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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM : Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric

ARCHITECTURAL THESIS - ‘18 THESIS GUIDE : Ar. TANUJA KANVINDE, Ar. RAHUL SEN THESIS RESEARCH GUIDE : Ar. RAHUL SEN COORDINATORS : Prof. JAYA KUMAR & Prof. ARUNA RAMANI GROVER

VERTIKA KAPOOR

FINAL YEAR I B.ARCH SPA DELHI


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

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declaration The thesis titled ‘Agra Heritage Museum’ has been carried out by the undersigned as a part of the Bachelor’s Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi -110002, India under the supervision of Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde (Design Guide) and Ar. Rahul Sen (Research Guide). I hereby submit two copies of the report for internal and external evaluation respectively. The undersigned hereby declares that this is her original work and has not been plagerized, in part or full, from any source. Furthermore, this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other university.

Vertika Kapoor A/2628/2013 Fifth Year B.Arch. Section-B School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi

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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

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certificate We certify that the Thesis titled ‘Agra Heritage Museum : Weaving Heritage into the Urban Fabric’ by Vertika Kapoor, roll no. A/2628/2013 was guided by us in January - May 2018 and placed in front of the Jury by the candidate on 24-25th May 2018. On successful completion of the report in all respects including the last chapter by the candidate and based on the declaration by the candidate hereinabove, we forward the report to the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde (Design Guide 01)

Ar. Rahul Sen (Design Guide 02)

Ar. Rahul Sen (Research Guide)

On successful completion of the course by the candidate I hereby accept this completed report on behalf of the Head of the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Prof. Jaya Kumar (Studio Director)

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THESIS 2018

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

acknowledgements The successful completion of this thesis has been one of the most challenging academic assignments faced by me which could not have been accomplished without the support, patience and guidance of the following people. I begin by thanking our thesis mentors, Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde & Ar. Rahul Sen for their guidance throughout the thesis program. I am grateful to my Thesis technology guide, Ar. Uday Kapre for his valuable suggestions and encouragement and Thesis coordinator, Prof. Jaya Kumar for guiding me throughout the program. I am deeply indebted to my friend Mr. Amrit Tripathy who revived my faith in the project when I most needed it. I am grateful to my Thesis abstract guide, Sakshi Jain for helping me understand and streamline my thoughts when I was struggling with the sea of information. I would like to thank Ms. Shivani Shastri, Architect, Archohm Consultants(Noida) for devoting me her precious time and for providing useful data related to the project. I must record my gratitude to my parents whose constant support, patience and love were the source of my strength. I found inspiration in trusted friends and mentors, but also in unexpected sources. Thank you everyone, named and unnamed, for keeping me going!

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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

abstract

THESIS 2018


THESIS 2018

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

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list of figures Figure 1: Map of the city of Agra, ca 1914.

Figure 13: Map of present day riverfront Agra showing surviving Mughal gardens and buildings. 35

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(Source : wikipedia.org) 24

Figure 2: Taj Ganj Masterplan by Archohm Consultants. (Source : theplan.it)

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(Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

35

Figure 14: Types of Islamic Gardens.

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Figure 3: Jama Masjid.

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(Source : author) 36

(Source : www.timesmoc.com)

32

Figure 15: Canonical cross-axial : the tomb of Humayun, Delhi, 156271 37

Figure 4: Itmad-ud-daula garden tomb. 32 (Source : tourism-of-india.com)

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(Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

Figure 6: Fatehpur Sikri view from the pavilion. (Source : tourism-of-india.com/agra/)

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Figure 5: Entrance to the Agra Fort.

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Figure 16: Terraced: Shalimar gardens, Kashmir, 1620-34

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(Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

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(Source : nativeplanet.com/travel-guide/agra-fort-a-glorious-symbol-of-power-resilienceand-strength-004292 32

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Figure 17: Waterfront: Lal Mahal, Bari, 1637 (Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

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Figure 18: The basic hasht bihisht design : plan of the pavilion of Shah Quli Khan at Narnaul. 38 (Source : instagram.com/indiapictures) 32 Figure 19: A radially planned hasht bihisht design : plan of Todar Figure 8: Taj Mahal and the river Yamuna aerial view. 33 Mal’s Baradari at Fatehpur Sikri. 38 (Source : Badwe, 2012) 33 Figure 20: Plan of the Humayun tomb at Delhi : four radially planned Figure 10: Perspective reconstruction of the scheme of riverfront Agra, hasht bihisht elements are combined in an overall hasht bihisht plan. based on the Jaipur map : as there, the gardens north of the fort are 38 shown slightly too far north, so that they get out of step with the garFigure 21: Agra fort. 39 dens on the left bank. Named sites are preserved to a greater or lesser Figure 22: Fatehpur Sikri. 39 extent. The Jami Masjid is shown as it appears today, without its east Figure 23: Axonometric of the Taj Mahal showing the double dome construction. 39 wing, which was taken down after the Uprising of 1858. 34 Figure 7: Taj Mahal and the river Yamuna aerial view. 32

(Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

34

Figure 9: Taj Mahal riverfront.

34

(Source : cn.nytimes.com/culture/20160518/t18india/zh-hant/dual/)

Figure 11: A Mughal painting.

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(Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

35

Figure 12: The riverfront gardens on the Jaipur Map. 35 (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

35

(Source : Peck,2008)

34

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Figure 24: Hasht bihisht floor plan, with a central chamber surrounded by 8 others. 39 (Source : Peck,2008)

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Figure 25: Typical courtyard houses and havelis in the old city. (Source : Peck,2008)

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Figure 26: Workers crafting leather shoes in a small factory. 40

Figure 41: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum Sections. 53

(Source : dsource.in/resource/shoe-making-agra)

(Source : virmueller.com) 53

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Figure 27: Inlay-workers in a marble craft shop.

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Figure 42: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum perspective view. 53

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(Source : core77.com/posts/25995/Ancient-Crafts-The-Stone-Inlays-of-the-Taj-Mahal) 41

(Source : virmueller.com) 53

Figure 28: Detail of the pietra dura on the platform of upper cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal. 41

Figure 43: Exterior views, Museum of Islamic arts.

(Source : Koch 2006, pg.93)

Figure 29: Hand bags embellished with zari and bead work. 42

Figure 45: Ablutions fountain of the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun in Cairo. 54

(Source : dsource.in/resource/zari-zardosi-agra)

(Source : footage.framepool.com) 54

41 42

Figure 30: Process and Final product of Zari Zardozi craft. 42

Figure 44: Siteplan, Museum of Islamic arts.

(Source : dsource.in/resource/zari-zardosi-agra)

(Source : desmena.com) 54

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Figure 31: Process and Final product of Carpet weaving craft.

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(Source : dsource.in/resource/durries-and-carpet-weaving-bhadohi/making-process/carpet-weaving) 43

Figure 32: Crafts Museum Delhi Map. 47 (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

Figure 33: Crafts Museum photographs. (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

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(Source : archnet.org)

(Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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(Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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(Source : archnet.org)

Figure 38: Nizamuddin urban renewal plan

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(Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)

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Figure 39: Humayun’s tomb Interpretation Centre Siteplan. 51 51

Figure 40: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum Plan. 52 (Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)

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Figure 53:Photo of the building model (model: Awad studio)

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(Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)

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Figure 51:Transverse Section, Museum of Islamic arts.

Figure 37: Section 49 (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 48: View, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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Figure 50: Longitudinal Section, Museum of Islamic arts.

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Figure 36: Circulation 49 (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 47: First floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts.

(Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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Figure 35: Ground Floor Plan

(Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

Figure 49: Fifth floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts.

Figure 34: First Floor Plan 48 (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 46: Second floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts. 55

(Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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(Source : desmena.com) 54

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Figure 54:Interior of the Education Wing library. (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 52:Aerial view looking from west to east. (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 55:Photo of the building model 57 (Source : archnet.org)

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Figure 56:View of the central courtyard canopy, pools and pavilions 57

Figure 72: Views, Bihar museum. 62

(Source : archnet.org)

Figure 73: Siteplan and elevation, Bihar museum.

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(Source : archdaily.com) 62

Figure 57: The grand spiral staircase at the entrance. 57

(Source : e-architect.co.uk)

(Source : archnet.org)

Figure 74: Axonometric plan view, Bihar museum.

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Figure 60: Section. 58

(Source : posts.architecturelive.in) 63

(Source : archnet.org)

Figure 75: Ground Floor plan, Bihar museum. 63

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Figure 58: Siteplan, New Acropolis Museum. 58

(Source : posts.architecturelive.in) 63

(Source : archdaily.com) 58

Figure 75: First Floor plan, Bihar museum.

Figure 59: Aerial view from the South. 58

(Source : posts.architecturelive.in) 63

(Source : archdaily.com) 58

Figure 76: Functional diagram.

Figure 61: Organization. 59

(Source : author) 71

(Source : archdaily.com) 59

Figure 77: Map of Agra, 1720s. 77

Figure 65: Basement Plan. 59

(Source : Peck, 2008)

(Source : Philips,P. , 2012) (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

(Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 81: Average Temperatures and Precitipation. 78 59

(Source : meteoblue.com) 78

Figure 78: Location map of Agra. 78

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Figure 63: Third Floor Plan.

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(Source : meteoblue.com) 78

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Figure 65: Ground Floor Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 80: Wind Rose, Agra.

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Figure 62: Second Floor Plan.

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(Source : mapsof.net)

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Figure 79: Solar analysis, Agra.

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Figure 66: First Floor Plan. 59

(Source : gaisma.com)

(Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 82: The Taj trapezium zone.

Figure 68: Section A-A.

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(Source : www.youthkiawaaz.com)

(Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 67: Circulation of Exhibition.

78 79

Figure 83: The Golden triangle tour. 60

79 79

(Source : goldentriangletourindiaim.wordpress.com)

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Figure 84: Distribution of Religions in Agra city.

(Source : pinterest.com) 60

Figure 69: Section B-B.

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(Source : wikipedia.org) 79

(Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 85: Masterplan Map of Agra.

