GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE TODAY’S GRADUATES TOMORROW’S LEADERS
Inside this Issue:
Interviews with influential pioneers in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry regarding Leadership Qualities
CONTENTS WELCOME MESSAGE
Welcome message from the Generation Hospitality Group
MISSION STATEMENT | INTRODUCTION
MESSAGE TO OUR READERS
7 7 8 8
9 10 10 11 12 13
FEATURE ON FRANKLYN D. RESORT
ENTREPENUER ON THE RISE: STEPHEN HAMILTON
Prof. the Hon. Errol Morrison (OJ, MD, PhD, FRCP(Glasg), FACP, FRSM (UK), FRSH, FJIM) Dr. Paul Golding Mrs. Marilyn Cornelius Mrs. Sandra Scott
Mr.Charles Brown Mr. Jeffery Lesker Ms. Sheena Dixon Mr. Peter Hilary Mr. Brian Roper Ms. Shawna Housen
14 14 15 16 20 25
Ms. Annmarie Gordon Ms. Cecile Reynolds Mr. Patrice Howell Ms. Opal Nelson Ms. Trishawana Davidson Ms. Shernette Crichton
TRENDS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: CURRENT TRENDS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
TIPS TO SCORING AND KEEPING A MANAGEMENT POSITION IN THE HOTEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY IN JAMAICA
LEADERSHIP IN THE SERVICE OF HOSPITALITY
27 Leadership 27 Evolution of Leadership at a Glance
HOW TECHNOLOGY HAS IMPACTED THE INDUSTRY
THE WAY FORWARD: VISION 2030
Our Vision for the Future
ARE HOSPITALITY GRADUATES ENTERING THE FIELD WITH ADEQUATE LEADERSHIP QUALITIES?
FEATURE ON LILLIAN’S RESTAURANT
SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY: THE WAY FORWARD Range of schools in Jamaica that offers hospitality and tourism related courses
YOUTH AND THE HOTEL AND TOURISM CORPORATE WORLD
Generation Hospitality Team CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Vanessa DaCosta email@example.com Kenese Edwards firstname.lastname@example.org Talacia Jones email@example.com Monique Russell firstname.lastname@example.org Allex Thomas email@example.com
Garie Austin Garie17@gmail.com 797-3556
PHOTOGRAPHERS (UTECH PHOTOGRAPHY CLUB) Claud-Michael Pringle (President) Darien Robertson (Vice President) Marlon Sergeant (Treasurer) Gianni James (Member)
WELCOME MESSAGE It is with great pleasure that we welcome you to this edition of Generation Hospitality Guide: Today’s graduates, tomorrow’s leaders, which is an official publication produced by five esteemed students at the University of Technology, Jamaica namely: • • • • •
Vanessa Dacosta Kenese Edwards Talacia Jones Monique Russell Allex Thomas
Many thanks to everyone, for the tremendous support in making our inaugural issue a success. Also thanks to those, who have contributed their ideas and suggestions on how to make the Generation Hospitality Guide better. We have incorporated many different things that encompasses the hospitality and tourism Industry in Jamaica, such as insights from top leaders in the industry about leadership qualities expected from hotel and resort management graduates, the impact of technology and how it has changed the industry, linking our guide with vision 2030 which is the way forward for the future generation of this country. We hope that you will enjoy this issue, leaf through the pages and take cue from the information within. Happy Reading! GH Group
Generation Hospitality has under taken the task to investigate the leadership qualities of hotel general managers versus that of hotel and resort management university graduates in Kingston. With our findings we aim to inculcate and educate hospitality and resort management graduates on a wider range of knowledge that will inform them of the essential leadership qualities needed to become effective, outstanding, efficient hotel general managers and meaningful contributors to their communities, societies and their country Jamaica, the sun, sea and sand tourist destination.
The Generation Hospitality Guide is the ideal portal for our readers to be engaged in the hospitality and tourism industry in Jamaica. Like many other aspects of the Jamaican culture, we deem tourism as a melting pot of diverse societies, community and groups that is perfected by the people within the industry. One cannot mention Jamaica, without speaking of tourism and as we continue to establish our self on an international market, our unique hospitality and tourism industry is our strongest asset to date. Our motto is â€œOut of many, one peopleâ€? and today tourists can have a true experience of Jamaica because of the back of the house logistics which 6 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
are important in shaping the industry and keeping it in order. One such way is by demonstrating exemplary leadership qualities, behavioural styles and skills by the various staff that makes up the hospitality and tourism industry in Jamaica. No doubt that this guide will provide an invaluable service in enlightening your vision on leadership qualities possessed by not only pioneers but others that encompasses the tourism industry in Jamaica. Enjoy! GH Group
information about a sector within Jamaica which plays a crucial role in the development of our country. The theme, â€œan assessment into the leadership qualities possessed by existing hotel managers and that of hospitality graduates in Jamaicaâ€? will contribute to the body of knowledge related to current capacity building expertise within the hospitality and tourism industry. This should potentially enhance Jamaicaâ€™s ranking on the global scale.
A Message from Prof. the Hon. Errol Morrison
OJ, MD, PhD, FRCP(Glasg), FACP, FRSM (UK), FRSH, FJIM
commend our final year students from the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management for their entrepreneurial initiative in creating the Generation Hospitality Guide to be showcased at the annual Hospitality Day Project. This initiative is opportune, as it will provide an avenue for the sharing of valuable
It is my hope that prospective professionals will benefit from the material to be highlighted within the Generation Hospitality Guide. I implore our final year students to remain dedicated to transforming the Hospitality and Tourism industry in Jamaica as you prepare to become change agents in the continued development of the sector. All the best in your endeavours. Prof. the Hon. Errol Morrison, OJ President
The criticisms of each advertisement may or may not be justified, and as it relates to our symbols we should uphold and defend their sanctity. What is evident however from these two advertisements is the popularity and worldwide recognition of the Jamaican culture.
A Message from Dr. Paul Golding
Dean, College of Business and Management
ecently two incidences involving Germany has lifted the Jamaican culture to further prominence and has simultaneously stirred controversy. First there was the Volkswagen advertisement with a Caucasian man speaking in a Jamaican accent and second was the apparent desecration of the Jamaican flag in an advertisement by Saturn, an electronics company.
Our Jamaican culture is what makes us distinctive and it is what is likely to provide us with a competitive advantage in a highly competitive travel and tourism market. According to the World Economic Forum 2012, the travel and tourism (T&T) sector has increasingly become an important driver of economic prosperity and social progress. It stimulates growth through job and enterprise creation, and provides significant foreign exchange revenues for many countries. The sector generates opportunities for reducing poverty and inequality, preserving natural and cultural heritage, and upgrading infrastructure. The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on tourism accounting for roughly 10% of GDP. This does not take into account the multiplier effect of tourism on farming, manufacturing, construction and the distributive trade. Tourism is viewed as a major contributor to socio economic and cultural development. What the two Germany advertisements have highlighted is the tremendous potential of our culture 7
and the fact that we have not leveraged it sufficiently. For example our diverse and unique cuisine which has among others African, East Indian, and Chinese influences is not properly documented and therefore cannot be accurately described as a cuisine. The uniquely Jamaican genre Ska is played more in Germany (Germany again) and California than in Jamaica. An online search reveals a list of over 200 Ska bands none
from Jamaica. Is this an error or a fact? What this means for many of our students is that there are tremendous possibilities for entrepreneurial ventures in the travel and tourism industry. I urge students to seize these opportunities as the industry diversifies into areas such as Holistic Tourism, Eco-tourism, Community tourism, Heritage and Culture, Sports among others.
would like to congratulate the conceptualizers of this worthy and innovative venture that fills a longHead of School of Hospitality and Tourism standing gap for current and aspiring Management Hospitality professionals to share their experiences and also learn from the knowledge of others. I am delighted that this group of young professionals has made this important decision to begin a successful and rewarding career in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry through this medium.
A Message from Mrs. Marilyn Cornelius
The Hospitality and Tourism Industry has shown significant growth in the last twenty five (25) years and has exploded from the traditional sand and sea concept to one which includes but is not limited to adventure, culture, sports and leisure, culinary arts, travel agency and eco-tourism and this innovation can only complement and enhance these facets. So, as you immerse yourself within the challenges and hurdles which are a part of the process, I wish for you a fruitful and productive venture.
A Message from Mrs. Sandra Scott
amaica has been a major player in travel and tourism for a long time, starting with the hosting of the Grand Exhibition back in the 1800s. Since then, the industry has continued to grow and Destination Jamaica has maintained its place as a world recognized brand. Part of that growth has been the strengthening of our workforce to deal with the demands of this very vital industry. Deputy Director of Tourism, Marketing for Generation Hospitality Guide March 2013
That is where the University of Technology comes in. The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management continues to prepare and groom individuals to make significant contributions to the industry and I applaud your initiative to step outside the box with this project. The personalities showcased with this generation Hospitality Guide have provided information and tips based on their experiences. Use these tips to your benefit as you consider where you want to lend your talents. We canâ€™t all be marketers, nor can we all be chefs. But we can all commit to being professional service providers. The Jamaican tourism product continues to grow â€Ś increased and enhanced room stock, increased attractions, the opening up of new niche areas, increased airlift. All these provide growing opportunities for you to make your mark in an industry which is the life blood of national development. The industry does face challenges worldwide, but travel and tourism remains vibrant and an attractive career choice. Students and soon to be graduates are therefore assured that their skills will be in demand for a long time to come.
