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Fodder from Fallow Land •

Fallow : land ordinarily used for crop production when allowed to lie idle either in a tilled or untilled condition during the whole or the greater portion of the growing season

Tethering: Animal that is restrained using a rope tied to a pole or tree and allowed to graze

Natural grass & Broad leaf species- Sporobulus, Ischaemum, Digitaria, Brachiaria, & Cynodon

Grass legume- Axonopus, Chrysopogon, Paspalum, Pennisetum & Trifolium

• Weeds– – – – –

Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) Toco grass (Ischaemum spp.) Potha grass (Themeda cymbaria) Crab grass (Digitaria spp.) Carpet grass (Axonopus compressus)

Grasses on terraces • Terrace –soil conservation in steep areas • Grasses on rises of terraces for stability • Themeda cymbaria (Potha grass)-drought resist -Kerala

Natural Grass land • Shifting cultivation and degradation of forest • South India – Pennisetum polystachion, – Themeda cymbaria & – Imperata cylindrica,

• North & Peninsular India – Marvel grass ( Dichanthium annulatum, – White grass ( Sehima nervosum), – Anjan and Black Anjan (Cenchrus spp)

Grasses on Hedge strips • Erosion control – on contour- protection against runoff. – Increase time for water to infiltrate – Facilitate sedimentation and deposition – Porous filter • Vetiver grass- semi arid regions (roots –oil)

• Potha grass ( Themeda cymbaria)- Central Kerala – earthern bunds • Signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) • Palisade grass ( Brachiaria decumbens) • Para grass ( Brachiaria mutica) • Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) • Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) • Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

Cover crops • Slopy areas –to prevent soil erosion • Steep erosion prone slopes- land between terraces- cover crop • Creeping legumes – Weed suppression – Soil temp maintainance – Organic matter addition

• Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides) • Puero ( Pueraria phaseoloides) • Centro ( Centrosema pubescens)

• Fodder cum cover-up crops – Carpet grass ( Axonopus compressus) – Palisade grass ( Brachiaria brizantha) – Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) – Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) – St Augustine grass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum)

Fodder from Marshy land • Mud removed –brick • Para grass ( Brachiaria mutica)- water logged

Tree fodder crops • Tree legumes – Subabul – Agathi – Gliricidia – Hedge lucerne

• Jack fruit tree

Crop wastes • Cereal straw • Unconventional feeds – Jack fruit waste – Casava stem shavings – Pineapple waste – Cocoa pod rinds – Plantain leaves & stem – Cashew apple

• Proper storage, handling, LOI, adaptation

Forage Crops • • • •

Meaningful comparison & study Botanical classification Life span and growth habitat Practical purpose – grasses, legumes and miscellaneous

Botanical Classification • • • • •

Plant taxonomy based on natural relationships Kingdom- Plantae Division- Spermatophyta (seed bearing) Class- Angiospermae (seed in fruit) Sub class• 2 Monocotyledonae (one seed leaf)- grasses • Dicotyledonae (two seed leaf)- legumes

• Family- Poaceae and Fabaceae • Genus- first part of botanical name-start with capital letter=italics • Species-second part-begin with small letter- italics • Variety – sub specific grouping – small letter italics

• Most important unit in botanical classification is species • Variety – distinct morphological sub grouping within a species usually resulting from geographical separation – Eg Green panic var of Guinea grass – Panicum maximum trichoglume.