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Figure 70: Materials. 61

(Source : adaagra.in)

(Source : pinterest.com) 61

Figure 86: Site and it’s proximity to different tourist attractions in the city forming a continuous spine. 82

Figure 71: Entrance plaza to the museum. (Source : archdaily.com) 61

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(Source : author) 82

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Figure 87: The Taj Mahal. 83 83

(Source : author) 86

Figure 93: The Oberoi Amarvilas. 83

(Source : author) 88

Figure 104: Structural plan.

(Source : wikipedia.org) 83 (Source : oberoihotels.com)

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(Source : slideshare.net) 90

Figure 88: Itmad-ud-daula. 83

Figure 106: Modified single stack system.

(Source : wikipedia.org) 83

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(Source : slideshare.net) 90

Figure 91: Chini ka Rauza 83

Figure 107: Terracotta baguette system details.

(Source : wikipedia.org) 83

Figure 108: Terracotta facade panel fixing details.

Figure 89: Kalakriti cultural center 83 with art exhibits and bollywood style live shows about the Taj Mahal. 83 (Source : author) 83

Figure 92: Brahmakumari Spiritual Museum. 83 (Source : author) 83

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(Source : pinterest.com) 93

Figure 109: Green wall options. 93 (Source : pinterest.com) 93

Figure 109: Organization of different spaces. 100 (Source : pinterest.com) 100

Figure 110: Sequential experience.

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(Source : pinterest.com) 100

Figure 95: Shilpgram 83

Figure 111: Public edge and hierarchy of greens.

(Source : author) 83

Figure 96: SITE (BASEMENT UNDERCONSTRUCTION)

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(Source : nbkterracotta.com/en-us/products-services/terrart/terrart-baguette)

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(Source : wikipedia.org) 83

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(Source : author) 84

Figure 97: SITE (boundaries) 85 (Source : author) 85

Figure 99: Site Picture 2 85 (Source : author) 85

Figure 100: Site Picture 3 85 (Source : author) 85

Figure 98: Site Picture 1 85 (Source : author) 85

Figure 101: Site Picture 4 85 (Source : author) 85

Figure 102: Site access street section. 86 (Source : author) 86

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Figure 105: Water supply diagram.

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Figure 94: Radisson Blu Hotel.

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Figure 103: Section indicating the height from where Taj Mahal is effectively visible from the site. 86

(Source : wikipedia.org) 83

Figure 90: Agra Fort entrance.

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(Source : author) 101

Figure 112: Design stage 1 conceptual diagrams. 104 (Source : author) 104

Figure 113: Design stage 2 conceptual diagrams. 104 (Source : author) 104

Figure 114: Design stage 3 conceptual diagrams. 105 (Source : author) 105

Figure 115: Design stage 4 conceptual diagrams. 105 (Source : author) 105

Figure 116: Design stage 5 conceptual diagrams. 106 (Source : author) 106

Figure 117: Design stage 6 conceptual diagrams. 106 (Source : author) 106

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Contents [ Part 0 ]

Declaration Certificate Acknowledgements Abstract List of Tables and Figures

[ Part I: Design Investigation ] 01

Chapter 1.0 : The Search

Chapter 2.2 : Precedent Study 2.2.1. Precedent Selection 2.2.2. Precedent Analysis

pg. 23

1.1. Introduction to the search question 1.2. Preposition and areas of research 1.3. Design project and it’s relevance 1.4. Design Conception and way forward

2.2.2.1. Crafts Museum, New Delhi 2.2.2.2. Humayun’s tomb site museum, Delhi 2.2.2.3. Bihar Museum, Patna 2.2.2.4. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece 2.2.2.5. Museum of Islamic Arts, Doha, Qatar

2.2.3. Comparison Matrix

02

Chapter 2.0 : Research

pg. 31

2.1 : Research Core 2.1.1.Understanding Agra as a world heritage city 2.1.2. The Riverfront Garden city 2.1.3. Mughal Gardens 2.1.4. The Hasht-Bihisht or Eight paradises pavilion 2.1.5. Significant architectural features of Agra 2.1.6. Craftsmanship in Agra

03

Chapter 3.0 : Reading the Program

pg. 67

3.1. Program Components 3.2. Functional Diagram 3.3. Area program 3.4. Reading the various components together


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[ Part II : Design Translation ] 04

Chapter 4.0 : Reading the Site

pg. 77

4.1. Contextual Study 4.2. Agra Masterplan Land-Use 2021 4.3. Development controls 4.4. Site Context 4.5. Site Surroundings 4.6. The site

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Chapter 5.0 : Technology

pg. 87

5.1. Structural systems 5.2. Calculations and services 5.3. Facade treatment

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Chapter 6.0 : Design Directives 6.1. SWOT analysis 6.2. Design Determinants

pg. 95

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Chapter 7.0 : Conceptual Framework

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Chapter 8.0 : Design Development

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Chapter 9.0 : Final Design

pg. 99

pg. 103

9.1. Concept and final outcome 9.2. Design Drawings 9.3. Area statement 9.4. 3D views and part details 9.5. Model photographs 9.6. Jury comments and conclusion Appendix Bibliography

pg. 109


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CHAPTER 1 : THE SEARCH


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INTRODUCTION The Search The search for the thesis is guided by a series of questions that would linger in my mind and leave me unsettled. So, the thesis is a journey figuring out answers to those questions. Museums of many cities around the globe have become their identifying architectural element and a representative of their heritage – art, cultue, historic events of the past etc. For example, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain ; The Louvre, Paris, France ; Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany etc. Agra is often labelled as the ‘city of Taj, city of Tombs, city of Mughals’. The Taj Mahal provides an international identity to the city as well as the country, but the empowering symbolism often overshadows the different layers of heritage that the city has to offer.

Figure 1: Map of the city of Agra, ca 1914. (Source : wikipedia.org)

The notion of identity of a place is fluid and transient in nature. Therefore, the historical past of the city alone, shouldn’t be imposed on the people as their identity. The city now requires an identity that suits and represents the contemporary lifestyle which ofcourse is entangled with the socio-cultural fabric of the past. Being a native of Agra, it is sad for me to witness that the city and it’s citizens lack the knowledge and the intent towards the value of treasures the city has inherited owing to it’s significant past. Therefore, through the thesis I intend to find answers about how an architecture project could bring about change in highlighting a city’s identity by capturing the very essence of the city encapsulating all the significant features that make a city what it is.


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1.2.

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PROPOSITION AND AREAS OF RESEARCH

1.2.1. THE PROPOSITION Articulation and translation of tangible and intangible Heritage of the city of Agra into architecture. My thesis is dedicated towards the study of historical and cultural heritage of Agra, to find out the tangible and intangible aspects of the heritage and translate them into a physical environment so that people can experience them spatially. It is quite challenging to document the intangible heritage of the city, exhibiting the objects from the era might not be sufficient. Thus, the project would act as an enhancement to the value of the past in the present. It would be a reflection of the socio-cultural life of the past. It is also intended to strengthen the city’s identity as the city of Taj and also create awareness about the city’s rich historical and cultural heritage in order to make Agra a successful, tourist- friendly and attractive destination. Practices, knowledge, ideas, skills associated with the material evidence are missing from most of the evidence. In an effort to bridge this gap, the institution would include live demonstration of skills associated with the objects displayed or by explaining the intangible aspects with the aid of different modes of media. This would help visitors understanding the objects for display in depth thereby adding more value to the exhibit. Therefore, the project is envisioned to develop as a cultural hub thereby evoking a sense of unity, perhaps through architectural elements, form or spatial configuration. Thus, the institution would play a critical role in preserving the value of the past and nurturing the values of the present and the future of the city.

1.2.2. AREAS OF RESEARCH • Understanding heritage of Agra: The proposition demands a deep understanding of the people and their way of life, the culture and traditions, beliefs, social structure and practice. •The architecture of weaving heritage and creating identity: Throughout history, architecture has been a great medium of expression and giving identities to cities. Through the thesis, I would like to explore more about this powerful tool and it’s application. •The amalgamation of historical/classical principles and modern architectural language : I intend to research and learn about the various principles of IndoIslamic and Colonial architecture and weave them together with the contemporary modern architectural language. The response to a historical monumental context which merges and respects the landscape yet maintains it’s mark in contemporary design incoporating technological advancements. •The architecture of a museum with state-of-the-art museum display techniques in order to develop as a hub for dialogue and cultural exchange: I intend to learn about architecture as a medium for creation of a cultural center which educates it’s visitors about the heritage of a city and also acts as an active urban node where people exchange ideas.


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1.3.

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RELEVANCE OF THE THESIS

1.3.1. THE PROJECT

1.3.2. NEED IDENTIFICATION

Agra’s primary strength is the magnificent Taj Mahal, an international destination. UP Tourism is building ‘Mughal Museum’ under ‘Propoor Tourism Project’ (INR 129.66 crores) showcasing Mughal history, culture, cuisine, performing arts, handicrafts, literature, administrative manuscripts, weaponry. It is part of a larger masterplan to improve visitor facilities in the area surrounding the mausoleum, which attracts up to eight million visitors a year.

In Agra, foreign tourism, which infuses significant amount of money into the local economy, has dropped significantly over the last few years. Anecdotally, tourist report that the Taj Mahal is magnificent, but that Agra is to be avoided. The failure to light monuments and heritage means that the city’s cultural icons are ‘left in the dark’ for significant periods.

The Museum is proposed near the eastern gate of the Taj Mahal, just around 1.5 km from the Taj Mahal. The idea is to educate visitors about the city’s rich historical heritage and contemporary cultural and social trends. My interpretation of the museum is envisioned as a museum for the city, a museum which presents the political and cultural milestones of the different eras of its history (including Mughal, Colonial etc.) and the present through its art and architecture. The project is expected to enhance the quality of tourism related functions. And in return increase the inflow of tourists. Moreover the project is to facilitate the local craftsmen and artists in providing them a platform to produce better quality artifacts, learn and share skills, exhibit their work and eventually market it.

