.CREATE Creative Technology Bachelorâ€™s programme WO From the Initial accreditation application dossier
Chapters 2 and 3 of Part A: The assessment criteria About Competencies Version: 3.0 11 January 2010
Dr. G.F. van der Hoeven Creative Technology Programme Educational Director Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science
2. Aims and objectives of the Creative Technology programme In this chapter we discuss the intended learning outcomes of the Creative Technology programme from three perspectives: what are the subject-specific requirements for the learning outcomes, are the learning outcomes at Bachelorâ€™s level, and are the learning outcomes in correspondence with a Bachelorâ€™s qualification with a WO (academic) orientation?
2.1 The final qualifications The intended learning outcomes of the Creative Technology curriculum are captured by the following 12 final qualifications for the Creative Technology graduate. We shall often refer to specific qualifications by their name rather than their number. The names are in boldface. 1. The graduate is skilled in problem-finding, idea and concept generation, and in the identification of opportunities for the exploitation of new technology; can develop concepts and ideas, using the latest tools, into key prototypes. (Concept generation and prototype development) 2. The graduate can evaluate concepts and ideas from the viewpoints of functionality, performance, experience, user acceptance and usability, marketing and societal implications (issues like privacy and security); he can present the results of his evaluation in an understandable manner. (Evaluation of concepts) 3. The graduate understands the workflow of a design process, can plan such a design process, and is aware of the effects that unforeseen circumstances (new ideas, new requirements, lack of resources) may have on this planning. (Understanding and planning the design process) 4. The graduate can assume a role in a multi-disciplinary team, is aware of personal strengths and weaknesses, can develop a personal vision and can capture requirements and knowledge from different fields of specialization. (Collaboration and multidisciplinarity) 5. The graduate knows the relevant theories underpinning graphic design in all its aspects (including the use of colour and motion, the combination of text and other visual means, and even the combination of graphics and sound) (Skills and knowledge in graphic design) 6. The graduate knows the relevant (web technology, databases, dynamic and control systems) technologies to be used, and the relationships they have to one another and to graphic and motion design (qualification 5), concerning both principles and functionality. In addition to this, each student has additional technological knowledge, which concerns, depending on his specialization, either knowledge of (serious) games and 3D (virtual) environments or knowledge of sensors, wireless communication and electronics. (Knowledge of technology) 7. The graduate can implement algorithms and combine principles from physics and mathematics at the level required to demonstrate an application. (Skills in technology) 8. The graduate can analyze and classify system behaviour and express the analysis in mathematical models; he can use tools to perform simulations, he is capable of critical evaluation of his simulations. (Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation) 9. The graduate knows how to develop a business plan. (Business knowledge) 10. The graduate is aware of the roles of designers in society, and the standards (ethically and legally) for professional behaviour. (Roles in society) 11. The graduate can communicate with experts and non-experts about all aspects of his field, i.e. firstly concerning concepts, ideas, opportunities, and design workflow (qualifications1,3), secondly concerning evaluation of concepts (qualification 2), and finally concerning prototype development and technological and modelling issues (1,6,7,8); this communication covers presentation, justification and documentation, and (to a limited extent) scientific debate; in this communication the graduate knows how to employ modern media.(Communication) 12. The graduate is capable of logical reasoning, is inquisitive and capable of posing proper questions, can critically evaluate results obtained (by himself and others), is capable of critical reflection and can adapt his behaviour on the basis of that reflection, and is aware of gaps in his own knowledge and skills, is prepared to learn and capable of learning. (Basic academic attitude)
2.2 Subject-specific requirements Criterion: The intended learning outcomes of the programme correspond with the requirements set by professional colleagues, both nationally and internationally and the domain concerned (i.e. the programme subject/discipline). Our argument that Creative Technology meets this criterion is summarized in the two tables 2.1 and 2.2. The left columns of these tables refer to an academic and a professional frame of reference which is explained below. 2.1 ACADEMIC FRAMEWORK VS FINAL QUALIFICATIONS Academic Framework Design thinking Rationality and control
Qualification Concept generation and prototype development (1) Collaboration and multidisciplinarity (4) Evaluation of concepts (2) Understanding and planning the design process (3) Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation (8) Skills and knowledge in graphic design (5) Collaboration and multidisciplinarity (4) Knowledge of technology (6) Skills in technology (7) Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation (8)
2.2. PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES VS FINAL QUALIFICATIONS Professional competency Idea and concept generation Evaluation (also business perspective)
Broad and reliable technical skills
Qualification Concept generation and prototype development (1) Evaluation of concepts (2) Business knowledge (9) Roles in society (10) Knowledge of technology (6) Skills in technology (7) Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation (8)
