ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN LIMA: TO ‘CULTIVATE’ WATER AND GREEN
Image 01- Constructed Wetland of the Children Park, Florida II- Chuquitanta- Lima. Feb. 2018. Source: Taícia H. N. Marques Living in Lima (the Peru’s capital city), already 07 months with my eyes and ears very open to everything related to Urban Sustainability, Green Infrastructure, and Ecological Infrastructure, it is interesting to find very good, even though initial, achievements related to the application of those concepts in the city, despite all the financial, political and social challenges. One particular pilot project calls the attention since it aims to ‘cultivate’ water and green in a peripheral district of Lima’s Metropolis, the Children Park in San Martin de Porres (Image 01 and 02).
Image 02- Children Park, Florida II- Chuquitanta- Lima. Feb. 2018. Source: Taícia H. N. Marques
The city is located in the central Peruvian desert coast, an area with a very specific climate condition where the high humidity of the air counterpoint to the lack of rain (less than 15 mm per year). Even though the coast counts with only 1.8% of the hydraulic resources of the country it concentrates approximately 52% of its population, approximately 16 million inhabitants, of whom 9 million are settled in the metropolitan area of Lima- Callao, an urban sprawl that extends along three river valleys: Lurin, Rimac, and Chillon. The access to drinkable water and to green areas is very inequitable between the districts of the metropolis. While some of the richest areas have an average of 20 m2 of green per person and consumes more than 400 liters of water per person per day (l/p/d), others might have access to less than 2 m2 of green area per person and consumes near or less than 20 l/p/d. Although the district of San Martin de Porres has the average of 100 l/p/d - indicated as the minimum for a healthy life by the World Health Organization, WHO- the area faces the low condition of living and high costs of drinkable water. Located on the north of Lima Metropolis, along with the Chillon river valley, the district was established from irregular settlements and cultivated land that demands basic infrastructure such as, sewage collection and treatment and drinkable water network. This cenario leads to the current situation where the inhabitants should buy water from trucks, paying almost 7 times more for this resource than the richest districts connected to the water network does. Moreover, the contamination of the water in the canals that feed the rural areas, crossing the semi-urbanized landscape, is a hazard consequence of the absence of sewage system (in 2017 a pipeline network to collect the sewage started to be installed in the district). As a pilot project, aiming to test the urban integration and operability of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) solutions, the Children Park was installed in the community of Florida II, Chuquitanta, San MartĂn de Porres, in 2014. As one product of the research Lima Ecological Infrastructure System (LEIS), and part of the major Lima Waters Project (LiWa), the integration of WSUD with a recreational park is being a case of success since there. The system counts with a 50 m2 (2) constructed wetland of sub superficial vertical flux, able to treat 5.57 m3 d-1 of heavy sewer polluted water that is deviated from the Chillon river by an irrigation canal (1). The cleaner water is then used to irrigate the green areas of the park (3) (Image 03).
Image 03- 03 Step system: (1)- deviated water from a Chillon’s canal; (2) Constructed Wetland; (3) Reuse of the water for irrigation. Feb. 2018. Source: Taícia H. N. Marques. The installation of the park counted with a range of stakeholders and its operation is currently running with the support of the local government and the indispensable participation of the Florida II neighbors, involved in the process since the begin. As a fact, the system can still be improved, expanded to be replicated. For instance, it lacks a solution to treat the sludge generated during the sedimentation stage of the process and the reuse of water might be expanded to the households or other adjacent green areas. Still, the 598.16 m2 occupied by the Children Park create an interdependent system that ‘cultivates’ water and green in the Peruvian desert coast as an enjoyable area that seems to be a motive to local people to be proud and to care. REFERENCES BEAUMONT, M. Cómo Responder al reto del Cambio Climático desde las Ciudades. Argumentos- Revista de análisis y crítica. Instituto de Estudos Peruanos. Ed.n.04, September, 2014. [http://revistaargumentos.iep.org.pe/articulos/como-responder-al-reto-del-cambio-climaticodesde-las-ciudades/] LEIS. Lima Ecological Infrastructure Strategy: integrated urban planning and design tools for a water scarce city. [https://issuu.com/ilpe/docs/lima_ecological_infrastructure_stra_9c435aba38df2f]
SUNASS, 2017 [https://www.facebook.com/Sunass.Regulador/photos/a.10150180256389177.309163.218090174176/ 10154586459679177/?type=3] UNU- FLORES. Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture: Good Practice Examples, ed. Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan and Ardakanian, Reza. Dresden: United Nations University Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources, 2016. [http://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU:5764#viewMetadata] Especial thanks to Profa. Rosa Maria Miglio Toledo de Rodriguez (UNALM), and Bsc Alexandra Garcia Rospigliosi (UNALM). Author data and contact: TaĂcia Helena Negrin Marques
Architect and Urban Planner- PUC- Campimas- Brazil; Msc Lansdacpe Architect and PlanningWageningen University- The Netherlands, Ph.D. cadidate Faculty of Architecture and UrbanismUniversity of SĂŁo Paulo, Dep. Landscape and Environment- Brazil. e-mail: email@example.com
Published on Mar 6, 2018
Published on Mar 6, 2018
Ecological Infrastructure is becoming a hot topic in Lima- Peru. One particular pilot project calls the attention since it aims to ‘cultivat...