful to people suffering from allergies. inulin is no longer used. Inulin is a residue of the sugar industry, and it has not been proven to possess any “in vivo” value. Instead, inulin strengthens the growth of bacteria, including pathogenic bacteria, and such risks should not be taken in the manufacture of probiotics. Biolatte Oy does not use bacteria from the dairy industry in its products, the health influences of which have already been seen in yoghurt. We use only human specific bacterial strains, which, due to the immunological properties cling to the intestinal epithelium, or to the mucosa. Biolatte Oy does not manufacture the products in tablet form or in blister packaging, as the hot temperature and pressure used in the process kills most of the bacterial strains.

From this perspective, we have developed the Biolatte product range which seems to be superior to all other products on the market in regard to its quality, stability and efficiency. Biolatte products have already been on the market for years and have received a great deal of good and satisfactory feedback.

See us at Stand 2222 and on March/April 2011


GOED report

A Valuable Exchange

Participants in the long-chain omega-3 industry had the unique opportunity in January to convene, network and learn about the major topics facing the industry in the coming years. The Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED) held the GOED Exchange 2011 in Salt Lake City (Utah, USA) with key speakers and experts discussing various regulatory, scientific and marketing issues, including sustainability, the future of brain research, turning recommended intakes into increased consumption and even reaching consumers with the omega-3 message with new media tools.


r Richard Carmona, the seventeenth Surgeon General of the United States and an advocate of increasing our long-chain omega-3 intake, kicked off the first day of the Exchange with a keynote address that focused on how omega-3s can provide a nutritional defence for both civilians and specialized populations such as soldiers, and that it is incumbent upon industry to support the research that makes this a recognized reality. These public health messages were a key theme at the GOED Exchange, with speakers from Australia highlighting how the establishment of omega-3 intake recommendations is increasing intakes and improving public health. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission presented data on illegal omega-3 claims being made, reminding the industry that there is a burden of responsibility placed on marketers who are trying to responsibly build the market. For people who were already deep in the industry, there were several opportunities to continue to learn about the space, including a regulatory session that provided a comprehensive download from Dr Mary Van Elswyk on omega-3 claims in the EU, which are difficult even for industry veterans to get their heads around. Although many of the nutrients have been the subject of negative opinions from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), EPA and DHA have received multiple positive opinions owing to the strength of the supporting science. And, whereas Mary allowed attendees to bask in the industry’s good fortune, she also provided them with a dose of reality by discussing EFSA’s inconsistent evaluations between the short- and long-chain omega-3s. There were also two presentations on more innovative uses of EPA and DHA, including the use by trauma surgeons to reduce healthcare costs by cutting March/April 2011

hospitalization times and complication rates, as well as emerging case studies on the treatment of verbal apraxia in children. At dinner that evening, in his presentation, “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health Risks Among the US Military,” Captain Joseph R. Hibbeln, MD, from the National Institutes of Health provided attendees with a compelling reason for increasing the long-chain omega-3 intake of military personnel. At the risk of oversimplifying the message, lower levels of omega-3s correlate strongly with a higher suicide risk, a problem plaguing militaries with long-term deployments. Dr Hibbeln’s combination of wit and his deep understanding of the role of EPA and DHA in mental health never ceases to amaze participants. One of the real highlights for everyone attending the conference, though, was the opportunity to hear three of the forefathers of omega-3 research — Drs Jorn Dyerberg, William Lands and Michael Crawford — captivate the audience by recounting their early histories with EPA and DHA. It was an honour to be present for their talks and to document the history of the industry they launched with their research nearly 50 years ago. For those not familiar with the science of omega-3 fatty acids, the three scientists have close to 800 peer-reviewed publications, beginning in the 1960s. They were researching EPA and DHA long before EPA and DHA were part of people’s every day vocabulary. Dr Crawford also presented a compelling case in a panel on sustainability for how the evolution of the human brain has depended on access to DHA in the diet, and how sustaining our intelligence will require continued sustainable sources of the nutrient. He was joined in the panel by Kees Lankester from the Marine Stewardship Council, Dr Andrew Jackson from the International Fishmeal and Fishoil

Organization, and Dr Simeon Hill from the British Antarctic Survey, who shared with the industry their plans for ensuring that fisheries used for omega-3 products can remain sustainable. One key issue for industry today is a proposal for a Codex Standard for Marine Oils. In our next column, we will provide an update on Codex deliberations on this important global trade topic. There was a session at the GOED Exchange on the issue to provide a better understanding of the implications of adopting a Codex Standard and an overview on the current efforts to establish a Standard for Marine Oils. For more than a year, an informal industry working group — of which GOED is a member — has worked to provide feedback to the Swiss government that is launching the effort. The Codex Commission’s Fats and Oils Committee will decide in February in Penang, Malaysia, whether or not to develop such a standard, which would provide overarching requirements for quality and compositional factors for different marine oils. The aforementioned review doesn’t come close to representing the breadth of knowledge and expertise that was shared unselfishly by 33 speakers on 19 different topics at the GOED Exchange. If you are in the omega-3 business, this was an unprecedented opportunity to hear from government regulators, leading scientists and innovative practitioners trying to change the world’s behaviour towards omega-3s.

For more information Adam Ismail, Executive Director and Harry Rice, VP, Regulatory and Scientific Affairs Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED) 1075 East Hollywood Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah 84105, USA. Tel. +1 801 746 1413

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Functional Foods and Drinks

A Cholesterol Lowering Alternative to Statins The long-running public health debate about the widespread prescription of statins to lower cholesterol was recently reignited when a study from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine not only questioned the value they provide — both in medical terms for patients and monetary terms for the NHS — but also raised the possibility that they might in some cases be doing more harm than good. Previous studies had focused on the muscle and liver damage experienced by some of the estimated seven million people in the UK who are taking statins, but the new study also highlighted problems relating to their effect on memory and mood.


he National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends that those patients with a significantly aboveaverage chance of suffering a heart attack, stroke or heart disease during the next 10 years should be prescribed statins. However, the case for those at lower risk or with only slightly elevated cholesterol levels is far less clear cut; and, given the negative press concerning statins, it is not surprising to find that these patients are increasingly looking to alternative, more natural ways of lowering their cholesterol. This represents a great opportunity for food and drink manufacturers to create functional products from natural ingredients that target cholesterol reduction as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle.

This process has already begun with the launch of foods such as Flora’s pro.activ range, Benecol and Kellogg’s Optivita. The former two are based on plant sterols and stanols, whereas the latter contains oat beta glucan. And it is an exciting new development in the area of oat beta glucan that promises to significantly increase the choice of cholesterol-lowering foods and drinks available to consumers. The health benefits of oats have been recognized for many centuries and this humble grain is currently undergoing a very popular revival, featuring on the breakfast menus of the likes of Starbucks and McDonald’s. However, even the heartiest of appetites might struggle to consume the 3–4 bowls of porridge per day required to benefit from the cholesterol-lowering effect of oats. That is one of the reasons why PromOat, the oat beta glucan ingredient produced by Swedish grain fractionation specialists, Biovelop, has been welcomed with such enthusiasm. Using its patented, chemical-free fractionation technology, the company is able to separate the beta glucan soluble fibre from the other constituents of the oats as a clean-label ingredient that can then be added to a wide range of food and drink products, thereby bestowing the health benefits of oats on those products … but without the oat taste, colour or lumpiness. First to market with this innovative ingredient has been the ever health-conscious Marks & Spencer, which recently launched a new Super Juice drink containing oat beta glucan to help lower cholesterol. This promises to be the first in a long line of products hitting the supermarket shelves to contain oat beta glucan, with manufacturers utilizing PromOat’s versatility and powerful technical qualities to develop a wide range of healthy versions of everyday foods and drinks. Oat beta glucan is one of the very few ingredients approved by both EFSA and the FDA for cholesterol-reduction health claim purposes and it is the backing of these substantiated health claims that gives consumers the confidence to purchase products containing it. The message that “oats are good for you” is developing into one of “the beta glucan March/April 2011

in oats is good for you,” and consumers are being educated about the benefits of oat beta glucan by a combination of breakfast cereal packets and informative websites. Functional foods and drinks clearly have a very important role to play in the ongoing battle against cholesterol and heart disease. They can provide a more natural way than statins to keep cholesterol levels in check, with the added bonus of prompting people to focus on what they eat, rather than relying on a pill. Some patients will continue to require statins to reduce the risk of future heart-related health issues but many could reduce their cholesterol to — and maintain it at — normal levels by incorporating the power of nature into their diets. Faced with increasing pressure from government bodies to produce healthier foods, the food and drink industry has an ideal opportunity to demonstrate that nutraceutical ingredients can mean healthier sales figures as well as healthier consumers.

For more information David Peters Director, Sales and Marketing Biovelop AB (


gut health

Controlling Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A Naturally Derived Approach

The global market for food and beverages with gut or digestive health claims is currently worth an estimated $10 billion … and is expected to continue growing. An impressive 4000 new products were launched globally in 2009, making the gut and digestive health market the single largest division of the food and health markets in Europe, Japan and South America, with North America not far behind. The trend, however, is not thought to have reached its peak, and is expected to grow as consumers continue to see functional foods as an important part of a healthy lifestyle. With both the medical and business communities seeing potential in medical foods, the sector could play an important role in the rise of the gut health trend, offering patients non-invasive forms of treatment and manufacturers the opportunity to stand out from the crowd.


ith such scope for profit, manufacturers need to launch original and effective products if they are to succeed in a highly competitive market. The industry is innovating at a fast pace, moving beyond products that simply promote a healthy digestive system. In recent years, there has been much interest in developing food and beverage products for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease, a disorder for which there is currently no cure. Existing therapeutic treatments for Crohn’s disease, including steroids, immunosuppressive drugs and surgery, aim to reduce the symptoms during periods of relapse and promote the maintenance of remission. Medical foods already available to Crohn’s disease patients are mainly elemental foods designed to provide the patient with essential nutrients, feeding the patient rather than treating the disease. Consequently, there is much interest in the estimated one billion dollar treatments market.

A Focus on Crohn’s Disease Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disorder that’s characterized by inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Although this occurs most commonly in the small or large intestine, any section of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be affected by the disease. The development and course of CD involves a complex interplay between host genetics, defects in the barrier function of the gut lining and inappropriate immune responses to gut bacteria. Most cases of Crohn’s disease first develop in people who are between 16 and 30 years of age, although the condition can affect people of all ages, including children. CD is most common in the economically developed nations of Western Europe and North America, where low levels of soluble fibre are eaten and where the use of emulsifiers in processed food is common. 1 It is thought CD prevalence (per 100,000) for Canada and the UK are some of the highest ever recorded. 2,3

Targeting Microbial Profiles Many experts believe that gut bacteria may play a role in the pathogenesis and development of Crohn’s disease. The ability of certain types of Escherichia coli to adhere to and invade the gut lining via intestinal epithelial cells is of particular interest, as significantly more mucosa-associated bacteria have been isolated from Crohn’s disease biopsy samples compared with specimens from either ulcerative colitis or control patients.4,5 There is a growing March/April 2011

Medical foods already available to Crohn’s disease patients are mainly elemental foods designed to provide the patient with essential nutrients, feeding the patient rather than treating the disease.

gut health




body of evidence to suggest that the adhesive bacteria are present in increased numbers in CD patients, a link reported by at least 14 research groups. These bacteria have been found to disrupt a number of immunological interactions, the inhibition of which is likely to be of therapeutic benefit to the patient.

The Natural Solution UK-based company, Provexis, has developed a naturally derived product that can inhibit the interaction between those E. coli found in Crohn’s disease and epithelial cells. The company’s researchers have found that certain soluble fibres derived from plantain can reduce the adhesion of pathogens and control the invasion of the gut by E. coli. This extract addresses the currently unmet medical need for nutraceutical products that can maintain or promote remission in Crohn’s disease patients. The highly versatile plantainderived soluble fibre is manufactured as a dry powder sachet. It can be presented as a food supplement or food additive, or can be incorporated into a variety of applications, such as functional foods, beverages or nutraceuticals. These products may also be used as staple foods, as well as when there may be a clinical need. Further conventional ‘nutraceutical’ procedures may be employed to create liquid drinks, powder mixes and foodstuffs.

Next Steps: Medical Foods Preliminary trials of the plantain-derived extract in healthy humans have shown no significant adverse effects from the consumption of plantain-derived polysaccharide supplements on markers of gastrointestinal health during a 21-day supplementation period. Provexis is currently doing a randomized controlled trial in Crohn’s disease patients of soluble plantain fibre for the maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease. The multicentre study is running in collaboration with Royal Liverpool University Hospital, University Hospital Aintree, University Hospital Bristol and the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. Moving forward, Provexis is focused on developing a strong technology pipeline with a particular focus on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal technologies. It is also very interested in finding ways to bridge the gap between the functional food and clinical nutrition sectors. With global giants Danone and Nestlé investing heavily, clinical nutrition is an area projected to grow into next year and beyond. With this in mind, the company is looking to enhance its business by acquiring technologies or technology companies to help Provexis make its mark in an important, exciting and profitable sector.