The academic viewpoint Firstly, from the academic viewpoint, our domain specific frame of reference is the following. The Creative Technology graduate qualifies as a designer. We adhere to a view on design which opposes the “sciences of the artificial” to the “sciences of the natural”. This opposition was introduced by Herbert Simon in his book Sciences of the Artificial1 Simon defines design as “a way to improve situations”. He argues that rational and analytical ways of thinking work well when it comes to understanding situations. But they are not by definition the most productive when it comes to improving situations. In design thinking, cultural and emotional aspects are important. Phrases that apply to design thinking are: collaborative, experimental, personal, interpretive, integrative. The competencies for problem-finding, idea and concept generation, and to identify opportunities for the use of technology, which are key competencies of the Creative Technology graduate, are “design thinking” skills. But it is generally acknowledged that a designer needs more than competencies for idea and concept generation. The other key competence is evaluation of concepts. This concerns the evaluation of concepts and ideas in many respects. Realizability and functionality are such aspects. User acceptance, usability and appeal are such aspects. And finally, evaluation of concepts relates to social and cultural context in
Simon, Herbert, A. (1996), The Sciences of the Artificial, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ISBN 0262691914
general, and legal and ethical issues. The evaluation often relies more on the graduate’s analytical thinking capabilities. Many phrases are used to distinguish so called design disciplines, and the boundaries between such disciplines are often vague. In some cases, the characteristics of the discipline are primarily determined by what is being designed. In other cases the discipline is characterized primarily by the specific view on designing. In most cases the features of the discipline are a bit of both: the artefacts that are being designed as well as the way the design process is viewed. Design disciplines with a long tradition are graphic design and industrial design2. Design in this tradition is often considered to be both applied arts and engineering. There are close connections between Creative Technology and especially graphic design. But the more central concept for Creative Technology is Experience design (which is primarily a way of looking at design, and not so much about what is being designed). The phrase “experience design” was coined by Aarts and Marzano to mean the following: Experience design (XD) is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience and culturally relevant solutions, with less emphasis placed on increasing and improving functionality of the design3. An emerging discipline, experience design attempts to draw from many sources including cognitive psychology and perceptual psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, architecture and environmental design, haptics, hazard analysis, product design, information design, information architecture, ethnography, brand management, interaction design, service design, storytelling, heuristics, and design thinking. The qualifications of the Creative Technology graduate are for design in the area of digital applications. The secondary theme is design in the area of communications, in particular the communications design which leans heavily on ICT. The third and final theme is design in the area of commerce, again with emphasis on design of ICT based new products and services. Design in the area of digital applications leans on engineering. The engineering aspects of the intended learning outcomes are typically ACM/IEEE subjects: communication and (wireless) networks, computing and software, control and dynamical systems, sensors, and web technology. In this frame of reference for design and engineering, the intended learning outcomes of the programme correspond with the requirements set both nationally and internationally for the programme subject as indicated in table 2.1.
The professional viewpoint Secondly, from the professional viewpoint, our frame of reference is essentially The Strategic Research Agenda of the ICT Innovation Platform Creative Industry4, which discusses the development of ICT and its impact on the job market. The IIP/CREATE viewpoints have been validated in discussions with representatives of the professional field (in particular the members of the Advisory Board.) Starting point for IIP/CREATE are the notions of Creating Class and Creative Industry. The IIP/CREATE definition of Creative Industry starts from Rutten’s5: definition (see Part C). But, unlike Rutten, IIP/CREATE uses the word Creating not primarily to identify products and consumer characteristics. IIP/CREATE takes the concept of creative industry as a starting point to define types of creative professionals. These types of professionals are active in arts, media and entertainment, and creative services but certainly also in other markets and industries.
Of course the meaning of what industrial and graphic design is, has changed over the years. We use graphic design as a ‘container’ notion for design of any kind of visual interface between users and content. 3
Aarts, Emile H. L.; Stefano Marzano (2003), The New Everyday: Views on Ambient Intelligence. 010 Publishers, p. 46. ISBN 9789064505027. 4
IIP/CREATE, ict innovation platform creative industry (2008), Strategic Research Agenda
Rutten, P., W. Manshanden, J. Muskens & O. Koops (2004), De creatieve industrie in Amsterdam en de regio, TNO Rapport STB 04-29.
2.3 Bachelor level Criterion: The intended learning outcomes of the programme correspond with the general, internationally accepted descriptions of a Bachelor’s qualification. We argue that Creative Technology meets this criterion using the seven areas of competency distinguished by Meijers e.a. in their “Criteria for Academic Bachelor’s and Master’s Curricula”6 as our frame of reference. Meijers’ criteria are adopted by the federation of technical universities in the Netherlands. They can be regarded (in Meijers’ own words) as “a translation into operational terms for universities of the far broader Dublin descriptors”. Meijers’ criteria are in particular more explicit than Dublin descriptors about specific qualities in design and engineering. Table 2.3 shows how Meijers’ criteria are met by the final qualifications of Creative Technology. Below we explain the nature of Meijers’ areas of competency (which are in the left column of the table) and their relationship to the qualifications of Creative Technology graduate in more detail.
