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2015

HOT SPRING COMPLEX VAJRESHWARI-AKLOLI , MAHARASHTRA A FIFTH YEAR THESIS ON THE EXPERIMENTAL USAGE OF THE HOT SPRINGS.

VEDSHREE JOSHI L.S. RAHEJA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 11/25/2015 1


L.S . RAHEJA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

INTRODUCTION

HOT SPRING COMPLEX as the name suggests deals with study and its experimental usage based on the Thermal Springs along with the architecture that accomplishes with their existence. THERMAL SPRINGS as the name suggests are the naturally occurring renewable resources of energy .The are the least explored resource in India. In the foreign lands, there are varied techniques being developed for the applications and usage of hot springs as a resource. The project deals with the exploration of application of hot springs along with its maintenance and conservation of its importance. The project aims at development of a spa resort. It introduces application of hot springs in a commercial manner where spas, swimming pools, resorts, therapeutic cells, fishing, landscaping and other activities can be achieved using the hot water acquired in its natural state without harming the existing eco system . In order to know the topic in detail the book starts with the explanation of the word HOT SPRINGS , their existence, their history , terms associated , various usages of hot springs and the development of architecture around this hot springs.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that MS. VEDSHREE SUNIL JOSHI has successfully completed her Design Dissertation on the topic HOT SPRING COMPLEX, AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI under the guidance from AR.MANDAR PARAB. The dissertation is undertaken as a part of the academic study based on the curriculum for Bachelor’s in Architecture program conducted by the University of Mumbai ,through L.S.Raheja School of Architecture, Bandra(east) ,Mumbai.

Seat number: 5218

Architect Mandar Parab Thesis In-charge, L.S.Raheja School of Architecture, Bandra , Mumbai

External Juror

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly I thank my parents and guardian who gave me the moral and the financial support for the accomplishment of the project and completing it successfully. I also thank for providing with overall support for five years of architecture; nothing was possible without you all. I would convey my heartfelt thanks to my thesis guide Ar.Mandar Parab sir who guided me consistently throughout the project. I would also thank Ar.Arun Fizardo sir who also guided on the right path required for the execution and successful completion of my thesis topic. I pay sincere regards to all the other faculty who guided me throughout my project and who developed me from a science student to an architecture student. On this juncture I would also thank all the people involved in my process of “being an architect�; who guided me, time being scolded me but eventually developed me in the process . Last but not the least I would also thank all the non-teaching staff from my college i.e librarians, computer lab teachers etc who helped me significantly in my project. I also thank the printing techinicians for their timely assistance. I would also thank Mr.Prem Raina(Manager at Hotel Hot Spring and Spa,Himachal Pradesh) for the valuable assistance on usage of Hot spring water and Mr.Shrinivas Viladkar(Visiting Faculty at Mumbai University and Director;Geologist) for immense help in explaining Hot springs .

Thank you .

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SOMETHING HEARTFELT This article is written by me to thank all the people involved in my five year process of architecture. It wasn’t easy for me as a science student to easily adapt to an education which did not bind students on an A4 size notebook . The wide canvas of ideas was suddenly introduced which was very difficult for me as student to acknowledge. I who had a geometry base entered onto to this field because I had an immense desire to do something different in life. I still vividly remember my first day into architecture where I had to draw free hand straight lines onto an A3 sketch book; a weird thing indeed for me as I was totally unknown to all this. After a week after doing such rigorous sketching my thoughts always wondered “M’I suit for this?? Will I be able to give justice to it??” All this queries of mine were soon clarified when I was introduced to Ar. Meghana Ghate mam and Ar.Anuj Gudekar sir;my first year class teachers. I still remember Anuj sir teaching me to mount my plate on the drafting board and helping draw my first ever line on the paper using T-scale. Mridulla mam’s motivation for my painting gave me an confidence to move ahead . It would have been never more better design that would emerge for a Japanese Café interiors in my second year without the sarcastic but supporting comments of Ninad sir and Shweta mam . The third year showed me the bad days which I had never imagined . They say , “that sometimes life shows you certain things which you have never imagined “ But still strong are the ones who rise from the failure to move ahead . I rose up and fought for all the odds to pass my third year and fourth year . I would also mention Sachin Prabhu sir whose imparted us an explicit knowledge about services and acoustics. Ketan Gajjar sir’s assistance in building construction was valuable. Mugdha mam and Arun sir guidance in fourth year lead to us move ahead into architecture. Last but not at all the least I would like to thank God for directing me onto this path; my parents who made me available all the support required and all my friends whom I met I Architecture. Special thanks to Dhanashree, Siddhi , Sarika,Rucha and Rasika for being my friends and supporting me in all the odds. At this moment ,while I look back onto those five years that I have invested ,it just states to me that I have emerged as a better human being than I was before. The knowledge that I have gained will never let me down in the competing world ahead. All this would have been never possible without all these people at L.S Raheja school of Architecture whose immense support and extensive guidance have helped me .

Thank you all !!!!

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WAY THROUGH THE THESIS

PART I – HOT SPRINGS Sr.no

Topic

1.

Hot Springs: Historical Background

Page no. 12

2.

Hot Springs: Geographical Background

14

3.

Hot Springs: Early Utilization

20

4.

Hot Springs: Classification

23

5.

Hot Springs: General Usage

25

6.

Hot Springs: Spa

27

7.

Hot Springs: Justification For A Destination Spa In India

32

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WAY THROUGH THE THESIS PART II – SITE :VAJRESHWARI

Sr.no

Topic

8.

Introduction To Site

Page no. 38

9.

Site Information

40

10.

MMRDA- Bylaws Applicable

51

11.

Site Views

55

12.

Akloli – Justification For The Selection Of Site

56

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WAY THROUGH THE THESIS

PART III – CASE STUDIES ,ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROGRAMME Sr.no

Topic

Page no.

13.A

Termas Geometricas Hot Spring Complex

60

13.B

Thermae Vals

63

13.C 13.D

Hotel Hot Springs And Spa Thermalbad

67 70

14

Technical Information On Hot Springs

72

15.

Design Brief And Programme

75

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GLOSSARY  Spa town/ bathing-place/ spa - a specialized resort town situated around a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring).  hotspots or hot spots -In geology, these places are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle. They may be on, near to, or far from tectonic plate boundaries.  Mineral springs - are naturally occurring springs that produce water containing minerals, or other dissolved substances, that alter its taste or give it a purported therapeutic value. 

Onsen - a term for hot springs in the Japanese language, though the term is often used to describe the bathing facilities and inns around the hot springs.

 presence of an onsen/commercial usage of hot springs -symbol ♨ or the kanji.  Resort architecture - architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts.  Spa architecture - the name given to buildings that provide facilities for relaxation, recuperation and health treatment in spas.  destination spa - resort centered on a spa, such as a mineral spa.  Thermae - large imperial bath complexes.  Balneae - smaller-scale bathing facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome.  The Global Hot Springs Forum- Global Spa and Wellness Summit held in India in October 2013 introduced some initiatives to help raise awareness of hot springs all over the world.  Hitou- Japanese word for hidden baths; baths which are considered to be located in out-of-the-way, or hidden places and usually surrounded by beautiful scenery.

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 Balneology - scientific study of the therapeutic benefits of naturally occurring mineral waters.  Ashiyu - Japanese public bath in which people can bathe their feet.  Springs- natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere.  Hydrotherapyformerly called hydropathy, is a part of medicine and alternative medicine,in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment.  Spring house - small building, usually of a single room, constructed over a spring; While the original purpose of a springhouse was to keep the spring water clean by excluding fallen leaves, animals, etc.  Sanus per acqum- healthiness through water.  Ashiyu – a Japanese public bath in which people can bathe their feet. The majority of ashiyu are free.  Furo- a Japanese bath. Specifically it is a type of bath which originated as a short, steep-sided wooden bathtub.  Public bathing-originated from a communal need for cleanliness. The term public is not completely accurate, as some types of public baths are restricted depending on membership, gender, religious affiliation, or other reasons. It does not refer only to bathing. In ancient times public bathing included saunas, massages and relaxation therapies. Members of the society considered it as a place to meet and socialize. Public bathing could be compared to the spa of modern times.  Cento- a type of Japanese communal bath house where customers pay for entrance.  Hammam/Turkish bath- the Turkish variant of the Roman bath, steambath, sauna, or Russian banya, distinguished by a focus on water, as distinct from ambient steam.  Travertinea terrestrial sedimentary rock, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters, and/or geothermally heated hot-springs.

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PART I – HOT SPRINGS

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CHAPTER I -HOT SPRINGS : HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The water is essential for human life: from the remotest times it has been considered vital for both sustenance and for the birth and development of civilisations. It was not long before man discovered its importance and beneficial properties: its ability to protect from diseases, as well as its healing and preventive properties. Multiple magical virtues were attributed to water, and it was even considered a true gift of the gods. Numerous myths and legends, considering the miraculous healing of the soul and body, were attributed to its mysterious powers. Man has always searched for health and wellness in water, which, throughout history, has often been loaded with symbolic and cultural values. Heating of swimming pools is one of the most important uses of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy, heat from the interior of the planet Earth, has been utilized by mankind since its existence. Hot springs and hot pools have been used for bathing and health treatment, but also for cooking or heating. For the early man the Earth’s internal heat and hot springs had religious and mythical connotation meaning. They were the places of the Gods, represented Gods or were endowed with divine powers. In many modern societies bathing in hot spring spas has still preserved the meaning of a divine ceremony.