References 1. B.M. Calkins, Epidemiol. Rev. 8, 60–91 (1986). 2. B.M. Calkins, Epidemiol. Rev. 8, 160.7–318.5 (1986). 3. B.M. Calkins, Epidemiol. Rev. 8, 144–214 (1986). 4. H.M. Martin, Gastroenterology 127(1), 80–93 (2004). 5. J. Boudeau, Infect. Immun. 67(9), 4499–4509 (1999).

For more information Steve Morrison Chief Operating Officer Provexis plc Thames Court, 1 Victoria Street, Windsor SL4 1YB, UK. Tel. +44 1753 752 290

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March/April 2011


gut health

Probiotic Claims Come Under Pressure A cloud of uncertainty hovering over health claims has resulted in a fall in numbers of food and drink products being launched on an “active health” — food plus, such as fortified — platform, despite growth in “passive health” — food minus, such as “low fat” — launches.


oncerns about the impact of EFSA’s tough health claim scrutiny policy are now rife in the European food industry, and this is impacting innovative functional food development, including that within the digestive health space. Probiotic dairy products was one of the early areas of development, not only in functional dairy products but in functional foods as a whole, and it continues to lead the functional dairy market by a wide margin — with particular strength in Europe — reflecting the higher overall penetration of chilled dairy products, as well as the greater development of the probiotic sector. Innova Market Insights recorded the launch of more than 1300 products marketed on a probiotic platform in the 12 months to the end of June 2010, up from just over 600 in the same period 5 years ago. Dairy products continue to lead the sector, accounting for 56% of probiotic launches recorded during that period, ahead of dietary supplements with a 25% share. Europe continues to dominate the interest in probiotic dairy products, accounting for 53% of launches, well ahead of the US on 17%. In Europe, many lines are, despite few having yet gained EFSA approval for their claims, being marketed increasingly strongly on a digestive or gut health platform. Some clarification in the area of probiotics came at the beginning of December 2010 during the EFSA Workshop on Health Claims Related to Gut Health and Immunity, although many questions were left unresolved, with “much uncertainty as to what is required by way of the scientific substantiation of such claims.” EFSA will update its guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune functions early in 2011, as a result of the views exchanged. Whereas the European probiotics market is busy assessing health claims related to gut and immune function, the US market is still featuring innovative launches. Innova Market Insights tracked 375 new products on the US market (Nov 09–Oct 10) including the word “probiotic,” down from 495 in the previous 12 months. Recently, Natural Discoveries LLC announced the launch of the first probiotic chocolate milk product, MojoMilk, via a video released on YouTube and Facebook. The company plans to use targeted social media to gain consumer fans. MojoMilk is claimed to be the first probiotic chocolate milk mix delivering ten times the active probiotic cultures of yoghurt and 60% fewer calories than the leading chocolate milk. MojoMilk includes the patented probiotic strain, GanedenBC30, which is “clinically proven to boost immunity and improve digestive health.” Probiotics are the leading ingredients incorporated into products marketed on a digestive health platform, accounting for 62.9% of global product launches in this space in 2010. This was followed by “prebiotics” (37.5%) and “fibre” (31.6%). For the moment, however, the tide has turned for making “added fibre” claims amidst an atmosphere of uncertainty around fibre/prebiotic claims. Innova Market Insights tracked just 32 new products featuring an “added fibre” claim in the first half of 2010 in West Europe, compared with 130 in H1 2009 and 87 in H1 2008. There has also been a dramatic recent decline in the US market from the heady heights of 159 new products with an “added fibre” claim in H1 2009, to a mere 37 in


gut health

H1 2010. But one major introduction during the autumn illustrated that fibre claims are the key breeding ground for future innovation, particularly in the breakfast cereals segment. In the UK, Kellogg’s launched Coco Pops Choc ‘n’ Roll, a children’s breakfast cereal with nutrition credentials that pass the stringent Food Standards Agency’s nutrient profile. Choc ‘n’ Roll is promoted as offering mums “a lower salt, lower sugar, low saturated fat, high fibre, wholegrain and fortified chocolate cereal the kids will eat.” The launch came at the same time as a Kellogg Company UK announcement was made to say that it was making significant enhancements to its Kellogg’s Coco Pops cereals, including a reduction in sugar and the addition of vitamin D. Combining probiotics and prebiotics in the same product (socalled “synbiotics”) is still coming from a small base, with only 6 products tracked in 2010 using this term. But synbiotics remain a trend to watch as consumers become increasingly aware of the probiotic and prebiotic concept. For example, in New Zealand, Meadow Fresh Pre-Bio Yogurt: Fig & Honey from Goodman Fielder “contains natural prebiotics and probiotics that are clinically proven to help your digestive system work the way it’s supposed to.” As question marks continue to surround the issue of health claims, cleverly marketed products that can entice the consumer through visual clues will succeed. A great example is Stonyfield Farm’s (US) B-Healthy and B-Well organic yoghurt, which are two fruiton-the bottom organic yoghurts fortified with B and D vitamins plus omega-3, where creative use of the letter “B” is used in branding. Just how far European manufacturers can go before falling foul of EFSA scrutiny remains to be seen, however. A5 quer-4c-D-F-E:Layout 1 07.09.2010 15:23 Uhr Seite 3

For more information Olivia Sant’Angelo ( is a Market Analyst at Innova Market Insights (, a leading supplier of new product and trend information in the food and beverage space. Innova Market Insights is organized by food industry professionals to rapidly record new product activity and identify the trends driving the industry today and in the future.

We’re taking a (super)critical look at extract quality

FLAVEX ® Naturextrakte GmbH · ·


gut health

Selection Strategies for Preand Probiotic Functionality Probiotics and prebiotics are common ingredients in functional foods. In vitro tests can be used to select new candidates and investigate novel targets for existing pre- and probiotics. Ultimately, however, these ingredients will have to be tested in appropriately designed human dietary intervention trials to substantiate potential health benefits.


mong consumers, there is a continued interest in functional foods as it is more widely recognized that diet plays an important role in maintaining health. Probiotics and prebiotics are common components in functional foods. Typically, probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, but other microbes have also been proposed as probiotics. Numerous health benefits have been suggested for probiotics and it is important to realize that such health benefits are strain specific and cannot be extrapolated to other strains — not even to strains of the same species. Commonly used prebiotics include galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, polydextrose, lactulose and lactitol. Other carbohydrates are also thought to function as prebiotics. The mode of action of prebiotics differs from probiotics; whereas the latter modulate the host–bacterial interactions by introducing a new microbial strain to the gut, the former modulate the composition and/or activity of selected microbial groups that are already present. It goes without saying that the proper identification of prebiotics and probiotics is an essential part of the screening process. For probiotics, typical early-phase screening tools include assessments of acid and bile resistance, adhesion of probiotics to mucus or epithelial cells, the presence or absence of antibiotic resistance genes, the viability of probiotics in products during storage and their suitability for commercial production. A prebiotic product is expected to selectively stimulate the growth of health-promoting microbes; by contrast, it should not be utilized by potentially detrimental inhabitants of the intestinal microbiota. This

can be investigated, for example, using the automated Bioscreen C system (Labsystems Oy, Helsinki, Finland) under anaerobic conditions. Gas production is an undesired potential sideeffect of the microbial fermentation process that occurs in the gut, and can be measured using faecal slurries grown with or without prebiotics or probiotics. Prebiotics that are fermented slowly, because of their long chain or complex bonds, such as polydextrose, will induce less gas formation when compared with readily fermentable prebiotics. This will also lead to improved tolerance. Following initial screening, the most promising pro- and prebiotic candidates can be further tested in a colon simulator. The EnteroMix colon simulator (Danisco Health and Nutrition, Kantvik, Finland) consists of four sequentially connected vessels that each represent a different part of

the human large intestine. During the simulation, artificial digesta (containing test substances) are introduced into the first vessel every 3 hours and the same amount is transferred to a subsequent one, thus mimicking the natural flow of digesta in the colon. In addition to analysing the composition of the microbiota and its metabolites, the effects of the simulator digesta can be investigated in vitro using tissue culture cells. The junction integrity of the tissue culture cells, being an important part of the intestinal barrier, can be determined by measuring the ion flow through the cell layer. Typically, differentiated Caco-2 intestinal cell cultures are used for this purpose (Figure 1). The Bioscreen C system has been used for the screening of anticariogenic substances and to optimize test substance concentrations. The effects of chosen anticariogenic substances are further investigated

Cell culture insert 5 days in culture Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells

Upper compartment (lumen of the intestine) Microporous membrane (collagen coated) Lower compartment (serosal side)

Figure 1: The differentiation of Caco-2 cells into intestinal epithelial-like cells. Image kindly provided by Dr H. Putaala (Danisco Health and Nutrition, Finland). March/April 2011

gut health


using the EnteroMix caries simulator with artificial teeth to monitor biofilm formation (Figure 2). To establish the potential of new pre- and probiotics, well-designed human dietary intervention studies need to be done. It is generally accepted that such studies should be randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled, and that it may be necessary to replicate the study. Further in vitro and/or animal studies may nevertheless be required to investigate the mechanism of action, for example. Little is known about the influence of the food matrix on the activity of the active ingredient. Some studies indicate similar faecal recoveries of a probiotic strain when fed in different matrices. However, this does not guarantee similar efficacy. Using a Gouda cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001, we have addressed this topic; first, in vitro, using the models described above and, subsequently, in a dietary intervention. We observed that the consumption of 15 g of cheese containing 109 CFU of L. rhamnosus HN001 induced a similar increase in phagocytic activity and Natural Killer cell activity as when the strain was consumed in reconstituted fat-free milk. The inclusion of probiotics into different food matrices poses specific challenges. By definition, a probiotic needs to be viable at the moment of consumption, and it has to be viable at adequate amounts (at least 109 CFU/ consumption as a rule of thumb). This implies that the probiotic concentration is dependent on the usual portion size of the food matrix. Thus, different concentrations may be required for different food types. In addition to this, the different matrices may provide their own particular challenges in terms of pH, water activity, shelflife and the presence of natural antimicrobial components. Although prebiotics do not need to remain viable, there may still be technological challenges such as solubility, process temperature and pH stability. Choosing the right prebiotic can overcome these issues. The technological properties of polydextrose, for example, facilitate its incorporation into a variety of foods and beverages. The methodologies described here can be used to document the health benefits of the active ingredients and understand their mechanism of action. They can further be employed to differentiate the different pre- and probiotics to choose the most appropriate one for the application and health target required.

For more information Arthur C. Ouwehand, Marika Bjรถrklund, Kaisa Olli, Kirsti Tiihonen and Sampo Lahtinen Health and Nutrition Danisco Finland

Figure 2: Attachment of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt to an artificial tooth as determined by scanning electron microscopy in the presence of artificial saliva (A), artificial saliva containing 1% sucrose (B) and artificial saliva containing 1% sucrose and 4% xylitol (C).

March/April 2011


gut health

Probiotic Chocolate Restoring the Balance

Probiotics are believed to improve metabolism and the immune response by restoring the balance of intestinal bacteria. However, ensuring the survival of such orally ingested micro-organisms in the digestive tract is no easy task. Researchers at Barry Callebaut have demonstrated that chocolate could be an ideal carrier for the intestinal delivery of probiotics.


here is a rapidly growing trend amongst consumers towards authentic foods on the one hand and functional foods on the other. Growth in known-origin, organic and environmentally and socially conscious foods is closely matched by the increased consumption of functionally enriched products. As an all-natural, traditional product with proven nutritional benefits, the evidence is mounting in favour of chocolate as an answer to the demand for both authentic and functional foods. Recent research into the possibilities of further enhancing the natural health benefits of cocoa and chocolate with probiotics only adds further weight to this argument. Probiotics lie at the centre of the increased interest in functional foods; they are designed to protect against infection by improving metabolism and the human body’s own immune response. Although we are only beginning to understand the essential role played by positive bacteria in maintaining human health, there is growing evidence to support the power of probiotic supplements to restore the balance of the intestinal flora and thus the body’s natural capacity to fight diseases. There are several challenges, however, to integrating orally ingested micro-organisms into food products. Not only must these organisms 120

survive the manufacturing, storage and distribution of the food products that carry them, once ingested they must also survive the harsh environment of the human digestive system. It is for this reason that Barry Callebaut invested significant energy into investigating the feasibility

under constant pressure from our modern lifestyle. The use of antibiotics and other drugs, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, disease and pollution are all factors thought to seriously damage the population of the healthy bacteria in the human gut. Yet, these micro-organisms

of developing a probiotic chocolate. And the initial results are striking! It has been shown, for instance, that several new innovations in the production process make chocolate an ideal carrier for the intestinal delivery of probiotics — far more effective, in fact, than more common milk-based carriers.

are absolutely essential to digestion and, it is thought, the body’s capacity to fight diseases. Whereas the majority of the intestinal microflora comprises either helpful or benign bacteria, some have the potential to cause disease. In healthy individuals, the bacteria in the intestinal tract are optimally balanced. However, when this balance is disturbed, harmful bacteria are given the ideal conditions to flourish, thus increasing the risk of inflammatory, infectious and other diseases. Restoring and maintaining the balance of the intestinal flora could therefore form the basis for the treatment of a wide range of illnesses. This is where probiotics come in. The World Health Organization defines probiotics as “live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” Probiotic bacteria are designed to do just that by restoring the proper balance of the microflora, optimizing intestinal function and generally promoting good health. Besides improving digestion, probiotics are believed to provide protection against infection by improving metabolism and the immune response.