Meijers, A.W.M., Van Overveld, C.W.A.M, and Perrenet, J.C., Criteria voor Academische Bachelor en Master Curricula, ISBN 90-386-2217-1
2.3. MEIJERS’ CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES Meijers’ criteria Competent in one or more scientific disciplines
Competent in doing research Competent in designing
Basic intellectual skills Competent in communicating and cooperating Takes the temporal and social context into account
Implied by learning outcomes Skills and knowledge in graphic design (5) Knowledge of technology (6) Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation (8) Basic academic attitude (12) Concept generation and prototype development (1) Collaboration and multidisciplinarity (4) Concept generation and prototype development (1) Understanding and planning the design process (3) Collaboration and multidisciplinarity (4) Basic academic attitude (12) Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation (8) Communication (11) Basic academic attitude (12) Communication (11) Collaboration and multidisciplinarity (4) Evaluation of concepts (2) Business knowledge (9) Role in society (10)
Meijers’ seven areas of competency in relation to the Creative Technology final qualifications 1. The first area of competency concerns familiarity with existing scientific knowledge and the skills to learn (competent in one or more scientific disciplines). In this area the intended learning outcomes imply for the graduate • That he understands the basic principles underpinning relevant areas of engineering and design. The emphasis is on methods and techniques rather than on theory. • That he understands the relationships between these areas of engineering and design. The emphasis here is not so much on understanding the structure of an entire scientific domain (like Electrical Engineering, or Computer Science), but rather on understanding the lines between subfields in various domains. • That he knows how phenomena are modelled. The emphasis is on mathematical modelling of physical phenomena and dynamical systems. • That he is aware of gaps or inconsistencies in his own knowledge and in his understanding of his subject and that can revise his understanding and fill the knowledge gaps, with a suitable but restricted amount of expert support. 2. The second area of competency concerns the skills to develop new knowledge and insight in a methodical and purposeful approach (competent in doing research). In this area the intended learning outcomes have restricted implications for the graduate. The implications for the graduate are: • That he is observant and that he has the skills and creativity to discover connections and new viewpoints, also in seemingly trivial matters. • That he understands the importance of disciplines other than his own • That he can contribute, under supervision and in a limited fashion, to the development of scientific knowledge 3. The third area of competency concerns the skills and knowledge to design, i.e. to plan activities for the construction and introduction of new (or renewed) artefacts which serve a welldefined purpose (competent in designing). This is a key area of competency for the graduate. The implications of the learning outcomes in this area for the graduate are:
• • • • • •
That is capable to (re)structure (ill-posed) design questions and to defend his views on the question posed That he has creativity and synthetic skills in designing. That he is aware of the workflow in the construction and introduction of new artefacts, and that he can plan this workflow (under supervision). That he is familiar with interdisciplinary work That he is aware of the variable nature of design due to changing circumstances and growing insight That he can incorporate existing knowledge (especially in the areas of smart technology and/or new media) in his design
4. The fourth area of competency is scientific approach. Some aspects of this area, like being inquisitive, having a (life-long) learning attitude, being aware of the necessity to document and publish results are central for the graduate. Others (like insight in methodological aspects of the research area, in the nature of theories, and in the role of experiments) are of limited interest. The learning outcomes imply the following for the graduate. • That he is inquisitive and has an attitude of life-long learning • That he has the knowledge and skills to use and justify the use of models and to rate those models at their true value. He will use models (in his case mostly mathematical models and prototypes) systematically. • That he can document his results adequately in order to help knowledge development is his own field and outside. 5. The fifth area of competency concerns the basic intellectual skills of reasoning, reflection and judgement. The learning outcomes imply for the graduate • That he is capable (with some expert support) of critical reflection on his own reasoning, his decisions and his actions. He can use these reflections to adapt his behaviour. • That he is capable of logical reasoning, both in “why-“ as in “what-if” arguments. • That he is capable of posing the proper questions and has a critical-constructive attitude in his approach to solving problems • Is aware of orders of magnitude and possesses basic numerical skills 6. The sixth area covers competencies for co-operating and communicating. They are key competencies for the graduate The learning outcomes imply for the graduate • That he can communicate in writing and orally about his results, both with experts and with nonexperts, and that he can use current day media for this communication. • That he can communicate in more than one language. • That he can follow debates about design (of digital applications) and about the role of this design in society. • That his behaviour is professional, which means reliable, involved, accurate, tenacious and independent. • That he can work in projects, is pragmatic, can deal with limited resources and risks, and is capable of finding compromises. • That he can work in multidisciplinary teams, and knows how to deal with team roles and social dynamics. 7. The seventh and final area concerns the skills and attitude to take the temporal and social context of science and technology into account. The learning outcomes imply for the graduate • That he can understand and empathize concerning the consequences (socially, economically and culturally) of new developments in the design of digital applications. He can discuss these consequences, with experts as well as with non-experts. • That he can address the normative and ethical aspects of his own acting as a designer.
That he can understand and is aware of durability issues and of the consequences of the introduction digital applications for the environment. That he is aware of the roles professionals in his field play in society.
3. The Creative Technology Bachelor’s curriculum In this chapter we deal with the Curriculum theme of the assessment framework. Each of the six standards of this theme is treated in a separate section (3.2-3.7). But first we give an overview of the creative Technology programme.
