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The official publication of Vecto Petroleum

VECTO:

Leading the way in energy resource solutions

Issue 1 Vol. 1: June 2013

INSI DE: DIRT Y DIE SEL INSE RT... The u truth gly abou t fue cont l amin ation

Pure or paraffin? Paraffin in diesel WILL cost you in the long-run Your Partner in Success VECTO April 2013

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Tree of life By: Venessa Vivier

It’s a lovely summer morning. I rush off to the nursery to collect a client’s order of succulents. The beautiful green ‘spekboompies’ grab my attention and I ask Ferdie to grab an extra one for my garden. Later that day, however, my ‘spekboompie’ is but a distant memory; one of the workers left an open can of diesel on the back of the truck, resulting in my little tree being doused in diesel. The little leaves had already started changing colour and the soil was soaked with diesel. Angry, I put the destroyed tree behind the Wendy house to discard it later on. Two weeks later, while looking for my blue watering can, I headed over to the Wendy house. My jaw dropped open as I noticed that a tiny piece of the dead, diesel-soaked tree had survived! I picked up the pot and gazed in awe at the natural wonder. One branch of the tree remained green and was working hard to push out new leaves. I grabbed the pruning shears, cut off the healthy twig, filled a pot with compost, added some earthworms (with an extra one just for the love) and planted the twig. If this plant was so desperate to survive, well then, it deserved all the extra love and attention I could give it. As I sat on my knees beside the pot I thought of all the women who surround me. I thought about how many of us just seem to survive despite the ‘diesel’ that has been spilled on us. We hold on, we hold out, we keep sprouting new leaves during trying times. Even when the soil in which we have been planted has died and lost its value, we remain alive, just like this little tree. My prayer for you is that you hang in there with your eyes firmly focused on God; That you will envelop yourself in His love; That you will continue to be grateful for the sun that shines on you through good and bad; That you will never stop praying and dreaming of a the day that you will be replanted in better soil. I know that God has planned for each one of us a pot with fertile soil and an extra earthworm just for love!

This column was originally published in Jouwêreld e-tydskrif under the title Pot Vol Lewe. Translated for use in Vecto.


EDITORIAL:

Editor-in-Chief – Corné Liebenberg Managing Editor – Fiona Mosca Creative Director – Gwynedd Peters

PUBLISHERS: Main Angel Publishing 462 Grysbok Street, Waterkloof Ridge Tel: 012 347 3630 Fax: 086 242 0031 e-mail: info@mainangel.co.za IMAGES: Shutterstock, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com; Stock Xchange, Vecto Petroleum, iStock. All editorial, business and production correspondence should be addressed to Main Angel Publishing: PO Box 4708, Rietvalleirand, 0174. Unless otherwise agreed to, all contributions are the property of Vecto Magazine, and its publishers. The editor and publisher reserve the right to alter copy and visual material as deemed necessary. The opinions expressed in Vecto Magazine are not necessarily those of the publishers or Vecto Petroleum, its suppliers, subsidiaries or affiliates. © Copyright Main Angel Publishing. All rights reserved.

Contents

Issue 1 Vol. 1 June 2013

Tree of life

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Map: Vecto depot network

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Who is Vecto? Leading the way in energy resource solutions

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Meet the Vecto team

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Meet our agents: Nico du Randt

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Customer testimonial: Frikkadol Transport

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Meet the fleet

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Out and about

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Don’t Panic: SARS’ approach to diesel rebate

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The answer is in the smoke: What are your exhaust fumes telling you?

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Diesel Gas Africa: Cost-effective fuel saving

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50ppm Vs. 500ppm: The difference explained

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Standing the test of time: Mega Lube: Leaders in the grease and lubricants industry

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Dirty Diesel Insert Shedding some light on fuel contamination

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Diesel contamination can wreck your rig

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Pure or paraffin? Paraffin in diesel will cost you in the long-run

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Dealing with dirty diesel: Fleet owner tips

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Diesel 101: Diesel dilution explained

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Fuel saving for truck drivers - WIN a Tablet!

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WIN a Tabl et! See pg. 3 7


The Editor Vecto offers better quality at a lower cost... how is this possible? The answer is really quite simple. Vecto buys directly from suppliers and cuts out unnecessary middlemen; we have a nationwide distribution network, and use our massive volumes to negotiate better prices for our customers. We can afford to invest considerable funds in unique technology that make us the market leaders when it comes to innovative, cost-saving technologies. Vecto offers a variety of unique and exclusive services to customers, increasing the company’s competitiveness and professionalism. Dearest Vecto agents, customers and future clients, Welcome to the first quarterly issue of our very own Vecto magazine. Every individual and business who deems petroleum products to be a necessary yet costly evil will find our magazine invaluable. Vecto aims to sweep clean the diesel market which has been tarnished by the current surge in mixed diesel which is being distributed far and wide. We want to return a sense of honesty and ethical business principles to the industry 4

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Vecto diesel: almost clean enough to drink and we believe that the additional innovative services that we are willing to supply at no charge will emphasise our sincerity in this regard. Vecto is rolling out a range of value-added products, most of which are a first for the South African market, and should prove indispensable for any large diesel user. The Tracking and Fuel Management system that we are releasing will not only combat theft and prevent fuel wastage and abuse, but will also rid the industry of impure diesel through electronic innovations (p. 38). With the assistence of this system users will be able to tell exactly how much fuel is in their tanks. That information, together with prior knowledge of fuel price changes, allows us to let customers know when to fill up in time for an increase, or wait a bit when prices are due to drop. We also provide Diesel Test Kits which immediately detect contaminated diesel (p. 36).

‘Like’ us on Facebook or register on our webpage (www.vecto.co.za) to benefit from these free services.


Editor’s Letter In addition to the obvious savings associated with the misuse and theft of fuel, our Test Kits enable you to save on the damage caused to an engine (your warranty expires instantly if paraffin is detected in your diesel), idle time and the associated frustrations, as well as the possibility of valuable customers being lost forever. Our aim is to build long-term relationships based on unsurpassed service, to add value for money, minimise inconvenience, and to become so vital to our customers that we are able to continuously invest in improved valueadded products. Speaking of savings, we have secured the distribution rights from Mega Lube, SA’s largest local blender, who boast product endorsements from leading suppliers such as Mercedes Benz, MAN and John Deere. Only the best is good enough for us and our clients, which is why we buy only from the most reliable sources, where we have been allowed to bear witness to the strict and careful screening processes which they employ to ensure that their products are 100% pure. As such, we distribute Mega Lube’s range of oil and grease products exclusively, because we know exactly where their raw materials are sourced.. Businesses that take short cuts and have short-term vision will not resonate with us. Professional business people, who regard the future of their business and their staff as important, will find us indispensable. Those of you who regularly visit the “Platteland”, or perhaps even live there, have probably noticed that many of the major fuel suppliers are withdrawing and are being replaced by smaller independent providers. This is a positive trend for users because the middlemen are cut out and better prices can be offered for diesel, paraffin and gas (remember,

fuel prices are regulated by the government). It is here that Vecto plays a vital role. In cases where the big players are withdrawing and are not always willing to service each farmer directly, we use our excellent network of agents to provide that much-needed personal service to farmers and to keep them informed regarding the latest developments in the petroleum industry. We are both proud and humbled to announce that as of August this year we will be the largest independent distributor in the country which, in turn, means better prices and services for all our clients. It also means improved nationwide coverage with service stations at which truck drivers in possession of Vecto’s unique Fuel Card can fill-up at wholesale prices. With our first international truck stop across the border at Komatipoort, due to open in August, we can now be considered a bona fide international company. We also service many farmers and mines within Mozambique and Zambia. As we still strive each day to be better, we welcome any comments or criticism and assure you that each and every e-mail will be answered and dealt with personally until the case has been resolved to your satisfaction. May you all have a ‘Vectorious’ time until our next issue. Corné Liebenberg corne@vecto.co.za

Is your diesel pure? Send us your cell number and address and we will send you a complimentary Vecto Test Kit with a full set of instructions. See page 36 for more information

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Page Description Flag

Vecto network of depots

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Who is ? And how are they leading the way in energy resource solutions?