Managing the Microflora The human gastrointestinal tract contains an extremely complex and diverse population of bacteria. There are approximately 100 trillion micro-organisms belonging to at least 400 different known bacterial species living in the gut of a normal, healthy human being. In other words, there are more than ten times the number of active bacteria in the intestines than there are cells in the rest of the human body. These bacteria are responsible for generating intense metabolic activity and are an indispensable part of the digestive system. The delicate balance of this intestinal flora is

Survival (%) after passage through stomach and small intestine (in vitro)

Survival (%)


The Road to Good Health

80 60 40

3 times lower in milk than in chocolate matrix

20 0 Start situation Chocolate matrix

After complete passage through stomach and small intestine Milk matrix

Figure 1: Probiotic concentrations in a chocolate matrix following passage through the stomach and small intestine. March/April 2011

One of the biggest hurdles to restoring the balance of the digestive system is the digestive system itself. Probiotic micro-organisms have to be tough to survive the acidic environment of the stomach. They must be resistant to the effects of bile and be capable of flourishing in an environment deprived of oxygen. Naturally, to achieve their beneficial objective, probiotics must be non-toxic to the human body. There are relatively few strains of probiotics that are up to the task. Of those that occur naturally inside the gut are certain bacteria belonging to the lactobacillus, streptococcus and bifidobacterium

gut health

groups, along with several other types of bacillus and yeast. These bacteria are also commonly found in certain fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt and fresh cheese. It may therefore come as a surprise to discover that recent research points to chocolate as a far superior medium than such milk-based carriers in terms of guaranteeing the optimum survival and activity of probiotics throughout the digestive tract. In analysing the potential of chocolate and cocoa as carriers for the intestinal delivery of probiotics, chocolate manufacturer Barry Callebaut conducted extensive research into the resistance of a number of probiotic strains, both to the human digestive system and the chocolate-making process itself. In addition to the inhospitable environment of the digestive system, there are a number of challenges associated with integrating probiotics into chocolate on an industrial scale. To ensure the survival of the probiotic organisms and the prolonged shelf-life of the end product, it is essential to narrow the temperature range of production and storage considerably. However, this narrower temperature range also makes it difficult to ensure the effective distribution of the probiotic supplements within large-scale production. Barry Callebaut’s answer to this difficulty came in the form of a newly patented process for the large-scale production of probiotic chocolate. The new process ensures the homogenous integration of the probiotic supplements without compromising quality or taste. New machinery designed to support this

innovative process is also easier to clean, thus eliminating the risk of contamination of other products made with the same equipment.

The Right Carrier for the Job In searching for a combination of probiotic bacteria that were tough enough to survive the chemical conditions of the digestive tract, researchers at Barry Callebaut concentrated on two strains in particular: Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum. Two samples of the probiotic strains were prepared, one embedded in a Barry Callebaut chocolate matrix, another in a standard milk matrix. The samples were then subjected to an in vitro simulation of passage through the stomach and small intestine. The results of the comparative analysis are remarkable to say the least! Not only did the probiotic strains survive the temperature fluctuations of the chocolate-making process, their rate of survival upon digestion was far greater than that of the milk-embedded probiotic mixture. The in vitro stomach acids had hardly any noticeable effect on the chocolate-embedded probiotics whereas those of the milk matrix had end-counts four times lower than the original mixture. When compared after simulated passage through the stomach and the small intestine, probiotic concentrations in the chocolate matrix were three times higher than those of the milk matrix (Figure 1). Barry Callebaut’s researchers also investigated the effects of the respective probiotic mixtures on the microflora itself. Experiments were conducted using a Simulator


of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract used to analyse the effects of probiotics on the large intestine. The preliminary findings are very promising, pointing to a marked increase in the proportion of healthy intestinal bacteria as a result of the introduction of chocolateembedded probiotics. The research conducted by Barry Callebaut has provided substantial scientific evidence to suggest that chocolate offers superior protection and a more stable environment for beneficial micro-organisms and, as such, could be an ideal carrier for the intestinal delivery of probiotics. Tests are currently being done on a wide range of probiotic chocolate applications, including chocolate confectionery, biscuits, pastries, cereals and cereal bars. Depending on the application, probiotic chocolate has a relatively long shelf-life — up to one year in many cases. And, most importantly, the addition of probiotics appears to have no significant effect on the taste, texture or mouthfeel of Barry Callebaut’s celebrated chocolate. In ensuring maximum resistance to stomach acids and greatly improving intestinal function, probiotic chocolate is just another way in which Barry Callebaut is restoring the balance — both in the human body and in the wider perception of chocolate as a natural, nutritious product.

For more information Alex Landuyt Superior Applications Manager Barry Callebaut (

March/April 2011


women’s health

Designing Healthy Products for Women

Just as we have many products on supermarket shelves that promote a myriad of benefits for a multitude of health conditions, we are seeing increased demand for nutrition that strategically promotes many women-specific health concerns. Continuing research into the effects of nutrients on various areas of women’s health will foster greater perspective on their implementation throughout the various stages of life. March/April 2011

women’s health


arket drivers for new and innovative fortified food products vary by geographic region, ethnicity, age category and the individual interests of women. In the United States, for example, there is an upward trend in the proportion of women that are of Hispanic and Asian origins, such that by 2025, according to the US Census Bureau, they will constitute 25% of the female population. Another important fact is that women are living in smaller households. Slightly more than half of the women in the US are living alone or in households with a spouse and no children. This trend suggests that single-serve portions of fortified foods will increase in popularity in the coming years. In addition, as many of these women are in the workforce, an increased focus needs to be put on the development of snacks and handheld foods that can cater to the on-the-go woman. According to a survey done by the NPD Group of Port Washington (New York), a significant amount of snacking occurs among women while they are in the car or at work. Portable, handheld snacks such as breakfast/cereal bars and various fortified snack bars will no doubt increase in popularity, partly because of their portability and convenience. Also of note is the growing number of women attracted to the rapidly expanding sport nutrition product category. Business Insights states that in 2003, more than half of all frequent fitness participants were women. The global sports nutrition market is currently valued at $27–32 billion, according to Business Insights (Opportunities and Key Players in Sports Nutrition, July 2009). Health concerns are another key driver for women-targeted food products. As the boomer generation ages, there is more and more concern about chronic disease and the role of diet in combating sickness and disability. Older women are concerned about osteoporosis, menopause, heart disease and cancer.

In Demand Nutrients to Improve Women’s Health Health is a lifelong proposition. In fact, recent research has highlighted the importance of in utero nutrition as an important factor in establishing risk for chronic diseases that will not begin to appear for many decades to come. So, women, in particular, must be very conscious of maintaining good nutrition throughout their lives to foster optimal health in their offspring, as well as in themselves as they grow older. Not only do the roots of chronic disease begin early, but lifelong

nutritional vigilance must also be maintained to optimize health. Although a woman’s genetic makeup plays an important role in determining her risk of developing chronic disease as she ages, the good news is that a proper diet can play an important role in modifying the interaction of genetics and some important diet-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, heart disease and cancer. In addition, increases in the dietary intake of certain bioactive food components can ameliorate the severity of certain diseases, such as prebiotics in digestive disease and fish oils in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.


antioxidant effects of bioactive non-essential phytochemicals in many fruits and vegetables. In the following section of this article, some important dietary factors and nutrients that appear to play a role in combating chronic disease risk in women are highlighted. Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is an important bone disease that occurs frequently in older women. In this condition, there is a diminution of bone density that results in weaker bones that are more susceptible to bone fracture under normal skeletal forces, particularly in the spine, wrist and hip. Eighty five per cent of people with osteoporosis are women and one in three

Although clinical trials of vitamin E and vitamin C in heart disease have been disappointing, the long-term ingestion of an antioxidant-rich diet is likely to have positive health effects. Overall Essential Nutrients for Women With the exception of iron during the reproductive years, the essential nutrient needs of women are commensurate with that of men after adjustments are made for differences in body mass. Owing to menstruation, iron needs are at least twice as high as in men, and giving birth entails even greater stress on the iron economy of women. It is not surprising then that women are at a significantly increased risk of developing iron deficiency, particularly in less developed countries where the bioavailability of dietary iron may be low. Another area of increasing concern is vitamin B6, which can be affected by oral contraceptives taken by many women during the reproductive years. Additional areas of general concern in women are calcium and vitamin D intake because of their increased propensity to develop significant bone loss and osteoporosis as they age. Like men, many women also have low intakes of omega-3 fatty acids that could contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions that become a pathogenic basis for many diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Another nutrient concern is in the area of antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium and, more recently, the recognition of important

women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis in the United States alone is a health threat for 44 million people. Important nutrients to help combat osteoporosis are calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin K. The three important minerals in bones are calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. In most diets, phosphorus is plentiful and does not limit bone health. However, calcium and magnesium intakes are typically low in most women. Many clinical trials have demonstrated the important effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in elderly women with inadequate calcium intakes. Vitamin D has been well studied and is important to maintain optimal calcium absorption, renal calcium conservation and bone turnover. The mechanism of action of vitamin K on skeletal health is less certain, but many studies have shown that higher vitamin K intakes and status are associated with higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. Heart Disease: Heart disease is the number one fatal disease in women (and men). Worldwide, almost nine million women die each year from heart disease — representing one third of all deaths in women. In the United States, 435,000 women have heart attacks each year and 42% of these die within the first year of the attack (compared

March/April 2011


women’s health

Demographics and Geography In 2010, it was estimated that there were 3390 million females on Earth, with slightly more than half of these living in Asia (Figure 1). This number is expected to increase by 20% to four billion during the next 20 years. Among the female population in 2010, 66% of them (2.2 billion) were over the age of 20, according to recent statistics from the US Census Bureau. Moreover, the ageing of populations in many countries will result in a marked increase in older women (>65 years old) from an estimated 294 million elderly women in 2010 to 532 million in 2030 — an astounding 81% increase. In comparison, worldwide, females from the age of 15 to 64 will increase by only 18% during this time period. Comparisons of regional population estimates between 2030 and the current year indicate variable rates of growth, however, among the different regions of the globe. For example, the population in some regions, such as Eastern Europe and the Baltics, is expected to decrease, whereas Western Europe’s population will stay relatively constant. In contrast, Asia, Central America and the Caribbean, North America, South America and Oceania will experience moderate population growth of 16–21% during the next 20 years, while much more vigorous growth (36–50%) is expected in the Middle East, North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Population in millions


Female Population (2010)





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Figure 1: Distribution of the female population by geographic region (Data Source: US Census Bureau).

with 24% of men). Coronary heart disease has a complex pathology. Recent evidence suggests that chronic inflammation may play an important role in disease risk. Likewise, other important modifiable risk factors for heart disease include smoking, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and elevated blood cholesterol. Diet can influence the risk of developing heart disease in several ways. High calcium intakes, in addition to being important in combating osteoporosis, may have a modest, but beneficial, effect on blood pressure, as does a reduction in salt (sodium) intake. The inflammatory component of heart disease could be ameliorated by diets containing significant levels of anti-inflammatory components, such as omega-3 fatty acids, derived mainly from dietary marine sources. An additional March/April 2011

component in the development of coronary heart disease is oxidized LDL cholesterol. Diets high in fruits and vegetables are associated with less cardiovascular disease and this may be because of the higher level of antioxidants in these diets, such as vitamin C and vitamin E. Although clinical trials of vitamin E and vitamin C in heart disease have been disappointing, the long-term ingestion of an antioxidant-rich diet, including beta-carotene and other photochemical antioxidant compounds, is likely to have positive health effects. Finally, it is important to control the intake of saturated fats, trans fats and total dietary fat to prevent diet-induced lipid disorders and maintain lower total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. In this regard, various dietary cholesterol

inhibitors, such as plant sterols and stanols, like beta-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol without lowering the beneficial HDL cholesterol. Breast Cancer: After lung cancer, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in women. Worldwide, 1.3 million women are diagnosed annually and 465,000 will die from breast cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. About 77% of breast cancer cases occur in women over 50 years old. Yet, although breast cancer is more commonly seen in older women, when it develops in younger adult women, it is usually more aggressive and is associated with lower survival rates. Our understanding of the role of various foods and dietary components in the prevention of breast cancer is limited. Most studies support the conclusion that weight management, healthy diet, moderate alcohol consumption and high fruit and vegetable intakes reduce breast cancer risk. The role of specific nutrients or bioactive food components on breast cancer risk still remains obscure. Nevertheless, based on in vitro studies in cell culture, in vivo animal model studies and observations in certain human populations, increased research attention has focused on several dietary compounds that may have chemopreventive effects on breast cancer. For example, vitamin D may be a potentially important modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Also, women with a lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid intake have been found to have a lower risk of breast cancer, supporting the potential anticancer role of a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake. Soy contains a number of isoflavone compounds that could influence breast cancer risk. A recent meta-analysis of breast cancer risk and soy consumption published in the British Journal of Cancer found that among Asian populations with relatively high soy intake, there was a reduced breast cancer risk in those consuming high amounts of soy isoflavones (>20 mg/ day). However, there was no relationship observed in an analysis of soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Western populations. A likely explanation for this discordant observation is that the soy intake in these Western populations was still quite low (0.8–0.15 mg/day), arguing for the need for a much higher level of soy isoflavone consumption to achieve positive breast health benefits. Another interesting line of research on food components and


women’s health

preventing the normal flow of bile to the intestine. This condition is twice as likely to develop in women as in men and may be exacerbated by hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives, which can increase the cholesterol content of bile. Large epidemiologic studies, such as the prospective Nurses Health Study, suggest that diets that are high in antioxidantrich fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of gallstones. This is supported by data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES), which found high serum vitamin C was associated with reduced gallstone risk. Interestingly, other dietary associations that were discovered included frequent nut consumption and caffeinated coffee. In a small clinical trial, investigators found that supplementing obese women on a weight loss diet with 11g/day of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids for 6 weeks had a salutary effect on bile characteristics.