PROJECT DETAILS Typology : Institutional (Museum) Name of the Project : Agra Museum Location : Agra, Uttar Pradesh Client : UPRNN, U.P. Tourism

Site Area : 25,050 sq. m. Built-Up Area : 19,262 sq. m. (current proposal) Height Restriction : 21m FAR : 1.2

Further, there is no district for shopping and entertainment. As a result, many tourists are just ‘day-trippers that just stop and go, visiting the Taj Mahal, the Agra fort at most and then quickly returning to Delhi without visiting the City’s other equally rich sites which include 48 ASI monuments, or spending money with local merchants. Consequently, the unique arts and crafts of the region are fighting a tough battle for survival and sustenance. The visitors and infact even locals are hardly aware of the wealth of the city’s heritage evident in the form of monumental structures, local street markets, craftsmen clusters, cuisine, language etc. The lifestyle and the activity patterns of the people are changing constatntly at a rapid rate and as a result the architecture too. Globalization is a major factor responsible for instigating this change. But at the same time, I believe every city or rather every human settlement has something very unique in itself that should not be sacrificed in the race towards modernization. And in case of Agra it is its heritage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and connect the city’s pouring heritage within the contemporary urban fabric, to realise the value of past for us to create an identity for ourselves in the face of globalisation, it is necessary to insert a strong way of expressing the values of the rich heritage.


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Figure 2: Taj Ganj Masterplan by Archohm Consultants. (Source : theplan.it)

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DESIGN CONCEPTION AND WAY FORWARD

Defining Intangible Cultural HeritageAs per the definition of UNESCO, Intangible cultural heritage includes oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge, intangible feeling associated with something tangible and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts. (UNESCO, What is Cultural Heritage). Starting from the majestic Taj Mahal, Garden tombs, mausoleums, bastis to local handicrafts, shoemaking, cuisines( petha, dalmoth, mughlai), festivals, all form a part of the socio-cultural fabric of the Agra as a whole. Not just that, folk dances, music, art, drama and so on forms an integral part of the culture of this region. In fact, all these factors also reflect a lot upon the intangible aspects of the cultural heritage of Agra. My thesis revolves in and around Taj Ganj complex and hence would be related to the heritage district and its nearby areas only. There are several unique tangible and intangible aspects of life in this part of the city that make it unique. Main focus would be on highlighting the local art and craft namely; Parchin Kari(stone inlay), Zari Zardozi (metal embroidery), Carpets and rugs, Leather shoes and articles, Stone carving etc.

Activity DefinitionTaking different perspectives, the residents’ and the visitors’, the expectations from a museum cum institutional and historical-cultural definition of heritage may vary. The residents who have absorbed the cultural and behavioural practices, may seek to inform themselves about their bases and the visitors, aware of the place’s culture through literary means, exhibits and installations might seek to experience these practices at a personal interactive or live level. In this case, the historical and cultural resource may be in the form of experiences, artifacts, information, literature, art – craft, local food and much more. It would be a destination for holding all kinds of children’s painting competitions, dance and art workshops, theater performances, food festivals, timely exhibitions related to contemporary interpretation of the cultural aspect of the place, ritualistic art, retail activities, local craft showcase and learning etc.

Users and Interest GroupsThe target group would include – •All culturally inclined residents of Agra. •Tourists from both inside and outside the country. •Locals of the Taj Ganj who are directly or indirectly involved in the fabric of the context.


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“Agra is situated on the ‘River Jemina; ‘The castle and great mens horses on the one side, as [those of] Asaf Khan, Mahabat Khan, etts. Great Amrawes, and their Gardens (which are many and fair) on the other side, yeildinge a most delectable prospecte.” -Peter Mundy, 1631


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

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CHAPTER 2 : RESEARCH

2.1. : RESEARCH CORE 2.2. : PRECEDENT STUDY


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2.1.1.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

UNDERSTANDING AGRA AS A WORLD HERITAGE CITY

Agra’s image nationally and internationally The city holds rich architectural and socio-cultural heritage assets of the country such as the Taj Mahal along with 48 other ASI protected sites. Indeed the Taj Mahal represents the heart of the country titled as one of the seven wonders of the world. Architectural heritage

Figure 3: Jama Masjid.

(Source : www.timesmoc.com)

Figure 5: Entrance to the Agra Fort.

(Source : nativeplanet.com/travel-guide/agra-fort-a-glorious-symbol-of-power-resilience-and-strength-004292

Figure 4: Itmad-ud-daula garden tomb. (Source : tourism-of-india.com)

Figure 6: Fatehpur Sikri view from the pavilion. (Source : tourism-of-india.com/agra/)

Figure 7: Taj Mahal and the river Yamuna aerial view. (Source : instagram.com/indiapictures)

THESIS 2018


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EVOLUTION OF AGRA •The nucleus of Agra was formed of gardens of the ruling elite lining the river Yamuna, on both sides, with the remaining city encircling it in the west. •The centre of Agra had thus a suburban character and the Taj Mahal was not built in an isolated site, but as part of this splendid riverfront city. The Yamuna was the main artery and one would go by boat from one garden to another. •Today, the riverfront has largely disappeared – what remains are a few sites and sporadic ruined walls pavilions. Mughal Agra appears as an utopia of the past.

Figure 8: Taj Mahal and the river Yamuna aerial view. (Source : Badwe, 2012)

Pre-Mughal Period (13 B.C. – 1803 A.D.)

Mughal Period

•The formal gardens, construction techniques and Architectural Character along the riverfront at Agra were a nostalgic solution from the •The Fort was present near the rivers. existing Agra Fort. •The rulers saw the river as a transportation network as well •Some literature describes, it as a source of relaxation to was founded by Raja Badal witness their creations while boating. Singh. The river Yamuna was •In the 17th century, foreign celebrated as the goddess travelers described Mughal river and religious activities Agra as a wonder of age – as were profoundly conducted much a centre of the arteries along the river. of trade both by land and water. •The city in the epic Mahabharata explained the area called Agrevana.

Colonial Period (1803- 1947 A.D.)

Post- Colonial Period (1947- 1990 A.D.)

Present Day Period (1990 – present)

•The introduction of modern amenities including railway stations, factory areas, golf courses, race grounds,public parks, road connecting major buildings were major additions during this period.

•Post-colonial development was very haphazard due to refugees settling around the city after India- Pakistan partition. This settlement caused stress to the traditional Mughal city areas.

•The river Yamuna today has become a stinking drain as a result of high pollution.

•The north side of the city is mostly comprised of agricultural and rural development. The southern •The infrastructure was •The conservation approach part is laden with tourist attractions such as Taj Mahal, developed to the outskirts of was monument centric. the city however the areas of The un-identified heritage the Agra Fort and supporting Mughal city survived including structures were taken over by infrastructure. Tajganj, Shahganj and residents. •There are only two Akbarabad. bridges connecting the two developments which are insufficient and congested and inhibit the growth of the city.


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2.1.2.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

THE RIVERFRONT GARDEN CITY

•Babur’s choice of the riverfront site introduced a new type of urban planning in Hindustan. It led to the creation of the riverfront garden as a module of the riverfront city, a chahar bagh with the main buildings on the terrace overlooking the river. •The development of Agra as a riverfront city was taken up again by Akbar when he moved the court back to Agra. Under Jahangir the riverfront scheme was fully developed. •In the 1620s Pelsaert observed that ‘The breadth of the city is by no means so great as the length, because everyone has tried to be close to the riverbank, and consequently the waterfront is ocupied by the costly palaces of the famous lords, which make it appear very gay and magnificent. In his eyes, ‘the luxuriance of the groves all around make it resemble a royal park rather than a city’.

Figure 9: Taj Mahal riverfront.

(Source : cn.nytimes.com/culture/20160518/t18india/zh-hant/dual/)

Figure 10: Perspective reconstruction of the scheme of riverfront Agra, based on the Jaipur map : as there, the gardens north of the fort are shown slightly too far north, so that they get out of step with the gardens on the left bank. Named sites are preserved to a greater or lesser extent. The Jami Masjid is shown as it appears today, without its east wing, which was taken down after the Uprising of 1858. (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)


AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

Figure 11: A Mughal painting.

Figure 12: The riverfront gardens on the Jaipur Map.

ON THE LEFT BANK

ON THE RIGHT BANK

1. Bagh-i Shah Nawaz Khan 2. Buland Bagh (High Gardens) 3. Bagh-i Nur Afshan (now Ram Bagh) 4. Bagh-i Jahanara (now Zahara Bagh) 5. Un-named garden 6. Rauza of Afzal Khan (now Chini-ka Rauza) 7. Bagh-i Khwaja (probably Bagh-i Wazir Khan) 8. Bagh-i Sultan Parwiz 9. Maqbara of Itmad-ud-Daula 10. Bagh-i Musawi Khan Sadr 11. Bagh Padshahi (Imperial garden) 12. Moti Bagh Padshahi (Imperial Pearl Garden) 13. Padshahi (Imperial garden) 14. Lal Bagh Padshahi (Red Imperial Garden) 15. Second Chahar Bagh Padshahi 16. Chahar Bagh Padshahi 17. Bagh-i Mahtab Padshahi (now Mehtab Bagh)

18. Haveli of Khan-i Dauran 19. Haveli of Agah Khan 20. Rauza of Shah Jahan (Taj Mahal) 21. Bagh-i Khan-i Alam 22. Haveli of Asalat Khan 23. Haveli of Mahabat Khan 24. Haveli of Hoshdar Khan 25. Haveli of Azam Khan 26. Haveli of Mughal Khan 27. Haveli of Islam Khan 28. Padshahi Qila (Agra Fort) 29. Haveli of Dara Shikoh 30. Haveli of Khan-i Jahan Lodi 31. Haveli of Hafiz Khidmatkar 32. Haveli of Asaf Khan 33. Haveli of Alamgir

(Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

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(Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

34. Haveli of Alamgir 35. Masjid Mubarak Manzil 36. Haveli of Sasat Khan 37. Haveli of Jafar Khan 38. Rauza of Sasat Khan 39. Haveli of Wazir Khan 40. Haveli of Muqim Khan 41. Haveli of Khalil Khan 42. Bagh-i Rai Shiv Das 43. Bagh-i Hakim Kazim Ali 44. Rauza of Jafar Khan

Figure 13: Map of present day riverfront Agra showing surviving Mughal gardens and buildings. (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)


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2.1.3.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

MUGHAL GARDENS

Gardens were a very important part of Islamic culture and were associated to the Islamic conception of the ‘afterlife in paradise’. Three strands of early Islamic Gardens : 1. Arabic - The garden seen as a pleasant alternative to the sandy desert and was usually enclosed within the courtyard of a house. 2. Persian - The garden was regarded as a place for contemplation. It was in Persia that the ‘char bagh’ was developed, generally understood as a walled garden with four sections divided by walkways and running water. 3. Turkish - The garden as resting or camping places, the building would stand in the middle of the garden.