VECTO Petroleum is an advanced energy resource company that strives to find easy, cost-effective solutions for all business sectors. Whether it be diesel or oil; Vecto is a supplier that endeavours to exceed customer expectations and stay the leader in fuel management solutions. Vecto is grounded in firm business principles and integrity. Vecto is a privately-owned company that currently operates under fuel licencing of its partner company Madosha Logistics (Pty) Ltd. Transport and logistics are an integral part of modernday business, and without a dedicated supply of quality fuel to enable mobility and fluidity in most operations, successful enterprises and society will quite literally come to a standstill. Vecto - meaning to carry, drive or travel - is an energy and resource company, backed-up by revolutionary 8

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Vecto News

new products, boundless research and development, and superb after-sales service. What we offer As a company, Vecto is designed to deliver well-rounded skills, solutions and products, giving us the confidence to provide our clients with Test Kits to prove the quality of our product as well as our dedication to delivering only the best to our clients. Our petroleum products include diesel, petrol, LPG, Jet-A1, avgas, oil and lubricants. We cater for all industries including mining, agriculture, transport and logistics, aviation, construction and forestry, as well as to numerous municipalities throughout South Africa and its neighbouring countries. Through practical innovations, Vecto is focused on reducing theft, misuse and wastage while simultaneously maximising the mobility and optimising the profitability of our clients business. Infrastructure Vecto has the infrastructure, capacity and product allocation to always deliver on-time, no matter how large the quantities. The company implements cutting-edge technologies and online-applications. Convenient online-banking (which works through our cloud technology solutions) integrates

Origins

Vecto originated after farmers expressed a need for more reliable deliveries and personal service when catering for all their petroleum needs. Also, mines, transporters and forestries conveyed the same need for personal service and tailor-made, state-of-theart equipment to monitor stock levels and prevent theft. With this in mind, Vecto officially kicked off in December 2012. From there the story reads like a fairy tale as the contacts, systems and breakthroughs can only be described as miraculous.

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Vecto News seamlessly with our operations and those of our clients. This enables us to deliver fast and efficient solutions to our customers, satisfying their need to manage their businesses optimally. Our primary objective is to lead the way in innovative energy resource solutions by providing products of the highest quality, services that are transparent and extremely reliable and a complete integration that, not only meets, but exceeds our clients expectations. Why another diesel/oil supplier? After receiving numerous requests, from mainly farmers, for pure petroleum products and improved service delivery, we started to explore potential opportunities. It surprised us to find that there was a significant lack of service, consistent delivery and tailor-made solutions within this industry. Furthermore, the use of technology and innovative solutions, aimed at enhancing service delivery and the management of fuel, from the depot to the farmer’s tank and into the tractor or harvester, were nearly non-existent. This, created a significant niche market for us if we were able to supply a service that everyone was so clearly desperate for. Sources told us that theft accounted for up to 20% of overall diesel costs, and a further 20% could be attributed to mismanagement, shrinkage and fuel losses. Stories of contamination and/or blending (diesel mixed with paraffin) were common, and we thought it a good idea to try and reinstate an ethical name to the petroleum industry by providing our customers non-negotiable, superb-quality products, as well as free Test Kits with which to test product quality.

Contact Us Call us: 012 940 8277/ 074 587 9173 Email: info@vecto.co.za

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Inferior fuel products have a negative impact on income in the long-run and could even cause huge losses when expensive machinery breaks down, never mind the losses caused by down-time in an industry where the window of opportunity is so small (when it rains you need to plough, and when the sun shines you need to spray crop protection products before the next rain). This can erode the profitability of the farmer, and a less profitable farmer becomes a risk for the Crop Protection business of Laeveld Agcrochem, a vital partner of Vecto Petroleum.


Giving you the freedom to focus on your core business

G-PAY is a guaranteed payment solution. This implies that an order received by a seller through G-PAY will have the payment of that order guaranteed to the value of the product requested by means of the order. The flexibility that G-PAY offers through its configuration models allows for the product to be implemented and deployed within various industries for varied solutions. The further ability to ensure that products and services can only be acquired from suppliers to whom the buyer has been linked, thereby allowing the flow of funds to designated suppliers only, has achieved great success through the implementation of G-PAY into the various industries. G-PAY is a payment solution, designed and configured for “cloud“ (web-based) access by means of a personal computer, mobile devices or mobile technology. This solution is mainly configured as an ordering and payment platform.

ks to Than ngenious i tion Y, the G-PA ent solu o, we t paym d by Vec main e y to re lo emp anaged it relates m as have d mean r admin n fo a ly lean he need this tru t d n o t e. ,a nnel advantag o s r pe reat is a g

G-PAY is proud of its ability to offer superior functionality, valuable collated information and a range of tailor-made solutions to customers.

Incatorque (Pty) Ltd is an authorised payment service provider enrolled with the Payments Association South Africa and as such complies as a Systems Operator in accordance with the National Systems Payment Act 1998.

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Meet our Management Team and some of our support staff as well...

Cornè (CEO) completed his BCom Honours degree in Marketing at the University of Pretoria. While studying he worked for Standard Bank and completed an Advanced Accelerated Training Programme, which enabled him to attain management status. He started his own short-term insurance business in 1990 and thanks to his out-of-thebox thinking captured a substantial portion of Pretoria’s market. He later sold his business to help start-up Laeveld Agrochem, which will soon reach a turnover of R1 billion. He is a fervent property developer and entrepreneur with a ‘never-say-die’ philosophy. His decisions are all rooted in Biblical principles, and his life bears testament to the adage tha “the more you give the more you receive.”

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Jantjie (Director) completed his BCom Accounting degree at the University of Pretoria, after which he was employed at at Du Toit van der Walt Auditors, where he completed his articles. Since 1999 Cornè and Jantjie have run various businesses together, of which Laeveld Agrochem is the most significant. They are both directors and shareholders of Laeveld Agrochem, one of South Africa’s leading Crop Protection businesses, as well as Sunshine Street, a very succesful property managment and development company. He is one of the key players in the administration and strategic development of Laeveld Agrochem.

Ferdie (Director) matriculated from Paul Roos Gimnasium in 1988. After school he joined the South African Defence Force’s Intelligence Unit in 1991. He completed a BCom degree at the University of Stellenbosch in 1994. In 1995 he founded Inter Africa Carriers (Pty) Ltd., and Inter-Africa Bagging cc. Through these companies he fulfilled contracts for both World Vision and the World Bank, packing bulk fertilizer into manageable sizes and distributing these directly to farmers in Malawi. Ferdie has extensive knowledge in transport, logistics and cross-border operations.