3.1 CreaTe curriculum overview Tables 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 show the Creative Technology curriculum. Units of study of the curriculum are classified in themes (or categories). We return to these categories and their descriptions in sections 3.2.1 Teaching and learning approach and 3.2.2 Relationships between study units and final qualifications. The categories are: 1. Creative Applications (CA) 2. Creative Explorations (CE) 3. Design (DE) 4. Business (BI) 5. Smart Technology (ST) 6. New Media (NM) 7. Computer Science (CS) 8. Mathematics (MA) Besides the units of study in these categories, the curriculum has • • •
Electives Profileringsruimte, and a Graduation project
Table 3.1 summarizes the workload in EC over the various categories and years of study. Note that the second year total in the table is not the 60 EC of the Total’s column. This is due to the fact that each student opts for either the 15 EC in the Smart Technology category, or the 15 EC in the New Media category, but not both. This observation also holds for the final row of the table. No student will take 23 credits in New Media and 24 in Smart Technology. A student takes either 24 ST credits and 8 NM credits, or 9 ST credits and 23 NM credits. 3.1 CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM UNITS Year
3.2 CREATE PROGRAMME, YEAR 1 Category
(3 EC, sem 1) We create identity
(6 EC, sem 1-2) Living and working tomorrow
(2 EC, sem 2)
Creative exploration of structures
9 EC Design
(2 EC, sem 1) Sketching for CreaTe
(2 EC, sem 1) Graphic design
(3 EC, sem 1) Smart environments
8 EC New Media
(2 EC, sem 2) Designing in context
(3 EC, sem 1) Introduction to Computer Science
9 EC Mathematics
(3 EC, sem 1) Motion and modelling
(3 EC, sem 2) Human factors
(6 EC, sem 1-2) Dynamical systems
(3 EC, sem 1) Web technology
(6 EC, sem 2) Have fun and play
(5 EC, sem 2) Interactive visualization (5 EC, sem 1) Programming for CreaTe (3 EC, sem 2) Statistics and probability
(3 EC, sem 2)` Signals and systems
60 EC Year 1 0 EC
3.3 CREATE PROGRAMME, YEAR 2 Category
(8 EC, sem 3) Ambient screens
(9 EC, sem 4) Hybrid worlds
(2 EC, sem 3-4)
CE in art, science and technology
6 EC Design
(2 EC, sem 3) 3 D modelling
6 EC Business
(3 EC, sem 3) Design marketing
15 EC New Media7 8 EC
6 EC Mathematics
Digital content creation tools
(4 EC, sem 3) Wireless communication systems
(3 EC, sem 3) Web 2.0 Mashups
(4 EC, sem 4) Introduction to electronics
(6 EC, sem 3-4) Virtual environments
(3 EC, sem 4) Sensors
(6 EC, sem 4) Game development
(5 EC, sem 3) Programming with structures
(2 EC, sem 4)
(3 EC, sem 4) Business management
(4 EC, sem 3) Control systems
Smart 7 Technology
(2 EC, sem 4) Advanced graphic design
(3 EC, sem 4) Data-driven applications
(3 EC, sem 3) Strategies and protocols
(3 EC, sem 4) Queues and logistics
60 EC Year 2 0 EC
Each student chooses a track and takes either the ST courses or the NM courses, but not both
3.4 CREATE PROGRAMME, YEAR 3 Category
(30 EC, sem 5) Profileringsruimte
15 EC Electives (15 EC, sem 6) Electives
15 EC Graduation Project
(15 EC, sem 6) Graduation project
60 EC Year 3 0 EC
The third year has “profileringsruimte” (profiling space). According to university policy, the student can use semester 5 (totalling 30 EC) for various purposes. Each student selects a module of units of study totalling 30 credits. This package may serve e.g. • to prepare for further study in the Master’s programme Communication Studies. • to prepare for further studies in Industrial Design Engineering. • to prepare for further studies in Mechatronics or Electrical Engineering. • for courses (and projects) of the minors Ondernemerschap or Management to prepare for a role on the labour market. But a stay of one semester at another (foreign) university is also an option. And finally, students who just want to broaden their knowledge in related topics which are not in the curriculum (e.g., computer music, image or language processing), can use their profileringsruimte to do so. In the third year the student also takes elective courses, with a total study load of 15 EC. The choice of electives is limited by the constraints that • At least one of the electives should address professional standards and ethical issues • At least one of the electives should address the interaction between humans and technology. Examples of units of study in these fields offered by the university are: 280222 Mens-Product relaties, 240420 Interface en interactieontwerp, 280351 Psychologische functieleer, 280224 Cognitieve Ergonomie, 293308 Toegepaste cognitieve psychologie, 294301 Design en emotie, 293409 Human error, 240431 Nieuwe media en maatschappij, 240475 Living in a digital world, 280340 Techniekfilosofie, 161606 Ethiek: de beroepsverantwoordelijkheid van de ingenieur, 161254 Ethics and Technology, 161268 Computer Ethics The third elective (maximum 5 EC study load) can be used to assist a fellow student in his graduation project. See section 3.1.1 Bachelor graduation project below.And finally, in the third year the students demonstrate their ability to integrate their knowledge and skills in a “real-life” design project of 15 EC, the Bachelor’s graduation project. More details are below.
Bachelor’s graduation project
For students leaving the university with a BSc degree only, the project is the proof that they are ready for a career as a creative technologist in industry, practically oriented, and on an academic level. For those who continue their education in an MSc program, the BSc project should also show the challenges of doing more in depth research and stimulate them to deepen their knowledge. Bachelor projects may be carried out in the university labs and/or with external partners. Students will do their projects under the common supervision of external and university experts. The student has to realize a design to improve the world of a ‘customer’. Business aspects, cost price and life-cycle issues will be important. The BSc project should cover the complete cycle of a design, including initiation, project planning, development, and possibly even deployment and marketing. In connection with the Bachelor’s projects, students will be stimulated to cooperate and assist each other, in order to achieve, within the time constraints imposed by the project, an optimal result, both in terms of external visibility as well as individual development. To support such cooperation, students are encouraged to ‘hire’ expertise from another student. This expertise may be technological (to make the prototype), human or business-related. Students who are hired may thus earn a maximum of 5 credits out of 15 EC in the third year for their elective courses. It is the responsibility of the student doing the Bachelor’s project to arrange a clear ‘contract’ about the task of the student hired, and set the milestones. Assessment of the hired student is done jointly with the supervisor. Apart from the practical work, which preferably results in a prototype or proof-of-concept realization, students are expected to write a report, the Bachelor’s thesis, and present their work for fellowstudents, project stakeholders, and supervising staff.