8 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
When asked which was most important; mission, core values or vision he stated that all are very important and that they are co-related. He drew the analogy of BornLive-Die, one cannot live unless they have been born and likewise cannot die unless they are living.
Mr. Charles Brown General Manager Christar Villas Kingston, Jamaica
harles Brown, General Manager at Christar Villas, identifies a strong ability to communicate, being able to articulate fairly, decisiveness, strong knowledge of subject matter, mutual respect, leading by example, fair judgment and assessment as some leadership traits every manager should have. He stated that leadership traits are both innate and developed, based on one’s personality pointing that leaders should know how and when to make harsh decisions. He embraces the idea that graduates, upon leaving university are not equipped with the relevant skills to become managers, pointing to the fact that, many graduates upon leaving university lack experience and is often immature to an extent. However, as a means of addressing this issue he noted that on the job training is exercised at Christar Villas. Brown highlighted the fact that a leader is one who articulates and projects a vision, while a manager is one that executes the vision. He emphasizes the fact that a manager should be a visionary and should be able to direct and motivate staff members to deliver exceptional service. He reiterated that motivation is a key element in management strategy, noting that employees are motivated through measures such as staff of the quarter, recognition for work and achievements as well as including staff members in decision making. Staff inclusion he established as being paramount as it embedded in members a sense of value in the company.
Similarly, the mission establishes birth and the core values are the guidelines which are used to effectively and seamlessly direct the process towards actualizing the vision. He stated that from the on-set new employees are educated about the core values and allowed to “buy into it” and embrace it, that way it will be easier for them to apply it in achieving missions and ultimately the hotel’s vision. Interestingly, he pointed out that managers face a number of challenges, chief of which is dealing with staff members, however he noted that a manager should be likened to a psychologist and shepherd and should be able to understand each employee and be keen on how to deal with each individual, since not all approaches will work on everyone as people’s personalities vary. When questioned about the future of his business and succession planning he did not hesitate to point out that succession planning is very important and is paramount on his agenda hence he has invested in the future of his hotel by sending his son, Christopher Brown, to university. Change is constant and Brown embraces the idea of upgrading, being educated and keeping with technology. This is not only as a means of creating an image but to remain relevant and move with the trends of the industry. In his message to hospitality graduates he encouraged them to; be humble, build respect by their work, be openminded, have a warm and receptive personality, listen to subordinates, display the right attitude towards work and keep educating themselves. He also admonished them to always have the desire to want to build on what they have been taught in order to achieve their ultimate goal. With that said, he stated that if placed in a situation where he had to choose between two qualified persons for a position, he would choose the one with the best attitude towards work. He closed by sharing his favourite leadership quote “The strength of a man is not in his ability to rise while he is rising, but in his ability to rise while he is falling”. Contributing Editor: Talacia Jones February, 2013
r. Jeffrey Lesker has been such leader that he emulated was the General Manager at the his mom. He helps new employee Wyndham Kingston for one year. to understand the culture of the But in general perspective, he has hotel by doing specific orientation 21 years experience in the hotel processes, by talking about the core industry in over 5 islands. He stated values through audio visual and that someone can be a good leader other demonstrations. and not a good manager based on the premise that leaders possess This is done by “Walking the talk” and strategic vision and influence and “Count on me” which is an internal these are strong characteristics, surface culture that is practiced Mr. Jeffery Lesker by Wyndham in 17 brands across 72 however, a manager may possess similar General Manager traits, but not essentially the same. He different countries. He continues to grow Wyndham Kingston also said that “leaders are like shepherds as a leader by furthering his employees Jamaica and Mr. Jeffrey Lesker General Manager and guests. Every manager should know Wyndham Kingston education, always listening to about their employees, never be condescending instead employees, subscribe to newsletters and by being they should be real. The increase in technology has sharp. helped the hotel to improve the quality of service they offer when guest share their experience on Trip A question which was asked is which of these is more Advisor and Expedia. important to you and the hotel mission, core values or vision Mr. lesker stated that all of them are important; He holds the view that hospitality graduates should none can stand alone because they are all inter-related possess excellent communication skills, modest and as such they all are vital to the organization. confidence, relation skills, courage to place themselves in challenging situations, wiliness to sacrifice long hours According to Mr. Lesker, he thinks every hospitality and unbalanced family life. In determining whom to manager should possess EMPATHY, by caring about hire it is based on his instinct, job profile the person is the people they lead are like sheep”. It is important being interviewed for and the candidate credentials. to lead by example, also have characteristics such Mr. Lesker ended the interview with this quote “Some as being honest, passionate and showing empathy people see things as they are and say why, others see is essential in portraying exemplary behaviour. the world as it never was and say why not”. Mr. Lesker holds the view that leadership is mostly developed instead of innate, this is developed by paying attention and learning over time. Hence, then you can emulate the leaders in your life and one
Graduate University of Technology, Jamaica
heena Dixon a recent graduate of the University o f Te c h n o l o g y, J a m a i c a stated that she values her degree because it gives her a certification as a Hospitality Ambassador.
Within the next five (5) years she expects to hold a senior manager position and or become the owner of
10 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
Contributing Editors: Vanessa Dacosta and Kenese Edwards February, 2013
a food entity. Dixon wants to utilize her entrepreneur skills to attain her lifelong dream of ownership of a food and beverage facility. She argued that the hospitality industry is a diverse and growing industry with many career opportunities. Dixon stated that the most important characteristic employer looks for in graduate is the ability to adjust and adapt to new environment. In addition they also consider whether or not a new employee will be an effective team player as it relates to the organization’s culture.
and constant reminders and formulating them together. He practices creative thinking by asking subordinates what they think, tabling their ideas and act upon the good ideas to make them feel apart of the decision making process. His passion for his job and the industry is what keeps him motivated. Hilary went on to say that he believes that he makes a difference, love challenges as well as building and improving hotels. When asked the question which is most important to him and the hotel he stated that the core-value is the most important, in support of his point he said that the core- value tells you what your mission should be therefore without your core-value you would not have a mission to determine the goals and objective of the organization.
Mr. Peter Hilary General Manager Jamaica Pegasus
n an interview with Mr. Peter Hilary he stated that a leader is someone who gives direction and execute the core- values. He indicated that a manager should be patient, a good listener and they should involve subordinates in decision making process, as this gives them a sense of belonging to the organization. He also stated that leadership is innate and management is developed overtime. When asked how he encourages subordinates to carry out the core values within their daily operation, he stated that he leads by example, practice management by walking around (MBWA) and praises employees for work well done and corrects them where necessary. In addition he encourages subordinates to carry out the core-values by leading by example, recruiting the right persons, buying into the core-value
When asked the question which skill do you think will be the most important for your career development? She replied stating that analytical and problem solving skills are most important because one needs to know how to handle situations and find solutions to problems.