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Natural springs, where water emerges from the underground, have been symbols of life and power in all religions and civilizations. The mythical significance of springs producing hot and highly mineralized water from which minerals precipitate and form sinter, crusts and unusual mineral deposits was and still is immense. Thermal springs had a religious and social function from early on. Godly healing power has been attributed to hot springs, where gods were near. Thermal springs and spas were centers of cultural and civilization development. In the Roman Empire, the middle Chinese Dynasties and the Ottoman Empires spas have been centers of balneological use of hot springs, where physical health and hygiene (modern term: wellness) have been combined with cultural and political conversation and progress of the time. Natural hot springs (onsen) are numerous and highly popular across Japan. Every region of the country has its share of hot springs and resort towns, which come with them. There are many types of hot springs, distinguished by the minerals dissolved in the water. Different minerals provide different health benefits and all hot springs are supposed to have a relaxing effect on your body and mind. Hot spring baths come in many varieties, indoors and outdoors, gender separated and mixed, developed and undeveloped. Many hot spring baths belong to a ryokan, while others are public bath houses. An overnight stay at a hot spring ryokan is a highly recommended experience to any visitor of Japan. Hot springs have been (and still can be) regarded as godly messengers of the immense energies stored in the subsurface of planet Earth.

Ruins of the Roman bathing facility at the thermal springs of Badenweiler in the Rhinerift valley (southern Germany)

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CHAPTER II- HOT SPRINGS:GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND-

What is a spring?

 A spring is a water resource formed when the side of a hill, a valley bottom or other excavation intersects a flowing body of groundwater at or below the local water table, below which the subsurface material is saturated with water.  A spring is the result of an aquifer being filled to the point that the water overflows onto the land surface. They range in size from intermittent seeps, which flow only after much rain, to huge pools flowing hundreds of millions of gallons daily. How are the springs formed?  When it reaches a horizontal crack or a layer of nondissolving rock such as sandstone or shale, it begins to cut sideways, forming an underground stream. As the process continues, the water hollows out more rock, eventually admitting an airspace, at which point the spring stream can be considered a cave. This process is supposed to take tens to hundreds of thousands of years to complete.

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Thermal Springs Thermal springs are ordinary springs except that the water is warm and, in some places, hot. Many thermal springs occur in regions of recent volcanic activity and are fed by water heated by contact with hot rocks far below the surface. Even where there has been no recent volcanic action, rock rockss become warmer with increasing depth. In such areas water may migrate slowly to considerable depth, warming as it descends through rocks deep in the Earth. If it then reaches a large crevice that offers a path of less resistance, it may rise more quickly than it descended. Water that does not have time to cool before it emerges forms a thermal spring.

Formation of Thermal Springs Springs Geothermal energy is defined as heat from the Earth. It is a clean, renewable resource. resource  A geothermal system requires heat, permeability, and water. The heat from the Earth's core continuously flows outward. Sometimes the heat, as magma, reaches the surface as lava, but it usually remains below the Earth's crust, heating nearby rock and water — sometimes to levels as hot as 700°F. When water is heated by the earth’s heat, hot water or steam can be trapped in permeable and porous rocks under a layer of impermeable rock and a geothermal reservoir can form. This hot geothermal water can manife manifest itself on the surface as hot springs or geysers, but most of it stays deep underground, trapped in cracks and porous rock. This natural collection of hot water is called a geothermal reservoir.

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Definitions of Hot SpringsThere is no universally accepted definition of a hot spring. For example, one can find the phrase hot spring defined as       

  

any geothermal spring a spring with water temperatures above its surroundings a natural spring with water temperature above body temperature – normally between 36.5 and 37.5 °C (97.7 and 99.5 °F) a natural spring with warm water above body temperature thermal spring with water warmer than 36.7 °C (98 °F) a natural spring of water greater than 21.1 °C (70 °F) (synonymous with thermal spring) a natural discharge of groundwater with elevated temperatures a type of thermal spring in which hot water is brought to the surface. The water temperature of a hot spring is usually 6.5 °C (12 °F) or more above mean air temperature. Note that by this definition, "thermal spring" is not synonymous with the term "hot spring" a spring whose hot water is brought to the surface (synonymous with a thermal spring). The water temperature of the spring is usually 8.3 °C (15 °F) or more above the mean air temperature. a spring with water above the core human body temperature – 36.7 °C (98 °F). a spring with water above average ambient ground temperature a spring with water temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F)

Flow rate of Hot SpringsHot springs range in flow rate from the tiniest "seeps" to veritable rivers of hot water. Sometimes there is enough pressure that the water shoots upward in a geyser, or fountain. Examples of Springs with flow rates are:  

The Excelsior Geyser Crater in Yellowstone National Park yields about 4,000 U.S. gal/min (0.25 m3/s). Evans Plunge in Hot Springs, South Dakota has a flow rate of 5,000 U.S. gal/min (0.32 m3/s) of 87 degree spring water. The Plunge, built in 1890, is the world's largest natural warm water indoor swimming pool. The combined flow of the 47 hot springs in Hot Springs, Arkansas is 35 L/s (1.2 cu ft/s).

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    

 

  

The hot spring of Saturnia, Italy with around 500 liters a second[17] The combined flow of the hot springs complex in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico is estimated at 99 liters/second.[18] Lava Hot Springs in Idaho has a flow of 130 liters/second. Glenwood Springs in Colorado has a flow of 143 liters/second. Elizabeth Springs in western Queensland, Australia might have had a flow of 158 liters/second in the late 19th century, but now has a flow of about 5 liters/second. Deildartunguhver in Iceland has a flow of 180 liters/second. The hot springs of Brazil's Caldas Novas("New Hot Springs" in Portuguese) are tapped by 86 wells, from which 333 liters/second are pumped for 14 hours per day. This corresponds to a peak average flow rate of 3.89 liters/second per well. The 2,850 hot springs of Beppu in Japan are the highest flow hot spring complex in Japan. Together the Beppu hot springs produce about 1,592 liters/second, or corresponding to an average hot spring flow of 0.56 liters/second. The 303 hot springs of Kokonoe in Japan produce 1,028 liters/second, which gives the average hot spring a flow of 3.39 liters/second. The Oita Prefecture has 4,762 hot springs, with a total flow of 4,437 liters/second, so the average hot spring flow is 0.93 liters/second. The highest flow rate hot spring in Japan is the Tamagawa Hot Spring in Akita Prefecture, which has a flow rate of 150 liters/second. The Tamagawa Hot Spring feeds a 3 m (9.8 ft) wide stream with a temperature of 98 °C (208 °F). There are at least three hot springs in the Nage region 8 km (5.0 mi) south west of Bajawa in Indonesia that collectively produce more than 453.6 liters/second. There are another three large hot springs (Mengeruda, Wae Bana and Piga) 18 km (11 mi) north east of Bajawa, Indonesia that together produce more than 450 liters/second of hot water. The Dalhousie Springs complex in Australia had a peak total flow of more than 23,000 liters/second in 1915, giving the average spring in the complex an output of more than 325 liters/second. This has been reduced now to a peak total flow of 17,370 liters/second so the average spring has a peak output of about 250 liters/second. In Yukon’s Boreal Forest, 25 minutes north-west of Whitehorse in northern Canada, Takhini Hot Springs flows out of the Earth’s interior at 385 L/min (85 imp gal/min; 102 US gal/min) and 47 ºC (118 ºF) year-round.

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Types of Springs 

Seepage or filtration spring. The term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns.

Flow –  Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin.  Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, and the size of the spring outlet.  Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth, sinkholes, and losing streams. In some cases entire creeks seemingly disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed.  Human activity may also affect a spring's discharge--withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow.

Water contentMinerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavour and even carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes. Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called 'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts, mostly sodium carbonate, are called 'soda springs'. Many resorts have developed around mineral springs and are known as spa towns. Water from springs is usually clear. However some springs may be coloured by the minerals that are dissolved in the water. Iron and tannins often give spring water an orange colour. A stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream is called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a relatively long-term average temperature of its aquifer; so flow from a spring may be cooler than a summer day, but remain unfrozen in the winter. The cool water of a spring and its branch may harbour species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate.

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ClassificationSprings are often classified by the volume of the water they discharge. The largest springs are called "first-magnitude," defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet (2.8 m3) of water per second. The scale for spring flow is as follows: Magnitude 1st magnitude

Flow (ft³/s, gal/min, pint/min) > 100 ft³/s

Flow (L/s) 2800 L/s

2nd magnitude 10 to 100 ft³/s

280 to 2800 L/s

3rd magnitude 1 to 10 ft³/s

28 to 280 L/s

4th magnitude

100 US gal/min to 1 ft³/s (448 US gal/min) 6.3 to 28 L/s

5th magnitude

10 to 100 gal/min

0.63 to 6.3 L/s

6th magnitude

1 to 10 gal/min

63 to 630 mL/s

7th magnitude

2 pint to 1 gal/min

8 to 63 mL/s

8th magnitude

Less than 1 pint/min

8 mL/s

0 magnitude

no flow (sites of past/historic flow)

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CHAPTER III -HOT SPRINGS : EARLY UTILIZATION AMERICA-Archeological finds prove that North American Indians utilized geothermal springs several thousands of years ago. Hot springs of South Dakota (USA) have been battlegrounds among Sioux and Cheyenne tribes. Healing powers from the deep interior of the Earth have been attributed to the hot waters from the springs. A bathtub carved into the rocks at the springs witnesses the use of the waters by the Indians for therapeutical bathing. They also drank hot spring water to cure gastro-intestinal health problems. Later, white settlers started to use the hot springs for balneological purposes commercially. Today, the hot water is utilized for cooling and heating purposes with the assistance of heat pumps. Similar “Indian Hot Springs� are found along Rio Grande in Texas and in Mexico. The natives of North America have also used them for therapeutical purposes and for bathing in rock pools since time immemorial. Several thousand thermal springs are known in the USA. Fishing Cone Geyser in Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, USA), (Photograph: US gov

A peculiarity is Fishing Cone Geyser submerged in water near the Shore of Yellowstone Lake, which has been used for cooking fish by fishermen. The small crater had been above water surface of the lake for some time and the fishermen held the rods with the still flouncing fish for cooking into the boiling and steaming small crater either from the boat or from the beach. Today Fishing Cone Geyser submerged in the lake water and the hot water eruptions stopped.