Vecto News

Anton (Manager) matriculated from Paarl Boys High and completed a BCom degree in Agricultural Economics from the University of Stellenbosch. He joined his brother Ferdie’s logistics company, Inter-Africa Carriers (Pty) Ltd. in 1998, and is currently the company’s CEO. Some of his milestones include seeing Inter-Africa crowned as one of the top 100 Transnet Rail Operators in 2004. He saw the company become one of the top five intermodal operators in Southern Africa, proudly associated with a number of ‘blue chip’ clients.

Ehrus (Manager) has a passion for sales and entrepreneurship. In 1993 he became involved in the agricultural/ chemical industry and joined his father’s business at a junior level. It was an exciting time, during which he acquired extensive experience, especially in such matters as working with budgets and managing stocks. In 2009 Ehrus had the opportunity to become involved with a diesel depot in Hoedspruit, with the mandate to increase sales performance. Within a year Ehrus doubled the business’s turnover and within three years it had increased tenfold.

Support Staff Currently the team comprises Heike who mans the Reception, Paulette who handles administrative functions and G-Pay, Madeleine takes care of orders, payments and bookkeeping and Simone helps with financial models and commission structures and is also responsible for a number of events and public relations matters. Kenny is the resident IT specialist, Izaan and Melissa are responsible for coordinating and organising all events, farmer and golf days and promotional items.

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Meet our Agents...

Nico du Randt, Nelspruit

From left to right: Nico (Nelspruit/Hazyview/Barberton), Ockie (Onderberg), Lionel (Lydenburg/Ohrigstad) and Ben (Sabie/ Bosbokrand)

Nico says... I would like to extend a word of appreciation to all our existing customers for having faith in our product and service. It is through your support that Vecto Nelspruit is able to grow and flourish, enabling us to invest in new technology and offer even more value-added services to our clients. With a winning team like ours, we can only go forward! 14

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Nico du Randt was born in 1968 in Kroonstad, but grew up in Nelspruit, where he matriculated from HoÍrskool Nelspruit in 1986. Nico was an exemplary student, achieving accolades in both academics and sport. Amongst other achievements, Nico received Provincial Colours for swimming and took part in the SA Currie Cup Championships. After two-years in the military, Nico completed a diploma in Human Resources, enabling him to start his own labour consultancy which offered assistance to farmers in relation to the new laws governing minimum wage and sectoral determination. He was also involved in numerous disciplinary hearings at petrol stations and transport companies. These dealt mostly with theft, dishonesty and fraudulent practises within the diesel and petrol industry. Nico jumped at the opportunity to manage Vecto’s Nelspruitbased depot, which has fast become a formidable player in the region as a result of aggressive marketing tactics and a no-nonsense approach to service and quality. Managing a successful depot relies on agents planning orders and controlling those orders from the very start, planning routes for delivery trucks, ensuring that delivery vehicles are fueled-up, communicating with representatives, truck drivers and customers to confirm delivery times, guaranteeing punctuality and, where possible, being present for deliveries to check volumes and ensure that customer premises are left clean.


Customer Testimonial

And hear what one of Nico’s clients has to say About a year ago, Frikkadol Transport was approached by Vecto Head Office regarding the possibility of setting-up warehouse facilities on their premises in Rocky’s Drift. Harry Visser, owner of Frikkadol Transport, decided that having a diesel depot on their premises would be most advantageous for both companies. Nico du Randt of Vecto Nelspruit also approached Frikkadol Transport regarding the possibility of providing storage space for the oil products which Vecto distributes. Frikkadol Transport was so pleased with Nico du Randt’s passion and enthusiasm for the industry that he agreed to make some office space available to Vecto Nelspruit. Frikkadol Transport, satisfied with the quality and availability of Vecto’s product range, decided that Vecto Nelspruit would be included in the company’s short list of preferred suppliers. Says visser: “Vecto will literally deliver at any time, day or night, come rain or shine. Nothing seems to be too much for Nico du Randt and his team. They understand that diesel is the lifeblood of any transport company”.

Thanks to... Vecto Nelspruit is definitely one of the market players to keep your eyes on. A huge thank you goes out to Vecto Nelspruit for the excellent service that you deliver to Frikkadol Transport, assisting us in ensuring that the wheels keep on turning. VECTO June 2013

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Meet the fleet

On the road Most of our new new full-time agents have received brand new Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV). The Vecto brand will be emblazoned on the vehicles, and Vecto number plates will be fitted. This is to ensure that farmers maintain a neutral and unprejudiced impression of Vecto and its agents, managers and stakeholders. We have also acquired a fleet of 18,000l tankers to be used to deliver directly to the customer. These deliveries will usually be within a 50km radius from the nearest depot. By Air Due to a lack of time and the remoteness of certain mines, a fiveseater Vecto helicopter will be used to visit the majority of our mining clients, as well as certain transport companies.

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Chrissiesmeer Farmers Day

Out and about Vecto has been busy visiting people all across South Africa

On the farm...

At Vecto we feel strongly about giving support to the communities in which we operate. Since inception, Vecto has committed itself to participating, if not sponsoring, farmers’ days, golf days, school sporting events and many other similar occasions. Vecto is literally everywhere, and sponsors almost every sport imaginable, including athletics, rugby (including the Pumas), netball, hockey, cycling, squash, polo and even drum majorettes! This year alone, we have already made our presence known in Nelspruit, Chrissiesmeer, Louis Trichardt and Hazyview. It is on these occasions and at these types of events that you can meet our agents and the management team, and we can answer any questions you may have. As such, feel free to invite us to your next event.

Hazyview 4x4 day

rmers Day

Chrissiesmeer Fa

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Out and about

Nelspruit

On the sports field...

And on the golf course Nelspruit

Lichtenbur

g Hoedspruit

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Polo match

Polo, go-karting... Go-karting

And many more...

The Vecto team

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Page Description Flag

How

adds value and

what differentiates us from the rest? The “Vecto Value-Added Product” droplet represents all the exclusive products and services which VECTO Vecto proudly offers its VALUEcustomers. Look out for ADDED the following value-added PRODUCTS products in this issue. • Fleet Management Solution: Prevents vehicle abuse, reports unnecessary idling, measures emissions and provides suggestions to improve fleet management. • Vecto Test Kits: Immediately detects fuel contamination or the presence of paraffin in diesel, thereby preventing unnecessary costs associated with engine damage and downtime. • Mega Lube Engine Performance Enhancers: Improves lubricity even while the engine is switched off. The smoother running of your engine can save you up to 3% on diesel costs. • Diesel Gas Africa (DGA): Dramatically reduces both diesel usage and emissions (which will be taxable in the near future.) • G-PAY Electronic Payment System

Subscribe to our FREE magazine

1. SMS “Subscribe” and your phone number to 0844746663 and we will contact you regarding your free subscription. 2. Send an e-mail with your name and address to admin@vecto.co.za

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DON’T PANIC:

SARS’ approach to diesel rebate is no cause for alarm

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Diesel Rebate Update A look at qualifying companies and activities : Instead of panicking and paying, companies finding themselves at the sharp end of a SARS diesel rebate audit should seek advice to correctly interpret and apply the terms of the legislation that governs the rebate scheme. Too many companies are falling foul of SARS’ current approach of issuing letters of intent in which either the company’s eligibility to claim the rebate is contested, the amounts claimed disputed, or the documentary veracity of their application rejected. Companies are generally threatened with penalties of up to 200% being levied on understated VAT amounts, forfeiture of an amount equal to the value of the litres overstated, or suspension from the scheme. Yet, considering judgements issued in relevant South African case law, these settlements are often not in line with the correct application of legislation. Schedule 6 of the Customs and Excise Act, No. 91 of 1964 (Customs Act) allows VAT registered companies, operating in specific industry categories, to claim a diesel rebate on eligible diesel purchases. The legislation is quite specific regarding which companies and what activities using diesel qualify for the rebate; hence companies should ensure that they meet the criteria for qualification before they apply for a diesel rebate. Certain activities relating to these industries, for example diesel used in the rehabilitation of mines - either during operations or when operations have ceased, do not classify as eligible diesel purchases. Another example of non-eligible purchases is diesel used by a farmer in activities to change the nature of farm produce, such as the processing of grapes into wine or the drying of fruit. Once certain that the activities for which the rebate is being requested definitely qualify for rebate, certain documentary requirements apply to how the consumption and cost of the diesel should be recorded - and then applied to SARS for rebate. While this all seems straight forward enough, problems arise when companies making claims under the diesel rebate scheme are accused of wrongdoing, with penalties of up to seven times more than the original rebate amounts claimed by SARS in compensation.