Arabic

Persian

Turkish

Timurid

Figure 14: Types of Islamic Gardens. (Source : author)

Types of Mughal Gardens : 1. Char Bagh- In its ideal form, the Mughal ‘char bagh’ consists of a square, divided by cross axial paved walkways into four equal parts. The centre which is highly charged symbolically, may be occupied by a building - typically a garden pavilion, but also a tomb-or by a pool. The walkways may contain sunk channels, and, at the points where they meet the garden wall, there may be real or false gateways. The quadrants may in turn be subdivided into further squares. The whole composition is enclosed by a wall with towers at its corners. 2. Terrace garden- The concept of a garden laid out on a slope into the landscape. The main buildings are arrayed on ascending terraces along a central axis formed by a channel sunk in a paved walkway which collects water from a spring. The individual terraces may be given the canonical four part form, as in the imperial gardens of Shalimar in Kashmir. 3. Riverfront garden- It is a variant of the char bagh invented by the Mughals for the specific conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Here the main water source was usually a large slow-flowing river, from which the desired running water had to be raised into the garden. The main building was set on an oblong terrace running along the riverfront. Usually the terrace had rooms below the main building opening onto the river, and stairs leading down to a landing. Its two ends were accentuated by towers. The chahar bagh component lay on the downward side. In this way the garden was turned toward the river, and the main pavilions enjoyed its cooling effect. The scheme presented a carefully composed front to those who saw the garden from a boat or across the river; and from inside, the buildings provided a backdrop for the garden.


THESIS 2018

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

Figure 15: Canonical cross-axial : the tomb of Humayun, Delhi, 156271

Figure 16: Terraced: Shalimar gardens, Kashmir, 1620-34

(Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

(Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

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Figure 17: Waterfront: Lal Mahal, Bari, 1637 (Source : Koch 2006, pg.25)

In ancient Sanskrit texts, there are also references to gardens, that mention forests, lawns and water, implying that the garden tradition in India was not dissimilar to that of Islam, although even less is known of their physical form than that of early Islamic garden. (Peck, 2008)

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2.1.4.

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THESIS 2018

THE HASHT BIHISHT OR EIGHT PARADISES PAVILION

The hasht bihisht design consists typically of a square or a rectangle, with corners sometimes marked by towers but also sometimes chanfered so as to form an irregular octagon. The hasht bihisht is divided by four intersecting lines into nine parts, comprising a domed chamber in the centre, rectangular open forehalls in the middle of the four sides, and twostoreyed, often vaulted, rooms at the corners.

Figure 18: The basic hasht bihisht design : plan of the pavilion of Shah Quli Khan at Narnaul.

Figure 19: A radially planned hasht bihisht design : plan of Todar Mal’s Baradari at Fatehpur Sikri.

Figure 20: Plan of the Humayun tomb at Delhi : four radially planned hasht bihisht elements are combined in an overall hasht bihisht plan.


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SIGNIFICANT ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES OF AGRA

WALLED FORTS

MAUSOLEUMS AND TOMBS Mausoleums played a vital role in the Islamic culture, and therefore attention to detail was a crucial for these structures.

Forts and walled cities with lofty Bastions and Gates have been a symbol of power and reign throughout history. Agra holds two prominent wallled palatial cities namely the Red Fort and Fatehpur Sikri.

Figure 21: Agra fort.

COURTYARDS AND HAVELIS Figure 23: Axonometric of the Taj Mahal showing the double dome construction. (Source : Peck,2008)

Figure 24: Hasht bihisht floor plan, with a central chamber surrounded by 8 others.

Numerous mausoleums and tombs can be witnessed within the city which have survived the test of time.

(Source : Peck,2008) Khwabgha C

Panch mahal G Anoop talao B Pachisi court D

Ankh michauli F E Diwan-I-khas

A Diwan-I-aam

COURTYARDS Courtyards were a dominant feature in the traditional residential, religious, administrative architecture of Agra in response to the semiarid climate of the city. HAVELIS

Havelis are usually identified by a decorative entrance within a high wall, which may have Figure 22: Fatehpur Sikri. ornate windows and balconies overlooking the street. Inside, most rooms would face onto Fatehpur Sikri is one of the finest examples of climate responsive architecture. and be accessible from one or Figure 25: Typical courtyard houses and havelis in the old city. It features an irregular agglomeration of courtyards enclosed by more or less more courtyards. (Source : Peck,2008) fragentary colonnades, of various groups of buildings, and of isolated structures.


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2.1.6.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

CRAFTSMENSHIP IN AGRA

LEATHER ARTICLES Leather footwear of Agra is known internationally for superb craftsmanship. Completely handmade shoes are a class apart. Garments, purses, wallets, belts are other products being made in the city, well known for their craftsmanship and quality.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Agra is the largest footwear manufacturing centre in India catering to roughly 65% of the demand in the country. The footwear

industry employs 25% of total population of Agra directly or indirectly. Shoes are either completely hand-crafted or produced with the help of high-end machines. In either case, the production unit would have mainly four departments in which a progressive route is followed:

•Cutting In this department, the top part of the shoe, called ‘vamp’ or ‘upper’, is made. •Closing Here the component pieces are sewn together by highly skilled machinists so as to produce the completed upper. •Lasting The completed uppers take the shape of a foot with the help of a ‘last’. Last is a plastic or wooden mould that simulates the shape of a foot. •Finishing Figure 26: Workers crafting leather shoes in a small factory. (Source : dsource.in/resource/shoe-making-agra)


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STONE INLAY (also known as Pietra Dura) Agra is famous for Parchinkari work which is very minute and precise inlay work. The artisans work together as a cooperative, meaning each of them remains an individual artist with complete creative freedom, but all profits are shared equally. •Extreme skill is required to first saw the stone, such as agate, jasper and heliotrope, into thin pieces of various shapes and sizes, using bow saws with abrasives. •Each shape is ground individually and must fit precisely without any gaps. Once a perfect fit has been achieved, the marble plate, into which the ornamental pattern will be integrated, is covered with a layer of henna paint. •The single pieces that make the inlay pattern are laid out on the marble plate and their outlines scratched into the surface.

Figure 27: Inlay-workers in a marble craft shop.

(Source : core77.com/posts/25995/Ancient-Crafts-The-Stone-Inlays-of-the-Taj-Mahal)

Figure 28: Detail of the pietra dura on the platform of upper cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal. (Source : Koch 2006, pg.93)

•The orange color serves as an orientation when carving out the individual grooves, into which the semiprecious stone pieces will be glued. •Not much has changed in the 363 years since the completion of the Taj Mahal: the glue in use is still a paste made from sugar cane, bees wax, honey, lemon juice, marble dust and lentils. A grind stone shard is used to smoothen the surface after the inlays have been inserted. •The henna paint is also removed during this smoothening process. The inlay piece is now properly integrated into the marble plate, and gets a final finish with a layer of wax.


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THESIS 2018

ZARI ZARDOZI (Metal Embroidery) Zar in Persian means gold, while dozi means embroidery. The word zardosi can thus be interpreted as sewing with gold and silver threads. Zari is woven into fabrics, primarily made of silk, felt or velvet to create intricate patterns. Four types of zari are produced in India, namely, real zari, semi real zari, imitation zari and plastic zari. •Real zari is made of silver and electroplated with gold. •Semi real zari has a composition of copper coated with silver and gold electroplating. •Imitation Zari is made of copper electroplated with silver. •Plastic zari, is manufactured using metallic yarn. Other materials used for making zari include cotton yarn, silk and art silk.

Inside the shape the required design is traced on a tracing paper.

Golden beads and strips are cut and kept.

Sewing needle is inserted in the beads or golden strips.

The beads are sewed on the traced design.

Real zari is used in costly product; however, its use is limited compared to imitation and plastic. •The process of zari zardosi begins with the craftsmen drawing the basic layout of the design on a butter paper, which is later perforated using a needle. •He then marks the designs on the fabric which is stretched on a wooden frame called adda having four wooden legs. •The craftsmen then uses different types of needles depending on the design to make intricate patterns with zari.

Figure 29: Hand bags embellished with zari and bead work. (Source : dsource.in/resource/zari-zardosi-agra)

Figure 30: Process and Final product of Zari Zardozi craft. (Source : dsource.in/resource/zari-zardosi-agra)


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TEXTILES and CARPETS • Agra in Uttar Pradesh was the first carpet center in Mughal India. The manufacture of carpets by prisoners is said to go back to Akbar’s time when he sent for Persian carpet-weavers to train prisoners in the skill. Agra jail had the reputation of producing some of the finest carpets in the world. • Agra is well-known for natural vegetable dyes. • The place is known for Persian style carpets. Agra designs give emphasis to elegance and simplicity surrounded by bold floral borders. • They are known for realistic bold patterns. The designs are developed by native weavers and also include various tints of the Taj Mahal in natural colours.

Figure 31: Process and Final product of Carpet weaving craft.

(Source : dsource.in/resource/durries-and-carpet-weaving-bhadohi/making-process/carpet-weaving)


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

2.2.

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PRECENDENT STUDY


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

2.2.1. Precedents 2.2.1.1. National

Selection

Crafts Museum, New Delhi, India

• Functions as a focal public space. • Outdoor exhibtion of different arts and crafts.

2.2.1.2.

Humayun’s tomb Site Museum, Delhi, India

• Planning and arrangement of variety of exhibitions. • Structural grid for exhibtions and galleries.

2.2.1.3.

Museum of Islamic Arts, Doha, Qatar

• Monumental symbolism and expression. • Centralized circulation.

2.2.1.4. New

Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece

• Response to a strong historical context. • Contemporary use of concrete as a material.

2.2.1.5.