3.2 Correspondence between the aims and objectives and the curriculum. The intended curriculum is in section 3.1, CreaTe curriculum overview. The descriptions of the individual courses are in Part B of the information dossier. The intended learning outcomes are in the introduction to theme 2, section 2.1, The final qualifications. This assessment standard has two criteria. We deal with the two criteria in separate sections.
Teaching and learning approach
Criterion: The intended curriculum, the educational concept, the study methods and the learning assessments reflect the intended learning outcomes. We argue that Creative Technology meets this criterion along two lines. We first discuss the curriculum structure and the educational concept, and relate them to the learning outcomes and the academic and professional frame of reference of chapter 2 on goals and objectives. Next we turn to assessment, and in particular to the relationship between assessment and goals and objectives.
Curriculum structure and educational concept
The curriculum structure is a “story8” which is designed to reflect the intended learning outcomes. The main storyline is about design for the digital world in all of its aspects (idea and concept generation, evaluation of concepts, business skills, and professional conduct). This storyline is embodied in the five CA-units (CA for Creative Applications, 32 EC), three in the first year, totalling 15 credits, and two in the second year, totalling 17 credits. The design themes vary from unit to unit. The theme is primarily experience design (Have fun and play, Hybrid worlds and Living and working tomorrow). Communication design is a second theme (Ambient screens). The third theme, product design is addressed both in Living and working tomorrow and in Hybrid worlds. Each Creative Applications unit offers challenges, to produce viable solutions for real world applications, in projects with an intrinsic element of public exposure. Applications relate to existing research domains of the university at large, i.e. health, media, communication and business. Moreover, for the Creative Applications, we seek active involvement with regional institutes (such as the Creative Factory) and representatives of the (local) creative industry, to ensure both challenging projects and public exposure. As examples we mention: Gogbot festival -- interactive art installations, Virtua Gym -- social network enhanced e-fitness, Creatief cafe -- business networking organized by Syntens, Media Lab Enschede -- art and media manifestations, The five CA units are supported by two small CE-units (CE for Creative Explorations, 4 EC), one in each year, each unit 2 credits, are devoted to the interplay between technology and arts. In the Creative Explorations (CE) students are involved in explorative activities. They provide historical context and enrichment coming from visits to exhibitions or by participating in small-scale projects such as making an installation initiated by an invited artist in residence. In the story told by the CA and CE units six important “characters” appear. They are Design, Business, Smart Technology, New Media, Computer Science and Mathematics. In the course of the story, we get to know these characters better and better (from the viewpoint of their role in the story). For this purpose there are (often smaller) units of study. These units are either disciplinary courses or project based courses. The disciplinary courses have a traditional approach, with regular courses and assignments. They are the courses with a strong focus on abstractions, models, specifications and analysis of processes. Simulation is a major tool, and the underlying models, methodology and mathematical language are taught. The project-based courses support active, ‘learning by doing’ participation of students. The seven DE-units (DE for Design, 15 EC), four in the first year, totalling 9 credits, and three in the second year, totalling 6 credits, are devoted to design knowledge and skills. The two BI-units (BI for Business, 6EC), both in the second year, totalling 6 credits, develop knowledge about bringing design to market, and about “running a business.” The six ST-units (ST for Smart Technology, 6+15 EC), two in the first year, totalling 9 credits and four in the second year, totalling 15 credits are devoted to engineering skills and knowledge (and
Storytelling (or stageing) is a metaphor which is often encountered in discussions about experience design and experience economy. This somewhat unusual presentation of the curruculum structure in terms of a storyline and its characters is an example of “practice what you preach.”
their integration) in the fields of dynamical and control systems, sensors, (wireless) communication systems and electronics. The two ST items of the first year are compulsory for all students. The four ST items of the second year are for the students who specialize in experience, communication and products by “smart technology”. The five NM units (NM for New Media, 8+15 EC), two in the first year, totalling 8 credits, and three in the second year, totalling 15 credits, are devoted to engineering skills and knowledge in the area of new media, web technology and games. The two NM-items of the first year are compulsory for all students. The three NM-items of the second year are for the students who specialize in experience, communication and products by “new media”. The four CS-units (CS for Computer Science, 16 EC), two in both years, 8 credits in both years, serve to develop the basic skills and knowledge to understand and build systems of cooperating programmable components. These skills and knowledge support the teaching and learning in the Smart Technology and New Media areas. The five MA-units (MA for Mathematics, 15 EC), three in the first year, totalling 9 credits and two in the second year, totalling 6 credits, serve to develop knowledge and skills in modelling of (mostly physical) phenomena. They support the teaching and learning in the other areas (also Design and Business). The student is an active participant in the story. As the story develops, the student develops with it, towards the final qualifications. In section 3.3.2 we discuss the relationship between curriculum and final qualifications in detail. The story takes the student towards the final qualifications. While going through the story, the student spends time on competency development in Meijers’ seven areas of competency. The time and attention spend on the different areas of competency constitute the academic profile of the story. The spider plot in figure 3.5 below shows the academic profile. The profile is “low” on “familiarity with existing knowledge and skills to learn”. Obviously the development of the characters Smart Technology, New Media, Computer Science and Mathematics, who carry a lot of existing scientific knowledge, cannot be as thorough and deep as in an engineering curriculum devoted to these subjects. But this low point is not entirely fair for the skills to learn. They get ample attention.