According to Hilary, the major challenge that managers in the industry face is finding the right person who has a passion for the industry and the job. In feeling happy; employees will deliver quality services and exceeds guestsâ€™ expectation. On the other hand, he believes shyness is one trait that is common in most graduates, they are afraid to open up and share their ideas. He thinks more on the job training and training with interaction will better equip them for the working world. His message for persons going into a leadership position for the first time is for them to: be professional, lead by example, start as you mean to finish, be careful, be yourself, be caring, be sincere and show passion for your job. Contributing Editor: Kenese Edwards March, 2013
life, guiding and giving her advice on different leadership qualities to portray during an interview and at work. Contributing Editor: Kenese Edwards March, 2013
She also believes that experience is more important than qualification for prospective employees. She went on to say that an internship or cooperative programme will help to develop career in the hospitality industry. In the interview Dixon mentioned that she has a mentor who is her career advisor, Rev. Brenton Pinnock, she attested that he has made a tremendous impact on her
Mr. Brian Roper
General Manger Sandals Grande Riviera Beach and Villa Golf Resort
r. Roper has been working with Sandals Resorts International for thirty-two (32) years. He holds the view that every manager needs to possess some form of leadership qualities. All good managers are leaders in some degree as this will undoubtedly assist them in their job functions. He also stated that one can be a good leader, but not be a particularly good manager because while the two roles overlap and are often intertwined, they don’t have to be intertwined in specific situations. There are excellent managers and employees who really are not comfortable playing the “role” of manager. They want to do the leading job, and they are good at it, but don’t want the obligations attached to being a manager, and would like to remain anonymous or in the background. Leadership qualities he looks for in a manager is an analytical mind and the ability to pass o knowledge. Someone who does not think he knows it all When asked the question which is most important to you and your hotel organization mission, core values or vision? He responded by saying that he does not believe that any one of these is solely responsible for the success of an organization; however a combination of all three will aid in the accomplishment of any organization. He attested that on a scale of 1-10, he believed that leaving an impeccable footprint in the tourism industry is a 10. In supporting, he stated that one way he was able to do this was by learning from those who took the time to teach him what he needed to know. It’s important that you leave a legacy for others to follow. Roper stated that he rarely interfere with the manager’s day-to-day operations of his department but rather allow them to set clear goals and work towards same. Naturally, he needs a progress report and he also tells them, he is their personal Butler so any help that they need, they should let him know. He believes it is very important to pass on his wealth of knowledge to graduates. In supporting, he stated that the future lies with the youth and as long as these youngsters know that a degree does not get you into the working world but rather the mentality of working
12 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
from the bottom to the top should be first in their minds. When faced with two qualified candidates, he would seek to create openings for both as it is good and qualified people that we need in the Travel Industry. In addition he said that every graduate should have the ability to multitask while never forgetting the ultimate goal, which is to make profit, as well as the asset of your organization, which are your employees. The characteristic trait a graduate should possess is willingness to understand how the company works and the core values on which it develops its standards. Interestingly, he pointed out that manager’s face a number of challenges some of which includes: Time Management-Say hello to the Open Door Policy, as a manager, you are committed to being available to your employees at any time so that problems can be recognized and communication is always open. Understanding the various cultures-this is an on-going process and it is an avenue that you learn new things every day. Needs of staff-ascertain the needs and determine if it is really warranted. Keeping up with trends-in today’s fast track world, keeping up with the trend is vital for your company’s business and this is something that the company y has always done well with. Making a profit-this aspect of the business, which is the most important part is relatively not easy, however, with all the above-mentioned, coupled with a good management team, the challenges in this area should be minimal. Roper stated that while technology is important, the human touch is what is going to make the difference. It is however, critical that we do embrace technology on a balanced level. Leadership qualities that he gained from the Stewart’s family are patience, time management, the guest is never wrong and nothing beats working hard. In order to continue and grow as a leader he will continue learning. In is advice for someone going into a leadership position for the first time is learn from your peers, you will never know it all and learning from those around you lead by example and be prepared to learn. He also believes that institutions prepares graduates to enter the industry but some of the students do not recognize that a degree is not a start; it takes more than a degree as you have to be conscious of who you are and where you want to go. He ended with the philosophy” Live, Love, and laugh”. Contributors: Kenese Edwards and Allex Thomas March, 2013
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Also ask how to earn U.S $1,000 working part-time/full time Ms. Shawna Housen Tourism Awareness Officer Jamaica Tourist Board
s.Housen has been affiliated with the Jamaica Tourist Board for the past eight years. Ms. Housen deposited the view that every hotel and resort management graduate needs to have these top five leadership qualities as they are deemed very important in order to work in the hospitality industry in Jamaica and internationally and they are: Positive Attitude Dedication Flexibility Interpersonal Skills Ambition On the contrast, she believes every hotel general manager in the hospitality and tourism industry should possess the following top six leadership qualities: Vision Integrity Courage Openness Flexibility Interpersonal Skills Ms.Housen narrowed it down to these leadership qualities, because she believes they encapsulate what the hotel and tourism industry requires of hotel general managers and hotel and resort management graduates in doing their job, in an effective and efficient manner. She believes, some persons are good at getting followers to be interested and motivated, however they may not be necessarily good at managing the interlinking processes well.
As such someone may be a good leader and not a good manager. Consequentially some important decisions she has made as a leader, is regarding to the growth and success of the staff she supervises. In executing her duties and making decisons, she prefers to use a team approach as she believes everyone has something to contribute and all should feel valuable in achieving the common goal of the Jamaica Tourist Board. Also in achieving the common goal, mission, core values and vision are important and inter-related and as such should be the framework on which the goals are achieved. Ms. Housen communicates the core values by ensuring staff practice them in daily activities and have a recognition or commendation for staff that practices them daily in their work related tasks. The advice Miss Housen would give to a graduate entering into a leadership position for the first time is to remain open minded to a new experience, embrace the challenges and remain positive. She ensures that she continues to grow and develop as a leader by reading to improve her knowledge and looking forward to new experiences. Lastly Ms. Housen believes some leadership qualities are mostly innate, as some persons may naturally possess leadership qualities but for others it can be learnt. She has a favourite leadership quote by the prominent John Quincy Jones “if your actions inspire others, to dream more, learn more, do more and become more then you are a leader”. Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta March, 2013 13
n an interview with Ms. Gordon she stated that in order for one to manage Front Office Manager persons one must lead by Jamaica Pegasus example. In supporting, she stated that a manager should not think more highly of himself than others and should be willing to do the things that he or she requires of subordinates if the need arises.
Ms. Annmarie Gordon
She attested that a manager should be: tolerant, patient, a good listener, respectful and passionate. On the other hand, she reiterated that Hospitality graduates lacked initiative, inter-personal skills and the passion for service. When asked about her General Manager’s leadership qualities she conquered that his leadership qualities were admirable. Noting that Mr. Hilary has an inclusive leadership style, leads by example, practice management by walking around, praises employees for work done and corrects where necessary. Gordon stated that leadership is both innate and developed drawing an analogy of planting a tree. When planting a tree one must first have the seed, plant the seed into the ground and water it in order for it to grow. Likewise, persons are born with leadership qualities and from experience these
qualities will be developed. Interestingly, Gordon argued that motivation is critical, stating that she praises in public and correct in private. She also stated that the love for what you do, a “pat” on the shoulder, team work and simply being courteous helps to motivate her team. A daunting challenge that she highlighted was not being able to develop and train persons; adding that many persons pay more attention to retaining their positions than helping others to develop through secession planning. In her message to hospitality graduates, she encouraged them to take time to know their team; know the strengths and build on the weaknesses to create a balance. She emphasizes the fact that a chain is as strong as its weakest link. In addition, Gordon advised that graduates should be humble, respectful, be their brother’s keeper and help each other grow. She ended by sharing her favourite quote “You catch more bees with honey than with vinegar”. Therefore one should be clam and respectful when dealing with people in order Contributing Editor: Talacia Jones February, 2013
Ms.Cecile Reynolds Operations Manager Courtleigh Hotel and Suites
s. Cecile Reynolds has been a seasoned veteran in the Hospitality Industry for many years and has been the Operations Manager at Courtleigh Hotel and Suites for the past eleven years. Miss Reynolds started her journey of becoming an effective leader from a very early age and is now one of the most recognized managers in the Hospitality Industry winning the Jamaica Hotel and Tourism Association’s Hotel Manager of the Year Award in 2009. She believes that every manager needs to be a leader, but in some cases it is not always the same because an employee can be a good team leader and not necessarily a good manager. Some important decisions she has made as a manager involves: • Training employees for Team Jamaica, • Planning Events and Meetings • Making decisions to increase revenue 14 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
Her journey of becoming an effective leader in the Hospitality Industry began when she attended the Kingston Technical High School where she successfully completed her secondary level of studies. She later studied Hospitality at Revans University in Via, Vanualu where she achieved a Masters in Hospitality and Tourism Management. Miss Reynolds did not stop there, she further pursued a teaching Advanced Diploma at the Mico University College. Miss Reynolds’ experience in the industry must also be commended as she has been working in the Hospitality Industry for the past twenty eight years. She worked at the Jamaica Pegasus Hotel for seventeen years and has worked in every department except Maintenance. This is a clear indication that flexibility is one key component of an efficient leader. Currently, Miss Reynolds is the Operations Manager at the Courtleigh Hotel and Suites and has been working there for the past eleven years. Ms. Reynolds utilizes creative thinking in her hotel, by making employees feel apart of the decision making process and as such the daily operations are a collaborative effort.
However sometimes, urgent decisions need to be made and due to time constraint everyone is not necessarily involved. Some decisions that do not involve everyone are those regarding uniform. Based on the fact that, everyone has their own individual preference.
Miss Cecile Reynolds is the perfect combination of flexibility, persistence and experience in this highly competitive industry and has set and will continue to set the standards for future leaders who hope to enter into the Hospitality Industry.
Mission, core values and vision are important to the organization as one must have a vision to determine where they are going. Mission and core values are integral in helping employee’s to understand their role by doing, regular training sessions, orientations, briefings and on the job training.
Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta and Monique Russell March, 2013
Ms. Reynolds believes it is important for managers to lead by example so others can follow and she personally believes her name “ Ms. Cecile Reynolds” is her reputation and she wants to be remembered as an excellent manager as of her legacy. As such, passing on her wealth of cumulative knowledge to university graduates is vital. She believes leaders have to be motivated to lead their team. Ways she continues to grow as a leader is by attending training seminars, keeping abreast of trends and changes in the hospitality industry. Lastly as a woman of faith, her favourite leadership quote is Phillipians 4:13 ‘I can do all things through Christ who strengthen me”.
Ms. Patrice Howell Graduate University of Technology, Jamaica
s. Howell strongest leadership qualities are that she is determined, courageous, will go the extra mile to get a job done and exceed her guest’s expectations. Ms. Howell highly values her degree as it makes her more marketable, in the workforce as it now moving towards tertiary level education. However she mentioned what seems to be the problem in today’s working environment is that employers still seek experience over degree. She expects to attain a supervisor or managerial position, after five years of
getting experience within the industry. Ms. Howell expressed that the hospitality industry is a growing industry, with so much variety, however the availability of a good position after graduating poses an issue; it becomes stifling to a new graduate who have to work their way up. She incremented that remuneration benefits and a healthy working environment are some of the most important factors offered by the human resource department to a new employee. Because a good package set up and healthy working environment will suffice a marginal pay. She regards, multi tasking skill as the most important for her career development as it is the ability to take on more than one task and complete tasks within the given time frame. CONTINUED ON PAGE 16
Also effective time management and the ability to take iniative are important for her development as well. Based on past interview experience she has seen where experience gets you the job with or without a degree, while a degree is important some employers cannot pay according to the qualifications. Ms. Howell further expressed the view that the cooperative education programme internship implemented by the University of Technology was a great experience and an eye opener to what the industry is like. It prepares students of what to expect when they enter the working world. Based on that experience she now prefers Sales and Reservation department to work in because she learned extensively in these departments while on internship.