– Botanical var or cultivated var (cultivar) • For cultivar capitalisation - Panicum maximum cv. Hamil or Panicum maximum ‘Hamil’

Classification – Life Span • Annuals- life cycle within one year • Single season- Seasonal crops • Cereal crops – Rabi crops- Fodder oats, Berseem – Kharif crops- Fodder maize, Dheenanath grass

• Biennials- life span of two years • First year vegetative growth , food stored – underground portions • Second year –reproductive phase • Forage carrot

• Perinnials – Several years – Flower & seed several times, Bamboo –only once – Subabul, Gliricidea, Agathi (legume trees) – Calopo, Centro (ground legume) – Tropical grasses- Guinea, Napier, Congo signal, Para

Classification –Growth Habit Herb : small amount of woody tissue in stem and root – Grasses • Guinea grass, maize – Forbs : broad leaved herbs other than grasses • Annuals- Berseem, cowpea and maize • Perennials – Alfalfa and Calopo

• Shrubs : woody plant that branches just above ground level and has no oblivious main stem – Perennials- Hedge leucerne

• Trees : capacious main trunk, branches in upper part – Gliricidia, Calliandra

General Classification- Forages • Grasses • Legumes • Miscellaneous

Grass • • • • • •

Family : Poaceae (Graminae) 650 genera and 10,000 species Ephemerals, annuals, biennials,perennials Bamboo- largest grass -30m Herbaceous grasses- 2cm -10m Alternate leaves with sheathing leaf base, small membranous outgrowths –ligule-at junction of leaf base and leaf blade • Stem- hollow internodes and solid node-culm

• Inflorescence –complicated • Fruit produced- caryopsis or grain – Bunch or tufted grass • • • • •

Erect culms arising from a single crown forming tufts, tussocks, clumps or branches growing point near level of defoliation. Establishment by seed, stem cuttings or splits. Ideal for cut & carry Guinea grass

– Stoloniferous grass • Stolon-creep along surface of ground • Produce roots and shoots at nodes • Para grass

– Rhizomatous –stem below ground-adventitious root & shoot » Guatemala grass (Tripsacum laxum) – Tufted and rhizomatous » Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) – Stoloniferous and rhizomatous » Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

Cereal forage crops • Cereals- human consumption • Some - huge vegetative growth- not efficient in grain- fodder – Summer annuals • • • •

Fodder sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), Fodder maize (Zea mays) Fodder bajra (Pennisetum americanum) Teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana/Zea mexicana)

– Winter annuals • Fodder oats (Avena sativa) • Fodder barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Cultivated grass • Annuals- propagated by seeds • Deenanath grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) • Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanese)

• Perennials – seeds and vegetative • • • • • • • •

Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) Congo signal (Brachiaria ruziziensis) Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) Hybrid Napier (P. purpureum X P. americanum) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata)

Miscellaneous grasses • As weeds in cultivated area, fallow land, roadside, grass land etc. • Considerable forage yield, palatable • • • • • •

Goose grass (Eleusine indica) Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) Arrow grass (Crysopogon aciculatus) Tropical crab grass- (Digitaria ciliaris) Red oat grass (Themeda triandra) Tero grass (Alloteropsis cimicina)

Forage Legume • Family Fabaceae (Leguminosae) 750 genera, 18,000 species – 3 sub families • Mimosoideae• Caesalpinioideae • Faboideae (Papilionoideae)- all imp food and pasture legume- 200 genera, 12,000 sp

• Nodules on root stem- symbiosis- Rhizobium • Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Climbers, Creepers

• Leaves- alternate and compound, pinnate or trifoliate

• Flowers – hermaphrodite -5 sepals and 5petals

Superior ovary- attached to receptacle above attachment of other floral parts

• Hypogynous Perigynous


Fruit is a pod –called legume • Legume – dehiscent fruit developed from a simple ovary dehiscing or seperating into two halves by both ventral and dorsal sutures, with seeds attached to ventral suture. • Pod may be round, flat or winged.

Legumes for fodder • Ground legumes- herbaceous including, erect, creeping, spreading, climbing or decumbent • Tree legumes- both shrubs and trees

Ground legumes • Winter annuals – Egyptian clover/Berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) – Fenugreek/Metha (Trigonella foenum-graceum) – Indian clover/Sweet clover/Senji (Melilotus parviflora) – Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum)

• Summer Annuals – Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) – Fodder cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) – Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus) – Moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) – Rice bean (Vigna umbellata)