ASIA- Historical written documents by the Romans, Japanese, Turks, Icelander, also from Maori in New Zealand describe the occurrence and utilization of hot springs for cooking,bathing and house heating. About 2,000 years ago, bathing and treatment centers have been erected at the hot springs Huaquingchi and Ziaotangshan near Beijing in China.

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EUROPE-About 3,000 years ago, gods of Greek civilization have been associated with thermal and mineral waters and their healing power. In the 3rd to the 1st century B.C. Celts worshipped springs with healing power, e.g. the thermal springs of Teplice in Northern Bohemia. Bath in Southern England is associated with the cure of king Bladud, the father of King Lear, from leprosy in 863 B.C. Bath are the waters of Sul, the god of wisdom. The Celts and then particularly the Romans demonstrably extensively utilized thermal springs in central Europe. Already more than 2,000 years ago, the Romans heated their baths with geothermal energy. It is proven that the Romans settled preferably in the vicinity of thermal springs from 2nd century B.C. No other epoch of the western civilization celebrated bathing and bathing culture with more delight than the classic Roman period. “Sanus per aquam” healthiness through water was the motto of the Romans. Bathing was the most important pastime of the Romans. Wellness has been a central aspect of their lifestyle; bathing was a feast for all senses. The bath was the place for social gathering, used for business affairs and for sports. In Roman times established spas offered regular bathing programs, which were fundamentally related to the believe in gods that were responsible for health. Liable for the success of a treatment were primarily the gods of the local springs such the Celtic-Roman god Apollo-Grannus and not so much the welltrained balneologists. In Roman spas cured patients donated sanctified platelets to express gratitude for the celestial accomplishment. The hot springs of Badenweiler in the Black Forest (Germany), as an example, have been used by the Celts (known from coin finds). Shortly after the Roman conquest of the lands East of the Rhine river at the end of the first century A.C. The invaders raised a civil settlement and a bathing house . During Roman times the water must have been significantly warmer than today’s 26.4°C, because the Romans built the large bathing halls without heating systems. Also the mineralization of the water was probably higher than today even in the year 1560 according to the “spa travel guide” (Badenfahrtbüchlein) of Georgius Pictorius. After the withdrawal of the Romans the spa sunk into oblivion. It was rediscovered and unearthed in 1784. The roman settlement Baden–Baden, Aquae Aureliae, in the foothills of northern Black Forest can be traced back to the first century. It developed into an important administrative town during the 2nd and 3rd Century. Aquae Aureliae was a flourishing town in the Roman province Germania Superior. The roman city centered on the curative thermal springs, which were the source of the economic success and importance. The luxury imperial spa built by order of the roman emperor Caracalla is located underneath today’s market square of Baden– Baden. The spa was destroyed in the year 260. The distinctly more frugal soldier spa is situated at some distance from the imperial spa. The extremely comfortable roman spas were technically highly sophisticated and very cultivated institutions.

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The spas were built with a so-called hypocaust system (hypocaustum) of central and under floor heating, in other words with a geothermal heating system. The Romans used the spas wearing wooden sandals protecting them from the hot floors. Many of the spas have been abandoned after the retreat of the Romans from large areas of Europe. The early Christians preferred to build the first churches close to curative hot springs that have been used from ancient times. In central Europe of the Middle Ages thermal springs had such an enormous importance that e.g. Charlemagne (Charles the Great) expanded the imperial seat in Aachen to his palatinate and in the year 794 declared it to his permanent residence. The thermal springs of Aachen have already been used by the Celts and the Romans but have fallen into oblivion for several hundred years. The legend says Charlemagne was on a hunting trip in the vicinity of Aachen, in midst of overgrown remains of Roman times. The horse of the sovereign got stuck in a swamp. Charlemagne realized the sludgy water was hot and that steam emerged from the soil. Charlemagne has re-discovered the hot springs of Aachen. The thermal spas southeast of Oradea in medieval Transylvania have been established at the hot springs of Peta River. The waters of Peta have later also been used as “defrost liquid” by directing them to the castle moat around the fortress of Oradea to prevent the water from freezing and to maintain the functionality of the moat. In Chaudes-Aigues in central France, construction of the first district heating system, still functioning today, has been commenced in the 14th century.Most of the old roman spas were re-discovered in the 13th and 14th century.The big boom of the European thermal spas, however, started not before the 18th century. The spas developed to meeting places of the nobility, aristocracy and the rising bourgeoisie. The first scientific studies on the therapeutic use of thermal spas and the chemical composition of the waters have been written by the monk Savonarola and by the anatomist Fallopio in the 15th and 16th century. The first reports from China on thermal springs including therapeutic instructions and farming guides go back as far as the 4th to the 6th century. For example, the diversion of thermal water to the fields for rice crop permits the first harvest already in March and allowed for three harvests in the year. The pharmacologist Li Shizhen has written the first scientific review of mineral and thermal waters in China in the 16th century. In his book, “Compendium of Materia Medica” he classified the waters on the basis of chemical and genetic criteria. In 1560 Georgius Pictorius published an account of the spas of southern Germany (“Badenfahrtbüchlein”) and instructions how to use them. It represents a first balneological treatise. Georgius Pictorius studied medicine at the University of Freiburg and was later regionally well known for his medical essays. He had studied all relevant experts on therapeutical bathing of the Antique and the Middle Ages. In his “Badenfahrtbüchlein” he described all classic spas in southwestern Germany that all are still in use today.

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CHAPTER IV- HOT SPRINGS: CLASSIFICATION  Balneologists generally accept the following classification of mineral springs: • Cold Springs - temperatures below 25° C (77° F) • Tepid Springs - temperatures ranging from 25°-34° C (77 - 93° F) • Warm Springs - temperatures ranging from 34° - 42° C (93 F - 108° F) • Hot Springs - temperatures above 42° C (108° F)  Types of hot springs based on content present (Japanese nomenclature) and curative properties– 1. Sulphur spring (Iou-sen)- Sulphur springs are milky-white in colour, feature a peculiar smell and make it tough to produce lather with soap. Sulphur spring waters are known to ease chronic bronchitis, hardening of the arteries and chronic dermatitis. 2. Salt spring (Shokuen-sen) – Salt springs are the most common type of hot spring in Japan and they are colourless, taste salty and make it almost impossible to produce a lather with soap. These springs are also known as ‘‘Netsu-no-yu’’ (or springs of heat) because they retain heat quite well. Salt spring waters are known to help ease neuralgia, lower back pain and poor circulation. 3. Aluminium spring (Myohban-sen) - Aluminium springs are most often found in volcano zone. They are known to tighten the skin and mucous membranes, which helps ease symptoms of chronic skin disease, inflammation of the mucous membranes, athlete’s foot and hives. 4. Mirabilite spring (Boh-shoh-sen) - Mirabilite springs are a type of sulphate spring that is colourless and salty tasting. Mirabilite spring waters contain sodium which improves blood flow and in the process ease the effects of hypertension, wounds and arteriosclerosis. 5. Melanterite spring (Ryokuban-sen) - The negative ions in melanterite springs consist mainly of sulphuric acid ions, while the positive ions contain mainly iron ions. When exposed to air, melanterite springs oxidize and turn to a copper colour. Highly acidic, melanterite spring waters also contain large amounts of minerals such as copper and manganese, and help to ease the effects a of anaemia and chronic eczema. 6. Iron spring (Tessen) - Iron springs contain more than 20mg of iron ion per 1kg of water, which when exposed to air oxidizes and turns a reddish colour. make your towel reddish in colour. Known for heating up the body quite well and sometimes metallic taste, iron springs help ease symptoms of anaemia and chronic eczema. 7. Acidic Iron spring(Sansei-Tessen)- Acidic springs have a pH of less than 3 and can sometimes irritate your skin. Acidic spring waters are known to help ease eczema symptoms because of its powerful disinfecting action. People with sensitive skin should wash their body with regular water after the bath.

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8. Alkaline spring (Juh-sou-sen)- The negative ions in alkaline springs consist mainly of hydrogen carbonate ions, while the positive ions include mainly sodium ions. Alkaline springs are also known as ‘Bijin-no-yu’ (or hot spring for beauty) because they help soften conifer layers of the skin and emulsify secretions, which eases skin conditions and sanitizes wounds. 9. Radium Spring (Radium-sen)- Radium springs, which typically contain thoron or radon, have been known since ancient times to ease a wide range of ailments. Radiium spring waters have a strong sedative effect, and so are particularly effective at easing neuralgia, rheumatism and menopausal disorders.  Classification chart-

 Other classifications of hot springs-

Geyser.

Fumarole

Mud pot

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CHAPTER V- HOT SPRINGS: GENERAL USES There are levels at which Hot Springs water can utilized depending upon the end user/users and its purpose    

Primary level – local use/household Secondary level – private spas Tertiary level – energy generation Various uses of Hot Spring Water are classified as follows-

Fluid temperature

Category

Electrical conversion yield

Economically viable uses

<100 °C

Low enthalpy

<2%

100°200°C

Medium enthalpy

2-10 %

>200 °C

High enthalpy

10-20 %

Space heating, domestic hot water, agricultural and food industries Chemical Industry, fresh water by distillation, evaporation in sugar refining, drying farm products, canning of food Drying of timber, heavy water via hydrogen sulphide process, refrigeration by ammonia absorption, electricity production (binary cycle)

 Uses of hot spring water -

1. Daily water usage-People supply water by ladling with a dipper, turning on a faucet or drawing from a well to wash clothes & dishes, clean up and/or for Yutanpo (a hot-water bottle). 2. Public baths- It is not only for tourists but also for citizens to get relaxed and communicate with each other.