Strategic Nutrition for Women

breast cancer risk involves dietary lignans, which are composed of a large family of fibre-associated phenolic compounds that are widely distributed in edible plants. Some of the lignans are converted in the large intestine to biologically active compounds by intestinal microbes. One of these compounds is enterolactone, which is believed to be the major biologically active lignan and associated with breast cancer risk by modifying estrogen signalling in the breast. However, a recently published study from Europe (Norfolk-EPIC) found no association of estimates of microbial enterolactone production and breast cancer risk, although they did observe a significant decrease in colon cancer risk in women. Digestive Health: Digestive diseases encompass a large number of disorders and affect a significant number of people. In the March/April 2011

United States alone, it is estimated that 34 million people are afflicted with diseases of the digestive system and it is the second leading cause of illness-induced disability. Digestive diseases also account for 8–9% of US deaths. Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality, leading to about 60,000 deaths per year. Other important digestive diseases include ulcers (10% of the population), liver disease — including primary biliary cirrhosis, which occurs most commonly in middle aged women — and additional conditions such as gallbladder disease, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticular disease and other digestive conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, gastric reflux and constipation. Gallbladder disease, for example, results from the formation of cholesterol-containing gallstones that can block the bile duct,

There are a host of considerations for food developers looking to incorporate specific nutrients into products that address women’s health. These include the responsible examination of interactions as well as synergies between various ingredients. Certain ingredients, such as choline and folic acid, share the same critical pathways in the body and when used together may enhance brain performance more than would be expected when used individually. Another important consideration is the delivery channel for these nutrients, as different demographics vary in food and beverage preferences. Nutrients perform and interact differently depending on how they are integrated and in what application. Various market forms may need to be explored, depending on the end-use. Good practice calls for high quality nutritional blends that address these issues, which in turn will gain consumer confidence in the product and repeat purchase.

For more information Ram Chaudhari, PhD, FACN, CNS Senior Executive, Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer Fortitech, Inc. Riverside Technology Park 2105 Technology Drive Schenectady, New York 12308, USA. Tel. +1 518 372 5155

Thanks to 10-year investment in research, today, IRB produces and ensures the availability of plant active ingredients with excellent quality standards for dermo-cosmetic and nutritional use. Through its exclusive and eco-sustainable biotech processes, IRB has found the ideal profile for plant active ingredients: > free from any type of pollutant, since plant stem cells are grown in a sterile and protected environment, without pesticides, heavy metals and aflatoxins

> no GMOs, as the DNA of plant cells remains intact > with guaranteed high titre, thanks to ongoing selection of cells that produce more of the active ingredient > unlimited availability, using a biotech process that fully respects the environment and biodiversity. Our innovative philosophy passionately oriented to excellence: the quality of the active ingredient, the human wellbeing, the eco-sustainability.


women’s health

Supplementing the Fairer Sex

Nutraceuticals may play an important role in women’s health, with applications as wide ranging as pregnancy and lactation, reproductive health, iron deficiency, menopause, skin health and beauty. But is the functional food and drink sector doing enough to address these issues. Dr Kevin Robinson spoke with Liz Campbell, Director of Wellbeing of Women, to find out more. NBT: Given the variety of gender-specific issues that women have to deal with — PMT, pregnancy, menopause, etc. — is there a role for nutraceutical products in improving their quality of life? LC: There has certainly been some clear research (some funded by Wellbeing of Women) in the past that has demonstrated the value of substances such as folic acid in pregnancy to help prevent neural-tube defects. However, many products have no such clear research and it is always difficult to run really thorough clinical trials on pregnant women; therefore, we do understand that it is difficult for the makers of these products to provide that evidence. The most important thing is to heed the advice on the packet, such as “take the recommended dosage.” If it says consult your doctor, then do so. If you are taking other medication, then talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Most of our experts would agree that, even without research, if you feel it does you good and it does no harm, then why not? NBT: With women taking healthcare and well-being into their own hands, and becoming better educated about diet and nutrition, is there a role for functional foods in disease prevention? LC: The most important message is that women should have a balanced diet and that if they have dietary restrictions for some reason (personal choice, food intolerance, allergies, March/April 2011

etc.), they should consult their doctor about what if anything they should take as a suitable supplement. As with nutraceutical products, functional foods are a personal choice and, as yet, there is no clear medical guidance for many of them in terms of conditions that are specific to women.

NBT: Are women as informed as they should be about the effects and benefits of nutraceuticals ... and should industry be doing more to convey a positive message? LC: There seems to be a lot of information and advertising about the benefits of nutraceuticals; but, when possible, the industry could be clearer about any ‘proven research’ in terms of where, when and what it consists of and whether it was peer reviewed — whether a clinical trial was done, on how many people and so on. Women are remarkably ‘savvy’ when it comes to these sorts of issues and a more upfront and transparent communication of what, if any, hard evidence about benefits and applications would certainly help to convey positive messages about the industry as a whole. NBT: As women age and defying the effects of time becomes more important, how has the Beauty from Within concept been embraced ... or has it? LC: Most women now know that to look good is also about feeling good and staying fit; there is

plenty of evidence and information that exercise, sensible diet and good weight management are all key to a long and healthy life. Liz adds: “The nutraceutical and functional foods industry can play a role in helping women to stay healthy. There are many woman-only issues such as pregnancy, PMT, the menopause, etc., and although there is little scientific evidence, many women report that nutraceutical products help to improve their quality of life when dealing with these issues. At Wellbeing of Women, we give the advice — the more you know, the better you’ll be; armed with really sound information and an understanding of their own bodies, women can take control of their health for the better. Indeed, today’s female consumers are already taking responsibility for their health and well-being and are increasingly better informed about nutrition and diet. There is a role for the nutraceutical and functional foods industry to play, particularly as the majority of women know that lifestyle choices such as diet and exercise are fundamental to long-term health.”

For more information Liz Campbell, Director Wellbeing of Women 27 Sussex Place Regent’s Park, London NW1 4SP, UK. Tel. +44 207 772 6400

New in 2011:

Nutraceutical Products China


42,000 Industry professionals

ExplorE tHE tAstEs oF CHiNA





Number of exhibitors at the event


Fi Asia-China Hi Ni China 2011 21 - 23 June 2011 Shanghai New International Expo Center ,Shanghai, China P



Register online: In 2011, Fi Asia-China, Hi, Ni China returns to Shanghai in conjunction with CPhI China for the biggest exhibition in the country dedicated to the food, nutraceutical and the pharmaceutical industries. Source cost effective products right from the supplier. Benefit from a variety of technical seminars, product showcases and educational conferences Network with key ingredients manufacturers

Co-located with IUFoST conference


infant nutrition

The Best Start in Life Breast milk sets the gold standard in nutrition for newborns and infants. It contains all the nutrients infants need to be protected from infections and for sufficient development. Nonetheless, a large number of women across the globe are unable or choose not to breastfeed for various reasons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), globally, less than 40% of infants under 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed.1


nfant formulae and baby food offer a viable solution to a shortage or lack of breast milk and promote continued health and nutrition after the breastfeeding age. Modern scientific capabilities enable manufacturers to develop infant formulae to closely match human milk composition and offer various health benefits, such as an improved immune response, healthy growth and mental development.

Grow, Baby, Grow Healthy infant growth is of paramount importance as it indicates a good rate of physical development. Nutrients that support linear growth have become a must in infant and follow-on formulae as well as baby foods. It is equally important in the minds of parents. A recent study found that 62% of parents feel that nutrients supporting growth and development are essential ingredients in infant nutrition products.2 A balanced supply of essential nutrients is needed to support physical development. Key nutrient groups such as vitamins, minerals, nucleotides and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) promote healthy growth by replenishing cells, maintaining optimal gastrointestinal function and ensuring normal skeletal development. Choline, for example, is important during the perinatal period, especially for spinal cord March/April 2011

development. Similarly, sufficient intake of vitamins A, C, D and E improves post-natal growth, and a well-balanced blend of key minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iodine and copper is critical for children’s ongoing growth and development.

Brain Power Children’s mental health is as important as their physical development and is also influenced by diet. Seventy per cent of the human brain develops during foetal life, whereas the remaining 30% of development occurs during preschool years.3 To support brain development, infants rely on a steady supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA).4 DHA is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in breast milk and substantial amounts need to be deposited in the brain during pregnancy and the first years of life to ensure adequate brain development.5 Omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are currently available on the market and can provide supplementation levels closely matched to human breast milk and are ideally suited to infant formulae. For example, DSM’s ROPUFA is a DHA and EPA blend that can be added to infant formulae to support brain cell membrane formation and cellular development in the brain.6

Gold Standard of Quality Safety and quality are of critical importance in the stringently regulated children’s nutrition industry. Manufacturers must adhere to a consistently high standard across the globe. To maximize product safety, DSM has tightened its microbiological purity specifications for Enterobacteriaceae (including Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella) and Bacillus cereus. New tests and levels for specific contaminants have also been applied. In today’s increasingly regulated environment, infant and children’s nutrition product manufacturers require independent accreditation demonstrating ongoing compliance with an array of quality and safety standards. All of DSM’s ingredients are accredited with globally recognized quality standards, such as GMP, HACCP and ISO. Plus, DSM’s baby food grade sets a worldwide standard in product and process safety for the infant nutrition market. The Quality for Life promise communicates DSM’s commitment to quality, reliability, traceability and sustainability.20 The only vertically integrated vitamin and carotenoids manufacturer and supplier, DSM operates a strict screening and auditing policy applied throughout the global supply chain that spans across eight premix plants and five application labs on five continents. Quality For Life underpins DSM’s dedication to stringent quality control, giving its customers the confidence to go to market with new nutritional products for infants and children. The unique quality commitment in the infant nutrition sector means that DSM Nutritional Products is ideally placed to help manufacturers raise the bar for baby food products worldwide.

infant nutrition

Choline is another nutrient building block in the brain.7 Emerging studies show that it may contribute to proper neural tube development.8 Choline is essential for normal brain function, particularly in areas related to memory, but its natural production generally falls below the required level. Maintaining a good supply of this and other essential nutrients can enhance mental health and development in infants and small children, giving them the best possible start in life.

Enhance Their Immunity Being able to fight off the diseases and viruses that naturally exist in the environment is particularly essential for children. Nutrition is responsible for some of the factors modulating immune maturation and response. During pregnancy, vital antibodies such as immunoglobulin G are transferred from maternal to foetal circulations through the placenta; but, many key antibodies disappear within 3 months after birth.9 In the first days to months after birth, while awaiting maturation of the baby’s own immune system, various immunological and bioactive milk components act synergistically to provide a passive support system from the mother to her infant. Therefore, it is crucial that the same nutrients found in breast milk are also present in the infant formula. Certain vitamins, minerals and active ingredients have been shown to have a positive effect. For example, vitamin D is a crucial micronutrient for strengthening the immune system, by helping with the regulation and differentiation of immune cells. Vitamin D

may help to protect the respiratory tract from infections and has emerged as a potential risk modifier for autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus.10 The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has doubled its recommended dose of vitamin D for infants and children to 400 International Units (IU) a day.11,12 The decision was partly driven by the growing evidence of vitamin D’s role in maintaining general immunity and preventing disease.

Nucleotides: Immunity Boosting Molecules Nucleotides are molecules that form the structure of DNA and RNA and play a key role in numerous intracellular biochemical processes.13 Nucleotides affect the innate as well as the cellular immune system and studies also suggest potential benefits for the intestinal flora, iron absorption, lipid metabolism and gut development.14,15 Human milk is the best source of nucleotides, providing about one third of a newborn’s requirements.16 Dietary nucleotides are not considered to be essential in the traditional sense because they can be synthesized by the body.17 However, a number of investigators have described dietary nucleotides as conditionally essential during periods of insufficient intake, when there is a high rate of growth such as during infancy and in the presence of disease.18

Formula for Success Infants and small children may be at risk of nutrient deficiency if their daily diet is

0–6 Months

7–12 Months

Vitamin A




Vitamin C




Vitamin D




Vitamin E




Vitamin K









lacking essential vitamins and minerals. Paediatricians currently recommend that all infant and follow-on formulae adhere to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) as shown in Table I. This approach helps to achieve and maintain a nutritional balance supporting infant health and well-being. To provide the right balance of nutrients, manufacturers can turn to nutrient premixes for easier quality management and simplified production. DSM Nutritional Products offers Quali-Blends premixes combining ingredients such as vitamins, omega-3s, choline and other nutrients for infant nutrition.