Bihar Museum, Patna, Bihar, India

• An attempt to create an contemporary identity for the city through a museum. • Use of vernacular materials.

THESIS 2018


THESIS 2018

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Analysis

CRAFTS MUSEUM, NEW DELHI, INDIA

LOCATION : Located near Purana Quilla on the BhaironRoad. Just opposite Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India CLIENT : Trade fair authority of India. ARCHITECT : Charles Correa YEAR : 1975-1990 SIZE : 6,800 SQ.M.

Figure 32: Crafts Museum Delhi Map. (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

Figure 33: Crafts Museum photographs. (Source : nationalcraftsmuseum.nic.in)

Museum is also known as National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum. Museums in managed by Ministry of Textiles. The museum was established in the year 1950 by the efforts of freedom fighter Smt. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay. The whole museum is set up like a village and the current building was designed by architect Charles Correa. A village complex also in the museum spreads over an area of 5 Acre. The museum is important as it provides space to artisans from around the country to assemble and share their craft with counterparts from different regions. This transformed the project from a mere exhibit to a cultural exchange and craft promotion arena.


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Layout The National Crafts Museum was an exercise in architectural and cultural metaphors. The low-lying Museum building is a reflection vernacular architecture and fine craftsmanship. Several architectural elements like jharokha, internal courtyards, open and semi-open passages, roof tiles arches, carved doors, posts, pillars, perforated iron-screens etc. are all the visual delights . Apart from the collection, the museum houses Research and Documentation facilities, a reference library, a conservation laboratory, a photo laboratory and an auditorium. Figure 34: First Floor Plan (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 35: Ground Floor Plan (Source : archnet.org)


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Circulation The museum is organised around a central pathway, revealing a sequence of spaces along the pedestrian spine. Exhibits, such as in the Village Court and the Temple Court, lie along the path in the connected courtyards. The design demonstrateds the relevance of courtyards as an effective means of regulating comfort conditions in an urban setup. Off these courts are particular exhibits such as village crafts etc. The exhibits may be viewed individually or seen as an unfolding of “events� along the way. The sequence ends with the exit via the roof garden, which forms and amphitheatre for folk dances, as well as open air display of large terracotta horses and other handicrafts. The stepping down of the platforms and the actual use of steps to define both functions and edges of spaces echo the old bathing ghats of Varanasi.

Figure 36: Circulation (Source : archnet.org)

Amphitheatre

Terrace Exhibits

Audio-Visual

Pathway

Figure 37: Section (Source : archnet.org)

Demonstration

Exhibits


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2.2.2.2. HUMAYUN’S

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

TOMB SITE MUSEUM, DELHI, INDIA

Introduction LOCATION : Doha Bay, Doha, Qatar CLIENT : Aga Khan Trust for Culture ARCHITECT : Vir. Mueller Architects YEAR : 2014 - present SIZE : 9,815 SQ.M.

Nizamuddin Urban Renewal Initiative The Urban Renewal Initiative, supported by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture is making enormous strides in revitalizing and unifying the three historical sites of Humayun’s Tomb, Nizamuddin Basti and Sunder Nursery into one unique heritage precinct.

Proposal for the Site Museum Located at the juncture of the three historically connected sites, the Humayun’s Tomb Site Museum has been proposed as a means of enhancing the experience for the growing volume of visitors to this historic precinct. It is intended to become a hub of intellectual exchange of ideas – showcasing the kaleidoscope of art, architecture and culture, thereby opening up newer channels of communication between tourists, pilgrims, students, academics, professionals and Figure 38: Nizamuddin urban renewal plan agencies. (Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)

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The Museum is situated at the entrance to Sundar Nursery and the Humayun’s Tomb sites. The entry plaza experience enables visitors to purchase tickets, orient themselves, and avail public amenities. Sensitively arranged under the foliage of the large trees, this plaza also acts as a threshold to the many attributes of the site. An auditorium, library, crafts gallery, seminar rooms, and administrative offices are all located adjacent to the entry plaza. Visitors descend through a wide, ramped garden into The Humayun’s Tomb Site Museum, where they experience the magnificent craft traditions that flourished during this period. The illuminated plastered ceilings reflect the geometrical sophistication of the Mughal age. The architecture of the Museum has been derived from this tradition of geometry – the gallery spaces are arranged in a sequence of intersecting squares, with wide column spans of eight meters. Given the high volume of visitors, the public circulation sequence has also been developed along a primary axis, spanning the entire length of the Museum. Natural light, filtered through skylights as well as open courtyards, illuminates the gallery areas. The complex engineering systems are woven around each gallery through dedicated service corridors, thus facilitating optimal curatorial and Museum management protocols. The Humayun’s Tomb Site Museum aspires to promote a public understanding of the cultural and aesthetic practices that flourished during the Mughal era, and to create a Museological experience worthy of this extraordinary world heritage site. Figure 39: Humayun’s tomb Interpretation Centre Siteplan. (Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

Site Museum The circulation axis - wheelchair accessible with wide ramps - spans the length of HTIC. Natural light, filtered through skylights and courtyards, illuminates the galleries, enabling displays of Mughal architecture, façade treatments, landscape elements and ornamental traditions. The illuminated plastered ceilings in the galleries reflect the geometric sophistication of the Mughal age. Live demonstration of building crafts such as stonework, tilework, incised plaster work, as well as prominent Mughal crafts will be a permanent activity.

Figure 40: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum Plan. (Source : annualreport2015.nizamuddinrenewal.org)

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Figure 41: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum Sections.

Figure 42: Humayun’s tomb Site Museum perspective view.

Site Museum

Site Museum

The circulation axis - wheelchair accessible with wide ramps - spans the length of HTIC. Natural light, filtered through skylights and courtyards, illuminates the galleries.

The circulation axis - wheelchair accessible with wide ramps - spans the length of HTIC.

(Source : virmueller.com)

(Source : virmueller.com)


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2.2.2.3. MUSEUM

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

of ISLAMIC ARTS, DOHA, QATAR

Introduction LOCATION : Doha Bay, Doha, Qatar ARCHITECT : I. M. Pei Architects YEAR : 2008 SIZE : 35,500 SQ.M.

Figure 43: Exterior views, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : desmena.com)

Figure 44: Siteplan, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : desmena.com)

• The Museum of Islamic Art is dedicated to reflecting the full vitality, complexity and diversity of the arts of the Islamic world. It is a world-class collecting institution, which preserves, studies and exhibits masterpieces spanning three continents and 13 centuries. • As a centre for information, research and creativity, the Museum aims to reach a wide global audience and serve as a hub for dialogue and cultural exchange. •Mr. Pei’s final design inspiration was the 13th-century sabil (ablutions fountain) of the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt (9th century). In the “austerity and simplicity” of the sabil, he found “a severe architecture that comes to life in the sun, with its shadows and shades of colour” The sabil offered “an almost Cubist expression Figure 45: Ablutions fountain of the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun of geometric progression”which evoked an abstract vision of the key design elements in Cairo. of Islamic architecture. (Source : footage.framepool.com)


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Layout • The designer’s success is attributed to three considerations: borrowing elements from the past, integrating these elements in harmonious patterns and abstract forms that link past and present, and creating various social logic of space that ranges from pleasurable public space to intimate spatial setting.

Figure 46: Second floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

• The building stands in the sea some 195 feet off Doha’s Corniche. A park of approximately 64 acres of dunes and oases on the shoreline behind the Museum offers shelter and a picturesque backdrop. Area Program Permanent gallery space.............3,100 sq.m. Temporary gallery space.............750 sq.m. Study galleries...............................375 sq.m. Education wing.............................2,700 sq.m. Library............................................820 sq.m. Conservation lab..........................400 sq.m. Collection storage.......................1,800 sq.m. Auditorium(197 seats)................430 sq.m. Restaurant....................................380 sq.m. Gift Shop.......................................300 sq.m. Museum park (inc. peninsula)....26 ha

Figure 47: First floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)


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AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

Layout •The Museum is composed of a 5-storey main building and a 2-storey Education Wing, which are connected across a central courtyard. •There exists a bilateral symmetry in the overall plan. •The main building’s angular volumes step back progressively as they rise around a 164-foot-high domed atrium, which is concealed from outside view by the walls of a central tower. •A sheet of glass rises to a height of 45m on the north side of the Museum offering views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all 5 floors of the atrium. Figure 49: Fifth floor plan, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

Figure 48: View, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

Figure 50: Longitudinal Section, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

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Layout

Figure 51:Transverse Section, Museum of Islamic arts. (Source : housevariety.blogspot.com)

Figure 52:Aerial view looking from west to east. (Source : archnet.org)

•The central courtyard reflects the Persian ‘chahar bagh’ type of garden with a central structure like at the Humayun’s tomb. •At the top of the atrium, an oculus captures and reflects patterned light within the faceted dome. •The form of the dome changes as the structure descends, so it’s perimeter becomes an octagon and then a square, which in turn is transformed into four triangular column supports.

Figure 56:View of the central courtyard canopy, pools and pavilions (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 53:Photo of the building model (model: Awad studio) (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 54:Interior of the Education Wing library. (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 55:Photo of the building model (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 57: The grand spiral staircase at the entrance. (Source : archnet.org)


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2.2.2.4. NEW

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

ACROPOLIS MUSEUM, ATHENS, GREECE

Introduction LOCATION : Located in the historic area of Makryianni, the Museum stands some 300 meters southeast of the Parthenon. CLIENT : Organization for the Construction of the New Acropolis Museum Dimitrios Pandermalis, President ARCHITECT : Bernard Tschumi Architects, New York/Paris + Michael Photiadis, ARSY, Associate Architect, Athens YEAR : 2009 SIZE : 21,000 SQ.M. Located on the southeast side of the hill of the Acropolis, the ancient road that led to the “sacred rock” in classical times. It is located 280 meters straight down the hill, the Parthenon, at the entrance of a network of pedestrian walkways that link the archaeological sites and monuments of the Acropolis. This location was carefully selected to allow a dialogue between the museum’s exhibition spaces and buildings of the Acropolis.