3.5. RELATIVE WEIGHT OF MEIJERS’ COMPETENCY AREAS IN THE CURRICULUM familiarity with existing scientific knowledge and skills to learn
skills to develop new knowledge and insight
basic intellectual skills
skills to design
social and temporal context
communication and collaboration
The educational approach is not entirely project based, nor purely problem driven, nor only based on the principle of “just in time learning.” The educational concept can be characterized as “mix for diversity and design.” The mix is chosen to support three goals. • Every student (regardless of background and interests) reaches the goals set in the intended learning outcomes, • Teaching and learning is effective for a community of students which is diverse (different backgrounds in secondary education, different nationalities, and different personal interests and ambitions),
Teaching and learning develops not only the analytical ways of thinking which are associated with the “sciences of the natural”, but also the design style of thinking which focuses on building up ideas in a creative process, and which is associated with the “sciences of the artificial”9.
Key notions for the educational approach are • broad background knowledge and multiple views on applications (getting to know all the different “characters” of the story) • active appropriate practice (students participate in the story), • learning through experiencing (throw students into deep water, the development of the story is not always linear), • interpersonal communication and feedback, and • multi-disciplinary collaboration, student responsibility and self-motivated learning. To educate students to become designers, the education is based on a paradigm of explore, practice, feedback, study, and integrate. Students are constantly encouraged to explore design issues (in problem finding, in idea and concept generation, in prototype development, in evaluation of concepts, in presentation and documentation). There is explicit attention for creative processes, such as brain-storming and out-of-the-box thinking, and a more implicit approach which comes down to providing adequate challenges and support for self-organisation, initiative and a degree of autonomy. In parallel to exploration, the story puts the students in situations to practice their knowledge and skills. In parallel to exploration and practice they are challenged to study the individual characters: to look at the design field and the digital world from a viewpoint of understanding the underlying physics and the theories of dynamical systems, of systems of programmable components, of graphic design, and the principles of modelling and simulation. And finally they will be asked to integrate their knowledge and skills: to base their exploration (idea and concept generation, prototype development and presentation and documentation) on practice and study. In each of these aspects, but especially in exploration and practice, they will be closely monitored, and receive feedback on their behaviour and results. The effective mix of scenes and developments in the story is small-grained. Smaller units of study are used to keep the attention, and to “plant” crucial tools and insights (insight in the “characters” that play a role in the story). The main storyline “crops” what is planted in the smaller units. The education is learner centred; it is education for and by diversity. The audience is diverse in background. The challenges offered will be diverse. At the same time it is important to give each student an “anchor” at each moment of the curriculum. Of the “characters” in the story there is always one a particular student can identify with. In each project there is always a role which fits the particular type of student. But of course, by way of practice students may have to play other roles than their natural one. And they will be confronted with “characters” (i.e. units of study) they cannot identify with at all (i.e. are difficult for them). Feedback is an important characteristic especially when it comes to the development of the “Evaluation of concepts” competency in the learning outcomes. For a number of values (like attractiveness of concepts, user acceptance, usability, privacy, and security) there is underpinning theory which is not in the courses of the first two years. (This theory is offered in the electives of the third year). It is important, however, that students are confronted with these values from day one. Experts from philosophy, behavioural sciences and arts will assist in study units, especially Creative Applications, to take care of feedback on this point. In a similar way the students will be confronted with business questions from the very beginning, in the context of the Creative Applications. This will happen even before the Business “character” in the story starts to develop (in the second year). Moreover, feedback by public exposure is important. This public exposure of students' explorations and applications is a vital element in bringing about awareness of societal context and potential economic value.