Did you know? Eligible farmers can claim back a rebate of 90c per/liter of diesel.

Do you qualify? Qualifying companies and activities include: • On-land mining • Forestry • Farming • Fishing • Coastwise shipping • Offshore mining • Rail freight • Electricity generation • National Sea Rescue Institute (NSRI)

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Diesel Rebate Update

All claims need to be supported by ‘books, accounts or documents’ recording vehicle details, vehicle use and dates, times and quantities of diesel used. If all these details are not included in a single logbook it does not mean a company is in breach. All companies will have records of their vehicles, their diesel consumption, the cost of this consumption, and a host of other records that can prove where the vehicles were and what they were used for. If all these different documents and records can be assembled to meet the requirements of the legislation then the company is not in breach and can confidently dispute the claims of the audit. Too often companies elect to prematurely settle with SARS, even when their claim is both legitimate and correct, simply because they have not understood how to interpret the legislation and assemble the required documentation. The trick is simply to identify, seek, find and correctly assemble all the information required. All companies should work within the spirit of the law to meet their tax obligations accurately and honestly in the interests of the country.

Contact SARS 0800 00 SARS (7277) www.sars.org.za Sources & Acknowledgements: Originally published by Money web, November 2012. Author:

Cliff Watson

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When, however, it comes to disputes with SARS, especially in the arena of the current diesel rebate system, companies that stand their ground and apply the letter of the law often find that with a little extra effort and evidence, they can more than satisfy SARS’ rebate qualification requirements. NB! See p. 38 for Vecto’s exclusive, tailor-made, state of the art tracking and Fleet Management Solution, that measures all the information required (and so much more) by SARS for a successful claim. This product forms part of Vecto’s complete solution and value proposition to decrease cost and ensure peace of mind.


DIR DIE TY INS SEL ERT

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Shedding some light on Fuel Contamination Diesel engines in vehicles and diesel powered equipment run better on clean uncontaminated diesel fuel. If diesel fuel has been in storage for longer than a few months there is a danger of contamination. The usable quality of diesel fuel becomes progressively worse the longer it is in a fuel storage tank. Most high quality diesel fuel suppliers will only guarantee their fuel for six months when in bulk fuel storage. Water Contamination The most common form of diesel fuel contamination is water. Water in stored diesel fuel is normally formed by condensation over time. Water contamination in the fuel storage system can lead to corrosion of the storage tank (depending on the materials used) and this corrosion can lead to further contamination of the fuel. Diesel fuel tainted by water can reduce the performance and fuel efficiency of diesel powered vehicles, generators and equipment. Water pollution can cause filter blockages and serious damage to parts of a generator or engine such as the injectors, pipelines, seals or gaskets. For standby generators, water in fuel can reduce the effective life of the engine, increase the risk of internal corrosion and result in equipment failure due to the fuel being too hydrolysed (tainted by water). Petroleum diesels typically hold 60ppm of suspended water. At this level, the water is almost insignificant as long as it is regularly used and replenished (and microbial contamination does not occur). Bio-diesels typically hold up to 25 times more suspended water than petroleum diesel. In recent years the worldwide introduction of bio-diesel has brought what was mainly a mariner’s fuel problem to every diesel fuel user. Biodiesel provides the perfect habitat for vigorous microbial growth. 26

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Dirty Diesel Insert

Consequently, the amount of exposure to natural condensation over time in an undisturbed storage tank before microbacteria proliferation begins is dramatically reduced. Deterioration in modern bio-fuel is much faster than in petroleum based fuels. Bacterial Contamination Growth of micro-organisms in petroleum products has been recorded since 1895. Water contamination of diesel fuel leads to the build-up of microbes, bacteria and sometimes fungi. These Colony Forming Units (CFUs) of micro-organisms feed on the fuel at water-fuel interface (where the water meets the fuel) until it becomes too heavy and floats to the bottom of the tank, quickly forming bio-films and sludge. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can produce corrosive acids and sticky residues. These undesired chemicals (broken down carbon chains) can further affect engine performance by reducing the combustible properties of the fuel and shortening the life of both engines and storage tanks. The resulting sludge and sticky residue within the diesel fuel can cause blocked filters, fuel lines and damage the precision fuel injectors that are vital to the efficient running of a diesel engine. Other fuels With the introduction of bio-fuels into petrol in the form of bioethanol, petrol, a once unaffected fuel, has now also become subject to the consequences of microbial contamination.

Did you know? Diesel is an organic fuel so it provides an ideal environment for microscopic fungi, yeast and bacteria to feed and grow. VECTO June 2013

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Wreck your rig

Diesel contamination can 28

VECTO June 2013

An article, previously published in FleetWatch, South Africa’s definitive trucking magazine, described how a new Isuzu truck came to an unhappy standstill after filling up with diesel from a retail fuel franchise. The cause of the breakdown was contaminated diesel which blocked the Isuzu’s fuel injection system, a problem that continues to plague truck owners around the country. At a conference held under the auspices of the South African Institute of Tribology, several diesel and truck engine experts shed light on the subject of how and why modern diesel engines fail - and how to prevent such failures. Attending the event was motoring journalist and Auto Dealer editor, Rob Handfield-Jones, who compiled this report which clearly highlights that top experts are painting a gloomy picture of fuel and lubricant contamination in South Africa. The good news is that South Africa’s diesel fuel is of good quality and undeserving of much of the criticism levelled at it. The bad news is that fuel contamination has been fingered as a leading cause of combustion-related diesel engine failures and critical deficiencies exist in ensuring cleanliness of diesel and lubricants along the supply chain. This emerged from a recent SA Institute of Tribology conference. At von Wielligh of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Pretoria was forthright about the problem. “A good (diesel) fuel requires good lubricity (lubricating qualities), must be clean and must not contain free water. South African refineries deliver a product which is on spec. The problem is not so much with the quality of our diesel as with what contaminants it picks up between the refinery gate and the engine.” Von Wielligh said that the latest diesel engines operate at fuel injection pressures of around 2,000 Bar (200MPa), with pressures of 2,800 Bar on the horizon. He said that the only way to make such pressures possible was to reduce tolerances in diesel engines to prevent leakage. “These are ugly pressures,” he commented. “Modern diesels have a higher output, smaller size, higher efficiency, longer life, longer service intervals and emit less pollution. But the tolerances required to make this possible mean that fuel cleanliness is critical.” According to von Wielligh, in modern diesel engines, dust