Ms. Opal Nelson
Reservations Manager Gran Bahia Principe Hotel
s. Opal Nelson has been affliated with the Gran Bahia Principe Hotel for one year. She believes every manager needs to be a leader. However one can be a good leader and not a manager based on the fact that one can be an exceptional leader in a specific area, let’s say the cashier counter, the person does know the requirements of that specific area, however when communicating with other members of staff or delegating tasks one cannot do so effectively. To be an effective manager one first has to be a good leader, as they go hand in hand. Some of the most important decisions she has made are regarding to: • Whether to grant guests a higher category of room that they did not pay for during a sold out period of the hotel. • Whether or not to grant late check-outs for clients who experienced difficulties during their stay with us. She encourages creative thinking within the Gran Bahia Principe be accepting that each staff member has different ways of thinking, in a staff meeting setting one can ask for suggestions on how a specific issue may be rectified or how can there be improvements within their department.
16 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
Persons that have had an impact on her life are: Ms. Trishawna Davidson Sales Manager at the Franklyn D. Resort and Ms. Raquel Newman Reservation Agent at the Pegasus Hotel. Ms. Howell expressed that while on internship, Ms. Davdison never hesitated to teach her the ropes and keep her yearning for more, while Ms. Newman shared her knowledge freely and was very detailed. Lastly her favourite leadership quote is “Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality” –Unknown. Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta February, 2013
During this process she does not shun any one’s opinion thus creating an atmosphere where all opinions are equal and staff members are free and willing to approach her with opinions and suggestions. When asked the question “Do most of the great ideas come from you in the hotel?” her reply was hotel hierarchy does not leave room for ideas from staff or supervisors. Hence all newly implemented policies are circulated among the senior managers then implemented whether or not it will be readily accepted by the staff. She prefers to work as team as it provides a sense of unity and cohesiveness which is always an advantage to any organization. She believes vision is most important to the organization as employees must keep their eyes on the vision statement of their company to know where they want their company to be in the future, in most cases the vision can be used as a benchmark for performance. She deposited the view that it is important for one to portray exemplary behavior so future leaders can follow her footsteps because, metaphorically speaking, if one is training an individual one must ensure that exemplary behavior is depicted as they are training that individual to take over their responsibilities (so to speak). To be great leaders one ought to be trained how to be one, sure one may have the characteristics of a leader however one will need the necessary training to be an exemplary leader, and after all it is a great leader / manager that lead a company to success.
The phrase ‘do not burn your bridges behind you’ comes to mind when she thinks of leaving impeccable footprints in the hospitality industry as she is building her professional rapport or reputation. It is the good work that stays with your organization after you have left. Ms. Nelson expressed the view that it is very important to pass on her knowledge especially to university graduate because they have been prepared with the theoretical aspects of the tourism sector it is now my time to teach them the practical aspects of the ‘field’ after all they will be the successors of tomorrow. She communicates her core values to employees through training and orientation process and she believes core values can be encouraged in the form of incentives, for example: in the Tourism sector ‘Trip Advisor’ can be both good and bad for any hotel as it is a source of information for potential clients who want to visit your property, now let’s say that one of the core values of the hotel is to give personalized, warm and consistently exceptional service, an incentive can be that the staff member who has the most positive reviews on Trip Advisor receives the weekend off or a token of appreciation. This will eventually become a motivation to provide consistent exceptional customer service therefore everyone would be encourage to carry out the core values within their daily operation. She encourages new employees to understand the culture of her hotel, by introducing them to the policies, rules and procedures of the Gran Bahia Principe and see how best they fit in. This may be done as a tour or presenting them with the history of the organization. She believes every leader needs to be motivated in order to motivate his or her staff members. First of all a leader needs to be self- motivated in that he or she needs to have optimism, focus on the bigger picture where do you want your organization to reach a certain level and how you can be involved. Also one ought not to focus on the now aspect of things example if there is a certain situation or problem that occurred and you do not like how it was handled do not become de-motivate yourself or become discourage. Rise above the mistake as in making a mistake one has a new experience to learn from is what she explained.
On the contrast she believes a fresh university hospitality graduate ought to be enthusiastic about the hospitality industry, have a ‘willing to learn’ and ‘go the extra mile for your clients’ mentality, have a down to earth personality, and must be a people person, possess a desire and love for their career choice. One of the biggest challenges that Ms. Nelson thinks managers in the hospitality face today is staff motivation, in some circumstances managers fail to motivate their employees, motivation should be a constant thing. There are many ways to motivate a staff member, the manager must also be aware that not each staff will be motivated the same way as others. One can be working under not so nice conditions however to know that you are a valuable member to your organization does make a difference. The impact that technology has on Ms. Nelson can be both an advantage and disadvantage in that it aids in the swiftness of how she can assist a guest and provides a world of information at the users’ fingertips, the advantage is that at times because of one’s dependability on technology they have somewhat lost the capability of thinking outside of the box, if the problem is not solved in front of a computer the problem cannot be solved. The advice Ms. Opal Nelson would give to someone going into a leadership position for the first time is to be humble, respect is earned it is not given, be open to positive criticism, be willing to learn also from staff members as they will learn from you. Also be observant, be careful of the type of imagine that you display to your staff members and lead with a gentle but firm hand. Lastly Ms. Nelson is ensuring that she continues to grow and develop as a leader by being opened minded in that there is no task too small for her to do; one has to serve first then lead. She is always looking on ways to expand her knowledge in that she takes on challenges that will test her leadership qualities. Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta March, 2013
The one quality she believes every hospitality manager should be sociable or a people person, in that he or she does not show partiality among staff members. The manager should be fair towards all staff members, what goes for one goes far all and a manager must be an example for all staff members to follow that is what you preach to your staff members you do also.
“Do not follow where the path may lead go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.” Harold R. McAlindon
Vanessa Dacosta President
“The only wa the future is to h to shap Eric
“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.” Winston Churchill
Kenese Edwards Vice President
18 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
“A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way.” Winston Churchill
ay to predict have the power pe it.” Hofer
“The task of leadership is not to put greatness into people, but to elicit it, for the greatness is there already.” John Buchan
Monique Russell Marketing Executive
Ms. Trishawana Davidson other. Ms.Davidson and others communicate core values in Sales Manager Franklyn D.Resort and Spa
s. Trishawana Davidson has been working at the Franklyn D.Resort and Spa as the Sales Manager for the past four years and in such a short time span she has made a tremendous impact. Ms. Davidson is a strong, determined, people oriented and multi faceted individual and those I believe are her strongest leadership qualities. She is a woman of “many hats” as she is also the wedding planner for F.D.R and its sister property N.Resort in Trewlany. She inclemented that hotel and resort management resort graduates should have an open mind, flexibility, adaptability, excellent customer service and creativity in order to work in the hospitality industry in Jamaica. Also her advice to hotel and resort management graduates is to approach a challenging situation with an open mind and willingness to learn, never act as though you know everything regardless of your level of training and expertise. Her favourite leadership quote is “Leaders instill in their people a hope for success and a belief in themselves. Positive leaders empower people to accomplish their goals. She believes every manager ideally needs to be a leader, but a good leader may not necessarily be a good manager. Due to the fact that people may be good at handling social interactions with other employees but they may also be less competent at managing systems and processes. Some important decision she has made as Sales Manager for the F.D.R Resort and its sister property N.Resort in Trelawny are those pertaining to: • Budgeting – in conjunction with strategic planning for departments • Yield Management decisions • Making correct choices during the selecting, hiring and recruitment process She encourages creative thinking at F.D.R by participative management which is, encouraging ideas from staff and also by providing incentives and awards for creativity such as most creative employee of the month. Ms. Davidson also deposited the view that she prefers to work as a team and as such many important ideas come from the line staff she supervises, that continuously interact with the guests and get important feedback from them to help improve and uplift their services. She considers mission, core values and vision as important as they are interdependent on each
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the organization through orientation, employee handbook and specialized training sessions.