Figure 60: Section. (Source : archnet.org)

Figure 58: Siteplan, New Acropolis Museum. (Source : archdaily.com)

Figure 59: Aerial view from the South. (Source : archdaily.com)


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Layout The museum is articulated into three layers, as opposed to distinct floors. Floor-openings on the base level allow visitors to view the remains beneath the museum. Double-height ceilings in the middle layer accommodate a wide range of different pieces on permanent display.

Figure 61: Organization. (Source : archdaily.com)

Figure 62: Second Floor Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

Figure 63: Third Floor Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

Basement. 1. Excavations 2. Offices 3. Deliveries

Ground Floor. 1. Entrance 2. Lobby 3. Shop 4. Cafe 5. Glass Ramp 6. Auditorium 7. Temporary exhibition space 8. Void

First Floor. 1. Gallery 2. Void

Second Floor. 1. Public terrace 2. Shop 3. Restaurant 4. Balcony lounge 5. Void 6. VIP area

Third Floor. 1. Parthenon Gallery

Figure 65: Basement Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

Figure 65: Ground Floor Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

Figure 66: First Floor Plan. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)


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Circulation and Zoning The circulation in the museum is raised in chronological order, so that the visitor crosses an architectural and historical tour. The visitor’s route is therefore a clear, three-dimensional loop. It goes up from the lobby via escalator to the double-height galleries for the Archaic period; upward again by escalator to the Parthenon Gallery; then back down to the Roman Empire galleries and out toward the Acropolis itself. The top layer is the Parthenon Gallery, which mimics the dimensions of the Parthenon and is rotated 23 degrees from the rest of the building to align with the historic structure. Glass perimeter walls allow seamless views of the Acropolis and Athens, and the concrete center of the room displays the Parthenon frieze precisely as it was arranged and oriented in the original monument. Natural light from the Parthenon Gallery is filtered through its glass-floored atrium to the floors below.

Parthenon Gallery

Archaic period

Cafe Supplementary room

Figure 67: Circulation of Exhibition. (Source : pinterest.com)

Figure 68: Section A-A. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)

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Figure 69: Section B-B. (Source : Philips,P. , 2012)


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Materials • The building was designed in relation to the durability and resistance to the passage of time. • The materials were selected for their simplicity and sobriety: glass, concrete and marble. • The transparency of glass light filters gently through a screen printing process. • The structure is reinforced concrete. • The marble floor is differentiated according to areas of the building: black for movement, light beige for the galleries.

Figure 70: Materials.

Figure 71: Entrance plaza to the museum.

(Source : pinterest.com)

In the main gallery the sculptures are In the upper gallery fragments of arranged to allow an impression of both the Parthenon frieze are displayed intimacy and monumentality. so they can be viewed in the correct relationship with each other.

(Source : archdaily.com)

In the upper gallery fragments of the Parthenon frieze are displayed so they can be viewed in the correct relationship with each other.

Rhythmic columns recall the classical ordered spaces of the Parthenon. Natural light is filtered through all of the building.

Rhythmic columns recall the classical ordered spaces of the Parthenon. Natural light is filtered through all of the building.


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2.2.2.5. BIHAR

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

MUSEUM, PATNA, BIHAR, INDIA

Introduction LOCATION : Patna, Bihar, India CLIENT : Department of Art, Culture and Youth (DACY), Government of Bihar. ARCHITECT : Maki & Associates + Opolis; Lord Cultural Resources YEAR : 2017 SIZE : 24,000 SQ.M.

Figure 73: Siteplan and elevation, Bihar museum. (Source : e-architect.co.uk)

•Located in Patna, the capital city of the east Indian state of Bihar, the history museum is intended to display the rich artifacts of the region. •Situated on an extensive site of 5.6ha, the low-slung building contains a complex program while preserving prominent trees through an organization based on a campus with dispersed buildings. The exhibition space, children’s museum, entry foyer, and administrative center each have a distinct form, connected in between via arcades and courtyards.

Figure 72: Views, Bihar museum. (Source : archdaily.com)

•A campus with interconnected landscape of built-up and open spaces with modest but dynamic profile, in harmony with the land. The campus incorporates primarily four zones i.e., entrance, education, exhibition and administration. Each wing has been given a distinct and recognizable form within the complex.


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3.1.2.2. Layout

Figure 75: Ground Floor plan, Bihar museum. (Source : posts.architecturelive.in)

Figure 75: First Floor plan, Bihar museum. (Source : posts.architecturelive.in)

Figure 74: Axonometric plan view, Bihar museum. (Source : posts.architecturelive.in)

•All independent and smaller-scaled wings are linked together via seven open-to sky courtyards, ensuring that all spaces are connected to the

surrounding landscape, while remaining sheltered and comfortable throughout the year. Each courtyard has a unique theme, configuration and spatial quality.


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2.2.3.

COMPARISON MATRIX

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TOPIC

NATIONAL CRAFTS MUSEUM, NEW DELHI, INDIA HUMAYUN’S TOMB SITE MUSEUM, DELHI, INDIA

YEAR COMPLETED

1975-1990

2015-present

ARCHITECT

Charles Correa

Vir Mueller Architects

LAND USE

Recreational

Recreational

SITE AREA

16,000 SQ.M. (Crafts Museum) + 20,000 SQ.M. (Village complex)

-

GROUND FLOOR AREA

-

-

GROUND COVERAGE

-

-

TOTAL BUILT-UP AREA

6,800 SQ.M.

9,815 SQ.M.

F.A.R.

-

-

BUILDING HEIGHT

7M

-

RELEVANCE OF CASE STUDY

•Cultural exchange and craft promotion area. •Vernacular architecture. •Sequence of spaces along a central spine and connected courtyards.

•The nature of expression is similar as it is Mughal era themed building.

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

•Craft demonstration •Amphitheatre •Temporary Exhibition •Library •Research and conservation facility •Village complex

•Exhibition Space

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

Tartan Grid system employed. RCC, timber and mild steel construction.

Reinforced Concrete, Steel

MATERIALITY

Timber, Sandstone, Thatch, Terracotta, Mild Steel, Bamboo.

-

STYLE OF DESIGN


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MUSEUM OF ISLAMIC ARTS, DOHA, QATAR

NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM, ATHENS, GREECE

THE BIHAR MUSEUM, PATNA, INDIA

2008

2009

2017

I. M. Pei Architect (New York)

Bernard Tschumi Architects

Maki & Associates + Opolis; Lord Cultural Resources

Recreational

Recreational

Recreational

2,60,000 SQ.M.

23,000 SQ.M.

56,250 SQ.M.

-

6,000 SQ.M. (Approx.)

19,000 SQ.M.

-

25% (Approx.)

33%

35,500 SQ.M.

21,000 SQ.M.

25,410 SQ.M.

-

0.9

0.42

60M

15M

18M

•Austerity and simplicity of design. •Expression of geometric progression. •Play of light and shadows. •Monumental symbolism achieved through simple volumes.

•Response to monumental context. •Classical Principles infused with contemporary design.

•A museum dedicated to the city of Patna •Identity Formation

•Permanent Gallery •Study Gallery •Library •Collection Storage •Restaurant

•Exhibition Space (5 Galleries)

•Exhibition Space •Children’s Museum •Entry Foyer •Administrative Center •Courtyards

•Temporary Gallery •Education Wing •Conservation Lab •Auditorium (197 seat) •Gift Shop

-The gallery of the slopes of Acropolis. -The Archaic Gallery. -The Partheneon Gallery. -Propylaia, Athena Nike, Erechtheion. -From the 5th Century BC to the 5th Century AD.

•Theater(180 seat)

Cream-coloured Magny and Chamesson limestone, Jet Mist granite from the U.S. and stainless steel, as well as architectural concrete.

•Cafe, terrace and store

Reinforced Concrete, Steel

Reinforced Concrete, Steel

Glass, Concrete and Marble

Corten Steel, Terracotta and local materials from Bihar.

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CHAPTER 3 : READING THE PROGRAM


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PROGRAM COMPONENTS

The following would be the main features of the Museum: 1. Galleries 2. Exhibition 3. Workshop and Research Center 4. Library Services 5. Convention Facilities 6. OďŹƒce 7. Hospitality 8. Administrative and Management Support

1. Galleries Purpose : The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve, interpret and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. Galleries prove themselves to be an effective medium of showcasing collections for the masses to view. The museum is conceptualized to house three large galleries dedicated to display the city’s historical and cultural heritage, present and probable future developments.

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2. Exhibition The word “exhibition” is usually, but not always, used for a collection of items made available to an audience. The museum would showcase a considerable portion of both temporary (linked with the workshop and research center to showcase related developments) and permananet exhibition spaces which would house exhibits for long durations (eg. quarterly or half yearly basis).

3. Workshop and Research Center (WRC) The museum is visualized to develop as a learning center altogether with educational facilities and programmes intended to closely study the city’s transformation and revive the dying arts and crafts that are unique to the city. The WRC would serve as a space to learn, research, experiment and develop.

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4. Library Services This would contain a large number of books and volumes relating to all aspects of human endeavour. It would be a repository of all information on the subject, wherever available, printed form, or on the internet. 5. Convention Facilities These would be on the pattern of those available elsewhere and would be available to organizations whih would carry out debates/ discussions/ seminars on relevant subjects. they would not be available for commercial or marketing events. These facilities would be state of the art and would be designed for gatherings of 50 to 250 people. 6. OďŹƒce The museum would house small branch offices of bodies and corporations dedicated to the city’s study, survey and management and conceptualizing related future proposals. This would help facilitate coordination and enable the different bodies make more informed decisions.

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3.2.

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FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM

Figure 76: Functional diagram. (Source : author)


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3.3.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

AREA PROGRAM

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3.4.

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READING THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS TOGETHER


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CHAPTER 4 : READING THE SITE

“The Taj Mahal rises above the banks of the river like a solitary tear suspended on the cheek of time.” -Rabindranath Tagore

Figure 77: Map of Agra, 1720s. (Source : Peck, 2008)


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4.1.