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3. Gardening –Cyclamen and Orchid flowers are cultivated in a house heated by thermal steam; many of them are shipped to the metropolitan area. 4. Cooking food – Jigokugma ; It is the way of cooking by making use of thermal steam. Fresh food, such as eggs, vegetables and rice are steamed instantly in the hot vapour retaining nutrients; they slightly smell of hot spring. 5. Heating –It looks like an electric heater, but is a hot spring heater which makes the room as warm as spring without polluting the air. Also the floor heated by thermal steam is nice & warm to make you feel comfortable. 6. Geothermal energy – Large amount of electrical energy is derived by the steam generated from hot springs. 7. Fish breeding –The fry of carps are raised in thermal water under a strict temperature control. The hot water is used to raise fish and alligator. 8. Spas –mineral-rich baths offer a slew of natural health benefits . 9. Therapeutic treatments- The therapeutic use of water, or balneotherapy, could be just what the doctor ordered when it comes to relieving pain, stress, skin woes and more. 10.Vegetation for animals – animals from cold countries feed on the lush green vegetation grown due to the hot spring water.

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CHAPTER VI- HOT SPRINGS: SPAS

 Developed ,wild hot springs and spa – The term "hot spring" means different things to different people, and it's a good idea to know just what manner of hot spring you're bound for at a destination, because it may be something quite different from what you're expecting. In English the term is used more or less interchangeably for "wild" springs, where the water emerges directly from the ground into a natural catchment that can be used for bathing, and "developed" springs, which exploit the spring through construction of man-made artefacts such as pools and bath houses. "Wild" springs and "developed" springs can differ so much, and in so many ways. Some examples: 

Wild springs are often (although not always) on public land or otherwise accessible to the public without charge, while developed springs are almost invariably intended by the developer to make a profit, and hence will charge (and be in a legal position to demand) an admission fee. You can't count on creature comforts at a wild spring; you may have to sit on a rock at water's edge to doff your clothing, and pre-entry showers are pretty well out of the question, let alone amenities like poolside drinks that a developed spring may offer. On the other hand, wild springs are generally open-air and take you "back to nature" in ways that a developed spring may not. At a wild spring, water temperature is purely on an as-is basis; the pool where you bathe will be at a temperature that's regulated solely by the relative proportions of water from the spring and meteoric (surface) water that the terrain imposes. As a consequence, water at wild springs can be uncomfortably, or even dangerously, hot. Commercial operators of developed springs will generally ensure that the water temperature is appropriate (sometimes offering several choices of temperature in different pools) through dilution of the spring's effluent with water from the commercial supply or other sources. This distinction is particularly important; the bather used to "tame" water from a commercial spring who wades directly into a seething-hot wild spring can receive a painful, or even fatal, surprise. Hot-spring water is usually fairly safe from the standpoint of carrying disease-causing organisms, but some is not, and the surface water that cools a scalding spring to usable temperatures will be prone to the same bugs and pathogens as any other surface water. Operators of developed springs may (or may not) take steps to disinfect the water, but at a wild spring, you're obviously on your own.

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Note, incidentally, that a "developed" hot spring is not necessarily a commercial hot spring, i.e., one that has been developed for profit-making purposes. The distinction can be important in countries and regions where the political/economic system allows for both for-profit and public-interest/nonprofit/governmental development; regulations for doing the developing will often differ between the two cases, as will the resulting amenities, access, etc. For example, as a general rule, springs in the United States that have been developed by government will have fewer amenities, but also lower admission fees, than for-profit developments. In Japan, many hot springs in rural locations are maintained by the local government and are open to the public for free, and even expensive spa resort towns usually have at least one public bath open to all for a token fee. Spas - There is a difference between a hot spring and a spa. The latter term denotes either a pleasantly warm tub of water (not necessarily originating in a hot spring) suitable for bathing for medicinal and recreational purposes, or the -- sometimes incredibly elaborate, luxurious, and expensive -- resorts where such tubs can be found, which incorporate massage, body wraps, and so on. Not every spa is based on a hot spring (many, perhaps most, simply heat meteoric water to the desired temperature); not every developed hot spring has spa-like amenities.  Various synonyms for the term ‘hot spring’ in various countries – 1. Bhutan – tsachu 2. Indonesia – air panas 3. Japan – onsen 4. Nepal – tatopani 5. Korea – oncheon 6. Greece – thermopyles 7. Iceland – geysir 8. Spain – Moorish baths 9. Turkey – hammam 10. Rome – thermae Examples of Wild hot springs-

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Examples of Developed hot springs-

 Etiquettes , customs to be followed before having a hot spring bath – 

Most commercial springs will expect you to shower (usually with provided soap) before entering the water, theoretically to avoid contaminants that can clog filtration systems. If you're going to a wild spring, however, leave the soap at home. It isn't needed (since there's flowing, non-recycling water) and simply acts as a pollutant. A pair of flip-flops ("beachwalkers," "thongs," etc.) is handy for both commercial springs (where they'll often, but not always, be provided) and in the wilds, owing to slick surfaces and uneven footing. Some, but not all, commercial springs supply their own towels; if in doubt, have one available, and ask the proprietor if you'll need it. At wild springs, you're on your own, obviously. Note that if you use your own towel, whether at a commercial spring or a wild one, you'll be well advised to rinse it out soon after use, as the mineral content and, frequently, acidity of spring water can be damaging to the towel. Be skittish about cameras, for several reasons. Spring water can be damaging to a camera, not just if a non-waterproof camera is immersed (surprise), but also if water is allowed to dry on the lens, as mineral deposits that are extremely difficult to remove may result. Local mores may be such that other occupants of the spring take offense at being photographed; the fact that you're in a "tourist" or "informal" environment provides no defence. At a clothing optional location, photographing anyone nude without their consent is almost always considered rude, and can be illegal in many jurisdictions; this is particularly true of children. At both commercial and wild springs, customs (and laws) vary substantially as to whether you're required to wear a bathing suit. Most commercial establishments will post their own rules, which may be "swimsuit required," "swimsuit prohibited," "clothing optional," or "required until sundown.

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 

Drinking enough water before bathing is one of the important custom as it boosts blood circulation . Splash Yourself with Hot Water Before Entering the Bath- Splashing yourself with hot water before entering the bath serves two purposes. The first is to cleanse your body, which is common etiquette before entering baths in Japan. The second is to "warm up" your body before bathing: because hot spring water contains many active ingredients, initial contact comes as a bit of shock to your body, and splashing yourself with hot water before entering helps to more gently accustom your body to the water's effects. In order to warm your body to the core, it is more effective to enter the bath three separate times with breaks in between rather than bathing once for a long period of time. In general, bathing periods of 5 minutes, 8 minutes and 3 minutes are recommended, with breaks in between to wash your hair and clean your body. Because hot spring baths themselves have a cleansing effect, you only need to wash your body lightly with your hands during the breaks. Some ‘do not’s’ to be followed-

    

Do not drain the large bath after use. Do not soap and wash yourselves in the bathtub. Do not put a towel with which you wash your body into the bathtub. Do not immerse yourselves wrapped in towel in the bathtub. Do not shave and wash yourselves in the bathtub.  Appropriate procedure for usage of hot spring spas –

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Benefits through hot spring spas-

1. Boosts

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

Blood Circulation- The water found in natural hot springs contains a variety of different minerals, including calcium and sodium bicarbonate. When you bathe in a hot spring, your skin soaks in these minerals and your hydrostatic pressure rises. As this process continues, circulation and oxygen flow increases -- much like when you exercise. An oxygenated circulatory system is beneficial in keeping not only your heart, but your body's other vital organs and tissues, healthy and strong. Reduces Stress, Promotes Sleep- Excess stress can be remedied naturally by immersing your body in a hot-spring water bath. The minerals in the water can contribute to the psychological healing process, while heat relaxes tense muscles. Improved sleep can be an added benefit; when you soak in warm water, your body temperature rises, then quickly cools down when your bath is complete. This bodycooling process can help you relax and fall into a deeper sleep. Relieves Pain, Naturally - If you suffer from chronic muscle pain, arthritis or even fibromyalgia, soaking in a pool of hot-spring water can effectively improve pain. When your body is submerged in hot-spring water, the buoyancy encourages freer movement by naturally supporting your joints. Solves Skin Problems - When applied directly to the skin, mineral-rich hot-spring water can help to naturally relieve certain skin conditions. The high silica content found in hot springs can smooth and soften dry, rough skin. Similarly, the medicinal properties of the water's sulphur content can relieve uncomfortable eczema and psoriasis symptoms. Skin beautification - If appropriate hot spring water types are chosen and utilized properly, skin cleansing, skin moisturizing, clear skin and other skincare benefits can be attained. Detoxification - Water properties include sterilizing and detoxifying effects, enhancing the bather's metabolic functions. Dieting - It is believed that bathing in mildly hot spring water burns the same amount of calories as walking, and that bathing in hotter water is equivalent to jogging. Furthermore, if bathing methods for burning fat and enhancing metabolism are mastered, hot spring baths can greatly bolster the effects of dieting. Anti-aging - Hot spring water supplements ceramide formation and leads to enhanced collagen turnover. Therapeutic effects - Travelling to a hot spring resort can bring about a positive change of mood, leading to a beneficial transformation of one's mindset.

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CHAPTER VII- HOT SPRINGS: JUSTIFICATION FOR DESTINATION SPA IN INDIA Global Hot Springs-Hot springs are to be found in almost every nation of the globe. This phenomenon occurs because the centre of the earth, at a depth of 6370 km below sea level, is about the same temperature as the surface of the sun (5430C) and the heat radiates out. The temperature increases most rapidly at shallow depths, rising on average about 2.5C for every 100 m depth on the continents. Wherever water comes into contact with the heated earth it becomes heated and hot springs are made possible. Hot springs can come to the surface under their own pressure (artesian) or they can be found by drilling a bore into the earth to where the hot water is located. Broadly speaking, there are three main cultural approaches to the use of hot springs including:   

relaxation and connection with the natural environment (Asian); medical/health based treatments (Europe), and; spiritual and religious connections (India and indigenous cultures).