References 1. w (Accessed 7 November 2010). 2. Health Focus (, 2008. 3. M. Singh, Indian Journal of Paediatrics 71, 59–62 (2004). 4. A. McDonald, Prenatal Development: The Dana Guide, aspx?id=10050 (Accessed 7 December 2010). 5. M. Martinez, World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 66, 87–102 (1991). 6. ROPUFA® is a registered trademark of Royal DSM NV. 7. S.H. Zeisel, Journal of Pediatrics 149(Suppl.), 131–136 (2006). 8. G.M. Shaw, et al., Am. J. Epidemiol. 160(2), 102–109 (2004). 9. P. Bhaskaram, Nutrition Reviews 60, 40–45 (2002). 10. C.S. Zipitis and A.K. Akobeng, Archives of Disease in Childhood 93, 512–517 (2008). 11. (Accessed 7 December 2010). 12. aspx?id=101339 (Accessed 7 December 2010). 13. html (Accessed 7 December 2010). 14. A. Lerner, Israel Medical Association Journal 2, 772–774 (2000). 15. A.D. Kulkarni, F.B. Rudolph and C.T. Van Buren, Journal of Nutrition 124(8), 1442–1446 (1994). 16. J. Maldonado, et al., Early Human Development 65, 69–74 (2001). 17. A. Sanchez-Pozo and A. Gil, British Journal of Nutrition 87(1S), 135–137 (2002). 18. V.Y.H Yu, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 38, 543–549 (2002). 19. Quali-Blends® is a registered trademark of Royal DSM NV. 20. Quality for Life™ is a trademark of Royal DSM NV.









Vitamin B6








For more information

Vitamin B12





% of fat



Anna-Maria Stiefel, Global Marketing Manager, Infant Nutrition, and Dr Birgit Hoeft, Scientist, Infant Nutrition, DSM Nutritional Products. Contact Charlotte Frederiksen DSM Nutritional Products Tel. +41 61 815 8354















Table I: The recommended daily intake of micronutrients for infants.

March/April 2011


health management

Bakery and Cereals with Benefits

Tim Van der Schraelen, Marketing Communication Manager from BENEO, analyses the trends that are driving growth in the bakery and cereals category and explains how food producers can capitalize on them.


s a staple product, bread has reached a level of saturation in an international market that is extremely fragmented — with more than 60% of the sector attributed to artisanal bread alone. Convenience and health are driving innovation in the bakery category as consumers increasingly look for products that fulfil their demand for healthy, convenient products that fit into their busy lifestyles. Recent developments suggest that the cereals market is recession resilient, although the breakfast cereals market has faced increased competition in recent years from, amongst others, convenient alternatives such as breakfast biscuits. In the breakfast cereals market, muesli and hot cereals are forecasted to have the highest growth. Muesli is benefiting from the natural, whole foods trends and has the healthiest perception of all categories. Also, granola/muesli bars and breakfast bars are forecast to have high growth. Health is still a key trend with fibre and wholegrain, natural, free from, low in and weight management health claims topping the agenda.

Health Trends in Bakery and Biscuits With increasing governmental pressure to eat healthily and a growing consumer obsession with body image, consumers are driving March/April 2011

innovation with their demand for healthier bakery products. This has been confirmed by figures that show that health is within the top two trends for new product launches across the entire bakery category. This trend has prompted a rise in demand for healthy products that overlap with both indulgence and convenience.

Fibre and Wholegrain Despite seeing a decline in the number of new product launches featuring a wholegrain claim, added fibre and wholegrain claims can be found in the top five for nearly every bakery category, highlighting its continued importance in this sector. This may be attributed to the fact that wholegrain is considered to be a ‘natural’ choice, a trend that is extremely popular with consumers. Increasingly, food producers are looking to incorporate this extra ‘wholegrain goodness’ into bakery products such as bread, by combining them with the popular white bread variants, offering consumers a multigrain product such as Puratos Sporting Bread. This combination of added vitamins and special grains, enriched with BENEO’s inulin, appeals to consumers looking for a healthier alternative to white bread.

Within the biscuit category, the overlapping trend for healthy convenient and healthy indulgent products has also prompted the production of on-the-go snacking products such as the Pepperidge Farm Cookies range. This range of cookies communicates both added fibre and low-fat claims, on pack, and markets the products to consumers as a healthy snack in an easy to eat format. This type of product appeals to those consumers who aspire to being able to eat healthily, but have a high-pressure lifestyle. Just as in the sweet biscuit category, the trend for wholegrain and added fibre translates to the savoury biscuit and cracker segment. These include Kashi TLC Tasty Little Crackers that contain 8 g of wholegrains and benefit from 0 g of trans fats and no artificial flavours or colourings. The massive range of products available in the bakery category that support wholegrain or added fibre claims demonstrates how food producers are responding to the increasing consumer demand for healthy convenient products.

Natural: Sense of Simplicity Natural claims such as no additives or preservatives ranked extremely high with

health management


consumers, accounting for more than 10% of all claims within the category for 2009. Figures also show that these claims appear in the top five claims for every bakery category. This type of claim is often used as a selling point to consumers, with the added health benefits boldly displayed on the front of the packaging to improve on-shelf standout to consumers. The trend for all things natural has increased greatly during the past few years as consumer interest in natural and clean-label foods with recognizable ‘kitchen cupboard’ ingredients has grown. This has encouraged the use of more natural ingredients in food products, such as sweeteners extracted from natural sources, to rise. Loacker Quadratini Bite Size Wafer Cookies are a good example of this trend, with phrases such as ‘natural’ and ‘fresh’ being used on the packaging to attract consumers.

Free From The gradual move towards ‘gluten-free’ and other ‘free from’ food products accelerated in 2009 to involve some of the bakery category’s major players and to focus more on taste, quality and natural ingredients. In the past year, Innova tracked 8000 new products positioned as either gluten free or lactose free, compared with more than 6000 in the previous 12 months, demonstrating the increase in this trend. Similar to the trend for natural ingredients, this growth has been stimulated by the increased awareness and diagnoses of allergies and illnesses such as coeliac disease. Linked to many chronic health disorders, food allergies are a growing health concern. The greater awareness of such problems and, in particular, the increasing prevalence of coeliac disease, are all key drivers to ingredient innovation and new product development. This is especially true in the cereal and baked goods segments. This has sparked new product launches across the entire bakery sector. Companies such as Germany’s Hanneforth have really embraced this trend by launching a range of gluten free cookies that contain BENEO rice ingredients to cater for the market.

Health Trends in Breakfast Cereals and Bars In cereals, health is the dominant positioning, accounting for 50% of new product launches in breakfast cereals and 42% in snack bars. Similar to the bakery category, the health trend covers both indulgence and convenience as consumers drive innovation towards healthy indulgent and healthy convenient products. Consumers continue to drive NPD into products that are healthy or nutritious, with a greater

emphasis now being placed on products with natural ingredients and functionality that provide added value. Although, in previous years, consumer demand has leaned towards low fat and low calorie products, consumers are now looking for products with claims such as wholegrain, organic and no additives/ preservatives, which have been identified as the leading claims in both the cereal and cereal bar categories.

Fibre and Wholegrain In 2009, cereal products carrying wholegrain claims were the most popular. In the breakfast cereal category, wholegrain was the leading claim for breakfast cereals — being responsible for 20% of all new product launches — whereas in the cereal bar category it was the joint second leading claim, responsible for 8% of new product launches. These figures demonstrate how consumer demand for nutritious products is driving innovation in the cereal market.

Products such as Alpen Original Swiss Muesli have been launched featuring claims such as high in fibre, wholegrain and low in saturated fat, highlighting how food producers can amalgamate claims to make a product more appealing to consumers and show the added value afforded by such a product. Likewise, within the cereal bar segment, products such as Kellogg’s Nutri-Grain Yoghurt Bars feature on pack claims including “Now more of the wholegrains your body needs” and “Excellent source of calcium.”

Natural The trend towards natural products, as demonstrated in the bakery category, continues to show its influence in the cereals market, with an increasing number of no additives/ preservatives claims. In addition, claims such as “No GM ingredients” or “GM free” are also becoming more prevalent. Breakfast cereals such as Lizi’s Belgian Chocolate Granola

March/April 2011


health management

combine their taste for treats with an increasing focus on healthy living, bakery products with ISOMALT give manufacturers the chance to distinguish themselves from the competition.

Breakfast Cereal from France are capitalizing on this trend by featuring on pack claims such as “GMO free ingredients” and “All natural.” This is also being replicated across the cereal bar category, with numerous products such as Maryland Munch Bars from Ireland highlighting claims including no artificial colours and flavours, free from hydrogenated fats and non-GM ingredients on the packaging.


Weight Management Another trend that has been identified within the bakery and cereals category is the increased demand for new products with weight management properties. Figures show that cereals and cereal bars have collectively been responsible for almost a third of the total number of new product launches carrying a weight management claim. Corresponding with this trend, product launches with satiety claims have been rising during the past few years, despite only a third of consumers having heard a lot about the connection between fibre and satiety.

Responding to Health Trends in Bakery and Cereals With reference to the key trends driving change into the bakery and cereal category this year, BENEO offers food producers the following advice regarding how to capitalize on the trends outlined and transform product potential: Wholegrain: With wholegrain positioned to be one of the top trends driving growth into the bakery and cereal category, food producers should consider using BENEO’s Orafti ingredients to promote an added fibre claim on bakery and cereal products. Food producers can easily capitalize on this increasing trend by incorporating small amounts of functional ingredients, such as BENEO’s Orafti inulin, to provide fibre enrichment, while also benefiting from additional technological qualities such as improved shelf-life. Also, BENEO’s stabilized rice bran can be incorporated to optimize the nutritional content of wholegrain products so that gluten free bakery can be enriched with fibre. Natural: BENEO’s unique rice derivatives, prebiotics, sugar alternatives and proteins all come from the purest of natural ingredients — rice, chicory, sugar beet and wheat. BENEO offers a wide range of ‘clean’ label ingredients. With this in mind, food manufacturers should regard BENEO as the preferred partner for innovation when looking to market natural products within the bakery and cereals category. Free From Gluten and Lactose: The issues of formulating foods free from gluten-containing ingredients are many but resolvable. The March/April 2011

secret is using the right ingredients. Natural dietary fibres such as BENEO’s inulin and oligofructose, for instance, can supplement natural fibres in certain applications while, at the same time, improving taste and mouthfeel and enhancing shelf-life. Rice derivatives such as BENEO’s range of rice-based ingredients are hypoallergenic and naturally free from gluten and lactose, as well as having the ability to provide clean label, organic and highly digestible solutions that will allow food producers to make the most of this growing trend. Low in Sugar: BENEO’s Orafti oligofructose acts as a natural sugar replacer and has a moderately sweet taste — 30–65% of the sweetness potential of sucrose — without any lingering aftertaste. It can be used to reduce calories compared with sugar, has prebiotic benefits and the ability to mask off flavours associated with high intensity sweeteners. Orafti oligofructose is used as a low calorie sugar replacer in many different baked goods such as biscuits, cereals and cereal bars. BENEO’s ISOMALT is the only sugar replacer derived from pure sugar beet and, therefore, has a taste that’s similar to sugar with about 50% of the sweetness of sugar. When replacing sugar in a 1:1 ratio, it’s an ideal substitute. Baked products with ISOMALT have the same taste, body, colour, pore size distribution and fluffy consistency as if sugar were used. It provides food manufacturers with the opportunity to tap into the increasing demand among consumers for ‘health and well-being’ products by facilitating claims such as “no added sugar” or “reduced calories.” As consumers look to

Weight management: There is a range of products in the BENEO portfolio that supports weight management in cereal and bakery products, including Orafti inulin and oligofructose. There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that Orafti inulin and oligofructose, as a single ingredient, have the potential to decrease energy intake, providing substantial advantages for food manufacturers wishing to formulate bakery or cereal products that can help people to manage their caloric intake in an efficient way. Bone health: BENEO’s Orafti Synergy1 is a patented oligofructose-enriched inulin with prebiotic and bone health properties. Research indicates that Orafti Synergy1 increases calcium uptake. Whether you are looking to develop a product aimed at maximizing bone health in children or minimizing calcium loss in middle aged consumers, you can capitalize on the science that supports Orafti Synergy1. This versatile ingredient can be easily incorporated into bread and baked products, providing food producers with the opportunity to make an onpack health claim.

Secret of Success BENEO has built its business on providing food and drink producers with natural-origin ingredients that offer multiple technological, nutritional and health benefits. The company’s experience of creating a sound scientific basis for all of its ingredients is also supported with comprehensive consumer research. BENEO does this research regularly to ensure that customers not only have all the scientific and technological data they might need on the company’s ingredients, but the latest in consumer needs and wants as well. The recent creation of the BENEO-Institute also ensures that customers have access to the latest research in nutritional science, advice on claims and regulatory affairs topics that are affecting prebiotics, sugar alternatives, rice derivates and proteins.