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CONTEXTUAL STUDY

4.1.1. AGRA • The city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevana (derived from Sanskrit (meaning “the border of the forest”). •Agra is pre-eminently a Mughal city. Along with Delhi and Lahore it was one of the Mughal Empire’s capital cities. After the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Agra reverted to provincial status intil the 19th century, when it became an important colonial administrative centre. •The city grew enourmously following independence. •The city is often called ‘Akbarabad’ or ‘The Taj City’. Figure 78: Location map of Agra. (Source : mapsof.net)

Figure 79: Solar analysis, Agra. (Source : gaisma.com)

AREA : 188.4 sq. km. GEOGRAPHY

Agra is situated on the bank of Yamuna River. Agra is located at about 370 km distance from Lucknow, 200 km from New Delhi, and about 50 km from Mathura. On the East it is bounded by Firozabad District, and on the West its boundary are touched by Bharatpur.

Figure 80: Wind Rose, Agra. (Source : meteoblue.com)

CLIMATE The climate of Agra is known as semi-arid one, which borders on a subtropical climate, alongwith humidity. The city is known for its Figure 81: Average Temperatures and Precitipation. mild winters, hot and dry summers (Source : meteoblue.com) and rainy monsoon. An average of In Agra, the wind blows mostly from the Western to the 624 mm is recorded the average rainfall during the month of June to Eastern side. september.


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DEMOGRAPHICS POPULATION •As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra cantonment is 53,053. The urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. •The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre. Agra City

Total

Male

Female

City Population

1,585,704

845,902

739,802

106,315 77.81 %

91,153 67.74 %

Children(0-6) 197,468 Average Literacy (%) 73.11 %

LANGUAGES The official language of Agra is Hindi, the same as the national language of India. Many of the residents also speak Urdu and Punjabi. A few of them also speak Brijbhasa, which is a rural dialect of Hindi. Because of the presence of tourists from around the world in the city, the people, especially tour guides, are also familiar with English.

Figure 82: The Taj trapezium zone. (Source : www.youthkiawaaz.com)

• Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ) is a defined area of 10,400 sq km around the Taj Mahal to protect the monument from pollution.

Figure 83: The Golden triangle tour.

(Source : goldentriangletourindiaim.wordpress.com)

•It is a major tourist destination most notably because of the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. •Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Jaipur; and the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, along Lucknow the capital of the state Figure 84: Distribution of Religions in and Varanasi. Agra falls within the Agra city. Braj cultural region. (Source : wikipedia.org)

RELIGION •Hinduism is majority religion in Agra city with 80.68 % followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Agra with 15.37 % following it. In Agra city, Christianity is followed by 0.42 %, Jainism by 1.04 %, Sikhism by 0.62 % and Buddhism by 0.62 %. •Around 0.02 % stated ‘Other Religion’, 1.66 % stated ‘No Particular Religion’.


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4.2.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

AGRA MASTERPLAN 2021- LANDUSE

Figure 85: Masterplan Map of Agra. (Source : adaagra.in)

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4.3.

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DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS AND REGULATIONS


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4.4.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

Site Context

Figure 86: Site and it’s proximity to different tourist attractions in the city forming a continuous spine. (Source : author)

THESIS 2018


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LARGER PRECINCT HISTORICAL MONUMENTS

1

Site.

2

Kalakriti Cultural and Convention Center.

3

Brahmakumari Spiritual Museum.

4

Hotel Radisson Blu.

5

Shilpgram.

6

The Oberoi Amar Vilas.

7

Taj Nature Walk.

8

The Taj Mahal.

9

Mehtab Bagh.

10

ShahJahan Garden.

11

Agra Fort.

12

Itmad-ud-daula Mausoleum.

13

Chini ka Rauza.

8

CULTURAL BUILDINGS

12

Figure 87: The Taj Mahal.

Figure 88: Itmad-ud-daula.

11 Figure 90: Agra Fort entrance.

Figure 91: Chini ka Rauza

(Source : wikipedia.org)

(Source : wikipedia.org)

(Source : wikipedia.org)

2 Figure 89: Kalakriti cultural center

with art exhibits and bollywood style live shows about the Taj Mahal. (Source : author)

13

(Source : wikipedia.org)

3 Figure 92: Brahmakumari Spiritual Museum.

LUXURY HOTELS

(Source : author)

6 Figure 93: The Oberoi Amarvilas. (Source : oberoihotels.com)

4 Figure 94: Radisson Blu Hotel. (Source : wikipedia.org)

5 Figure 95: Shilpgram (Source : author)


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4.5.

SITE SURROUNDINGS

THESIS 2018

1

4

2

1 2

3

3

4 Figure 96: SITE (BASEMENT UNDERCONSTRUCTION) (Source : author)


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4.6.

THE SITE

The site is located at a prime location, sharing one of the longer peripheries with the main road. The site is predominantly Northeast-Southwest oriented. The topography is fairly plain. There are Neem and Peepal trees at the site. The site is extensively underconstruction at the moment.

Figure 97: SITE (boundaries)

Figure 98: Site Picture 1

(Source : author)

Figure 99: Site Picture 2 (Source : author)

(Source : author)

Figure 100: Site Picture 3 (Source : author)

Figure 101: Site Picture 4 (Source : author)

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Figure 102: Site access street section. (Source : author)

Figure 103: Section indicating the height from where Taj Mahal is effectively visible from the site. (Source : author)

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CHAPTER 5 : TECHNOLOGY


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5.1.

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Structural grid 8550

9150

9000

9100

9250

9182.7

8719.86

9150

SUPERSTRCUTURE : PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

8675

7998.08

9021.45

8978.55

8475

9750

6800

9750

8475

8675

10000

10500

10050

10050

8058.43

96

48

4650

9000

4050.63

.6

9

11

00

0

90

00

90

7986.49

00

80

6836.49

00

80

00

07 .7

5

81 00

10

00

0

80 07

.7 5

6836.54

Pre-Stressed Concrete is a method for overcoming concrete’s natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is pracical with ordinary RCC. The method involves using high tensile strength steel alloys producing permanent pre-compression in areas subjected to tension. A portion of the tensile stress is counteracted thereby reducing the crosssectional area of the steel reinforcement. Reinforcing tendons are stretched by jacks whilst keeping them inserted in voids left pre-hand during curing of concrete. These spaces are then pumped full of grout to bond steel tightly to the concrete. For pre-stressed beams, the thumb rule for beam depth is S/21 to S/18, with ‘S’ being the span of the beam.

00 81

10

85

0

10

00

0

10

90

0

80

Therefore the adopted grid ranges between 8m to 11.5m .

79

98

.7

5

80

00

80

00

73

71

Figure 104: Structural plan. (Source : author)

.2

6


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Calculations and Services


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Plumbing

Figure 105: Water supply diagram. (Source : slideshare.net)

Figure 106: Modified single stack system. (Source : slideshare.net)


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5.2.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

Facade treatment

TERRACOTTA BAGUETTE FACADE

Figure 107: Terracotta baguette system details.

(Source : nbkterracotta.com/en-us/products-services/terrart/terrart-baguette)

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TERRACOTTA PANELS

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

(Source : pinterest.com)

93

GREEN WALLS FOR SURFACES PRONE TO EXCESSSIVE HEATING

Durable facade panels available in various finishes which allow for play.

Figure 108: Terracotta facade panel fixing details.

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Figure 109: Green wall options. (Source : pinterest.com)


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CHAPTER 6 : DESIGN DIRECTIVES


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6.1.

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM: Weaving Heritage into the urban fabric.

THESIS 2018

SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESS

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

• Site is located along the Taj East road which is the predominant approach towards the Taj and therefore, the museum might attract a significant amount of footfall owing to it’s location.

•A series of trees lining the site along the road substantially decrease the visibilty to the site, interfering the visual experience the museum can offer.

• The museum can help activate the spline for tourism thus creating job opportunities for the people around.

•The site is located close to an informal settlement and the museum might be prone to vandalism if safeguarding the institution is not upto the mark.

• The undergoing development of infrastructure related to tourism along the road would further enhance the value of site and vice-versa. • The site is located at a walkable distance from the public parking for the Taj Mahal. • Wayfinding to the museum doesn’t appear to be a problem as there are already other important landmarks around the site.

•The site cannot be easily reached by public transport as the road infront of the site leads to the Taj Mahal rather than a thoroughfare for any active centres. •High levels of noise pollution can be observed in the city, primarily due to traffic and honking. Common to many Indian cities, this problem especially impacts the international tourists the city must attract, who are traveling to relax, but find themselves in a very difficult, stressful environment. •Agra is sometimes overwhelmed by tourists that clog streets, and stress the city’s infrastructure.

• The museum can create social cohesion as it has the potential to induce a cultural dialogue thereby invoking respect for each other’s way of life. • The project has high potential to act as a pioneer for future developments coming up around the siteas the context has yet to be developed under the Masterplan 2012. • The city has an active handcrafts industry, including marble, leather, and carpets, that is a natural complement to tourism.

•Lack of sewage line around the area and improper waste disposal system may result in the poor maintenance of the surroundings. •A worldwide economic slump in the recent years has demonstrated reduced spending on tourism. Agra is not immune to macroeconomic conditions as foreign tourists form a significant part of its tourism economy.


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6.2.

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DESIGN DETERMINANTS

6.2.1. DETERMINANTS FOR FUNCTIONAL

6.2.2. DETERMINANTS FOR ZONING AND

DIAGRAM

VOLUMETRIC DISPOSITION

• Security - Security is of utmost priority for any museum facility as the • Location of the electricity department on the north west side of the objects displayed or stored are of high value and irreplacable. Thus site makes it undesirable for views and thus it bears potential location the circulation needs to be extremely clear and controlled. for locating the services on the site. • The volumetric disposition is guided by the principles of Mughal • Segregation of public and private zones - The public and private architecture resulting in potential flat surfaces and simple yet strong spaces should be well located with a clear demarcation in terms of geometric expression. The volumes are played with to create different accessibilty and servicing. scales of space from imposing to humanitarian. • The built form must express the use of current technology with •Interrelation and fluidity of functions - The functions should be available materials to capture the spirit of the city. organized such that there is no abrupt or broken flow amongst •Located close to the Taj Ganj basti of craftsmen, the built form must them. The museum should emerge as a single complex with different address the might of a museum as well as the intimacy of a cultural components which are interdependent on each other. space which promotes the growth of cultural activities.