Globalisation in the hot springs market is seeing a blurring in these distinctions and an amalgamation of knowledge to provide the best possible benefit to the communities in which they are found. The Global Hot Springs Forum at the Global Spa and Wellness Summit held in India in October 2013 introduced some initiatives to help raise awareness of hot springs all over the world.  

One initiative to come out of the forum included a global hot springs logo (above). A standardised hot springs logo has been utilised by the Japanese industry for well over a hundred years and has been taken up by many hot springs in Korea and some in China, New Zealand, United States, Australia and other countries. This symbol is available to be used, free of charge, by hot springs from any country. It provides a means to communicate to consumers, beyond any language barrier, that the location has real hot springs. Thus , the Globalisation and Wellness Summit allows the usage of hot springs for a purpose other than religious connection in India.

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Hot Springs view dials in various countries â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

View dials have been created for hot springs around the world to help raise awareness of the global nature of hot springs and where to find them.

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PART II â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SITE: AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI

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CHAPTER VIII- AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI: SITE INTRODUCTION MAHARASHTRA: AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI

INDIA: MAHARASHTRA

AKLOLI

VAJRESHWARI

VAJRESHWARI DEVI TEMPLE

Vajreshwari also known as Vajrabai is a village situated near the Tansa River in the in Bhiwandi taluka of district, Maharashtra, India. It is famous for the Vajreshwari Temple and hot water springs.

The village used to be called Vadvali but was later renamed Vajreshwari in respect of the Goddess Vajreshwari, the presiding deity of the Vajreshwari Temple. The village consists mainly of the local Marathi community and the tribes living in the nearby forest. The village Vajreshwari is believed to have been formed as a result of volcanic eruption. The Shree Vajreshwari Yogini Devi Mandir is a Hindu temple dedicated to the goddess Vajreshwari, located in the town Vajreshwari, 75 km away from Mumbai.

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Akloli is a small village adjoining Vajreshwari village which is 2.5 kms away. The actual vajreshwari hot springs are found in this village. But the hot springs are famous by the name Vajreshwari Hot Springs due to the presence of the Vajrabai temple. There are around twenty-one hot water springs in a five-kilometre radius of the temple. According to tradition, the hot water is the blood of demons and giants who were slain by the goddess Vajreshwari. According to scientists, their proximity to the former volcano in the region accounts for their creation. Pilgrims who visit the temple also have a holy bath in the springs, which are referred to as kundas in Sanskrit and are named after Hindu deities like Surya (sun-god), Chandra(moon-god), Agni (fire-god), Vayu (windgod), Rama (Vishnu's incarnation), Sita (Rama's wife and incarnation of the goddess Lakshmi - wife of Vishnu) and Lakshmana (Rama's brother). ď&#x201A;ˇ

The tansa river basin-

The river originates from the Tansa lake in Igatpuri, Nashik, Maharashtra in the North Eastern part of the Thane district in the Sahayadri Ranges. The river further flows through part of Shahapur, Wada, Bhiwandi,Palghar and Vasai talukas to the Arabian sea. In 1892 A.D , the Tansa Dam was constructed in Shahapur Tahshil to supply water to Mumbai. The tansa river basin is equidistant from three urban agglomerations of Wada, Vasai and Bhiwandi. It is well connected by public transport system in the form of the Maharashtra State Transport Bus System. TANSA RIVER

MANDAGNI HILL

The region exhibits geo-thermal activity and the official records report the presence of 300 thermal springs presently of which one sixth can be located based on the local sources and other studies. The hill to the north of the tansa river called Mandagni is said to be a dormant volcanic site.

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CHAPTER IX- AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI: SITE INFORMATION The Recreation and Tourism Development zone is composed of three villages viz: Vajreshwari ,Akloli and Ganeshpuri comprising of total 947 hectares of land out of which approximately 416 hectares is under forest cover. The remaining land is a farmland. The villages along the Tansa watershed are characterized by the presence of temples, curative hot springs, forests and protected areas with rare wildlife, which makes this region particularly attractive tourist spot for the pilgrims, wildlife enthusiastic and picknickers . It is a centre for spiritualism and religion due to the presence of the hot springs and the famous temple dedicated to goddess Vajreshwari.

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Historical background of the site-

The original temple of Vajreshwari was at Gunj, five miles (8 km) north of Vadavli. It was moved to Vadvali after its destruction by the Portuguese. The region was ruled by peshwas and was then overtaken by britishers in 1817.In 1739, Chimaji Appa - the younger brother and military commander of Peshwa Baji Rao I - had set up camp in the Vadvali region on his way to capture the Portuguese-held Bassein Fort of Vasai. The fort was unconquerable even after a three-year war. Chimaji Appa prayed to goddess Vajreshwari that if he could conquer the fort and defeat the Portuguese, he would build a temple to her. According to legend, the goddess Vajreshwari appeared in his dream and told him how to conquer the fort. On 16 May, the fort fell and the defeat of the Portuguese in Vasai was complete. To celebrate his victory and to fulfill the vow taken in front of the goddess Vajreshwari, Chimnaji Appa ordered the new Subhedar (governor), Shankar Keshav Phadke, to build the Vajreshwari temple. Thus as per vowed the temple was built along with the hot springs in Akloli. The Nagarkhana in the main entrance gate was built by the Gaikwads, Maratha dynasty of Baroda. The stone steps leading to the temple and the Dipamala (a tower of lights) in front of the temple were built by Nanasaheb Chandavadakar, a moneylender from Nashik.

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Geographical background of the site-

1. Location -19o 29’45.19”N and 73o 02’11.03”E. (site under reference) 2. Terrain – The land is at an eye altitude of 611m and 16m elevation from Mean sea level. 3. Rivers – The Tansa river and its rivulet Saitani flows through the Wada taluka. The tansa rivulet flows besides the site is 125m wide and flows towards southwest joining the Vaitarna river further flowing into the Arabian Sea. 4. Climate – The climate of this area is highly humid nearly all round the year, an oppressive summer season and heavy rainfall due to the south-west monsoon winds.     

The macro climate of Vajreshwari is Hot and Humid as its 70-80 km away from the coast-line. It rains heavily in the months from July- September flooding the Tansa river . The micro climate is comparatively cooler w.r.t other villages nearby due to the presence of Tansa river. The river is dries off in the months of April and May . The relative humidity varies from 32% in March to 89% in August.

The year is divided into three seasons – summer , rainy and winter. 

Summer season- It starts from February and ends in June. It lasts for four months. The temperature in May and June rises till 37 oC. TEMPERATURE (OC)

MONTH

TEMPERATURE (OC)

FEBRUARY

30

32

MARCH

32

34

APRIL

34

37

MAY

37

40

TEMPERATURE RECORDED IN AKLOLI IN SUMMER MAY APRIL

TEMPERATURE (OC)

MARCH

TEMPERATURE (OC)

FEBRUARY 0

10

20

30

40

50

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Rainy season- It starts from June and ends in September. The average annual rainfall is 2247mm.

MONTH

LOWEST VALUE (MM)IN A MONTH

HIGHEST VALUE(MM) IN A MONTH

JUNE

1500

1800

JULY

1800

2400

AUGUST

2400

3200

SEPTEMBER

1800

2000

RAINFALL RECORDED IN AKLOLI AS PER METEROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT ,COLABA SEPTEMBER AUGUST

HIGHEST VALUE(MM) IN A MONTH

JULY

LOWEST VALUE (MM)IN A MONTH

JUNE 0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Winter season- The seson starts from November and ends in February. The temperature starts decreasing in the month of November and falls to 16 oC in the month of January. The January month marks to be the coldest month .the night temperature may fall to 10oC. TEMPERATURE (OC)

MONTH NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY

25 20 15 20

TEMPERATURE (OC) 30 25 20 25

TEMPERATURE RECORDED IN AKLOLI IN WINTER FEBRUARY JANUARY

TEMPERATURE (OC)

DECEMBER

TEMPERATURE (OC)

NOVEMBER 0

10

20

30

40

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Winds - Winds are generally moderate except in the monsoon months when they get stronger. During May and monsoon months they are from south west to north west. Thunder storms occur in the latter part of summer and in October. Sunpath –

5. Flora and fauna – There are various species o off locally growing flora which are sold by the people in the market in town as well as transported to nearby towns such as Vasai and Virar. The fauna constitutes of domestic animals in the houses of the villagers to the wide range of wildlife species found in the Tungar forests. 6. Soil – The soil found is laterite soil having various colours such as yellow, red in various us parts. The soil found near river banks is black alluvial soil formed due to its delta deposition. 7. Locally available materials for construction – The basalt rocks of various grades is found in the hilly areas adjoining the village. The laterite rock also is found in some places.

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ï&#x201A;·

Political background of the site-

1. Regional planning- The area falls under the Research and Tourism Development Zone. Almost 70% of the land is agricultural land which is convertible to a non-agricultural land with proper government measures.

REGIONAL PLAN

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2. Ownership pattern- most of the agricultural land is self owned by the people residing in the area. The hot springs on land are owned by the Government. The Vajreshwari temple trust also owns land in this area which falls under the temples. 3. Demography and economic activities –The present population of Akloli as per 2011 census is 2700 people. The pre-dominant economic activities comprise of tourism, farming, brick-kilns and sand-dredging small scale factories. 4. Infrastructure –The water is supplied on daily basis from the Grampanchayat with connection at individual houses. The other means of water supply is through artesian wells in the individual houses which are 150 mm deep. There is no municipal drainage line which connects the main sewers. The drainage of individual household is collected in the soak pit and septic tanks which is disposed off in a regular time frame. The uncovered storm water drain runs parallel to the road. 5. Traffic –There is a lot of traffic happening due to lesser width road and unauthorized parking on the road.