For more information Tim Van der Schraelen Marketing Communication Manager BENEO Aandorenstraat 1, B-3300 Tienen, Belgium. Tel. +32 16 801 301

June 11-14, 2011 | New Orleans, LA


IFT Is “Jazzing” It Up In New Orleans! Join us for hot solutions and cool products Are you serious about the science, and the business, of food? Then join your food science and technology colleagues (and competitors) as they travel from around the world to attend the IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo. You’ll see the newest products, including ingredients, equipment, and processing/packaging; discover the hottest trends and how to turn them into a competitve advantage for your organization; and learn about the latest advances in food science. Plus, you’ll make important connections with other food professionals. Learn more about this year’s event and the Short Courses below, at Registration opens March 1.


The percentage of attendees who found the 2010 Annual Meeting & Food Expo of value

Have a Deeper Taste for Knowledge? Maximize your education value when you register for a Pre-Annual Meeting Short Course. Short Courses offer focused professional development and the ability to earn continuing education credits. Courses offered this year include: • Food Science for the Non-Food Scientist • Ingredient Applications for Product Innovation and Consumer Health • Labeling Requirements and Implications for Foods Marketed in the U.S. • Microencapsulation in Food Applications • Developing Effective Influencing Skills • Sensory Testing for Product Development and Claims Support • Managing Risks Associated with Food Ingredient Safety • New Oils, New Labels, New Opportunities • Evaluating the Safety of Gulf Seafood: Programs and Analytical Techniques in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Spill


cosmetic focus

Developing and Marketing Cosmetic and Cosmeceutical Products in Southern Africa Consumer surveys point the way!


he southernmost region of the African continent symbolizes the beauty of nature: the Kalahari Desert, Victoria Falls, nearly 7000 km of coastline and incredible biodiversity and wildlife, all of which attract thousands of tourists —Europeans in particular — who like to visit during their holidays. By contrast, colonialism has left its mark and, throughout history, affected the socio-economic development of the area. Today, poverty, corruption and HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth. Nevertheless, positive moves and policies adopted by many African governments have played a significant role in promoting Africa as a viable business partner in numerous global markets. Increasing demand from the emerging middle class and the growing fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector will drive growth and the need for cosmetic products in southern Africa, offering new opportunities for local brands as well as openings for international ones to enter the market. International companies linked to former colony nations like, for example, the British-Dutch company Unilever or Johnson & Johnson have offered locally produced personal care products for many years in southern Africa. More recently, other low-to-middle priced products have penetrated the market, such as brands by Beiersdorf, Henkel and L’Oréal. In addition, there is an increasing trend for international top-of-therange cosmetic companies starting to promote their products in southern Africa, like Shiseido did in 2010, for example. So, how does a company develop and market cosmetic products in southern Africa? A key requirement in the development and marketing of cosmetic products all over the world is to understand the market and the needs and expectations of its target consumers. But how should we define the target consumer in southern Africa? It is a multicultural region, combining several ethnic groups and many hybrid mixtures of different cultures, making southern Africa one of the most culturally diverse regions in the world. Besides the different cultures, there are also social distinctions regarding income, connection to infrastructure and access to education and the healthcare March/April 2011

system. These are all key factors. Normally, basic insights into these topics can be obtained from existing market studies. For southern Africa, this is nearly impossible: only limited market data are available and most of the studies focus only on South Africa. Having said that, South Africa is currently the most important economic market, with a GDP that, alone, is many times greater than the GDPs of all other countries in the region. ResearchWikis estimated the value of the South African cosmetic market in 2007 at more than €2.47 billion and predicted a growth of 15–20%.1 Euromonitor confirmed doubledigit growth in South Africa for the beauty and personal care market in 2009.2 A press release from Shiseido in 2010 indicated that they calculated that South Africans spend €220 million for top of the range cosmetic products.3 This points to a trend towards premium products, particularly those with proven efficacy. These figures show that the total southern African market has a value of more than €3 billion and, when taking into account the doubledigit growth in the region, it could easily reach a market size that’s comparable with one of the major markets in Europe, such as Germany, France or the UK.4 In anticipating opportunities in this growing market, we conducted a consumer survey to better understand the cosmetic consumer behaviour of southern African women and plan to transfer the findings into research and development programmes, as well as marketing strategies. The goal is to bring to market new products that satisfy the specific needs of the southern African consumer.

Survey Principles In the following section, the principles of the consumer survey are summarized. We investigated qualitative and quantitative aspects using a standard questionnaire, developed in-house, that was completed in writing and augmented with additional personal interviews related to the content of the questionnaire. Study participants from the southern African region were defined as consumers who were originally from or currently reside in one of the following countries: Botswana,

Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and Zambia. We only included women who had their own buying power, were employed or self-employed, had access to basic infrastructure — even if living in a remote area — and were used to travelling within their country or within the southern Africa region. We wanted to make sure that they had access to different kinds of shops and different ranges of products, and were not limited by only having knowledge about local products. The nationality of the responders was mostly South African, followed by women from Zimbabwe and Namibia. Blacks and whites were equally represented. The age group surveyed was between 25 and 65 years of age. The income levels of the group were very diverse, including a significant low income group of less than €7300 per year and a small group of people who earn more than €36,000 per year. The average income, represented by 45% of the study participants, was around €15,000 per year. The monthly spend on cosmetics (skin, hair and body care) was, on average, 2% of their income. Nevertheless, we identified that women with a lower income spent around 3.6% on cosmetics, which is much more than average. This phenomenon is often called the “lipstick effect,” representing a higher level spend on small personal treats such as cosmetics when luxury items such as holidays or visiting a good restaurant are not affordable.5 Our results showed that women with higher incomes spend an average of 0.9% of their income on cosmetics. More than half of the women confirmed that they like to reward themselves with a special cosmetic product. We found out that southern African women select a sales outlet depending on the level of need to get a suitable, performance-delivering product. For example, black women in general are more concerned about their hair than their skin. They look for products that reduce dandruff, prevent hair breakage and keep their hair soft. Cleansing is also very important; it is not usual for people to wash their hair as frequently as they do in Europe. Many coloured/black southern African women

cosmetic focus

use artificial hair, which is fixed on their heads for some days. During this period, only dry shampoo can be used. Their specific needs and expectations are either not yet catered for, or not well communicated by many of the brands sold in supermarkets, pharmacies or drugstores. Therefore, many such women prefer to buy their hair care products in local hair salons or via direct sales. Personal contact and trust in the sales person is very important. In addition, lack of infrastructure means that small, local shops remain an important source for products. Internet shopping plays more or less no role at all as most people have no private access to a computer. Expectations for skincare products were quite homogenous within the study group. All of the participants were looking for moisturizing and sun protection products. The demand for antiageing products is still low, although current trends suggest an increasing demand in the future. White participants mainly requested westernized concepts, such as aromatherapy. Overall, it is very important for the southern

African woman to be well kept and beautiful. They look after their beauty carefully and, based on their appearance, it is very difficult to ascertain their living conditions. A key driver in product purchase is that it should be natural. Ingredients such as natural oils or herbal extracts are very important to southern African women of all ethnic groups. Also crucial are allergen- and preservative-free formulas. We asked the participants to indicate their three most important criteria when selecting a product. First was natural ingredients, followed by active, performance ingredients and, thirdly, price. To learn more about the natural ingredients that African women are aware of and interested in, they were questioned about a list of extracts and oils commonly used in cosmetic products. The most well recognized were aloe vera, rooibos extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, devil’s claw extract, sea weed extract, kigelia extract and ginseng extract. Most of the given oils were well known and no priority could be identified. They included oils typically used in Western cosmetics, such as almond oil, jojoba


oil, baobab oil as well as local oils, which have just begun to appear in European cosmetics (marula oil, Kalahari melon seed oil, mongongo oil and ximenia oil, for example). Aloe vera, marula oil and Kalahari melon seed oil were most frequently indicated as traditional southern African cosmetic ingredients.

In Summary With the growth of the middle class and increased spending power across many socioeconomic groups in southern Africa, a demand for affordable yet reliable quality skincare and hair care products exists — to fulfil the requirements of the different ethnic groups and to meet the demand for natural ingredients. Consumers will reward those brands that focus on quality and price with their loyalty. This is an opportunity for smaller, flexible brands to enter the market with concepts that are tailor-made for specific ethnic groups, for distribution in supermarkets and drugstores. Although they have to compete with the pricing structure of international players such as Unilever and L’Oréal, which continue to dominate the market, such brands have an opportunity to gain new market share from the consumer groups that are in the process of changing their buying habits from small local shops to supermarkets, which are increasingly penetrating the rural and township areas. New products need to satisfy consumer needs and have to develop trust.

References 1. ResearchWikis, Cosmetics — South Africa, Marketing Research 2007 (www.researchwikis. com/Cosmetics_-_South_Africa_2007_ Marketing_Research). 2. Euromonitor, Beauty and Personal Care in South Africa, 2010 ( and_Personal_Care_in_South_Africa). 3. Business and Finance, South Africa is Shiseido’s Latest Target, 2010 (www.cosmeticsbusiness. com/news/article_page/South_Africa_is_ Shiseidos_latest_target/56871). 4. Global Insight, A study of the European Cosmetics Industry; Study prepared for European Commission, 2007 ( daten/edz.../study_eu_cosmetics_industry.pdf). 5. Euromonitor, Marketing: The Top 10 Consumer Trends, 2010 (

For more information Dr Sybille Buchwald-Werner, Founder and Managing Director, and Sabrina Scholz, Scientific Manager Vital Solutions GmbH Hausinger Strasse 4–8 D-40764 Langenfeld, Germany. Tel. +49 2173 1098 202

March/April 2011


new product development

Efficacy Studies of the Future As safe as food, as effective as a drug: this is the opportunity provided by the nutraceutical industry. However, the challenge facing nutraceutical development is providing proof of efficacy and determining the mode of action of naturally occurring substances so that these safe compounds can be registered as therapeutics. This challenge is being tackled by the emerging company, Trillion Genomics, which is developing a technique to detect multiple molecules in tissue samples. Their research is currently focussed on lycopene, one of the components of the Mediterranean diet that leads to low levels of disease. Lycopene is the red carotenoid found in tomatoes and its presence in food means that it has already been certified as 100% safe. It has been identified as having huge potential as a nutraceutical, particularly in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Unmet Needs Age-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type II diabetes are on the increase; yet, the pharmaceutical industry is struggling to produce effective drugs for their treatment or prevention. Part of the reason for this failure is the sheer number of people that develop them. If a high proportion of the population is to take drugs to treat these problems, there is, quite reasonably, an expectation that the drugs must have very few side-effects. This is particularly true if they are to be taken as preventives. As diet plays an important role in determining who will develop these conditions, nutraceuticals are an obvious area to examine for safe and effective disease treatment and prevention.

Creating a Scientific Rationale Trillion Genomics’ technology aims to provide sound scientific rationale for nutraceutical products and overcomes some of the limitations of conventional techniques for analysing tissue samples. One of the major issues facing researchers is that a single nutraceutical can work in a number of ways — and this makes the ability to study many pathways at the same time essential to obtain a clear picture of the modes of action of a nutraceutical or drug. Traditionally, radiolabelling is used to detect large biomolecules such as proteins or RNA; but, as it can only detect one compound at a time, it is limited in the amount of information it can provide. Also, the radioactive tags can be hazardous to use. Trillion Genomics’ technology is based on Tandem Nucleic Acid Mass Tag-DNA (TNT-DNA) probes. When

March/April 2011

the tags break up, they form characteristic daughter ions that have a kind of ‘molecular fingerprint’ that enables them to be detected using Imaging Mass Spectrometry. The way in which they break up means signals can be easily distinguished from noise, so the technology has an unmatched ability to detect the tags, even in a complex background. By giving a unique fingerprint to many of the biomolecules within a single tissue sample, researchers can understand the complex ways in which a drug is acting. All the effects of the drug can be measured simultaneously, meaning far more information can be obtained from tissue samples. This has huge potential benefits for drug development. In addition to understanding how a molecule is working, Trillion Genomics’ technology can also be used to develop it as a treatment. To ensure that nutraceuticals deliver the greatest benefit to the patient, drug developers may make subtle changes to the molecule, such as produce an isomer that is more stable than the one extracted from food. There is the danger that these changes may affect some of the pathways in which the compound is involved, even if they have no effect on the most widely understood pathway. By ensuring that all these pathways can be detected, Trillion Genomics’ technology can identify when a structural change to the compound alters any of the ways it is acting.

Proving the Efficacy of Lycopene Trillion Genomics’ technology provides the nutraceutical industry with a valuable tool to enable efficacy studies to take place. It can be used to validate the way in which potential

nutraceuticals are acting in the body, and determine how they are being metabolized. For example, lycopene, which is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, may work in multiple distinct ways. It accumulates in the prostate and its basic antioxidant effect is probably a key aspect in protecting against prostate cancer. But lycopene has also been shown to increase the expression of connexin genes, which facilitate communication between cells, and this may also have a beneficial anticancer effect. In addition, lycopene is transformed into numerous metabolites that may have their own functions. Lycopene is also able to inhibit the oxidation of LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, which is the form of cholesterol normally reported by blood tests. LDL is a naturally occurring substance that has crucial roles in the body, but can undergo deleterious modifications such as oxidation. A build up of oxidized LDL can lead to its deposition on artery walls, where it hardens and leads to the formation of plaques. These plaques increase a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attacks.