6.2.3. DETERMINANTS FOR SITE PLANNING AND

MOVEMENT SYSTEM • The principles of Hasht- Bihisht planning are evident in different building typologies from the Mughal era. The essence of these principles needs to be captured and reinterpreted rather than mimicing the old layout. • Like any Mughal building, the movement system tends to follow a specific path. • For vehicles, the movement is limited is restricted to the main edge of the site so that it does not interfere with the curated movement of the pedestrians. Only vehicles for service purpose are allowed to enter different service bays along the periphery of the site.

6.2.4. DESIGN DIRECTIONS • The arrangement of the components should be such that it maximises the security of the objects on display. Thus dedicated museum and gallery spaces are required with supporting functions. •It needs to showcase a hierarchy when it comes to the privacy of space to ensure each space contains only those whose presence is expected. •The form should be simple yet expressive with sensitive use of materials. •The movement should be curated as it plays a vital role in how one experiences a space. •The project demands for a design approach which has high priority on landscape and open area. Frames of views are instrumental in enhancing the experience of a landscape.


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CHAPTER 7 : CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


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1. Open landscape garden Integration of the design to the site resulting in usable open space in order to accentuate the built form. Also, achieve a hierarchy of open spaces with visual connectivity.

2. Activating the complex with public leisure functions Treating the main edge as the public edge inviting tourists as well as local residents to visit again and again. The museum is not intended to be only an attraction for the tourists who are not residents of the city. With an intervention of this scale, it is a great opportunity to give something back to it’s immediate surroundings. Even though the site is located cloe to the Taj complex, there are barely any good spaces to hang out and spend time. Therefore, the complex can curb this lack of public spaces and serve as a hub for activities.

Figure 109: Organization of different spaces. (Source : pinterest.com)

Figure 110: Sequential experience. (Source : pinterest.com)


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3. Expression of the past Emulating elements of the past in a contemporary fashion. Reinterpretation of the historical planning and architectural principles of the city is required in order to captured their spirit. Executed through the series of colonades and the transition from open to semi-open and finally to built.

4. Response to climate Orientation and other passive strategies in order to minimise energy consumption. Also, the effective use of landscape and connectivity.

Public edge Green Connectivity Figure 111: Public edge and hierarchy of greens. (Source : author)


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CHAPTER 8 : DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


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8.1. DESIGN STAGE 1

THESIS 2018

8.2. DESIGN STAGE 2

Shortcomings

Shortcomings

• The built form does not respond to the site edges which makes some part of the site left separated from the museum. • Approach to the building is far too deep into the site. • There is no interconnection between the open spaces. • The components form distinct zones on the site without much functional compliance. • There is not enough variation in the building height.

• The design still couldn’t respond well to the site and integrate it. • The quality of open spaces achieved is fragmented and irregular. • A very defined and uninviting response to the building edge from the main road. • Orientation results in a lot of western and eastern exposure. • There is not enough variation in the building height.

Figure 112: Design stage 1 conceptual diagrams.

Figure 113: Design stage 2 conceptual diagrams.

Strengths

Strengths

Value addition

• The built distributed into two distinct blocks connected via a courtyard. The two blocks can be separated for public and semiprivate/private facilities.

• Strongly defining the entrance plaza to the building. • Attempt to incorporate the Hasht- bihisht planning principles.

(Source : author)

• Attempt to preserve the natural vegetation on the site. • Since different blocks of exhibition space are present, the varying heights requirements for different components of the exhibition can be easily achieved.

The concept of a centralized and radial circulation is the emphasis here. The shape and proportion of the open space is poor compared to the built mass and therefore has very less chance of accentuating the museum.

(Source : author)


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8.3. DESIGN STAGE 3

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8.4. DESIGN STAGE 4

Shortcomings

Shortcomings

• Approach to the building is not strongly defined due to poor response to the building edges. • Minimal visual connectivity to the large green obtained. • A very inward looking complex. • Geometry is quite irregular and breaks in the built form are very narrow and do not do justice to the intent.

• Multiple entry points with similar treatment which makes the approach confusing. • Visual connectivity to the large green is still poor. • The design still couldn’t respond well to the site and integrate it. • Built mass is concentrated to a particular zone. • Lack of dedicated service areas.

Figure 114: Design stage 3 conceptual diagrams.

Figure 115: Design stage 4 conceptual diagrams.

Strengths

Value addition

Strengths

Value addition

• Some sense of strong axial presence is visible and the essence of Islam is evident in it’s crude form. • A series of connected open spaces and preservation of existing vegetation on site.

• Improvement on the functional aspects of various components of the museum. • Attempt to give a simplistic and neat form.

• Auditorium and other fucntions with footfall have potential spillout spaces. • Attempt to avoid a monotonous blank facade from the main road.

• Increased visibility between the formal greens. • The treatment to the front edge is more refined.

(Source : author)

(Source : author)


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8.5. DESIGN STAGE 5

THESIS 2018

8.6. DESIGN STAGE 6

Strengths

Strengths

• The orientation minimizes eastwest exposure to some extent. • A series of inter connected greens. • Strong cross-axial geometry reminiscent of orders of Mughal architecture. • Potential spaces for spillage from the auditorium and other gathering spaces.

• The approach to the building is very defined. • The exhibition and convention have dedicated service area. • Dedicated green for outdoor conducting outdoor workshops. • Built form is simple and clean which is kind of modern interpretation of Islamic architecture.

Figure 116: Design stage 5 conceptual diagrams.

Figure 117: Design stage 6 conceptual diagrams.

Shortcomings

Value addition

Shortcomings

Value addition

• Visual connectivity to the large green is still obstructed. • Approach to the building from the main road and the drop off is not strongly defined. • The large built mass is concentrated at a portion of the site.

• Improvement on the functional aspects of the various components of the museum. • Easily accessible open area having favorable proportions of built to open.

• The polygonal geometry of the small courtyard does not resonate with rest of the design. • As the blocks are spread out in the site, locating the central HVAC at the end of the block might not be favorable.

• Integration of the design to the site resulting in usable open space. • Open space used to accentuate the built form.

(Source : author)

(Source : author)


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CHAPTER 9 : FINAL DESIGN


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9.1.

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CONCEPT AND FINAL OUTCOME

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9.2.

DESIGN DRAWINGS

9.2.1.

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

THESIS 2018


THESIS 2018

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9.2.2.

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN


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9.2.3.

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SECOND FLOOR PLAN

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THESIS 2018

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9.2.4.

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THIRD FLOOR PLAN


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9.2.5. UPPER BASEMENT PLAN

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THESIS 2018

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9.2.6.

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LOWER BASEMENT PLAN


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9.2.7. SECTIONS

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ELEVATIONS


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9.4.

3D VIEWS

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9.5.

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MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS

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9.6.

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THESIS 2018

JURY COMMENTS AND CONCLUSION

The jurors agreed that it was a good scheme in terms of planning and response to the site. The approach adopted for creating an active public realm was appreciated. However, the attempt to achieve the public realm was questioned : the jurors felt that the attempt lacked a futuristic approach. They suggested another approach of compacting the entire complex into a high rise and the rest of the site left open to act in the favor of public realm. The author realised that it could’ve been another way to approach the design and explained to them that she chose to spreadout on the ground and create a hierarchy of open and built owing to the available height restriction and because there was ‘Taj Nature Walk’ which hosted a large green public place for visitors to enjoy at roughly 300m from the site. Also, the overall massing was discussed and the approach to make a dense complex in a context was questioned to which the author explained to the jury that the complex was approached in order to represent the heritage of the city and the dense nature was adopted to bring in the character of the dense yet active day life of the city and also to make the complex read as one with the series of spaces instead of the built and the open segregated sharply from one another. The jurors were satisfied with some responses and half satisfied with others.

Author’s statement The thesis project was a self realisation upon the author’s take on architecture and the process of design. The author is content about her intent of designing a complex with the ability to develop as an active public realm. The author regrets that with the scale of the project and the parameters that need to be considered, the effort on achieving detailed drawings was challenging. The author realizes that an architect needs constant and uncompromised dedication, interest and hardwork in order to successfully pursue any goal.


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APPENDIX

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Koch, E., 2006. The Complete Taj Mahal. W W Norton & Co Inc. • Peck, L., 2008. Agra, the Architectural Heritage. Lotus Collection. • Phillips, P., 2012. Detail in Contemporary Concrete Architecture. LAURENCE KING PUB. • Macleod, M., 2012. Museum Making. Taylor & Francis. • Badwe, Akshay, 2012. RE-FRAMING HISTORIC AGRA: RESIDENT CENTRAL DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE YAMUNA RIVER AT AGRA, INDIA. Master of Landscape architecture. Clemson, South Carolina, USA: Clemson University. • ADA Agra Development Authority . 2018. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.adaagra.in/. [Accessed 06 June 2018]. • Jagran Post. 2018. Uttar Pradesh government clears project for Mughal Museum in Agra - States. [ONLINE] Available at: http://post.jagran.com/ uttar-pradesh-government-clears-project-for-mughal-museum-in-agra-1438926993. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • :: UPRNN ::. 2018. :: UPRNN ::. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.uprnn.co.in/. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • Khare, Ramya, 2017. MUSEUM OF KNOWLEDGE: Completing the Capitol, Chandigarh. Bachelor of Architecture. School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. • Agra Municipal Corporation:: . 2018. Agra Municipal Corporation:: . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.nagarnigamagra.com/. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • Agra - Wikipedia. 2018. Agra - Wikipedia. [ONLINE] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agra. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • The traveller’s guide to Agra, containing an account of the past history, the antiquities, and the principal sights of Agra, together with some information about Agra as it is. 2018. [ONLINE] Available at: https://archive.org/stream/travellersguidet00mukerich#page/n7/mode/2up. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • Agra Smart City Official Website . 2018. [ONLINE] Available at: http://agrasmartcity.in/. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2018. Agra Fort - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. [ONLINE] Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/251. [Accessed 07 June 2018]. • Archnet. 2018. Archnet. [ONLINE] Available at: https://archnet.org/. [Accessed 07 June 2018].

Profile for Vertika Kapoor

AGRA HERITAGE MUSEUM THESIS REPORT  

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