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6. Existing Institutional framework – There is a Grampanchayat school sch providing education till secondary grade. 7. Tourism –Akloli Akloli has 30 shops ,10 restaurants and 15 temporary shacks for the tourists who visit the hot springs. Akloli

Lodging tourist on a normal day/weekend 40-80 80 approx

Daily tourist Lodging Daily tourist on a normal tourist on a day /weekend maximum on peak/religious a peak day day 200-500 450 approx 15000-20000

8. Land use and building use use- 70% of existing land is agricultural land. Since the area falls under R.T.D zone the land is convertible for tourism purposes. The existing landuse of Akloli is –

TYPE RESIDENTIAL AMENITIES COMMERCIAL MIXED USE SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES AGRAGRIAN LAND

% PRESENT 7 3 5 5 10 70

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 The residential development in the recent years is in the form of G+2 buildings due to the gaining importance of this areas.  There are commercial buildings which are mostly temporary structures especially near the river bed which are owned by the local people who sell food items and souvenirs to the tourists.  The mixed use buildings include ground floor being used for commercial shops and above floors to be residential .  The amenities comprises of a secondary school , a temple and a Grampanchayat office building.  The small scale industries include brick-kilns and sand-dredging.  The buildings are normally ground or ground+ 1 structure. The local architecture has characteristic sloping roofs in Mangalore tiles with brick walls.  The building heights are increasing with the increasing population.

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 Hot springs on the site –  The hot springs in the Tansa river are located on its banks or in its bed and are found in the villages of Vajreshwari, Akloli ,Ganeshpuri and Nimbavli in Bhiwandi Taluka.  The hot springs are present in the river as well as infront of the Mahadeo temple.  There are total 10 hot springs present on the site out of which 5 are present near the river bed and 5 infront of the temple.  The temperature of the discharge of these springs varies from 42’C to 59’C.  The hot springs are of 5th magnitude having a flow rate of 0.63 to 6.3 L/s.  Fluctuation of water table does not affect the flow of these springs.  The waters are mainly saline and contain chlorides of sodium 12.41; chloride of calcium 7.07;sulphate of lime 2.08 and silica 0.88.  Most of the springs are sodium chloride types.  The culminate discharge from all these springs is copious and invariably emits feeble gas with sulphurous smell.  Nitrogen is one of the major components.  Significant helium concentrations are observed due to the presence of the hot water beneath the surface for a depth for a long period of time.  The gases include carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, ammonia, hydogen sulphide and argon.

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 Legends associated with the land – The region of Vadvali is mentioned in visited by Avatars (incarnations) preservation) Rama and Parshurama. The performed a yajna (fire offering) at Vadvali area are its residue.

the Puranas (Hindu scriptures) as of Vishnu (Hindu god of legend says that Parshurama and the hills of volcanic ash in the

The primary deity of the temple, Vajreshwari (vajreśvari), also spelled Vajreshvari, also known as Vajrábái and Vajrayogini, is considered an incarnation of the goddess Parvati or Aadi-Maya on earth. Her name literally means "the lady of the Vajra(thunderbolt)". There are two legends about the goddess' origins, both associated with the Vajra. Thousands of years ago, a Rakshasa (demon) named Kalikala or Kalikut troubled the rishis (sages) and humans in the region of Vadvali and waged a war against the devas (gods). Distressed, the gods and sages headed by Vashishta performed the TriChandi yagna, a fire offering to the Goddess, to please Her. An aahuti (offering of ghee in yajna) was not granted to Indra (king of devas). Enraged, Indra hurled his Vajra - one of the most powerful weapons in Hindu mythology- at the yajna. The terrified gods and sages prayed to the Goddess to save them. The Goddess appeared in all her glory at the site and not only swallowed the Vajra and humbled Indra but also killed the demons. Rama requested that the Goddess stay in the region of Vadvali and be known as Vajreshwari. Thus, the Vajreshwari temple was established in this region. Another legend says that Indra and other devas went to goddess Parvati and requested her to help slay demon Kalikala. Goddess Parvati assured them that she would come to their aid at the right time, and ordered them to fight with the demon. In the battle, Kalikala swallowed or broke all weapons thrown at him. Finally, Indra threw the Vajra at the demon, which Kalikala broke into pieces. From the Vajra emerged the Goddess, who destroyed the demon. The devas extolled her as Vajreshwari and built her temple. The seventh canto of Navanath Kathasar states that Machindranath served the goddess Vajrabhagawati (Vajreshwari) for a month by giving her a bath of the water of hot springs. This place is also called Nath Bhoomi, a land of Nathas.

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CHAPTER X â&#x20AC;&#x201C;MMRDA BY-LAWS APPLICABLE

REGIONAL MAP OF MMRDA

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BY-LAWS APPLICABLE TO THE SITE –  The minimum width of access pathways and roads for sub-division or layout for any other purpose than residential shall be as followsLength of road in meters Upto 100 100 to 300 Above 300

Width of access in meters 9.0 12.0 15.0

 Minimum front , rear and side open spaces – Land Use

Plot area Type of development

Industry 200 and and above others 300 and above

Semidetached Detached

For buildings upto 2 storeys (max. ht 9m) Side front rear 3.00 3.00 3.00

For buildings upto 3 storey (maximum ht. 13.5m) Side front rear 4.50 3.00 3.00

4.50

4.50

3.00

3.00

4.50

3.00

When the side open space provided is less than 3.00 m it shall not be reckoned as a main source of light and ventilation for habitable rooms.  Minimum recreational open spaces to be provided in the subdivision or in layouts – Sr.no 1 2 3 4 5

Sub-division or layout area in sq.m Less than 10,000 10,000 to 25,000 25,000 to 50,000 50,000 to 100,00 100,00 and above

Minimum percentage of recreational open space 5 8 10 12.5 15

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 Recreational and tourism development zone (RTD Zone) – Areas specifically marked in the Regional Plan as RTD Zone shall consist of –

1. 2. 3. 4.

Forts Archaeological and historical monuments Major religious places Objects , features , structures and places of architectural , natural and scientific interest , and educational value 5. Hilly areas , plantation areas , forest areas ,areas of natural scenery or others having recreational or tourism value  Following development shall be permitted in the land situated in the Recreational And Tourism Development Zone or in accordance with a plan prepared for the particular RTD Zone – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

Gaothan and gaothan expansion schemes Hotels, tourist resorts , holiday homes , motels and club houses. Retail shops , restaurants and banks . Religious places and allied activities. Parks,gardens,play fields, golf courses, camping grounds, swimming pools, facilities related to water sports, race courses, amusement parks, theme parks. Temporary constructions for limited period, such as, during fairs, ceremonies, etc. Essential public services and utilities, such as, public toilets,water and sewage treatment facilities, electricity sub-station and busshelters. Access roads, bridges,vehicle parking areas , jetties, ropeways. Petrol pumps, servicing and repair services.

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 Floor Space Index , Plot Size – 1. The maximum permissible FSI in the RTD Zone shall be 0.2 .The FSI shall be calculated on the gross area of the plot. 2. The size of the plot in the sub-division plan shall not be less than 500 sq.m. 3. No development or activity listed in the above regulations shall involve construction of buildings more than 2 storeys (i.e ground + upper floor) with height not exceeding 9m . 4. Other features of the development shall conform to the standardized Bye-laws and Development Control Rules recommended by the Government for B and C class municipalities.

 Guidelines for the development of holiday resorts/homes – 1. The minimum area of the land for holiday resorts or holiday homes shall not be less than 1.00 Ha. 2. The entire land vest in single ownership. It shall not be sub-divided at any time, the individual buildings 0r structures shall not be sold to different persons. 3. The structures shall not be more than G+1. However ,ground storeyed structures with sloping roofs constructed as far as possible out of local materials, compatible with the surrounding environment , would be preferred. 4. Existing trees shall be preserved and if any trees are cut, five times the number shall be planted and grown to their full height. In addition 15 trees per 1000 sq.m of open land shall be planted as a part of the landscaping area. 5. Necessary set backs shall be provided from the classified roads. 6. The total built-up area of all types of structures shall not exceed 20% of the total area i.e (FSI 0.2 ) of the land under development.

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CHAPTER XI- AKLOLI-VAJRESHWARI: SITE VIEWS

1 – View of hot springs near river.

2 – View of site from the river.

1 – View of temporary commercial structures near river.

3 – Temple present near the site with the hot spring kunds.

2

3

1

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CHAPTER XII- AKLOLI: JUSTIFICATION FOR SELECTION OF SITE . Akloli is a centre for spiritualism and religion due to the presence of the hot springs and the famous temple dedicated to goddess Vajreshwari. The Tansa River Basin, which is unique in its ecosystem and close to the city, is soon finding itself under immense pressure of urbanisation due to the everexpanding growth of Mumbai having reached almost its fringe areas. These developments have disturbed the delicate balance of the ecosystem immensely. Direct human interference has also caused the plugging of the springs and contamination of the spring. All these factors also threaten the very existence of the river basin. The villages of Ganeshpuri, Vajreshwari and Akloli have been declared as Recreational and Tourism zones under the Draft Development Plan for Mumbai Metropolitan Region 1996-2001.This makes it all the more important to study the region with respect to its environment before any development is undertaken.The study aims at establishing the influence zone of the eco-region and proposing ecologically based planning guidelines and management plans for the Tansa river basin. The following postulates are considered while choosing Akloli as a site – 1. Transportation – The site forms a focal point in terms of accessibility from the nearest cities. •

By air: Mumbai is the closest airport around 70 km from Vajreshwari.

By rail: The nearest rail station for Vajreshwari from the eastern suburbs of Mumbai is Thane Station, about 39 km from Vajreshwari. The nearest rail station from the western suburbs of Mumbai is Virar and Vasai Road.