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Lycopene acts to reduce the oxidation of LDL and hence prevent the build-up of the harmful oxidized form. Lycopene is absorbed into the LDL particle and is sacrificially oxidized, preventing the oxidation of LDL. Lycopene has recently been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines (immune system signalling molecules) such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6). The elevated production of IL-6 is associated with an increased risk of

new product development

cardiovascular disease. These cardiovascular health benefits recently attracted the interest of Cambridge Theranostics Limited (CTL), a nutraceutical company developing supplements to provide the correct dosage of nutrients in an effective form. Research and trials led them to produce a one-a-day supplement (www. that’s designed to keep the brain, heart and arteries healthy. In its raw form, lycopene’s large crystals are hard for the body to absorb; so, CTL delivers lycopene as lactolycopene to improve the body’s uptake of this beneficial compound. In lactolycopene, whey proteins have been combined with the lycopene to enhance bioavailability. Günter Schmidt, CEO of CTL, saw lycopene’s benefits beyond cardiovascular disease. He is now working to apply Trillion Genomics’ technology to develop oncology products based on lycopene. He says: “The compounds we are studying have wider uses than we currently understand. It may be that, by improving cardiovascular health, lycopene can protect against conditions such as dementia as well as against cardiovascular disease.”

Prevention of Prostrate Cancer Lycopene is also associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Animal studies, tissue-culture studies and some small-scale

human trials have provided encouraging results that lycopene slows the development of prostate cancer, and this untapped potential is something that Trillion Genomics is keen to exploit. Andrew Thompson, cofounder and CSO of Trillion Genomics, says: “Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in British men (after lung cancer, which is almost entirely caused by smoking). It occurs mainly in older men and is usually slow to develop. This often means that the side-effects of the treatment can be worse than the disease itself. Lycopene could be a safe way to prevent or delay the onset of the disease and slow its progression. However, only when lycopene’s mode of action has been determined can we develop a scientifically proven treatment for prostate cancer.” Andrew says: “Drug development is an expensive process, and by identifying problems at an early stage you can prevent wasted time and money. Our technology can be used to identify toxicity early on in the development process.”

In Conclusion The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 171 million people worldwide have diabetes (which often leads to cardiovascular disease), a figure that is likely to more than double within the next 20 years.1


In addition, 16.7 million people die each year from cardiovascular diseases, according to WHO, and 30,000 people die each year of prostate cancer in the USA alone, according to the National Cancer Institute. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that many food-based products protect against these common diseases. Trillion Genomics empowers researchers to prove the efficacy of these products so they can be used for the treatment and prevention of these widespread diseases.

Reference 1. facts/diabetes/en.

For more information Dr Andrew Thompson Trillion Genomics Ltd Unit 4, Abbey Barns Ickleton, Cambridge CB10 1SX, UK. Tel. +44 1223 497 131 Dr Gunter Schmidt Cambridge Theranostics Ltd 7 Hills Avenue, Cambridge CB1 7UY, UK.

March/April 2011


new product development

Fuzzy Edges Make for Sloppy Thinking The scientific study of the adverse effects of substances on the body is known as toxicology and owes its origins to an early Swiss medical practitioner called Philipus Aureolus Paracelsus (1493–1541). Although he thought of himself as a form of alchemist, an already despised profession, his main interest was the use of potions to cure illnesses. His most important insight was to recognize that anything and everything could be harmful if administered in a high enough dose. His succinct aphorism — “The dose makes the poison” — is still drummed into students of toxicology today.


he border between the scientific study of nutrition and toxicology has become blurred. Traditionally, nutrition concerned itself with the way in which the body makes use of substances (nutrients) provided in food, whereas the toxicologist studies the adverse effects of any substance, including nutrients. Today, the growth area in nutrition research concerns the adverse effects of certain nutrients. There should be nothing wrong with excursions across scientific borders; but, the training of any scientist who wishes to stray into foreign territory needs to be appropriate to the task. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, with numerous nutrition research reports betraying a fundamental lack of understanding of the first (and oldest) principle of toxicology. When setting out to study the adverse effects of a nutrient, the dose must be considered. Because anything will produce adverse effects when given at a high enough dose, research studies are meaningless unless the dose given is one that is likely to be experienced by ordinary people during their normal lives. When a substance is taken into the body, it will be distributed in one of two general ways. Either it will spread widely throughout the body or it will concentrate in certain organs (often the liver or kidneys). Then, it either undergoes metabolism or, if it is inert, will be removed by the body by excretion (often in the urine). Any metabolites will either react with biochemical targets in the body or be excreted themselves. All these processes are governed by pathways that have a limited capacity. Only a certain throughput is possible before the pathway becomes overwhelmed. Many biochemical pathways behave in this way. If the rate at which a substance or metabolite enters the pathway is too

March/April 2011

great, the pathway is overwhelmed. The resulting overflow needs to be dealt with by a completely different means than that which operates when the rate of input to the usual pathway remains within its capacity to cope. New routes are opened up and these may be harmful to the body when the normal route is quite harmless. So, the question: “Is nutrient X harmful?” is simplistic and ambiguous. Does it mean “commonly causes harm in practice” or “capable of causing harm under extreme circumstances”? It should be recast as: “At what dose is nutrient X harmful?” In all cases, whatever the nutrient may be, the answer to the simplistic question, “Is nutrient X capable of causing harm under extreme circumstances?” is an emphatic “yes” … but that answer does not provide any help whatsoever when advising the public. The useful information is “what is the dose at which nutrient X becomes harmful?” The generally recognized way of addressing this question is to define a dose level known as the “Upper Level.” The UL is the maximum dose that a normal healthy adult may consume daily without experiencing any harm. This is a useful figure when considering what advice to give the public on their dietary habits. If a substance has a known UL that is commonly exceeded by members of the public in the normal course of their daily lives, then advice to reduce consumption may reasonably be given to the public at large. If only a certain subsection habitually exceed this UL, then a reasonable course of action would be to target this group, rather than issue an unnecessary warning to everyone. The public tires rapidly of those who “cry wolf,” so health warnings should be used sparingly — otherwise an important warning may be ignored.

A lack of attention to these issues of basic toxicological science has caused a good deal of debate among nutritionists in recent years. Those who understand the importance of defining a quantitative UL before considering what advice to give to the public have been at loggerheads with those who prefer to rely on uncertain evidence as a basis for pronouncements. Particular problems arise when a nutrient such as sugar is considered. Several unsuccessful attempts have been made to identify an Upper level for sugar in the diet. These expert committee reviews were unable to identify evidence that sugar causes harm above a certain level of intake. Certainly, no reliable evidence is available that any appreciable number of people have been caused any harm by the amount of sugar they regularly consume in the course of their ordinary lives. If such evidence were clear, a UL could be estimated. But, as there is no evidence, no UL can be assigned. Without knowledge of the UL, any advice to the public must be speculative. And the public deserves to be made aware that pronouncements on their consumption of sugar are not based on firm evidence but “expert opinion.” Unfortunately, experts are not infallible, and they may stray into territory with which they appear unfamiliar. Today, the borderline between nutrition and toxicology has become rather fuzzy. This should not be made an excuse for sloppy thinking.

For more information Dr Mary Harrington Nutrition Communications Manager The Sugar Bureau 25 Floral Street, London WC2E 9DS, UK. Tel. +44 207 189 8301

The world’s leading nutraceuticals trade show • 8500 attendees • 1000s of new products & innovations • 500 exhibiting companies • 250 senior industry delegates • 30 free seminar sessions • 1 must-attend event

10 - 12 May 2011 | GENEVA PALEXPO | Switzerland Organised by IIR

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sports nutrition

Building Muscle and Strength with Whey Protein Bridget Holmes, Development Technologist, Carbery Food Ingredients, analyses how the latest hydrolysed whey protein improves muscle protein synthesis and decreases muscle protein breakdown.


s pressure grows from governments and the media to be more health and image conscious, a general awareness of the importance of nutrition in supporting a healthy, active lifestyle is also on the rise. Consumers are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about the positive impact that certain nutrients can have on health and fitness, particularly the role of protein — and specifically whey protein — in building muscle and strength when combined with exercise. In the past, whey protein products remained in the exclusive domain of serious sportspeople and body builders. This new, broader awareness of their benefits has led to the expansion of the sport and fitnessrelated nutrition sector, which now includes active consumers. As a result, manufacturers of whey protein are developing more suitable ways of delivering their products to this expanding market.

Taste Test Hydrolysed whey proteins (HWPs) can appeal to a wider demographic, particularly if there is greater emphasis on how they taste. For this reason, Carbery, a European whey protein expert, commissioned industry leading research to study the sensory profiles and flavour chemistry of a range of protein ingredients. The research, conducted at North Carolina State University (NCSU), included benchmark work comparing a range of leading products in the market place with the aim of characterizing the inherent flavours present in whey proteins. This information enabled Carbery to further understand the relationship between flavour, manufacturing processes, storage and

March/April 2011

consumer responses. The benchmarking research included the validation of a new product in Carbery’s renowned Optipep range as an exceptionally clean tasting HWP. The research confirmed that it possesses a low bitter taste compared with other leading hydrolysates available on the market. The ingredient’s neutral taste is created by using specialist enzyme technology and is the result of investment in process technology that works to minimize the impact of bitterness associated with hydrolysis.

Promoting Muscle Protein Synthesis Besides its clean taste, the new Optipep ingredient also offers a readily available source of di- and tripeptides. These are more rapidly absorbed into the intestine than free amino acids and protein hydrolysates containing larger peptides, and much more rapidly than intact protein. This speed of absorption means that Optipep helps sportspeople to recover more quickly after exercise by maximizing amino acid delivery to the muscle to promote muscle protein synthesis. It is thought that di- and tripeptides — or amino acids from di- and tripeptides — are absorbed at a higher rate as a result of a system that has a greater transport capacity than amino acid carrier systems. Diand tripeptides are transported into the intestinal epithelial cells, along with hydrogen ions, via the PepT1 transporter. Then, once inside the enterocyte, they are hydrolysed to amino acids by cytoplasmic peptidases and pass into the bloodstream. By contrast, amino acid absorption is dependent on a gradient of sodium ions across the brush border membrane of the

intestinal epithelial cells. The ingestion of Optipep also triggers an increased insulin response. Higher insulin concentrations in the blood stimulate the uptake of certain amino acids into the muscle, promoting muscle protein synthesis and decreasing breakdown by inhibiting amino acid oxidation. In addition, Optipep delivers high levels of essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which exert an anticatabolic effect by reducing the breakdown of protein and protecting muscle tissue. When present at high levels, BCAAs can be deaminated by the muscle cell and burned as energy. This conserves glycogen reserves and helps to improve stamina.

Next Generation Hydrolysed Whey Protein The combination of an exceptionally clean taste profile and the high levels of di- and tripeptides offered by Optipep make it the ideal ingredient for sports nutrition products that aid recovery and strength building. Optipep also enables manufacturers to make a hydrolysed whey protein on-pack claim. As consumers become increasingly aware of the benefits of aligning their diet with their exercise programme, products that are convenient, great tasting and offer real benefits are sure to enjoy great success.

For more information Paul Donegan Carbery Ballineen, Co. Cork, Ireland. Tel. +353 23 22200



June l 15 l 16 2011 Lille l France

Where innovation and regulation meet nutrition

the future nutrition & health

Come and invent of

✔ Partnering ✔ Conferences ✔ Exhibition ✔ Career Fair

March/April 2011


animal nutrition

A New Era for Animal Nutrition

The animal health industry has witnessed a number of interesting developments recently. On one hand, the recession has stimulated demand for products offering value for money and practicality. But, on the other, the market for premium, niche products has blossomed despite the economic downturn. Here, Craig McIntosh, CEO, Waitaki Biosciences, examines some of the key trends driving innovation in this ever more diverse sector.


ets are increasingly being humanized by their owners, as demonstrated by the thriving markets for pet fashion, therapy and grooming. Pet health is no exception. Consumers are better informed than ever before about health and nutrition and, consequently, demand for organic, natural and free-from products has never been higher. Because owners want the best for their animals, with many choosing pet food as selectively as their own, it is not surprising to see this human market trend crossing over into the realm of animal health. Research demonstrates that the market for natural animal products is buoyant. In the dog food market, for example, products featuring a natural claim (such as no additives/preservatives, organic, all natural) account for almost half (45%) of total launches.1 Clearly, attributes such as organic and natural are set to become increasingly coveted in animal nutrition. The good news for manufacturers is that natural ingredients are palatable and formulate well with existing products. Plus, they are applicable in a variety of supplement delivery options.

March/April 2011

This opens up a number of exciting new NPD opportunities, as well as the option to improve existing lines. And, as natural ingredients require meticulous management, from controlling the selection of raw materials through to the final details of export shipment, they also provide the assurance that consumers are looking for when choosing the best for their pets.