Dirty Diesel Insert just 2µm (thousandths of a millimetre, or ‘microns’) in diameter can cause fuel injector failure (the thickness of a human hair is 80µm). Dirt can cause deviations in the injector spray pattern which lead to jetting or dripping. Apart from washing lubricating oil off the cylinder walls, an incorrect injector pattern strips pistons of the layer of cooler air which prevents them from melting in the heat of combustion. Von Wielligh showed several examples of how catastrophic engine failure had been caused by faulty injector spray patterns which were directly related to dirt in the fuel system. He warned that even filters capable of removing particles as small as 2µm had not been sufficient to prevent injector failure in some cases. “The problem is that the standards of fuel cleanliness only address the mass of particle contamination, not the number of particles,” he said. He expressed concern that even though some contaminant particles were smaller than was considered necessary to cause injector failure, with enough of them present failure could happen anyway. He went on to say that the removal of sulphur from diesel had presented a huge challenge to tribologists and new additives have been required to restore the lubricity previously provided by sulphur compounds. Without sufficient lubricity, moving parts in a diesel engine fuel supply system, especially the fuel injector needles, can experience premature wear or failure. High fuel consumption can also result. Contaminants and crooks Other liquid contaminants can severely reduce lubricity. Von Wielligh said that a typical sample of diesel was able to withstand a load of 800N (Newtons) when subjected to a standardised test developed in the tribology laboratory at the University of Pretoria. However, a petrol/diesel mix withstood only a 300N load, and pure paraffin barely 100N. Water contamination also had dire effects and the lower lubricity of these liquids emerged as instrumental in engine failure. Von Wielligh expressed concern that some fuel resellers and service stations defraud diesel users by diluting diesel with cheaper paraffin. He quoted his own research which showed that a new injector running on paraffin failed after just 22 minutes of continuous running while a control injector running on diesel

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performed as normal. “If you see a service station offering diesel 20 cents cheaper per litre, ask yourself why,” he cautioned. “Put your foot down and drive on to the next service station.” Investigation into fuel additives has revealed that certain additives could improve lubricity and von Wielligh has used such agents to correct a series of engine failures he was asked to consult on in the United Kingdom. New carbon threat Von Wielligh highlighted a new problem in modern diesel engines: ‘Black Diesel’. Numerous operators have encountered a carbon residue in diesel which clogs fuel filters in a very short time. Research has shown that these residues only form in diesels with modern high-pressure injection systems running at above 1,450 bars. Although chemical engineers are still researching the exact reactions which take place, von Wielligh’s research has demonstrated that under conditions of high injection pressures, high shear forces and high heat, combined with high impact - all the conditions present in the injector tips of a modern diesel engine - the hydrocarbons in diesel fuel break down into hydrogen and carbon. Although this appears to have a minimal effect on lubricity, the recirculated fuel not used in a combustion cycle returns to the fuel tank and carries the carbon residue back through the fuel filters, causing premature blocking. Corporate ignorance Boet Olivier of Kleenoil SA, condition monitoring and contamination control specialist, was scathing of corporate South Africa’s sluggishness in ensuring that fuel and lubricating oil used in proprietary equipment remained free of contamination. “Lubrication excellence is as difficult to find as to realise,” he said, adding that most companies operate in what he called an environment of “ignorant incompetence” when it came to ensuring clean fuel and lubricants. He explained that bulk fuel and lubricant delivery trucks were often badly laden with dirt and other destructive contaminants such as water which were introduced into the fluids during the transit period from the refinery to the point of offloading. “In many instances, the fluids are further contaminated 30

VECTO June 2013


Dirty Diesel Insert through the supply chain into the machines due to poor working practices,” said Olivier. He added that quality assurance checks were not conducted due to lack of knowledge in the workplace and management’s reluctance to ensure training and development of the workforce with regard to lubrication best practices. He pointed out that fluid quality sampling practices were in many instances worthless - and a root cause of failures. Diesel samples for contaminant testing were, for example, often taken from the top of the tank. “Diesel is a low-viscosity liquid. The contaminants have settled to the bottom of the tanker not long after it is out of the refinery gate,” he said. “So the samples taken from the top are passed as clean and the dirt at the bottom of the tank is pumped into the client’s storage tanks when the tanker offloads.” Filter fiasco Olivier cited examples of where breathers on diesel storage tanks were not protected by filters, and where filter elements on both tank outlets and engine fuel systems had either failed due to contaminant overload or were not present at all. “I have struggled to get filter manufacturers to supply specs on the maximum contaminant load their filters can accept before they should be changed. If we had these figures, we could run a specific amount of fuel or lubricant through the filters, measure the increase in the filter’s weight, establish the rate of contaminant accumulation and then implement proper filter change schedules,” he explained. “Cleanliness is critical. I often see fuel dispensing points filthy dirty, without dust caps. Where is that dust going? Into the fuel.” He also criticised companies for not providing wash bays for cleaning construction machinery and heavy vehicles. “A dirty fuel or oil filler cap or breather is guaranteed to introduce contamination into the system. And dirt kills machinery operating at close tolerances.” Olivier concluded that cross-contamination is common; mobile service vehicles use the same pumps to supply different kinds of lubricants, and non-standard containers are being used. “In one case,” he said, “I saw a worker filling a gumboot with oil so he could top up his truck’s oil level! And sadly, the practice was condoned by his superior.”

Sources & Acknowledgements This article first appeared in AutoDealer. Copyright (c) AutoDealer/Caxton 2006. The original article was restructured for publication in FleetWatch.

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Pure or paraffin? Paraffin in diesel will cost you in the long-run Economic supply and demand phenomena, as well as efforts to make paraffin more affordable to the poor, have resulted in a large price difference between diesel and paraffin. Unscrupulous fuel suppliers stand to make large profits by fraudulently diluting diesel with paraffin or simply selling paraffin as diesel. Save now pay later Both petrol and diesel are subject to a government-imposed tax of approximately R3 per litre. Paraffin is not subject to any tax; even VAT is no longer applicable. The significant price difference between diesel and paraffin has become a very attractive incentive for unscrupulous suppliers to spike their diesel supplies; the supplier saves R3 on every litre of paraffin that he adds to diesel. Dishonest distributors usually add about 30% paraffin to diesel. So, if a tank contains 21,000 litres of which 14,000 litres are diesel and 7,000 litres are paraffin, the supplier earns an extra R21, 000 in just one load. In addition, farmers are able to claim a diesel rebate from SARS (see p. 22), who in most instances have never even received the original tax on that “diesel�. It is important to bear in mind that if it seems too good to be true, it most likely is, and the initial bargain will eventually end up costing more, not only in terms of expense, but also in terms of down-time, trouble and inconvenience. The lubricating properties of diesel are critical to the longevity of modern fine-clearance diesel injection systems. Paraffin’s lubrication properties are far inferior and cannot be improved with engine oil. Moreover, adulterated diesel may have inferior ignition properties resulting in burnt valves and overheating. Manufacturers of engines and fuel injection systems are able 32

VECTO June 2013


Dirty Diesel Insert to determine whether the presence of excessive paraffin dilution is responsible for equipment failure. At least seven major tractor suppliers have issued a joint statement to the effect that engine failures as a result of using adulterated diesel will not be covered by their warranties. Unfortunately, adulterated diesel is not always easy to identify. It may look and even smell like regular diesel. Am I being misled? Vecto’s aim is to expose such dishonest practices and to encourage diesel users to test their product to ensure that it is untainted. This will also be helpful in the event that consumers have been cheated and would like to claim against the perpetrators.