By road: Vajreshwari is easily accessible from the national highway through all the major cities in Maharashtra.

Many buses ply regularly to Vajreshwari from Thane and Vasai Road Station. There are lots of extra and special buses organized by the Maharashtra State Transport during holidays and special festivals.

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2. Tourist destination â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The site has been developing as a tourist destination. The nature of tourism is not only religious but also recreational with resorts servind as weekend getaways. There are about 200-300 tourists present in the village on weekends who are either locals from Vasai-Virar and Thane as well as foreign. 3. Heritage value- The site has its own heritage value as it has Vajreshwari devi temple built by the Peshwas, the Hot spring Kunds developed as Ram kund,Sita kund and Laxmana Kund having legends associated with it. Hot springs in the river

Hot springs in the river

Hot springs in the river

Ram ,laxman and sita kunds infront of the temple.

4. Lack of maintenance- There is a immense requirement for the maintenance of the place as there are no designated bodies who maintain it. The land of hot springs belongs to the Government but is rarely maintained by the authority and thus the existing condition of the place is deteriorating day by day. A need for the revival of the place and proper maintenance is rising in demand. There are no rules and regulations prohibiting the masses from misusing the premises. The activities such as parking of vehicles near the river must be discouraged.

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L.S . RAHEJA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Unauthorized parking on river banks

Overuse of hot springs by many people at a time rendering the water useless for few hours.

Bathing in the river.

Cleaning of vehicles in the river.

5. Lack of facilities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Facilities for tourist such as changing rooms,bathing facilities and public toilets especially for women are inadequate. With provision of such facilities the site will attract more tourism leading to its development. 6. Pollution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; It is one of the major factors leading to the future effects on the eco-system of the region. The throwing of garbage into the river and accumulation of waste near the river are major factors causing damage to the beauty of the river as well as the hot springs.

Garbage thrown around the kunds.

Throwing garbage into the river.

Thus the need arises for a revival of the place with the conservation of the hot springs and a proposal for the encouragement of tourism .

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PART IIIâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; CASE-STUDIES

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CHAPTER XIII- CASE STUDY 1)Termas Geométricas Hot Springs Complex            

Location –Los Lagos Region, Chile Year of completion –2009 Architect/designer –German del Sol Site area –4700.0 sq.m. Built-up area- 2290.0 sq.m Photographs: Guy Wenborne Collaborators: José Luis Ibañez, Architect. Carlos Venegas, Architect. José Inostroza. Structural Engineering: Fernando del Sol V. Building Contractor: José Luis Ibañez G. Consultant: Sanitary Consultant, Francisco Cervantes. Job Captain: Eliseo Barriga. Purpose of construction –The naturally existing hot springs was put to use and spa was built over it. Design details – 17 slate covered pools of natural hot springs waters that flow in plenty along a mountain stream, in the midst of the native forest of the Villarrica National Park in Chile’s southern Lake Country, 450 miles south of Santiago. Visitors may confidently stroll along a wooden footbridge and disperse to find a hidden pool to take a bath alone,or in good company with plenty of space to share or contemplate the wild natural surroundings. The hot springs water is distributed to the pools through wooden conduits that run under the walkway and heat it, keeping it always dry and safe. Close to every pool there is always a pavilion built with local wood, with private bathrooms, locker rooms, and a deck to rest. A big roof planted with wild grasses covers a large secluded space to stay by the open fire, look around in silence or have a relaxed conversation, a cup of tea, a glass of mineral water, or some deli sandwich. Or just enjoy the sunshine in the deck around. The constant movement of water and fire that always change, but go nowhere, appears in all its natural splendour, seducing everyone into a calm spirit. They are named Termas Geométricas because it is a work of architecture built with strong primitive geometric elements that allows one to be captivated again by natural elements in the midst of the wild brutal nature. The geometric architecture of the Termas makes it possible to see and enjoy the good side of the unexpected events of nature. Indulging oneself with this unique experience for the body and soul becomes a sensual rite of water and fire purification which enlightens our senses and arouses our imagination.

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Plan Site view: wooden channels

Site view: spa

Site view: seating

Site view: bathing room

Section through bathing room

Plan of bathing room

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SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE TERMAS GEOMETRICAS.

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2) Thermae Vals       

Location – Graubünden canton ,Vals, Switzerland Year of completion –1996 Architect/designer – Peter Zumthor Site area – 4700 sq.m. Structural Engineer: Jürg Buchli Project Manager: Franz Bartsch Photographer: Pol Martin Purpose of construction –The existing quarry was put to use by converting it to a spa.  History related to the structure- In the 1960s a German property developer, Karl Kurt Vorlop, built a hotel complex with over 1,000 beds to take advantage of the naturally occurring thermal springs and the source, which provides the water for Valser mineral water, sold throughout Switzerland. After the developer went bankrupt, the village of Vals bought up the five hotels in the development in 1983 and resolved to commission a hydrotherapy centre at the centre of the five hotels, at the source of the thermal springs. Today the Hotel und Thermalbad AG (Hoteba) company is 100% owned by the Vals community.  Design details - Peter Zumthor designed the spa/baths which opened in 1996 to pre date the existing hotel complex. The idea was to create a form of cave or quarry like structure. Working with the natural surroundings the bath rooms lay below a grass roof structure half buried into the hillside. The Therme Vals is built from layer upon layer of locally quarried Valser Quarzite slabs. This stone became the driving inspiration for the design, and is used with great dignity and respect. This space was designed for visitors to luxuriate and rediscover the ancient benefits of bathing. The combinations of light and shade, open and enclosed spaces and linear elements make for a highly sensuous and restorative experience. The underlying informal layout of the internal space is a carefully modelled path of circulation which leads bathers to certain predetermined points but lets them explore other areas for themselves. The perspective is always controlled. It either ensures or denies a view. Peter Zumthor's baths were built with 60,000 of the local quartzite stone slabs: the Valser Gneiss. The characteristic, rectangular stones does not establish any formal or visual dialogue with the timber-based buildings of its immediate surroundings. Also, there is no directly visible entrance to the building - the visitors are access to the complex through a tunnel.

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The monolithic form of the buildings stems from a dialogue with the mountains framing the valley. The building intends to become an extension off the mountains themselves and the landscape they create. Here, architecture is bridging the gap between the randomness of nature and man-made made construction. In the transition created by the stone slabs rising above the lawn, thus revealing the subterranea subterranean, n, cavernous world of the mountain. It's an architecture that is molded by the landscape but also one that chisels itself intothe the landscape. Peter Zumthor explains about the building's concept: Mountain, stone, water, building in stone, building with stone, into the mountain, building out of the mountain mountain- our attempts to give this chain of words an architectural interpretation, guide our design for the building and step by step gave it its form. It is an architecture that does not want to take action or show off. As if they were a natural occurrence, the faรงades appear as plain cuts into a large porous slab of stone that seem to emerge slightly from the natural topography, in search of light. They are the natural elevation of a precise cut into the interior erior cavern system of the baths.Likewise, the roof is conceived as the obvious extension of the mountain plains. A grid of well welldisguised fissures on the grass let some toplight through into the interior. It's the architecture of disappearance.

EXTERNAL VIEW

EXTERNAL VIEW

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INTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW

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SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE THERMAE VALS.

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3)Hotel Hot Spring and Spa   

Location – Tattapani , Himachal Pradesh Year of completion – 1994 Architect/designer – Prem Raina Purpose of construction – To revive the submerged hot springs in the Satluj river.  Design details - The hotel is the first and only structure in India which uses the Hot springs commercially.The hotel pumps in the water from the hot spring present in the Satluj river. 10 years beforeThe hot springs present in the river a tourist place which was treated religious and divine. People considered the hot springs in a spiritual way . But due to the formation of the Bhakra-Nangal dam the whole hot springs and the island submerged into the water. The hotel is a four storied hotel designed as per the pertaining style in Himachal Pradesh such as sloping roof effect. The hotel has a r.c.c framed structural system. The owner of the hotel built-in a mechanism which pumped in the submerged hot spring water and used it form spa in his own hotel. The another part of his development deals with the reviving of the area which was submerged and forming promenade along with hot spring pools. Currently, the latter part is under construction. The water of the Satluj river rises evry year by 30 cm leading toa potential threat of submerging the village in the near future.

The Hot springs in Tattapani 20 years back-

SUBMERGED HOT SPRINGS: EXTINCT HERITAGE

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The Hot springs currently-

EXISTING CONDITION DUE TO BHAKRA-NANGAL DAM

EXISTING CONDITION DUE TO BHAKRA-NANGAL DAM

INTERNAL VIEWS

INTERNAL VIEWS

INTERNAL VIEWS

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SWOT ANALYSIS OF HOTEL HOT SPRINGS AND SPA

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE CASE STUDIES.

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4)Thermalbad and Spa  Location – Zurich, Switzerland  Year of completion –1994  Purpose of construction – The former brewery was built into a spa resort.  Design details -A new interpretation of 2,000 years of Roman bathing culture which combines wellbeing with health. Bathe between centenarian stone vaults of the former Hürlimann brewery right inside the mountain above the roof bath under the open sky to light. Dive in and let yourself be seduced by the unique architecture and the inimitable building structure into another world. The source of vitality deep underground city of Zurich is the origin of the Zurich spa. The thermal waters of the legendary "Aqui" source gives us valuable minerals and soothing warmth that provide relaxation and well-being.

INTERNAL VIEWS OF THE BREWERY.

INTERNAL VIEWS OF THE BREWERY.