She stays intrinsically motivated as a leader by reading research literature, keeping abreast of trends, by emulating other leaders for inspiration and by participating in developmental activities for example seminars and furthering her education. She highly believes it is important for to portray exemplary behaviour, because people live what they learn and “example” is the greatest teacher. Therefore she believes it is important to leave impeccable footprints in the hospitality industry as having a good track record can not only be an asset and it will provide guidelines for others who join the field. One such other person is myself Vanessa Dacosta, Ms. Davidson has been an incredible role model during my ten weeks internship program at Franklyn D Resort, she never cease or hesitated to guide me by ensuring I did the correct thing to get the job done with encouragement along the way. Each day I looked forward to work, while I was working in the Sales department, in my view this department was the best, as I felt I was being a productive and progressive individual in every sense, my voice was being heard and my opinion mattered throughout the course of working with Ms.Davidson and Mr. Frank Rance the owner of Franklyn D Resort, with whom we met with each day to discuss our duties and current promotions. I was the able to increase my sense of responsibility and play a pivotal role in effecting positive development in the organization and at the same time gaining meaningful experience in the world of work contributing not only to my general progress but the organizations progress. The leadership qualities I emulated from Ms.Davidson is to me an excellent multi tasker, show empathy, have humility, courage and integrity in all that I do. Ms. Davidson has been an excellent role model and a force to be reckoned with in the hospitality industry in Jamaica. I salute and thank her for all she has instilled in me! Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta March, 2013
FEATURE ON FRANKLYN D. RESORT
ranklyn D Resort and Spa is an upscale sophisticated and classy all inclusive four star family resort located in Runaway Bay, St.Ann. It has seventy eight rooms which may be either ocean view or beachfront suites and these ranges from one to three bedroom suites. These suites may feature superior amenities such as satellite television, DVD player, iPod dock, free wireless access, refrigerator, coffee maker, day bed, private balcony and terrace. For the enjoyment of guests interested in sports and leisure there are outdoor pools, jacuzzi,gift shop, craft shop, four restaurants, beach grill, spa, tennis court, fitness centre and family disco. Also there is yellow bird kids club, teens centre and teetos game room for the children. Franklyn D Resort and Spa distinguishes from other resorts in Jamaica and the Caribbean because it Jamaican owned by Frank Rance and it offers to guest a unique service of their own exclusive vacation nanny as part of their all inclusive package; it is an indulgence you canâ€™t find anywhere else. The vacation nanny is with the family from check in to check out, keeping children entertained while adults take advantage of adult activities.
Mr. Frank Rance has been an excellent mentor; he practices a charismatic and participative leadership style by being at the hotel every working day and interacting with the guests and the encouraging feedback from employees in decision making. He has a commanding presence when he enters a room filled with people and modest confidence when interacting with others. Also he is strong and fearless but has a kind heart and always looks after and put his employees first. As such they are great reviews of himself and the F.D.R Resort on things such as Trip Advisor for the great work he and his employees have done and continue to do. Franklyn D Resort and Spa is a home away from home! Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta March, 2013
When did you first start your business? Eskay Catering is operated and owned by Stephen Hamilton. It was founded in the year 2008 and operated in his home located in Kingston St.Andrew.
Entrepenuer on the Rise: Stephen Hamilton
Why did you decide to start a business, especially given the current economy? The yearn of many patrons especially like myself wanted to see something new within the catering world, different dishes, sauces and style. I believe in affordable prices, excellent customer relations and a quality product. As a customer once said “You don’t have to be a millionaire for Eskay Catering to plan your event.”
large quantity of business cards. Luckily Mr. Hamilton has catered for several of Jamaica’s top events such as Kingston Kitchen,Sioree,UWI job fair and the list goes on. He was able to accumulate enough capital to purchase more equipment as well as invest in other social media forums such as advertising on Facebook by have an advertisement. In addition he has several sponsors who are helping him along the way, for this young 24yr old entrepreneur.
Is there anything you would do differently? No, this business was planned effectively over the past years during the level of secondary school in addition I’m executive those plans.
What inspired you to start a catering business? Cooking has been the passion for me at a tender age of seven in my mother’s kitchen, being my own boss is what I have dreamed of. In addition I am inspired by food s that persons take for granted such as cassava,yam,liver …. And transform it in an exotic dish. What were the challenges you encountered while trying to get your business off the ground? Every business faces specific challenges inherent in its particular industry especially within the catering world. Some businesses face stiff price competition, others have to constantly change their business model to level with that competition or even tries to beat it. Catering presents unique challenges, most stemming from the fact that there are many uncontrollable factors business owners must deal with. It would be a fallacy to say that Eskay Catering is not facing any challenges. Mr. Hamilton faces two challenges at the moments which are mode of transportation and Financial. Mode of transportation, As Eskay Catering grew over the past years, Mr.Hamilton is finding it difficult at the moment to transport his equipment if he is having a catering over 200 patrons as he is using his mother vehicle at the moment which is not suitable, To alleviate this problem Mr. Hamilton is seeking to purchase a eight wheeler Toyota van with the help of some corporate businesses. Financial , There is a saying according to Mr. Hamilton “Money makes the world go around Mr. Spencer” As he discussed further it is difficult at the moment for him as equipment are very expensive as well as the marketing tools he uses such as social media as well as printing
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What advice would you give to someone wanting to start a business? The get rich mentality should not be the main focus when starting the business, if you have the passion for what you believe in go for it. Remember often times it’s going to take a while for your new business to be selfsustaining. Don’t expect your business to start throwing off cash immediately. That means you should have a source of income or savings to sustain you while you’re going through the start up phase. Secondly your business must be registered with companies of Jamaica to be recognized by the government, Think about trade marking and copyrighting you business as to have rights for it incase of emergency such as someone is using your business name to do fraudulent activities. Marketing is key for your business, you want it to be known to thousands of potential customers, if not enough capital think about word of mouth or even social media which is integral in this phase.
What is the one quality you believe every young leader in the hospitality industry must possess? Without a doubt it is perseverance. Do you incorporate mission, core values and vision into Eskay Catering daily operations? Yes, without a mission, core and vision, Eskay Catering would be stranded. It is a guide to success. How do you maintain yourself as a leader and stay motivated? Along with positive role models and self reliant, I manage to stay motivated by developing a non deterrent attitude towards life obstacle. What are you doing to ensure that you continue to grow and develop as a leader? Continue to research, learn, observe and being adaptable to the current trends while being original and putting a twist to it. What is your favourite leadership quote? â€œProfessionalism is the foremost element for successâ€? Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta March, 2013
TRENDS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY:
CURRENT TRENDS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
n In the Hospitality Industry today it is evident that as time goes by changes in the industry trends will occur. With these changes the Hospitality Industry stakeholders have to cater to the needs of the diverse persons within the industry as the Hospitality Industry is a diverse industry itself. It is also important to have leaders with the appropriate leadership qualities to adjust to the changes in the Hospitality Industry. With the changes associated with new trends arising in the Travel Industry, Food and Beverage Industry, Spa Industry, Meeting and Convention Industry and as Hotels aim to have more sustainable practices, hotel and other hospitality based entities around the world are making it their responsibility to cater to these needs in order to achieve personal growth as a business, maximum revenue and recognition that will set them apart from their competitors. Within the Travel Industry it is evident that travelers are reducing their duration of stay also there is a fluctuation in how often they travel. Information observed from the Hilton Hotel made it clear that there have been changes in the travel patterns of the leisure and business traveler. It has been noted that both of these travelers have shortened their duration of trips. With this in mind, business travel has remained flat over the years while leisure travel volume has increased. Therefore, one can say that based on Industry trends, vacation travel has increased in frequency and declined in duration, whereas business trips remain relatively steady, but have shorten in duration. It is with this information, a leader with good strategic planning would be ideal to have in this industry as they have the ability to look ahead, to anticipate trends in the industry so that he or she will be able to find ways to capitalize on the changes. The food and Beverage Industry have evolved worldwide and hotels and restaurants around the world have made adjustments to their menu offerings. With the aim of trying to meet clients needs, healthier restaurant menu options are being targeted. Reduction in portion size and altering the preparation of certain menu items, have given the industry a boost in showing clients that they not only want to make a profit, but they care for their well being. A leader which possess humility and focus would be ideal with the industry can be seen a very stressful industry in which there is not much room for errors therefore, the leader must be strong and decisive in dealing with these stressful situations as well as
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knowing how to satisfy the customers’ needs. The Global Spa Industry is growing at a very rapid pace. Hotels have incorporated spa services in their hotel offerings as a way to market and attract persons to their hotel. Spas are now seen as a place in which persons can get therapeutic regiments for the treatment of illnesses and the prevention of future ailments. Spas around the world have maintained their focus on fitness and wellness by offering nutritional programs, exercise and beauty treatments. A leader with courage and integrity is needed for this industry as the leader must be able to take risks in order to achieve various goals and also the leader must be caring of others as caring is necessary in the wellness of the clients who will be coming to the spa. As tourism is an industry that involves the environment and its natural resources, more emphasis is being placed on the impacts that unsustainable practices may have on the environment. The “Go- Green” notion is a worldwide trend in which hotels are making a dramatic adjustment to their operations in an effort to sustain the environment. Travelers are also concerned about the environment nowadays and prefer to support a hotel that has been Green Glob certified, which means that they have to meet the criteria on the international level which shows that their practices are in harmony with the environment as sustainability is becoming a major trend that may influence a traveler’s decision, therefore more hotels such as the Ritz Carlton in Rose Hall, Montego Bay are moving in this direction. The leadership qualities that are needed for this industry is a leader who possess integrity and vision as truly caring for one’s environment will help the leader to be better able to understand the impact that protecting the environment will have on the industry as well as knowing how to inform others on its importance. The Meeting and Convention Industry have evolved over the years. This is a popular trend within the Hospitality Industry. It can resonate with the Jamaica Hospitality and Tourism Industry, as there is now a Montego Bay Convention Centre, the only of such magnitude in the Caribbean and it has been open since 2011. Businesses and organizations will travel across the world to host meeting and or conventions. Hotels have designed convention rooms as well as convention centers to cater for these business needs. It not only provides the place in which the
meeting will be held but also serves as an avenue to market a specific destination and as a result aid in generating income. Strategic planning is a good leadership quality to have in this industry as the leader will be able to use the trend that is occurring in the Meeting and Convention industry to gain profit in the Hotel industry.
competitive advantage, adjustments have to be made to facilitate these trends and required trends of clients also the leadership qualities that are needed from the leaders for the various industries are important as they can also affect the outcome of these trends.