Independent tests Vecto recently conducted independent tests among 45 rival suppliers in Limpopo, the Lowveld and Mapumalangha, and found that in most cases paraffin was present; in some cases even a shocking 38%.

Contact SARS

0800 00 SARS (7277) Vecto test kits Vecto aspires to supply nothing but 100% pure diesel and is willing to prove it by providing a Vecto Test Kit to any consumer who may be in doubt. (See p. 36 to claim a free test kit today).

Sources:

Rodac Diesel Injection Services – www.rodac.co.za

SGS Laboratories SGS is the world’s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification company. SGS is one of the laboratories that can test diesel products and provide results regarding the percentage of paraffin in your diesel within three days. According to SARS up to 5% paraffin in diesel will be premissable. Dishonest conduct can also be reported to SARS RFTU Unit. Do the right thing by naming and shaming perpetrators, and assist us in combatting such practices. In this way diesel prices across the board will be brought down. At present, honest distributors cannot compete with the dishonest practices, which means that sufficient volumes are not being ordered to offer customers better pricing. What about winter blending? Although it is true that diesel is routinely cut back at refineries with small amounts of paraffin (to improve flow qualities in winter), it is important to note that the theory is totally unscientific and a very harmful practice. Even if the practice were effective, it is unlikely that South Africa will ever reach temperatures to justify this practice (-9.5 ° C). VECTO June 2013

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Dealing with dirty diesel Vehicle owner tips

1. If your diesel vehicle is not used frequently, keep the tank topped up to reduce condensation occurring. 2. Have your vehicle serviced regularly. 3. Pay particular attention to fuel filters and change them regularly. 4. Have your vehicle checked immediately if the engine starts to cut out, particularly if you have only just filled your tank. 5. Be extra vigilant of microbial contamination when filling from low volume containers such as farm tanks. 6. Consider sticking to one service station so you are more likely to prove the source of your fuel if it is found to be contaminated. 7. Keep fuel receipts as proof of purchase if any problems occur. 8. Familiarise yourself with the warning signs for contaminated fuel in your vehicle.

Signs of contaminated fuel • • • • • • • •

The need to replace fuel filters significantly more often than your baseline Frequent cleaning or replacement of fuel injectors Premature wearing of rings and cylinder liners Excessive blow-by or an increase in oil consumption Increase in fuel consumption Fuel discolouration Rotten fuel smell Black exhaust smoke

Any and all of these symptoms can indicate contamination and microbial infestation, whether in your own storage tank or with your supplier Sources & Acknowledgements: National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA). The diesel supplied by Vecto not only conforms to but exceeds the required standards set by the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS). 34

VECTO June 2013


Dirty Diesel Insert

DIESEL 101:

Diesel dilution explained Diesel dilution is also a common cause of engine failure. It causes the viscosity of oil to drop dramatically; the more diesel, the lower the viscosity; the lower the viscosity, the weaker the film strength. Diesel readings of around 0.5% can often be reduced by controlling excessive idling times; however any reading over 1% should be acted on as this will cause a significant viscosity drop of approximately 20% or more. The higher the diesel dilution, the lower the flash point, which means that a crank case can ignite if the sump temperature reaches 130°C with 6% diesel dilution, which is the temperature at which that concentration of fuel vaporises and becomes explosive. Care needs to be taken when interpreting diesel levels because the diesel in certain forms of unburned fuel can cause excessive sludging in the oil. This can cause the viscosity to increase and the oil to thicken to the point where it cannot be pumped in the engine, causing catastrophic failure due to oil starvation. New engines have been known to fail as a result of this because of inefficient combustion cause by over fuelling, which can also be indicated by excessive exhaust emissions. Always check a positive diesel reading because black smoke and high soot levels not only mean increased and excessive wear to an engine, but also equate to money burning out the exhaust pipe. Soot particles are four times more abrasive than dust particles and are a significant contributor to wear. They get larger as combustion efficiency decreases. Never wash or flush equipment with diesel as any residue remaining will dilute the new oil reducing its viscosity and destroying the oil’s integrity. Sources & Acknowledgements: Clean Oil Services Pty. Ltd. VECTO June 2013

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R YOU M I A O CL VECT ! FREE EST KIT T L E DIES -MAIL : za E .co. cto

@ve

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VECTO PETROLEUM: CLEAN DIESEL GUARANTEED Free only at

Vecto’s antibodybased Diesel Test Kits were developed to recognise any form of illicit mixing of Diesel with Illuminating Paraffin. Vecto: Committed to cleaning the Diesel industry

00 - April 2013 VECTO 36 VECTO April 2013

VECTO VALUEADDED PRODUCT VECTO April 2013 - 00

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5 Fuel-saving tips... For fleet owners 1. Keep up the pressure: Underinflated tyres not only contribute to blow-outs but also decrease fuel efficiency. A truck tyre can run five degrees hotter for every bar that it is underinflated and every 10 bar that a tyre is underinflated reduces fuel economy by 1%. 2. Get in shape: Approximately half the energy of a truck traveling at 88km/h is used to simply move the air around that truck and at 104km/h that increases to two-thirds. For highway driving, every 2% reduction in aerodynamic drag gains a 1% improvement in fuel economy. Weigh the cost of adding aerodynamic treatments on top of the roof or under the trailer against the fuel savings you will gain. 3. Play it straight: Tyres that are misaligned pull sideways, resulting in lower fuel economy. A tyre that is misaligned only one-quarter degree from straight will try and travel 3-5m sideways for each km. Keep all axles – drive and steer – aligned.

5. Reduce idling time: Reducing the time your engine is idling is an effective method for saving fuel. It is good to shut the engine down after three minutes of idle time. BONUS TIP! Use Vecto’s Fleet Management solution: This system provides a graph and summary of all idling per trip and per day for each vehicle.

Do you have any tried and tested fuel saving tips?

Send them to us before 20 July 2013, and you could win a Tablet! The first 30 entrants will receive the Mega Lube Performance En* Ts & Cs apply

4. Take it easy: In general, shifting at the low end of the rpm range decreases fuel consumption, particularly in lower gears. Each engine is different, so be sure to read your owner and driver manuals to achieve the best performance.

WIN Tabl a et!

hancer (see p. 51). While the reader who submits the best tip will receive a Tablet*!

VECTO June 2013

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FOLLOW YOUR FLEET with a customisable web-based GPS tracking systems

Vecto Tracking story

Vecto Petroleum has partnered with Asset Data Lynx to bring our clients a variety of fleet management systems aimed at safeguarding, managing and tracking their most valuable assets and resources. The Fleet Management Solution (FMS) and the more affordable Vehicle Tracking Solution (VTS) are both customisable web-based GPS systems, providing businesses tools to better manage their fleets. Viable, low-cost, portable, self-powered, real-time tracker. Benefits • • • • • • • • •

Minimise fleet costs Maximise fleet usefulness Reduce overall fuel costs Deter theft Monitor driving habits Improve driver efficiency Obtain essential information Efficiently manage equipment Increase dispatching capabilities

00 - April 2013 VECTO

www.vecto.co.za

VECTO VALUEADDED PRODUCT VECTO April 2013 - 00


Did you know?

The answer is in the SMOKE We can generally understand what is wrong with a diesel engine by the colours of smoke emitted from the exhaust. There are three basic colours black, white and blue.

Black smoke Black smoke indicates an air to fuel ratio imbalance. Either the fuel system is delivering too much fuel into the engine or there is not enough clean air (oxygen). A few things to look for include:

?