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INTERNAL VIEWS OF THE BREWERY.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF THERMALBAD AND SPA

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CHAPTER XIV-TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON HOT SPRINGS  The hot spring water comes upto the surface at a particular flow rate. Thus this water can either be channelized or utilized directly from its place of origin.  For channelizing of the hot spring water the following factors are to be taken into account – o The heat content in the springs. o The distance travelled by the water due to which the temperature of water drops by 1oC. o The insulation techniques inorder to prevent the heat loss.  For the hot spring water in a completely insulated medium the temperature drops by 1oC for a distance of 1km.  The insulation consists of a double layer high quality Styrofoam or thermocol coating covered with P.V.C pipe.  The main pipe through which the hot water passes is to be of a non-reactive material as hot spring water has a mineral content.  The main pipe can be of H.D P.V.C.

LAYERS FOR INSULATION OF THE HOT SPRING WATER.

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CONCRETING OF HOT SPRING ORIGIN SPOT AND CHANNELIZING THE PIPE.

CHANNEL DIVERTED TO CREATE NATURAL PRESSURE

INSULATION OF STYROFOAM SHEETS

HOT SPRING WATER RISES DUE TO UPWARD PRESSURE CREATED.

PHOTOS OF PROCESS OF INSULATION OF HOT SPRING WATER AND CHANNELIZINGP.C-PREM RAINA (HOTEL HOT SPRING AND SPA, TATTAPANI,HIMACHAL PRADESH)

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PART IVâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; DESIGN PROGRAMME

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CHAPTER XV-DESIGN BREIF AND PROGRAMME The topic HOT SPRING COMPLEX is a sentence formed by joining two words viz: Hot Springs and Complex. Hot springs has been explained earlier in detail. 1. Complex means in psychological aspects a core pattern of emotions,

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

memories, perceptions, and wishes in the personal unconscious organized around a common theme. The dictionary meaning of complex is a group of buildings, apartments, etc., that are located near each other and used for a particular purpose. Complex also means consisting of two or more related parts not simple; involved or complicated. From Classical Latin complexus, past participle of complecti, to encircle, embrace; from com-, with + plectere, to weave. A group of interrelated ideas, activities, etc. That form, or are viewed as forming, a single whole. An assemblage of units, as buildings or roadways, that together form a single, comprehensive group A collection of buildings with a common purpose.

Thus the project deals with the introduction of a new concept of exploring the various usage of hot springs along with the improvement in the existing conditions of the hot springs. Hot springs of Akloli fall under the Geological Department of India. Urgent need has aroused for the improvement in the existing conditions of the place in order to retain the hot springs in their natural state. The proposal consists of two parts –  Improving the conditions of existing geological heritage: hot springs  Acquiring some of these hot spring water for experimental usage. The spaces present on the site are for the use of both public as well as private purposes. Due consideration is to be given to the existing temple on the site and its unhindered view of the river. The proposal also considers the Tansa river view point and provision of promenade for the same.

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The areas provided in the design are Public spaces o Public common block  Private spaces  Administration block  Restaurant  Single and twin sharing accommodations  Home stay villas  Treatment center– relaxation  Treatment center- healing  Staff accommodation  Water treatment plant  Sewage treatment plant  Laundry PUBLIC COMMON BLOCK- it forms a part of the public space. The various provisions done in the block areToilets, changing rooms, locker rooms and pre-shower areas- it will restrict people from littering the hot spring water. Souvenir shops and food kiosks- the local people whose initially shops were present on site are provided a compensation. The villagers have skilled abilities of making artefacts from cane bamboo, mud , clay. It can be displayed for sale and can earn the villagers a living. The food kiosks may also belong to the local people. Seating area for visitors – the people visiting the hot springs have been provided with the seating area. ADMINISTRATION BLOCK – it forms a part of the private space. The visitors who want to enjoy the spa and other treatments using the natural hot spring water can come to stay in the spa resort. The administration block forms the main entry to the resort. It’s divided into two parts; one dealing with the visitors while other dealing with the staff of the resort. Its entrance faces the river providing a view to the river. RESTAURANT- it forms a part of the both public as well as private space. It’s a fine dine restaurant consisting of seating as well as kitchen area. The view of the seating faces the river.

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SINGLE AND TWIN SHARING ACCOMODATION – these accommodations are for a single person, two people or couples. It’s a g+1 building having ground floor as the staff accommodation and laundry. Technical staff monitoring the hot springs is provided in this area. The common river viewing area is provided to the accommodations. HOME STAY VILLAS- these accommodations are for the joint families or a single family of four. The deck to individual bedrooms is provided having a river view. TREATMENT CENTER- there are two segregated treatment centers for relaxation and healing purposes. The relaxation center has pools at various heights for relaxing body. The healing center is for a specifically diseased person and people who wish to have massage and steam bath.

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Area statement for the areas – SR.NO BLOCK 1 PUBLIC COMMON BLOCK SHOPS LOCKER ROOM (LADIES) LOCKER ROOM (GENTS) TOILETS (LADIES) TOILETS (GENTS) SEATING

AREA IN SQ.M TOTAL=682.86 382.76 15.7 20.8 30.6 40.8 192.2

2

TOTAL=348.8

3

ADMINISTRATION GROUND FLOORENTRANCE HALL ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT CHANGING ROOM (LADIES) CHANGING ROOM (GENTS) STORE ROOM ENTRANCE LOBBY SECURITY CHECK CABIN FOR STAFF REFRESHMENT AREA MANAGEMENT HEAD SERVICES HEAD ACCOUNTS HEAD TOILETS (LADIES) TOILETS (GENTS) MEZZANINE FLOORMANAGER’S CABIN SUB-MANAGER’S CABIN WAITING AREA CONFERENCE ROOM STORE RESTAURANT SEATING AREA DRY GRAINARY STORAGE STAFF CHANGING ROOM KITCHEN PREPARATION AND COLD STORAGE KITCHEN SERVING COUNTER

100.7 28.5 13.4 12.5 11.0 14.0 5.5 11.2 6.1 6.1 5.5 22.6 26.8 13.4 12.5 26.2 28.5 4.3 TOTAL=370.92 259.5 8.7 9.52 23 9.7

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UTENSIL CLEANING AREA DRYING PLATFORM TOILETS

5.5 5.6 49.4

ACCOMODATIONS SINGLE /TWIN ROOM (14) HOME STAY VILLAS (10) STAFF ACCOMODATION LAUNDRY

TOTAL=2589 23*14=322 194.5*10=1945 23*12=276 46

6

TREATMENT-RELAXATION RECEPTION CENTER LOCKER ROOM (LADIES) TOILETS (LADIES) DOCTORS CABINS LOCKER ROOM (GENTS) TOILETS (GENTS) POOLS

TOTAL=342.5 3.1 34.3 27.5 10.2*2=20.4 34.3 27.5 195.4

7

TREATMENT- HEALING RECEPTION CENTER LOCKER ROOM (LADIES) LOCKER ROOM (GENTS) TOILETS (LADIES) TOILETS (GENTS) DOCTORS CABINS MASSAGE ROOMS (2) STEAM BATH AREAS POOLS SUNBATH DECK

TOTAL=674.5 3.1 34.3 34.3 27.5 27.5 10.2*2=20.4 58*2=116 11.6*6=69.6 28.3*6=169.8 86*2=172

4

5

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REFERENCES http://www.eytonsearth.org/balneology-balneotherapy.php http://www.peninsulahotsprings.com/uploads/files/Balneotherapy.pdf http://www.harrisonresort.com/Spa-Treatments.aspx http://www.peninsulahotsprings.com/day-spa http://www.hotsprings.org/pages/spas-baths http://zeenews.india.com/news/maharashtra/nepal-earthquake-is-vajreshwari-temple-nearmumbai-linked-to-the-himalayan-tragedy_1587133.html http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-vajreshwari-s-hot-water-springs-get-hotter-withquake-claim-villagers-2082629 http://www.designboom.com/architecture/hurlimann-brewery-in-zurich-is-renovated-intothermal-bath-spa-12-02-2013 http://www.thermalbad-zuerich.ch/index.asp?id=1507261036363174&kat=Gruppe12 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furo - 26-07 http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/attractions/rest/onsen/onsen_p4.html http://www.ihotspring.com/European_Hot_Springs.html http://www.designboom.com/architecture/hurlimann-brewery-in-zurich-is-renovated-intothermal-bath-spa-12-02-2013 http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesprings.html http://www.colorado.com/activities/hot-SPRINGS http://www.spavelous.com/EB/N080815/HotSpringSpas02.html http://www.britannica.com/science/hot-spring http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Ge-Hy/Hot-Springs-and-Geysers.html http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/geysers.html http://www.nea.is/geothermal/direct-utilization/bathing--recreation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3709305 http://hotspringsguide.net http://www.maharashtradarshan.in/hot-water-spring/akloli-hot-water-spring.html http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/107/09/1587.pdf http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/portal/page?_pageid=127,699645&_dad=portal&_schema=PORT AL

VEDSHREE JOSHI 80


L.S . RAHEJA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Report on Tansa river I ,II , III – Kamla Raheja School of Architecture (Report section 10,11,12)  Reference thesis on Resorts – L.S Raheja School of Architecture (Thesis section) NO.12,814,1027,1071,1136  The Swimming Pool – Inspiration and style around the world by Martha Baker.  Water + Architecture by Charles Moore  Eco-resorts by Zvigniew Bromberek  Time saver ‘s Architect’s Standards  Neuferts Architect’s Data  MMRDA Development Control Regulations ,1991.  Landscape spaces Vol. I, II, III ,IV, V  FORM,SPACE AND ORDER – F.D.Ching.  Resorts (Architecture and Interiors) ,Hotels Hiro Kishikawa- photo and text Shinjiro Kirishiki –supervision.

VEDSHREE JOSHI 81

THESIS ON HOT SPRINGS COMPLEX  

FINAL YEAR B.ARCH DESIGN DISSERTATION ANALYSIS BOOK REPORT.

THESIS ON HOT SPRINGS COMPLEX  

FINAL YEAR B.ARCH DESIGN DISSERTATION ANALYSIS BOOK REPORT.

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