Simon, Herbert, A. (1996), The Sciences of the Artificial, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ISBN 0262691914
Teaching methods and assessment The teaching methods for engineering contents in CreaTe differ from what is customary in traditional engineering courses. In Creative Technology the engineering education focuses on the relevance of analytical thinking and the need of proper (mathematical) modelling as part of a design process. Simulation-based development of mathematical intuition has a high priority. A central role is played in this context by software packages such as Matlab and 20-sim in which extensive mathematical and modelling capabilities are available (e.g. for the Motion and modelling course, and the Dynamical systems course). Ample attention will be given to learning to work with the specialized modules of these programmes and to develop a critical attitude toward simulation results. Systematic testing, confrontation with expectations from the physical world and practical exercises will stabilize this method of acquiring knowledge and skills. In this way a proper use can be made of quite advanced mathematical tools, without deep knowledge of all details. Simulations of a totally different kind are also considered and used for the development of (at first intuitive iinsight) in technological concepts. The Introduction to Computer Science course uses e.g. technodrama10. Crucial for adequate assessment of students (regardless of the nature of the unit of study) are learning goals. Each CreaTe unit of study has explicit learning goals (see Appendix B). According to faculty policy these learning goals are public. The Examination Board is active in maintaining an assessment policy in which assessment is indeed assessment of these explicit goals. To assess students and their progress towards these goals (and eventually reaching the goals) we use a mix of assessment methods and criteria For most units of study the students will hand in essays and assignments which are judged and marked by the examiner. Often, handing in an assignment will include giving a presentation and a demonstration of a prototype or product. Quality of presentation and demonstration is always part of the assessment. Criteria for marking are explicit and public (according to faculty policy) In some units of study the students will take regular written tests, solving exercises. Again, criteria for marking are explicit and public. In the Creative Applications units the students will form teams and work together to meet a challenge. The assessment in these units will take into account the results achieved, the process by which these results were achieved, and the way(s) in which the results were presented (oral and written communication). The goals of the individual units of study together build up to the final qualifications of the curriculum. There is a need however, to monitor and assess progress of the students over longer periods than just a single unit of study. To this end students will keep track of their achievements in their portfolio. The assessment of the portfolio is meaningful as an over all proof of the studentâ€™s capabilities. But it also plays a role at the level of the individual units of study. An inadequate or insufficient portfolio may block participation in a next unit of study. Students will also participate in discussions and periodic peer-reviews. They will assess the productivity, quality and creativity of other students, as well as the responsibility and role taken in the overall group process. This approach ensures that students learn, apart from the necessary skills and competencies, how to communicate and function in a group, thus gaining experience which is critically needed for a successful career in the creative industry, being simultaneously competitive as well as highly dependent on collaboration and group dynamics.
Relationships between study units and final qualifications
Criterion: The intended learning outcomes have been adequately transferred into the educational goals of (parts of) the intended curriculum. In table 3.6 we show how learning outcomes of the first, second and third year together imply the CreaTe final qualifications of chapter 2. The names in the left column refer to qualifications as presented in section 2.1 The final qualifications. The phrases and numbers (like 1.1, 2.6, and 3.1) in
the right column point at a combination of a year and a qualification. Design in general (1.1) e.g. is the qualification 1 of year 1. The contents of the qualifications per year are presented following table 3.6, in the tables 3.7-3.9. There we also explain how these qualifications per year relate to the aims and objectives of the units of study of that year 3.6 QUALIFICATIONS PER YEAR AND FINAL QUALIFICATIONS Final qualification
Intermediate qualifications per year
Concept generation and prototype development
Design in general (1.1, 2.1)
Evaluation of concepts
Design in general (1.1, 2.1, 3.1), Other qualifications (1.6, 2.7)
Understanding and planning the design process
Design in general (1.1, 2.1)
Collaboration and multidisciplinarity
Other qualifications (1.6, 2.7)
Knowledge of graphic design
Graphic design (1.2, 2.2)
Knowledge of technology
Modelling and simulation (1.3), Systems of programmable components (1.4, 2.4) New Media (1.5, 2.6), Smart Technology (2.6)
Skills in technology
Design in general (1.1, 2.1), New Media (1.5, 2.6), Smart Technology (2.6)
Skills and knowledge in modelling and simulation
Modelling and simulation (1.3, 2.3)
Business and marketing (2.5)
Roles in society
Other qualifications (2.7), Design in general (3.1)
Other qualifications (1.6, 2.7)
Basic academic attitude
Other qualifications (1.6, 2.7)
Educational goals of the three years of the curriculum For the first year we distinguish six major goals. For ease of reference these goals have names: Design in general, Graphic design, Modelling, planning and simulation, Systems of programmable components, New Media, and Other qualifications. The goals are in table 3.7, with a detailed description. With each goal we explain which units of study contribute to the goal, or how the educational concept contributes to the goal. For the second year we distinguish seven major goals. One of the seven is in fact a choice between goals. Which goal is reached depends on the track the student chooses: either New Media, or Smart Technology. The goals have names, identical to the names of goals of the first year. But there are two additional goals: Business and marketing and Smart technology. The goals are in table 3.8 The skills and knowledge that will be acquired in the third year are in table 3.9.
3.7 FIRST YEAR GOALS AND THEIR CURRICULUM SUPPORT Goal
Units of study supporting the goal
1. (Design in general) He is familiar with problem finding, and with idea and concept generation. He is aware of (web 2.0) business models and the societal context of projects, he can identify opportunities for exploitation of a technology, and he is familiar with requirements analysis, concept development, project planning and projectmanagement. He can realize basic prototypes. He can present and defend ideas. He is aware of the Human engineering analysis method for obtaining insight in user needs and wishes, and he is aware of the methods principles and limitations of usability testing.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Creative Applications study units, and partly also from the Smart Technology units and the Design units, in particular the Human Factors unit.
2. (Graphic design) He is familiar with visual communication of concepts and ideas (making concept sketches and explanatory drawing, pictograms, icons, use of colour, fonts, style, readability), he is aware of information visualization issues, he is familiar with the use of visuals and collages to express desired feelings and emotions, and he is familiar with the use of visuals and collages to express a desired design solution.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Design units of study, and partly from the New Media units (in particular the Interactive Visualization course)
3. (Modelling, planning and simulation) He is fluent in using MATLAB when it comes to functions, vectors, matrices, solving ordinary differential equations and the analysis of time signals. He can use 20-sim software to make (simulation) models of complex systems with a feedback structure, and he can translate the simulation into differential equations. He can analyze and model time signals. He is familiar with basic concepts of probability and statistics.