• F aulty injectors, defective or incorrect atomisers (injectors need attention at about 100,000 to 120,000Kms) • Faulty injector pump • Incorrect fuel injection pump timing or incorrect valve timing • Poor engine compression • Dirty air cleaner • T urbocharger or intercooler faulty, poor boost pressure • P roblems within cylinder head, valves clogged up due to faulty EGR (exhaust gas recycling unit)

White Smoke White smoke usually indicates that the fuel injected into the cylinder is not burning correctly. The smoke will burn your eyes. Causes of white smoke include the following:

• Engine/pump timing out • F uel starvation to the pump causing the pumps timing not to operate correctly • Low engine compression • Water/petrol in the fuel

Blue smoke Blue smoke indicates that the engine is burning engine oil. Check for the following causes: • Worn cylinders or piston rings • Faulty valves or valve stem seals • Engine over full with engine oil

• E xhaust system restriction

• F aulty injector pump/lift pump allowing engine oil to be mixed with the diesel

• Defective “thermostart” (cold starting aid)

• Incorrect grade of oil used

• Incorrect valve clearances

• Poor compression

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Diesel Gas Africa The most cost-effective way to save you fuel

Diesel gas is the injection of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) into diesel engines. Diesel Gas Africa (DGA) was designed around the combined expertise of specialists from multiple industries, using proprietary non-invasive technology (meaning no engine modification), quality hardware and advanced control systems. By combining LPG with diesel the following benefits are achieved: • Total fuel cost saving of 8-10 % • Reduced carbon emission of +/- 10% • Increased power by 8-12 % • Increased range of +/- 20% per tank of diesel • Reduced driver fatigue • Reduced maintenance costs 40

VECTO June 2013


Product profile

DGA in association with International standards The DGA system is developed and designed in accordance with: Australian/New Zealand Standards AS/NZS 1425:2007 EU Standard: ECE R67/01 & 10 EMC R10-02 SANS 20067:2006. Emissions The Protection of the Environment Operations (Clean Air) Regulation 2002 - Clause 9 makes it an offence for any vehicle to emit visible exhaust smoke for a continuous period of more than 10 seconds. The single biggest emission difference you will notice is the reduction in black smoke under load. Testing with a five-gas analyser has shown reductions in other emissions. Diesel/Gas Australia are currently conducting full emissions testing and the results will be available soon. Unlike most other performance modifications, emissions are reduced when combining LPG with diesel. This is particularly important with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) targeting diesel vehicles. Emissions aside, black smoke is an indicator of unburnt fuel, so if your vehicle is producing excessive black smoke this may mean

VECTO VALUEADDED PRODUCT

Going Green Autogas is widely used as a “green� fuel because it decreases exhaust emissions. In particular, it reduces CO2 emissions by around 35% compared to petrol.

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FUEL PRICE PREDICTION

it is not running as efficiently as it could be, affecting economy and power. By using LPG as a catalyst near complete combustion occurs, reducing black smoke and increasing efficiency. Safety aspects Low pressure In the event of a low gas pressure (by accident or gas loss) to the system, the solenoid on the gas tank shuts down, and no gas flows to the engine. Engine temperature The gas bending system will not operate until the engine temperature is at 40째 C. (The gas mapping will show fumigation, however, no gas will be released.) Low voltage In the event of a drop in voltage, the system shuts down all gas flow; this is to prevent the unnecessary flow of unmeasured gas into the engine. Idle speed The system is set for the injection of gas to turn off at idle. Braking Under braking conditions, by foot brake or exhaust brake, the system is set to shut off the injection of gas. 42

VECTO June 2013


CRUDE OIL PRICE PREDICTION

Product profile

Autogas Autogas refers to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles, as well as in stationary applications such as generators. It is a mixture of propane and butane. Autogas means a guaranteed saving on your bottom-line and leads to improved trip times and lower maintenance costs for the whole fleet, reduced driver overtime and fatigue, as well as improved corporate image and contribution to environmentally friendly business practice. Dual-fuel operation Diesel engines are compression ignition engines and lack spark plugs. To operate a diesel engine with an alternate combustible fuel source such as natural gas as the main fuel, diesel oil is used for the ignition of the gas/air mixture inside the cylinder (a portion of diesel oil is injected at the end of the compression stroke, thereby maintaining the original diesel operation principle). Dual-fuel operation means the engine uses two fuels (gas and diesel oil) at the same time, as opposed to bi-fuel, which would mean the engine could have the option of using either fuel separately.

Contact Us Anton Potgieter, Director 082 926 0820 anton@dgafrica.com Dave Malherbe, Technical 084 970 0280 dave@dgafrica.com

Sources & Acknowledgements: Diesel Gas Africa VECTO June 2013

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DIESEL

in South Africa: 50ppm vs. 500ppm 44

VECTO June 2013


Diesel Grading Effective since 2006, the Department of Minerals and Energy entered into legislation two grades of diesel with maximum sulphur levels of 500 parts per million (ppm) and 50ppm respectively. While all diesel vehicles benefit from the use of low-sulphur diesel, the 50ppm grade was specifically introduced to accommodate the increasing number of new technology diesel vehicles entering the South African market. These new engines are designed to operate on current European diesel fuel which has a maximum sulphur level of 50ppm, and to allow the introduction of new technology particle filter equipped diesel vehicles. These engines should only use diesel fuel with a sulphur level not exceeding 50ppm. The 50ppm low sulphur grade is now being marketed by an increasing number of oil companies in South Africa alongside the standard 500ppm grade. Currently Vecto has access to some of the best quality 50ppm diesel in South africa and will import increasing stock levels in future. Major concerns regarding presence of sulphur in fuels: a) Health effect Sulphur is the most important fuel parameter affecting exhaust emissions. It contributes significantly to fine particulate matter (PM) emissions through the formation of sulphates - both in the exhaust stream and later in the atmosphere. The sulphur contained in diesel fuel is likely to be transformed into gaseous sulphur compounds in the oxidation catalyst contained in the DPF system, and may be transformed through secondary sulphate particulates in the atmosphere. The use of sulphur-free fuels in vehicles with DPF systems is recommended to avoid this phenomenon. b) Technology limitation Another reason for introducing lower sulphur fuels is to allow for the introduction of emissions control devices that can significantly reduce vehicle emissions. These technologies are already in place and are continuously being improved to further control vehicle emissions. However, these technologies generally require specific fuel qualities, often including low-sulphur levels. The presence of sulphur in fuels restricts the possibilities to use or introduce emissions control technologies. Furthermore, the efficiency of some exhaust after-treatment systems is reduced as fuel sulphur content increases, while others are rendered permanently ineffective through sulphur poisoning.

Did you know? On average, modern diesel vehicles burn 30% less fuel and produce 25% less CO2 emissions than petrol vehicles. Diesel contains sulphur, however, which can be damaging to the environment. Standard diesel is classified as 500ppm. Lowering the ppm concentration of sulphur results in better diesel. Due to an additional refining process, lowsulphur diesel is ten times cleaner with only 50ppm of sulphur.

