Информационные спутниковые системы
Информационные спутниковые системы
Dear colleagues, Satellite navigation has a particular niche in modern unmanned cosmonautics. Today space‑based navigation technology is widely used in the developed countries in almost all spheres of human activity to ensure both national security and a high quality of life. Since the 1960s the Reshetnev Company has been Russia’s only designer and manufacturer of navigation satellites. In the last century our company manufactured the first‑generation radio‑navigation systems Tsyclon and Tsycada. Today ISS‑Reshetnev is the prime contractor for the creation of the GLONASS space‑based segment being deployed within the framework of the federal target program Global Navigation System. Our company manufactures modern Glonass‑M satellites. Besides, we have launched production of next‑generation Glonass‑K satellites which have improved performance characteristics and increased lifetimes. GLONASS satellites will form the basis of Russia’s geoinformation space, which will allow the country to strengthen its defence capability, enhance national security and improve the national economy as well as the quality of life for millions of Russians.
General Designer and Director General of Academician M.F.Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems
Contents Nikolay Testoyedov: “The Reshetnev Company is the unquestioned leader”
New quality of satellite navigation
Dynamics of cooperation
Modern production management
The Olympic satellite
Academician M.F. Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems 52, Lenin Street, Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, 662972 Russia Tel: +7 (3919) 72-80-08 Fax: +7 (3919) 72-26-35 Editor-in-Chief Svetlana Bashkova Managing Editor Christina Uspenskaya Translator Svetlana Kulaga Photo Vlada Mineeva Design Maxim Mikhalchenkov Published by Information Satellite Systems 2010 For details contact: pressa@ISS-Reshetnev.ru http://www.ISS-Reshetnev.com tel: +7 (3919) 76-45-25 No unauthorized photocopying.
Glonass-M satellites successfully delivered into orbit
Gonets-M successfully launched Gonets-M №12, a personal communications satellite developed and manufactured by ISS-Reshetnev, was successfully launched in orbit from the Plesetsk cosmodrome on September 8, 2010. Gonets-M low-earth-orbit satellites are being manufactured by the Reshetnev Company within the framework of the 2006-2015 Federal Space Program for the multifunctional personal communications system GONETSD1M. The satellites are designed to provide personal communications in hard-to-reach locations; to transmit e-mail and position messages using both GPS and GLONASS and to carry out environmental, industrial and scientiﬁc monitoring. The GONETS-D1M satellite system is intended to serve a wide range of military and government customers, such as the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Liquidation of the Consequences of Natural Disasters, the Ministry of Communications, the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency and many others.
The unique A&F facility Three Glonass-M satellites (cluster №42) built by ISS-Reshetnev were successfully launched into orbit on September 2, 2010 The three Glonass-M spacecraft (№36, 37, 38) were delivered into a circular orbit by a Proton-M/DM rocket from the Baikonur launch site. Now the GLONASS orbital constellation numbers 26 satellites. The Reshetnev Company is Russia’s only designer and manufacturer of navigation satellites for the GLONASS system. Work on the replenishment and modernization of the Glonass ﬂeet is being carried out by ISS-Reshetnev within the scope of the GLONASS Federal Target Program.
PDR for Express-AM5/6 program The delegation of the Russian Space Communications Company has attended the preliminary design review held at ISS-Reshetnev for the Express-2000 platform equipment designed for the Express-AM5 and AM6 telecommunications satellites. The PDR included reports and presentations on the types of equipment developed by the Reshetnev team for the Express-2000 platform, such as electronics, solar array mechanisms and the separation device. Component-level PDRs had been previously held at ISS-Reshetnev’s project partners’. The PDR resulted in the customer acceptance of the milestones achieved under the contract by the Reshetnev Company. The next PDR session will be devoted to the Express-АМ5/АМ6 payload modules. Besides ISS-Reshetnev, it will also involve NIIR (Radio Research and Development Institute), the payload developer, and the Canadian manufacturer of onboard antennas and repeaters, MDA.
ISS-Reshetnev has completed work on the thermal protection of its new A&F facility intended for assembling and testing satellite antennas and antenna & feeder systems. So far, windows, doors and automatic gates have been installed as well as heating and ventilation systems. The facility is to be tooled up and commissioned in autumn. Work place arrangements are planned afterwards. A special clean area for assembling and testing 5-meter antennas is scheduled for completion by the end of the year. It will be provided with a separate ventilation system and environmental control to ensure proper temperature and humidity levels. In 2011 ISS-Reshetnev will continue the construction of 2 power control blocks. The company also plans to reconstruct the city’s electric power substation located in the same district as the new A&F facility. The unique production facility is strategically important for the Reshetnev Company. It will allow the company to simulate the conditions of weightlessness and carry out experiments and tests on advanced large-sized foldable mechanical systems.
Information Satellite Systems
niKoLAY teStoYedoV: “the reshetnev company is the unquestioned leader” Today the replenishment and modernization of the GLONASS global navigation satellite system is a priority of national importance. The issue is under the personal control of the President of the Russian Federation and besides, is the focus of attention of the international community. Nikolay Testoyedov, general designer and director general of Academician M.F. Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems, told us about the company’s activities under the GLONASS program.