Overall, one can note that the trends that are occurring within the Hospitality Industry. In an attempt to gain
Contributing Editor: Monique Russell February, 2013
Ms. Shernette Crichton Hotel Manager Half Moon, A Rock Resort
iss Shernette Crichton is the hotel manager at Half Moon, A Rock Resort, and have being working with the company for the last 20 years. As Hotel Manager she is responsible for the day to day operations of the resort ensuring that the resort consistently provides excellent service that will exceed everyone’s expectations. Her motto is “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me”. Philippians 4:13 She holds a Master of Science Degree in Organizational Behaviour from the University of London and a Bachelor of Science Degree (Hons.) in Hospitality Management from the Florida International University. She is a member of Delta Delta Phi Honour Society, Phi Kappa Phi Honour Society and Golden Key National Honour Society. Additionally, she sits on the Board of advisors for the Montego Bay Community College Hospitality Programmed and Chairman of the Management Committee of the Team Work Ministries HEART NTA project. She received her Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) designation from the American Hotel and Lodging Institute. She is the author of the book Managing Guest Encounters – A student and employee handbook to a successful start in the field of hospitality. She believes that that every manager needs to be a leader and someone can be a good leader and not a good manager this is because leaders can inspire but not necessarily able to manage the day to day operational responsibilities, in supporting her view she stated that they lacks in organizational and planning skills for effective results. She holds the view that “while a leader needs to be self-motivated, it is always good to create the environment or climate which provides further motivational elements” and that very Hospitality manager should be: a man or
woman of integrity. When ask how can leaders maintain themselves and stay motivated? She stated that they should always think positively, believe that “They can do all things through Christ Who gives strength” and surround themselves with people who have great attitude and think positively. Mrs. Crichion was ask, which of these is more important to you and the hotel (mission, core values or vision) she stated that “Our Core Values are important to us; “Respect, Integrity, Certainty, Honesty –‘RICH’ Values “are the bedrock to Half Moon’s success and are the guiding principles in the way we do business with our suppliers, community, staff and guest. Core values are communicated in our daily responsibilities – the decisions made “walk the walk and talk the talk” in other words lead by example; and formally: - during preshift huddles, meetings, department meetings additionally, each employee wears a pocket guide bearing the mission, vision and core values. She encourage creative thinking within hotel, by empowering team leaders/players to make independent decisions, participate in problem solving and think outside the box. And for those Graduates who are thinking about a job at the have moon hotel Miss Crichion believes that young university hospitality graduate should possess, a Teachable Attitude Enthusiasm, Tenacity/ Professionalism and should also be honest, caring, flexible and pleasant. When going for an interview she take into consideration the candidate’s personality, demeanor, posture, and appearance – there is always something that is significant between the two I look for that: Smile, body language:- firm handshake, a strident walk Contributing Editor: Allex Thomas March, 2013
TIPS TO SCORING AND KEEPING A MANAGEMENT POSITION IN THE HOTEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY IN JAMAICA
job interview is the first part of hiring and keeping good workers. Asking the right questions makes a manager more likely to select the best candidate for the job. If one dos not have good interviewing skills, they may end up offering a job to someone who is a poor fit for the job or the company. Competition abounds for skilled and talented workers. Therefore, hiring qualified employees has become both an art as well as a science. One must be a good listener, which means knowing how to reframe or redirect a conversation. In addition, one must be able to distinguish between people who want the job and the perfect candidate for the job. Despite the economic volatility of the past few years, conducting a successful interview can help someone secure the best candidates for the job. The following tips may help with the screening process and on the job: The Screening Process: • Be prepared- Although it seems obvious, many applicants sometimes are not prepared. The first tip is to have all the necessary documents such as resume, application letter, TRN, valid identifications and references. •
Create a script- Having answers to several question the interviewer will ask before hand Is very valuable. In fact, many human resources departments have prepared sets of questions that can be used as a guide. For example, what led you to apply to the position? However, you may learn more from questions like, “Give me an example of when you had trouble meeting a deadline. How did you handle it? ”Try to answer the questions so as to allow the interviewer to gain insights into your leadership qualities, behavior, opinions, experience, and backgrounds. The interviewee goal for the interview is to leave the room with a good sense of your strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes. Set the tone – As you enter the room, try to set the tone of the interview. Express your appreciation for being chosen as a shortlisted candidate.
Tips to scoring and retaining the job: • Create a vision and mission statement for yourself so that it benefits the people of the tourist destination and the country as a whole. This will be an added plus in the employer’s eyes, as you are not only thinking about yourself but the vision of where you want to 26 GENERATION HOSPITALITY GUIDE
see Jamaica and the impact and vision you forsee, by having worked in this sector. •
In your daily tasks ensure that your leadership qualities are being demonstrated such as courage to take on challenging tasks, humility and integrity.
Portray an ability to adapt easily to new changes and circumstances.
Be culturally diverse and bilingual or multilingual, as this is the way forward in communication with guests travelling from all over the world.
Demonstrate the effectiveness of networking within the sector on a local and international level.
Ensure that you are technologically savvy and keep abreast of changes in the field. In the event, you are given an exercise in this area; you should be able to demonstrate this.
Demonstrate that you can be an obstacle remover/ problem solver/unfazed by a challenge/ready to take wise risks and multi-task with ease.
Have a high level of emotional intelligence especially in this field, where you will be managing sub- ordinates.
Recognize the importance of team and relationship building.
Should be knowledgeable about current events, monitor government policies, regulations and procedures they are introducing as this is deemed very important.
Lastly demonstrate that you can be an excellent communicator who can represent the interests of the tourism sector diplomatically and lobby for the introduction of policies that would be beneficial to the sector.
Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta February, 2013
Leadership in the Service of Hospitality
eadership has changed significantly over the years, because of tremendous growth in the Hospitality Industry and every manager has his own leadership qualities. One should take a look at “transformational leadership” this enhances the motivation morale performance of employees through a variety of ways in the organization. Transformational leadership allow person to feel a sense of identity and connect to their work. Leaders who are great role models will inspires their employees and this will makes them interested and willing to take a challenge and take great ownership for their work, it will also help manager to understand the strength and weakness of their employees and implement strategies to improve their performance. A constant theme that have repeatedly emphasized is that leadership matters as well as the character of a leader. Leadership plays a vital role in the industry, a leader’s actions, values and ethical standards can affect the quality of the organization.
Evolution of Leadership at a Glance
Given today’s business climate and the growing need for leaders who can guide with integrity and courage in the years ahead, it seems appropriate to explore an emerging leadership philosophy that facilitates employee care and environmental stewardship as well as to promote culture of trust and respect, and encourages ethical practices in the work industry. Findings revealed that leadership qualities are both innate and developed participants contested that leadership can be learnt overtime. In addition a leader should have courage be willing to take risk in order to attained the organization goals and objectives, they should also be visionary this quality is most appropriate when an organization needs a new direction a leader should also be able to plan strategically. Contributing Editor: Kenese Edwards February, 2013
increases, therefore one has to keep up with the trends and changes of the industry to stay ahead of
the game. In addition leadership styles have evolved
behavior and the way individuals acquire power and
a more participative and democratic style of the new
influence in the workplace. Let us take a brief look
generation. In a global study involving 389 leaders
back in time and illustrates how far we have come in
from 28 countries, The Centre for Creative Leadership
our thinking about leadership theory and practice. In
(CCL) found that 83% of the leaders surveyed
1920 a definition of leadership reads, “The ability to
believe that the definition of effective leadership has
impress the will of the leader on those led and induce
changed in the past five years. There is an imperative
obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation”.
for leaders of organizations, including HR Managers,
recent definition leadership is defined as “one’s ability
to plan ahead and adapt to the movement of these
to get others to willingly follow”.
evolving trends to ensure the best outcomes for their
he history of leadership theory is a fascinating
over time, with a prominent shift from the autocratic
story of evolving views on the nature of human
and directive leadership of the twentieth century to
HOW TECHNOLOGY HAS IMPACTED THE INDUSTRY
he use of technology in the hospitality industry has grown vastly over the past twenty (20) years. This has not been a smooth journey but technology is now a critical competitive tool in the industry. The development and use of technology aid in hotels ability to develop concepts for new development, targeting the best locations, identify potentials franchisees, track employee performance and track customer satisfaction.
and resorts in recent years where the introduction of electronic door lock and internet access in rooms.
The impact of technology on the industry cannot always be measured in terms of whether or not jobs are lost or if training is provided. It is more common that technology leads to a change in the quality of jobs it also has an increase in the pace and intensity of work technology also helps to monitor worker and implementation of surveillance cameras in organizations this is to minimize the prevention of theft or damage to company property. In addition it also makes work easier for example if an employer wants to find out something about an employee they can just search for the employee file on the computer. Technology has enhanced customer satisfaction and hotels
Therefore one can say that technology has played a major role in the industry over the years and it continues to improved, as managers are finding ways to use technology to solve problems in the workplace.