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c) Vehicle effect: The presence of sulphur in diesel fuel can lead to the corrosion and wear of engine components. This can have a significant impact on engine life. Benefits of using low-sulphur diesel • Reduced corrosion wear to piston rings, cylinder liners and exhaust system • Longer engine life and less-frequent rebuilds • Less-frequent oil changes • Longer exhaust system life and less-frequent replacements Superior additives With the inclusion of a superior additive package the 50ppm grade of diesel fuel in South Africa is clearly positioned as a premium product. It also offers further benefits: 1. Increased detergent additives • Prevents the build-up of deposits on injector nozzles and even removes existing deposits • Cleans-up the injection system allowing better combustion and increases injector life considerably • Reduces downtime while maintaining the fuel system components • Lowers fuel consumption • Extends life of the engine as piston and general engine sludge and wear are reduced 2. Superior oxidation inhibitors Oxidation inhibitors reduce fuel degradation and propensity to form deposits. Unless suitable additives are included in lowsulphur diesel, it increases the wear of fuel system components and adversely affects filter life as a result of clogging by depositforming sludge. As sulphur levels are reduced, fuel stability requires special attention. Inadequate thermal stability can result in fuel filter plugging. As fuel injection system pressures and temperatures increase, it may be more appropriate to measure the thermal oxidative stability of diesel fuel rather than only long-term storage stability. 3. Lubricity enhancers and anti-wear additives: The process of reducing the sulphur level in diesel fuel reduces 46

VECTO June 2013


Diesel Grading the natural lubricity of the fuel, which can cause increased wear in fuel pumps and other engine components. The purpose of the lubricity and anti-wear additives is thus to: •

Protect fuel pumps and injectors

Improve injector life

Extend fuel system service life

4. Cetane number improvers • The Cetane number is a measure of the compression ignition behaviour of diesel fuel. It influences cold startability, exhaust emissions and combustion noise. • Increasing the Cetane number decreases the engine crank time at a given engine speed. Under cold start conditions, higher Cetane number fuels ignite more readily and at start-up have less white smoke (caused by unburned fuel). • For light duty vehicles, significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide can be achieved by increasing the Cetane number. • To the driver, the most noticeable effect of higher Cetane fuels is the reduction in the diesel engine knock combustion noise. • An increase in natural Cetane has been shown to reduce fuel consumption. 5. Anti-foam additive Diesel fuel has a tendency to generate foam during tank filling which slows the process and risks an overflow. Anti-foaming agents are added to the fuel as a component of a multifunctional additive package to help speed up or to allow more complete filling of vehicle fuel tanks. Their use also minimises the likelihood of fuel splashing on the ground which in turn reduces the risk of spills polluting the ground and atmosphere. Advantages include: • Quicker, safer and cleaner refuelling • Less foam is generated and collapses within a third of the time 6. Anti-corrosion additive It is not uncommon for small amounts of water to be present in diesel fuel. The purpose of the anti-corrosion additive is to provide increased protection against corrosion in fuel tanks and pipelines, as well as the injectors and the injector pump. VECTO June 2013

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Standing the test of time

Mega Lube is fast becoming the leader in the lubricant and grease industry

IN PROUD ASSOCIATION WITH VECTO Recognising Value “As the market over the past few years has become increasingly aware of the need for good lubricants, more and more companies are recognising the outstanding quality offered by our range of products,� says Bruce Ireland, Director of Mega Lube. He adds that, over the last four years Mega Lube has experienced a twenty-fold growth and is currently amongst the largest independent lubricant producers in South Africa, offering an extensive range of lubricants. 48

VECTO June 2013


Mega Lube Product profile According to Ireland, it is not that easy to produce a new product and introduce it to the market, not to mention educating consumers with regard to the benefits of using lubricants for advanced operation. Mega Lube’s thorough approach has been favourably greeted by mining enterprises, the trucking industry and the agricultural sector, hailing them as industry leaders. They are constantly emerging with new products. Mega Lube was not only the first company to offer a refill sachet for lubricating sprays, but also the first to independently develop a fully degradable lubricant. Mega Lube’s production growth has shot up to 500,000t mineral oil a month, 80,000t synthetic products and 90t of grease per month. Their plant in Alberton is already operating at full capacity and another plant is being erected in Heidelberg. At the heart of the company, the laboratory has recently been upgraded with the latest testing technology to ensure that the superior quality for which Mega Lube have become known is maintained. An automatic system for measuring viscosity, as well as a new spectrometer, offering faster, more detailed oil composition analysis has also been added. Independent third-party analysis is still employed, but they are now able to expand their service offerings to include the regular testing of a client’s equipment. Special lubricants Mega Lube’s product range has expanded to such an extent that it now also includes special greases and oils for use in specific applications. Consumers are presented lubricants with low consumption which offer protection against corrosion for open gear systems, specialised oils for compressors and a range of food-grade lubricants. Mega Lube has also developed degradable oils, making them the first company to produce fully degradable and soluble lubricants. The mess caused by the refilling of hand-lubricating sprays encouraged Mega Lube to create the refill sachet. To refill the spray, simply place the full bag into the sprayer. This avoids any grease spills, eliminates product wastage and ensures

As the saying goes: Experience is the best teacher, and we believe that the positive results that our clients have experienced over the years is proof that our recipe works and that our clients are pleased with our products. – Mega Lube

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Mega Lube Product profile

that the grease itself is not contaminated. The petrochemical lubricant industry is not only highly competitive, but includes its fair share of opportunists. For this reason, Mega Lube works particularly hard at maintaining a reliable and creditworthy reputation.

Top quality without a doubt Vecto is so pleased with the quality of Mega Lube products that we currently offer ONLY Mega Lube’s oil and lubricant products to our customers. Sources & Acknowledgements: Originally published in Spilpunt, March 2013 50

VECTO June 2013

Years of hard work have finally paid off, and Mega Lube can proudly announce that their engine oils have been endorsed by the Manufacturers of Original Equipment (OEMs) such as Cummins, MTU, Mercedes, Volvo and Komatsu. This is a major achievement for any independent mixer. The quality of engine oil is determined by the standards set by the American Petroleum institute, who clearly mark each and every container. Make sure you see the symbol denoting their authorization or the OEM logo on the label before purchasing your oil. Just as healthy blood is essential to sustain life, oil is the essential lifeblood of an engine. It really is the most affordable way to extend the life of your engine.


Product profile

MEGA LUBE DIESEL INJECTOR CONDITIONER

Even though diesel is the most commonly used fuel within South Africa’s commercial, agricultural and mining industries, it is prone to problems relating to incomplete combustion, deposits and poor emissions. Diesel deposit build-up on injectors and valves, as well as in combustion chambers can have a negative impact on a vehicles performance. While low sulphur diesel (50ppm) tends to have far less natural lubricity, all number two diesel fuels are predisposed to cold weather gelling problems. Mega Lube Diesel Injector Conditioner is a detergent/dispersant additive for automotive diesel fuels, which aids in enhancing lubricity properties and combatting cold weather complications. Mega Lube is fast becoming a market leader in petrochemical performance lubricants and greases. Benefits

TO VEC OUD PR OF IS A LIER E P B SUP GA LU S E CT M DU O R P 00 - April 2013 VECTO

Prevents engine deposits

Prevents rust formation

Prevents/ treats clogged injectors

Prevents foaming

Prevents water build-up

Prevents microbial contamination

Prevents filter and injector plugging

Decreases exhaust smoke

Decreases friction

Decreases maintenance costs

Decreases oil burning

Increases fuel mileage

Improves fuel economy

Eases cold weather start-ups

Sheds water

Extends engine life

Caution: If swallowed, do not induce vomiting. Seek immediate medical attention.

www.vecto.co.za VECTO April 2013 - 00 VECTO April 2013

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Every step of the way... Your partner in success

VECTO PETROLEUM 52

info@vecto.co.za

VECTO April 2013

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