Safe, Sustainable Choices Across numerous industries, there is now strong demand for traceability and sustainability. For example, a recent report found that 49% of consumers consider themselves to be ‘eco-aware’ and 30% see themselves as ‘eco-warriors.’2 Increasingly, they expect products destined for animal consumption to align with these values. Many leading industry players are responding to this trend. Mars’ pet care business recently announced a commitment to using only

animal nutrition

sustainably sourced fish by 2020. As one of the world’s largest producers of pet care products, the company has set an important precedent for the industry. We expect the market for sustainable ingredients for animal health applications to prosper as more product developers begin to adopt this approach. Product safety is also of growing importance. Since the issues with pet deaths resulting from contaminated Chinese products in 2007, the market has been calling for products that are manufactured to human food grade standard. Food and supplements for human consumption are subject to far more rigorous quality control processes, providing added reassurance for owners who are anxious to secure the best possible care for pets and working animals.

Europe’s leading dietary supplements, functional foods & drinks exhibition

Nutrition for Conditions Supplementation for specific conditions is another emerging area in animal nutrition. Animals are living longer than ever before and face a number of the health issues associated with ageing. This can affect animals’ working lives or their enjoyment of life as they get older. The importance of effective supplementation is therefore increasingly recognized by animal health professionals and owners. Science is confirming what people have observed for years and it is now clear that animals gain as much from supplementation as humans do. Bone health is one interesting example. Like most health conditions affecting animals, it can become an issue for a number of reasons. First, animals are living longer. This means that their frames are under strain for longer and have longer to deteriorate. Secondly, owing to either diet or exercise, rising numbers of companion animals do not develop the bone density required for good health. Finally, sports and working animals are becoming increasingly valuable and the strain placed on their bodies can lead to bone damage and loss of value. Breeders of such animals often have to provide evidence of bone health as part of the sale conditions. As a result, assistance in developing and maintaining bone density while animals are growing is also vital. The same can be said for any number of health conditions afflicting animals as they reach their golden years.

Optimum Business Performance 10 – 12 May 2011 GENEVA PALEXPO | Switzerland

Summary It is encouraging to see the horizons of the animal nutrition market broadening. Owners now seek diverse products that meet an ever widening range of emotional and physical needs. What’s more, there is mounting evidence to suggest that animals benefit as much as humans from a well balanced intake of nutrients. These factors — combined — signal a new era of opportunities for product developers in the animal nutrition sector.

Register online now for FREE at & benefit from ✓ FREE fast-track entry ✓ FREE Event Guide ✓ Save €100 entrance fee

References 1. Mintel, GNPD Category Insight, Dog Food, Q2–Q3 (2010). 2. Mintel, Food and Drink Sustainability Webinar (2010).

For more information Craig McIntosh Waitaki Biosciences PO Box 19–727 Woolston, Christchurch 8241 New Zealand. Tel. +64 3 337 6096

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last word

Meeting the Cognitive Health Challenge

The news that global populations are ageing is now well accepted, and public services are preparing for intensified pressure as age-related diseases increase. One of the biggest areas for concern is cognitive health. Developing dementia is a significant worry for people as they age; but, unfortunately, it is a real possibility and one that is becoming more common. The World Alzheimer’s Report states that the global cost of dementia in 2010 will be £388 billion and suggests that it could increase by 85% by 2030.1


side from the staggering cost implications, the social impact on sufferers and their families is often unmanageable. The challenge, therefore, is to find ways to maintain the quality of life for older age groups. This means implementing changes now that would reduce the risk of dementia in later life. Omega-3s demonstrate potential in this area and many studies indicate an association between greater omega-3 intake and a reduction in the risk of dementia.2 Lesser forms of cognitive decline are equally as concerning. Apart from the disruption caused to the sufferer, mild cognitive impairment can in turn lead to dementia; approximately 12% of people with cognitive impairment without dementia in the US will go on to develop the disease annually.3 However, less research has been undertaken on the

direct effects of omega-3s on cognitive decline, making a new study in this area an important contribution to understanding the full scope of brain health concerns in later life.

The MIDAS touch The Memory Improvement with Docosahexaenoic Acid Study (MIDAS), published in Alzheimer’s & Dementia, suggests that there may be benefits to be gained from consuming more of one particular type of omega-3: DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).4 DHA omega-3 is a major structural component of the brain and adequate levels in neural tissue are essential for optimal brain functioning throughout life.5 Low plasma DHA levels have been associated with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and the ageing adult. The double blind, randomized,


Decrease in PAL errors

Change Score

Omega-3 Options



-4 DHA -5 * -6


Week 24 change from baseline score *p=0.03

Figure 1: Results.

March/April 2011

placebo-controlled, multicentre trial evaluated the effects of supplementation on 485 healthy older adults (55+ years of age) presenting mild memory complaints. The study used life’sDHA, an algae-derived, vegetarian form of DHA from Martek Biosciences. Participants were randomly supplemented with 900 mg of life’sDHA per day or placebo for 24 weeks. The researchers used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) test called Paired Associate Learning (PAL). PAL is a validated test of visuospatial learning and episodic memory. It is often used to assess patients with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease and age-related memory loss. The test records errors made, number of attempts to complete each task, memory scores and stages completed to give an overall score. In previous studies, PAL was successfully used to discriminate between healthy controls, mild cognitively impaired subjects and those with Alzheimer’s disease.6

Fish are often incorrectly thought to be the only source of DHA omega-3. However, life’sDHA is a trusted, vegetarian form of algal DHA that contains no oceanic pollutants or toxins. Fish are sources of DHA because of the DHA-rich microalgae in their food chain; life’sDHA is derived directly from the original source. life’sDHA is a renewable, sustainable source of DHA that does not deplete ocean resources and is produced entirely in the US in an FDA-inspected facility. Today, life’sDHA is found in numerous foods, beverages and supplements for people of all ages. It is also the only source of DHA used in US infant formula and is included in more than 99% of all formulae on the US market, as well as in more than 350 brands of infant formula, nutritional supplements and functional foods sold in more than 75 countries worldwide.

last word



Future Implications


The trial assessed all subjects for working memory, memory retention, attention and executive function to determine the potential for algal DHA to affect cognition. After 24 weeks, performance in the PAL memory and learning task was significantly improved in the algal DHA group compared with the group given a placebo, as shown in Figure 1. The DHA group had a two-fold reduction in the number of learning and episodic memory errors. These results indicate that the 900 mg/ day supplementation of algal DHA for 6 months provided a benefit roughly equivalent to having the learning and memory skills of someone 3 years younger. Plus, data showed that plasma DHA levels significantly increased, displaying a positive correlation with improved memory scores in the algal DHA-supplemented subjects — which indicates enhanced DHA-related cognitive function. Overall, the results suggest that algal DHA supplementation may improve early learning and memory deficits associated with cognitive ageing.

The MIDAS study is a welcome addition to an area of brain health that has yet to receive substantial attention. Milder cognitive complaints may be less debilitating than the more advanced dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, but finding ways to minimize their impact will help to lessen concerns about growing older and release some pressure on public services. Further research into mild cognitive impairment and the transition to more serious forms should provide clear steps to addressing what has been called the greatest medical challenge of the 21st century.7

1. A  lzheimer’s Disease International ( 2. G  .M. Cole, et al. , “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia,” Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 81(2–3), 213–221 (2009). 3. B  .L. Plassman, et al. , “Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia in the United States,” Ann. Intern. Med. 148, 427–434 (2008). 4. K  . Yurko-Mauro, et al. , “Beneficial Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Cognition in Age-Related Cognitive Decline,” Alzheimers Dement. 6(6), 456–464 (2010). 5. L . Laureitzen, et al ., “The Essentiality of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids in Relation to Development and Function of the Brain and Retina,” Prog. Lipid Res. 40(1–2), 1–94 (2001). 6. A . Egerhazi, et al ., “Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease,” Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 31(3), 746–751 (2007). 7. T he Alzheimer’s Research Trust ( article.php?type=News&id=544).

For more information Rob Winwood Director of Scientific Affairs Martek Biosciences Corporation 6480 Dobbin Road Columbia, Maryland 21045, USA. Tel. +1 410 740 0081


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regulatory review

Which Disinfectant is Right for Me?

Food safety has made its way to the forefront of the US government’s agenda for the first time in decades because of recent Salmonella outbreaks in peanut butter, eggs and various vegetables. The Food Safety and Modernization Act was signed into law in early January and it is designed to focus on the prevention of food-borne illnesses. Although dietary supplements are regulated by specific cGMPs, these new regulations will apply to dietary supplement manufacturers too. A large portion of this bill requires manufacturers to devise plans such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to locate problematic areas and produce ways to eliminate or reduce the hazard. In doing so, the proper selection of disinfecting agent(s) is an important part of the process as they provide a way to reduce contamination.


hoosing the correct disinfectant depends on the environmental conditions surrounding the manufacturing process. First, you must know what organism you want to eliminate. Not all organisms are of high-risk concern under all circumstances. For example, in a situation when there is limited or no human interaction with the consumable product, but there are raw materials of plant origin, there will be less concern about Streptococcus,

Staphylococcus or Shigella because these organisms are typically associated with human skin and excrement and transferred by the improper handling of consumables. However, contamination could come from organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter as these organisms are associated with soil, untreated water and livestock, all of which can ultimately be the source of contact for a raw material of botanical origin. The most effective disinfectant would be the one that can effectively kill all organisms and not be affected by the presence of organic matter, hard water or soaps/detergents. Although no single disinfectant can cover all aspects, there are many available that will provide the coverage needed for most scenarios. A very good broad-spectrum group includes aldehyde compounds. This group of disinfectants is effective in destroying many harmful organisms including vegetative bacteria (bacteria in the actively growing state), mycobacterium, bacterial spores, enveloped viruses, non-enveloped viruses and fungi. However, they do show reduced efficacy in the presence of organic matter, hard water or soaps. The aldehyde disinfectants can be carcinogenic and are mucus membrane and tissue irritants. Therefore, they should only be used in well-ventilated areas. The least effective at killing organisms are the biguanide compounds, including chlorhexidine. Biguanide compounds are effective in eliminating vegetative bacteria, but not spores.

March/April 2011

Their effectiveness is limited against viruses and fungi. Biguanides only function in a limited pH range — 5–7 — which could be a problem in some work environments. Biguanide compounds also have environmental issues: they are toxic to fish. Another good disinfectant with low to moderate cost is the phenolic group. This category of disinfectants is very effective in the presence of organic material and soaps or detergents. They are effective in eliminating vegetative bacteria and enveloped viruses. There is a varied effect on Mycobacteria, non-enveloped viruses and fungi, and it’s non-sporocidal. The environmental concern is its toxicity to animals, especially cats and pigs. The two most cost-effective disinfectants are the halogen group and the quaternary ammonium compounds. The common halogen disinfectants are the hypochlorite compounds (bleach) and iodine compounds. In general, they provide a wide germicidal activity. The hypochlorite compounds are effective in eliminating vegetative bacteria, Mycobacteria, enveloped viruses, non-enveloped viruses and fungi. It has a variable effect on spores. There are some disadvantages with this disinfectant. Care must be taken to shield it from UV light as it denatures the compound and renders it useless. This compound requires frequent application to surfaces and presents another challenge in that it is highly corrosive. Moreover, like aldehyde compounds, they are mucus membrane and tissue irritants so employee safety must be considered before selecting this disinfectant. Iodine has slightly different characteristics. It effectively eliminates vegetative bacteria cells, enveloped viruses and fungi, but has a limited effect on Mycobacteria, non-enveloped viruses and bacterial endospores. The disadvantages of iodine compounds are that they are inactivated by Quaternary Ammonium compounds (Quats), which could pose a problem when iodine and Quats are used in rotation.

The next most cost-effective disinfectants are the Quats. These compounds are very stable in storage, do not irritate the skin and are effective at high temperatures and pH (9–10). However, Quats are very effective in eliminating vegetative Gram positive bacteria but have a limited effect on Gram negative bacteria. These might be useful when you are worried about spoilage caused by Gram positives such as Bacillus subtilis and lactobacillus or contamination with pathogenic Gram positives such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus and Clostridium. However, Gram negatives such as Pseudomonas, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Salmonella may not be completely eliminated. It has a varied effect on Mycobacteria and enveloped viruses, and no effect on non-enveloped viruses and spores. The remaining categories are the coal tar distillates (cresol), alcohols and oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide). All are good broad-spectrum compounds but carry a higher cost than other disinfectants. The oxidizing agents and cresols are corrosive to work areas and the alcohols are highly flammable. The alcohols and oxidizing agents are hindered by the presence of organic matter whereas the cresols are not. The bottom line is to determine what biological hazards might be present or of concern in your plant and, based on these, select the appropriate disinfectant. Furthermore, it is always wise to rotate the disinfectants to prevent one of those organisms that amass on your equipment from mutating and becoming resistant to the disinfectant.

For more information Dr Cheri Turman and Benny McKee Contact Dr Turman, Director of Chemistry Analytical Food Laboratories Tel. +1 800 242 6494







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NBT March 2011  

Volume 7 Number 2 March/April 2011

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