The impact it has on worker in the case of digital response and automated telephone systems is that the elimination of switchboard departments in hotels and resorts and replacing them with small-scale control devices and computers at the front desk.
Contributing Editor: Kenese Edwards March, 2013
THE WAY FORWARD V
ision 2030 Jamaica “The place of choice to live, works, raise families and do business” Eric Hofer once said “The only way to predict the future is to have the power to shape it” Jamaica is shaping its self to be a first world country by the year 2030 and the Hospitality industry has its place in that vision. In 2030, the Hospitality Industry in Jamaica will realize the vision of an inclusive, world-class tourism industry that is a major contributor to socio-economic and cultural development. With a well-educated, highly skilled and motivated workforce at all levels within a safe, secure and sustainably managed environment great leader will be in demand.
they must • Live from core principles and values • Set and achieve goals • Create and share their vision • Empower employees to develop and use their talents • Constantly evaluate their strengths and weaknesses • Overcome any self-created barriers to success
In achieving this vision, the Hospitality industry will call for leaders that exhibit leadership qualities such as: visionary, courageous, integrity, and humility. As such, future Hospitality leaders must develop and sharpen their leadership qualities to not only be effective leaders but roles models in a first
The term courageous means that you are willing to take risks in the achievement of your goals with no assurance of success and these are the kind of leaders that will be needed in 2030. Forbes Magazine describes courageous leaders as someone who:
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world Hospitality Industry. Goleman 2002, describe a visionary leader as someone who is inspiring in vision, and helps others to see how they can contribute to this vision. To be an effective Hospitality leader in 2030 one must have a compelling vision of where they are going in order to be effective,
• • • • • • • •
Confront reality head-on Seek feedback and listen. Say what needs to be said Encourage push-back Take action on performance issues Communicate openly and frequently Make decisions and move forward Give credit to others
Dwight D. Eisenhowe once said “The supreme quality for leadership is unquestionably integrity. Without it, no real success is possible, no matter whether it is on a section gang, a football field, in an army, or in an office”. A leader that possesses integrity is someone who is a firm adherence to a code of moral or artistic value, and is incorruptible. Leading with integrity is one of the greatest challenges for leaders according to Del Suggs, and achieving vision 2030, future Hospitality leaders must be persons of integrity. Here’s the three step formula for improving your integrity as a leader from Del Suggs: Step One: Seek the best for others. Leaders with integrity ignore self-interest and personal gain, and reach out to do the best for those you lead. Leaders with integrity are not the stereotypical boss, barking out orders for others to follow. Leaders with integrity are more like shepherds. They pursue the best for others, and watch after their flock. Step Two: Practice good stewardship. Leaders with integrity work to guard the resources of the group. That means spending funds wisely, using volunteers fairly, and properly utilizing and developing followers. Leaders with integrity are like farmers. They take care of the land, guard the crops, and maintain the resources.
Here are a few suggestions on practicing humility by Bruna Martinuzz • There are times when swallowing one’s pride is particularly difficult and any intentions of humility fly out the window, as we get engaged in a contest of perfection, each side seeking to look good. If you find yourself in such no-win situations, consider developing some strategies to ensure that the circumstances don’t lead you to lose your grace. Try this sometimes: just stop talking and allow the other person to be in the limelight. There is something very liberating in this strategy. • Here are three magical words that will produce more peace of mind than a week • Seek others’ input on how you are showing up in your leadership path. Ask: “How am I doing?” It takes humility to ask such a question. And even more humility to consider the answer. As Jamaica works towards achieving vision 2030, Harry S. Truman wrote “Men make history and not the other way around”. In periods where there is no leadership, society will stand still. However for progress to occur leaders must be visionary, courageous, integrity, and humility skillful leaders that seize the opportunity to change and maintain things for the better. In achieving and maintain vision 2030 and beyond, persons like you and me who profess to be future leaders must work towards grooming our leadership qualities to meet the Standards of the vision. Jamaica “The place of choice to live, works, raise families and do business” Contributing Editor: Allex Thomas February, 2013
Step Three: never forget your constituents. Leaders with integrity always keep their followers in mind. They are constantly looking for ways to lead, to take responsibility, and to do a better job as a leader. Leaders with integrity are like good parents. They are always thinking about their children. “Do you wish to rise? Begin by descending. You plan a tower that will pierce the clouds, lay first the foundation of humility.” Saint Augustine. Humility is defined as modesty, lacking pretence, not believing that you are superior to others, and this is the kind of leadership qualities that must be presents in 2030 Hospitality industry leaders.
Are Hospitality Graduates entering the field with Adequate Leadership Qualities?
ersons generally think that a leader is one that is able to direct and coordinate activities, with that in mind persons believe that they can become a General Manager. However being able to coordinate and direct does not dictate that you are equipped to become a Manager. â€œA Manager is a Leader, however all Leaders are Not Managersâ€?. With that said it is no wonder General Managers are continuously complaining about the pool of graduates that are sent out to them. Saying, many are not ready for management positions and for many hotels, the implementation of training program, not just to orientate these graduates to the hotelâ€™s culture but also to develop those needed leadership skills before empowering them with leadership positions. Hospitality graduates, for the most part are not equipped with the necessary leadership traits to become Managers after leaving university. Yes there are exceptions, but majority of graduates are not. Though some persons may argue that Leadership is innate, it is our opinion that
leadership is developed and with exposure and practice such traits, can be mastered so that one can become a great manager. From research, a manager is one that among other things: leads by example, directs and coordinates activities, a strategic planner, has some level of influence, shows empathy and has a general passion for what he or she does. This is not the case with graduates entering the field as they are found lacking in these areas. It raises questions as to what exactly students take from their three or four years as the case may be at these universities. Others may question the relevance of the curriculum being used at these universities. Are the modules current? Are they up to standards with the trends and demands of the hospitality industry? Should more leadership and managerial modules be included? Contributing Editor: Talacia Jones February, 2013
are familiar with the people, they Experiences Gained from Internship They are able to communicate freely, they are
nternship is a requirement by most colleges and universities around the world that gives students the exposure to gain firsthand experience in their field of study. Nowadays, students have the opportunity to complete their internship locally in their home country or abroad. There are several advantages and disadvantages associated with the internship that students are experiencing. Based on a survey conducted by students at the University of Technology, Jamaica and the University of the West Indies, Mona revealed that students that complete their internship locally are better able to achieve a wholesome experience as well as they gain more leadership qualities that are needed for the industry rather than students who chose to do their internship abroad. When students do their internship locally they are given the opportunity to work within several departments within the organization that they are placed. This not only gives them exposure to different departments but it helps them to become more rounded individuals when they enter the world of work. Students who do their internship in their home country have an advantage as it relates to experience rather than those who choose to go abroad.
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able to experience what exactly will be required of them as future leaders and they understand the culture of the people they are working with. This not only gives the students confidence, but it allows them to learn easily as the setting would be conducive for grasping knowledge as well as the developing and application of certain skills possessed and gained in the universities. Local internship is designed not only to mold young aspiring managers and supervisors as they would get the opportunity to gain vision, cooperation, focus, integrity, strategic planning and courage. These are good leadership qualities to possess in becoming an effective leader. It serves as a wakeup call for most young men and women who have the wrong perception of the working world. It gives them hands on experience and allows them to apply the knowledge and skills they have gained in their institution. By doing this, the intern will have an understanding of what is applicable in the world of work and what weaknesses they have to work on. Working in their home country gives students the advantage in this area because they know the customs and beliefs, the necessary requirements, and they are not intimidated by any foreign culture.
The findings of the survey revealed that when students do their internship abroad there are several downfalls that can arise from this. The first is trying to adapt to the new environment that you are going to be working in. It is not always smooth sailing when they visit another country. They will encounter new people and will have to understand their way of life. Some interns are faced with discrimination. Discrimination is a worldwide phenomenon that affects the lives of many. When a student faces discrimination, not only does he or she loses self confidence in what they are required to do, but they are also unable to grasp the true essence of what is required of them in their field of study. The intimidation they face is not conducive to learning and therefore the purpose is lost. The placement of students in several positions other than in positions more consistent with their course of study when on internship abroad is another issue. Students are placed into menial jobs such as housekeeping, waitressing and stewarding throughout their entire internship. Not only do people abroad look down on these positions, but the students are not allowed to change their line of duty while there. Little knowledge related to the student’s main course of studies can be achieved by working in these positions. The intern is not able to apply the knowledge that he or she has learnt in school however, they try to just complete a task given to them on a daily basis. Leadership qualities can be
he building housing the restaurant has been in existence since 1912 and was formerly the Staff Common Room of the former College of Arts Science and Technology. Lillian’s underwent extensive renovations in the wake of Hurricane Gilbert in 1988 and was officially opened by the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management (formerly the Hospitality and Food Science Department) in November 1992. In July 2000, the restaurant was closed to facilitate major renovations and was re-opened in February 2002. The restaurant provides hands-on training for students in the areas of Dining Room Service Management and A La Carte preparation. An added feature to the restaurant includes
gained from doing internship internationally as courage, cooperation, focus and integrity are the main leadership qualities that are needed to complete job such as these. Overall, internship is a prerequisite done in most tertiary institutions. The choice of completing the internship locally or internationally is the choice of the intern. When students do their internship locally they are better able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learnt in school because they are familiar with the environment and the culture of the people and they receive a more realistic approach to what is required of them when they enter the work force. However, both internship choices will allow the student to gain various leadership qualities that will help these students to become effective leaders in the future. On the other hand, students who complete their internship abroad may face discrimination when they arrive in a new setting. Also, they are placed in menial positions that restrict them from truly understanding the real work world and eave them to just complete a task rather than to apply their knowledge and skills they have learnt. Contributing Editor: Monique Russell March, 2013
a window to the kitchen where guests can view students while they prepare meals. Lillian’s Restaurant is the official training restaurant of the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management It is located adjacent to the Caribbean Sculpture Park at the University of Technology, Jamaica. The restaurant provides dining and catering services to the UTech community and the general public. This charming fine dining restaurant has the capacity to seat up to 60 persons comfortably on the dining terrace with standing room for 140 persons. Lillian’s Restaurant provides the perfect setting and ambience for all your 31
cocktail receptions, theme parties, luncheons, dinners, birthday parties, brunches, intimate wedding receptions, tea parties and small meetings.
guests are taken on exquisite culinary trips around the world through our International Cuisine series, which happens on Friday evenings during selected semesters.