These qualifications result from the student’s participation in the Mathematics units of study and the Smart Technology units (in particular Dynamical Systems)
4. (Systems of programmable components) He is aware of the basic concepts of computer architecture, operating systems, protocols, networks, languages and databases. He is fluent in writing and debugging simple computer programs. He is familiar with the use of automatically generated code. He is aware of standard solutions and libraries, and of program complexity.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Computer Science units of study.
5. (New Media) He is familiar with the computational infrastructure provided by the web platform; he is fluent in authoring web pages and the use of tools for that purpose, he is familiar with XML. He can develop simple physicsbased animations.
These qualifications result from the student’s participation in the New Media units of study.
6. (Other qualifications) He is familiar with collaborating in teams, he is aware of team roles, he is familiar with presenting and defending ideas (from “elevator pitch” to elaborate presentation); he is familiar with critical reflection on his own ideas and others, he is familiar with writing essays and is aware of the requirements a good essay must fulfil; he is familiar with the use of other media to communicate
These qualifications result from the way education and assessment has been organized. The student participates in relevant events and gets feedback on his participation.
3.8 SECOND YEAR GOALS AND THEIR CURRICULUM SUPPORT Goal
Units of study supporting the goal
(Design in general) He is fluent in problem-finding, and in idea and concept generation. He is aware of security and privacy issues; he is familiar with concept development for interaction with non-computer screens, and concept development relating the real to the virtual world. He is fluent in content production, workflow and project management.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Creative Applications study units.
(Graphic design) He is familiar with building geometry and with sound and movement in graphic design. He is familiar with the level of abstraction in information visualization. He can match tools and content creation tasks, and is aware of issues of exchange and interoperability.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Design units of study.
(Modelling, planning and simulation) He is familiar with the basic foundations of game theory and can work with concepts of game theory. He is aware of system behaviour under the influence of randomness and of the use of Markov chains, queuing and optimization in this context.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Mathematics units of study.
(Systems of programmable components) He is fluent in OOprogramming, and can use standard libraries and standard algorithms. He is aware of the complexity of standard algorithms. He can structure data-driven problems to derive a clear interface to a database, and he is fluent in generating database applications.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Computer Science units of study.
(Business and marketing) He familiar with the basics of marketing and business management and can apply simple business principles in developing products. He can develop a business plan including the descriptions of product and product development (with estimation of development costs), a market analysis and analysis of competitors.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Business units of study, and in the Creative Applications (of the first and the second year)
(New Media) He is aware of the application of games in education and learning. He is familiar with the concepts and techniques for the design of serious games, and he can analyze games using game patterns. He is aware of technologies for networked 3D environments. He can build interactive X3D/VRML applications and he can script interactive behaviour in 3D virtual worlds.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the New Media units of study.
(Smart Technology) He is familiar with basic methods for measuring quantities in various physical domains, and with the sensors commonly used for these measurements. He is aware of the general performance and the basis limitations of these sensors. He understands the most important electronic functions of a data acquisition system, and he understands the effects of sampling and quantisation on the quality of a measured signal. He can model and optimize communication systems, and he can integrate communication systems in new products. He knows how feed-forward and feedback control can be used to modify the performance of a system. He knows how an accurate control system can be build that is insensitive for disturbances and parameter variations. He knows the consequences of using digital computers in control systems.
These qualifications result from the student’s successful participation in the Smart Technology units of study.
(Other qualifications) He is fluent in collaborative efforts and can take different team roles; he is fluent in presentation, defence and documentation, both orally and in writing; he is fluent in critical reflection on his own ideas and the ideas of others; he is familiar with the evaluation of concepts and ideas at various levels; he is aware of ethical dilemmas a designer may face.
These qualifications result from the way education and assessment has been organized. The student participates in relevant events and gets feedback on his participation.
3.9 THIRD YEAR GOALS AND THEIR CURRICULUM SUPPORT Goal
Units of study supporting the goal
1. (Design in general) He is familiar with theory in at least one of the areas of interaction between humans and technology (like e.g. (cognitive) ergonomics and/or psychology, requirements capturing, usability, user acceptance, technology assessment), and in ethics and professional standards.
This qualification results from his successful participation in electives
This qualification results from (and depends upon) his successful completion of the “profileringsruimte”.
a. Either he is familiar with knowledge and skills which are indispensable for further study in a specialist Master’s programme other than the ones which offer unconditional admission; b. Or he has become more fluent in the technology and design for digital applications (both in skills and in knowledge, or in (digital) arts; c.
Or (through a so called minor programme) he has acquired basic skills in another discipline to broaden his knowledge base;
d. Or he has become more fluent in business and enterprising skills and knowledge.
3. (Real life integration) Finally he has applied his skills and knowledge in the setting of a real life problem, in collaboration with other developers and/or researchers, and this design effort has led to a meaningful result (i.e. meaningful also outside the scope of studying for a degree).
This qualification results from his successful completion of the graduation project (see section 3.1.1)
Parts from the initial accreditation application dossier for the bachelor's programme creative technology (CreaTe) concerning curriculum goa...