Lillian’s is opened for lunch Mondays through Fridays, from 11:30 am to 3:00 pm and dinner services are provided on Monday evenings from 3:00 pm until 6:00 pm. In addition,
Contributing Editor: Kenese Edwards February, 2013
level. Commendations must be given to persons like Butch Stewart, and Charles Brown who have embraced the concept of succession planning through their offspring, ensuring that the future of their hotels are safe. With that, not only will the hotel be sustained but the family legacy, employment for all in their employ and the Hotel and Tourism Industry.
Succession Planning in the Hotel and Tourism Industry: The Way Forward
ucccession planning is no doubt essential to every organization, it is important for growth, development and sustainability in an organization. The Tourism sector today appears as a dying hope to many with little attention now placed on it and more focus on technology-computing and engineering which appears to be booming today. However in an effort to sustain the Hotel and Tourism industry succession planning should be at the heart of every hotel, every manager should see it as their responsibility to train successors to carry-on after they have left. As a Buddhist quote states “One is not a genuine leader if one does not foster capable successors. True success cannot be achieved without fostering talented individuals and nurturing their potential.” Not only will the idea of secession planning ensure that a leader is “air-marked”, trained and mentored for top management position but it will also mean that the hotels will evolve. With new managers come new ideas and new approaches for development not only on the level of the various hotels but also on the community and society
Range of schools in Jamaica that offers hospitality and tourism related courses
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It is imperative that more hotels implement strategies to identify potential persons within the hotel, with the necessary leadership qualities and groom these persons to fill top management positions. This in effect promotes motivation and growth of employees, and growth and sustainability are not intimidated by any foreign culture. When one chooses to do their internship abroad there are several downfalls that can arise from this. The first is trying to adapt to the new environment that you are going into. It is not always smooth sailing when they visit another country. They will encounter new people and have understand their way of life. Some interns are faced with discrimination. Discrimination is a worldwide phenomenon that affects Contributing Editor: Talacia Jones February, 2013
A List of schools in Jamaica that offers Hospitality and Tourism Management: Bachelor’s Degrees and Associates Degrees. University of Technology, Jamaica The University of the West Indies Mona Northern Caribbean University Bethlehem Moravian College Brown’s Town Community College College of Agriculture, Science and Education (CASE) Excelsior Community College (EXED) Knox Community College Moneague College Montego Bay Community College Portmore Community College Western Hospitality Institute
Leadership Quotes This is our collection of leadership quotes drawing from John Maxwell, Ralph Waldo Emerson and many more. It is wisdom of the ages and modern sages, all focused on the topic of leadership. “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things” Peter F. Drucker
“The final test of a leader is that he leaves behind him in other men, the conviction and the will to carry on.” Walter Lippman
“Don’t tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and let them surprise you with their results.” George S. Patton
“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” John Quincy Adams
“A leader is a dealer in hope” Napoleon Bonaparte
“High sentiments always win in the end; The leaders who offer blood, toil, tears and sweat always get more out of their followers than those who offer safety and a good time. When it comes to the pinch, human beings are heroic.” George Orwell
“The very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You can’t blow an uncertain trumpet.” Theodore M. Hesburgh “Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue the counts.” Winston Churchill “One is not a genuine leader if one does not foster capable successors. True success cannot be achieved without fostering talented individuals and nurturing their potential.” Daisaku Ikeda “Genuine leadership lies in care and attention to the fine details. To know the circumstances of each and every person and to exercise the utmost care; that is what it means to be a true leader.” Daisaku Ikeda “The task of leadership is not to put greatness into people, but to elicit it, for the greatness is there already.” John Buchan “To lead people, walk beside them … As for the best leaders, the people do not notice their existence. The next best, the people honor and praise. The next, the people fear; and the next, the people hate … When the best leader’s work is done the people say, ‘We did it ourselves!” Lao-Tsu “Leadership: the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.” Dwight D. Eisenhower
“The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority.” Kenneth Blanchard “The very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You can’t blow an uncertain trumpet.” Theodore M. Hesburgh “The leaders who work most effectively, it seems to me, never say “I.” And that’s not because they have trained themselves not to say “I.” They don’t think “I.” They think “we”; they think “team.” They understand their job to be to make the team function. They accept responsibility and don’t sidestep it, but “we” gets the credit…. This is what creates trust, what enables you to get the task done.” Peter Drucker “Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.” Steve Jobs “As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others.” Bill Gates “A good leader is a person who takes a little more than his share of the blame and a little less than his share of the credit.” John C. Maxwell
“Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” John F. Kennedy
Youth and The Hotel and Tourism Corporate World Some hotels are somewhat reluctant when it comes to employing young people, mainly because they think that these youngsters may lack experience or may be delinquent on the job. When observed, corporate Jamaica may actually benefit greater if they hire more young people. What the youth may lack in experience, they make up for in energy, creativeness and fresh ideas. There are a lot of young people out there that have great ideas but they are seldom given the chance to prove what they can do.
By investing in them, it unlocks their talent, hence they will be motivated to engage themselves and go further. But this cant be done without involving your existing staff in mentoring and supporting young recruits increases, thus their motivation and confidence and can be a good way of developing management skills. What can your hotel business do to help young people?
Hiring these young people can be mutually beneficial for both the hotels and the person hired. The company gets eager staff while the youth get experience. “One of the biggest challenges that employers face is finding the right people to help their businesses grow. Getting the right people is essential whether you run an unpopular hotel that no one no knows about or a popular hotel that will be on the lips of everyone tongues.”
On the flip side, your business helps young people to mold their skills while learning how to adapt to a corporate environment. Think of it as supporting youth and giving back to the community.
Recruiting and developing young people is probably the most cost-effective way for any business to build a dynamic and productive workforce. Why do many businesses shy away from giving young people their first job? It is usually the assumption that they don’t have the right skills or attitude and lack experience of the workplace. It doesn’t take long to figure out how to cure that. If there is a need for serious young people who are ready for the workplace, hotels and other tourism related entities need to help give them that experience and that chance to make them glide smoothly from schooling to the world of work. What can young people bring to your business? The fresh ideas and approaches that young people bring may open up new and emerging customer groups and markets. A younger perspective is valuable where markets are rapidly changing or rely on a youthful customer base. Young people are cost effective to recruit and train but investing in young people may bring returns in commitment and loyalty.
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There are many ways to go about this, from offering Saturday and weekend jobs or apprenticeships, to mentoring young people, providing work experience or giving careers talks in schools and universities that offer tourism related courses. . All employers can do something, by simply tailoring your commitment to suit the time and resources you have. The commitment to help young people make that transition from school to work is something the whole hotel business community needs to get involved with. Every enterprise has its roots in the communities in which they grow and the long term success of every growing business will depend on developing the next generation of world class professionals. That means that as business leaders we have a responsibility to the communities we live in and to the young people who need that first step up into a job.
Contributing Editor: Vanessa Dacosta February, 2013
MR. CHARLES BROWN-IS BOTH INNATE AND DEVELOPED BASED ON ONE’S PERSONALITY POINTING THAT A LEADER KNOW SHOW AND WHEN TO MAKE HARSH DECISIONS
MR. PETER HILARY-LEADERSHIP IS INNATE AND MANAGEMENT IS DEVELOPED OVERTIME
GENERATION HOSPITALITYBELIEVES LEADERSHIP QUALITIES ARE BOTH INNATE AND MATURE WITH EXPERIENCE.
IS EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP A LEARNED CRAFT OF AN INNATE GIFT?
UNIVERSITY GRADUATESBELIEVES THAT IT IS BOTH DEVELOPED AND INNATE OVERTIME.
MR. JEFFREY LESKER- IT IS A LEARNED CRAFT BECAUSE LEADERSHIP SKILLS ARE MOSTLY LEARNT AND DEVELOPED OVER TIME BY EMULATING OTHERS
MS. ANNMARIE GORDON STATED THAT LEADERSHIP IS BOTH INNATE AND DEVELOPED DRAWING AN ANALOGY OF PLANTING A TREE. WHEN PLANTING A TREE ONE MUST FIRST HAVE THE SEED, PLANT THE SEED INTO THE GROUND AND WATER IT IN ORDER FOR IT TO GROW.