- Mr. Testoyedov, what is the company’s role in the GLONASS program? In order to better understand ISS‑Reshetnev’s role, it is important to look back on the federal target program “Global Navigation System”. It is a large interagency program divided into five subprograms. The first subprogram is aimed at the creation and modernization of the GLONASS orbital constellation. Other subprograms call for the creation of digital maps of Russia as well as user navigation equipment for a wide
range of customers, from government departments to common people. Each of the five subprograms is managed by a corresponding ministry or agency. Responsibility for the overall coordination of the GLONASS program rests with the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos). The prime contractor for the design, development and manufacture of GLONASS satellites is ISS‑Reshetnev, Russia’s only designer and manufacturer of navigation spacecraft. Our company has been specializing in navigation technology for almost 40 years. We started with
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first‑generation systems based on the Tsycada spacecraft and then moved on to second‑generation systems originally based on the Glonass satellite. Today we build modernized Glonass‑M satellites as well as next‑generation Glonass‑K spacecraft. - Why was the Reshetnev Company assigned the leading role in the creation of the GLONASS space segment? ‑ The most important thing is the historical aspect. The Reshetnev Company began to manufacture satellite navigation systems over 40 years ago. Our earliest systems were based on the low‑earth‑orbit satellites of the Tsyclon family and their subsequent modifications. Then we developed a concept of a global navigation‑and‑communications sys‑ tem. Historically, we build satellites. Our company is the only Russian enterprise that has a complete set of equipment to carry out all types of work, from technical design assignments to satellite in‑orbit operation support, including satellite design, development, testing and manufacture. We have our own design bureau, a fully‑equipped experimental base and an information computation center from where we control and monitor our satellites. - Is the GLONASS constellation design concept subject to modification?
Will navigation satellites be launched into other types of orbits? ‑ No. The GLONASS design concept is not subject to change and requires 8 medium‑earth‑orbit satellites in each of the three orbital planes. When we were working on the concept, we decided on this number of planes as the best solution to meet the interests of the state and all Russian users. In fact, it was Russia’s northern‑latitude geographical position that determined the number of planes and positions of satellites in these planes. Our current orbital constellation and frequencies are registered with all international registration bodies. Therefore, it is not expedient to change orbits. - The American GPS system applies differential corrections that amplify the GPS signal. Does Russia plan to implement a similar system? ‑ Satellite‑based augmentation systems increase the accuracy of navigation signals ‑ the main performance parameter of a navigation constellation. Russia also plans to implement a system of differential correction and monitoring (SDCM) that will use Loutch geostationary satellites to provide regional differential corrections. Local differential corrections are provided by ground technical means. These include platforms on which
Work on a Glonass-M satellite in the assembly shop
ground monitoring stations are based as well as separate local devices that improve the accuracy of signals in particular areas, such as airports, that require high‑precision position determination. Today when developing next‑ generation navigation spacecraft that will replace Glonass‑K satellites we rely upon a global system of differential correction that the GLONASS system will apply in the future. - On what principle are the GLONASS ground and orbital reserves being created? ‑ The orbital reserve is being created in accordance with the GLONASS system development concept. Two back‑up satellites are planned for each of the three planes. If necessary, these back‑up satellites can be transferred to the designated slots and replace ageing satellites (scheduled replacement) or satellites that are out of order (unscheduled replacement). In any case the rate of replacement is determined by the relative position of a back‑up satellite towards the desired orbital slot as well as by the time required for measuring current navigation parameters so as to calculate ephemerides, time and frequency corrections. The ground reserve will be made up of operationally ready satellites which
Glonass-M on a handling dolly
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will be launched to replace ageing satellites (scheduled replacement). The reserve will be replenished as well. This is a standard pattern for any space system. - What can you say about the competitive edge of the GLONASS system? Is it planned to combine GLONASS with GPS and the future Galileo system? If yes, on what conditions? ‑ A fully operational GLONASS constellation (24 satellites), together with a fully equipped ground control segment (a complex of ground‑based stations at different points on earth), represents a system that is highly competitive with GPS and the future Galileo system. In terms of constellation design and the number of satellites, the three systems have no advantage over one another ‑ each of them has the same number of satellites in a constellation and almost the same satellite attitudes. From this point of view, as I have already said, none of them has an advantage over the others. The fact that GPS uses CDMA standards, whereas GLONASS uses FDMA techniques, means that the GLONASS system has greater noise tolerance. Yet, the GPS ground equipment is a bit less complicated due to the use of only one frequency. Work on the combined use of GPS and GLONASS is under way. Many manufacturers have launched production of GPS/GLONASS user ground equipment. When both systems, with all their satellites, are used to solve a particular navigation task, the accuracy of position and velocity data increases considerably. GLONASS may be also combined with the Galileo system. - What is your assessment of the company’s position in the global navigation satellite market? ‑ The Reshetnev Company is the unquestioned leader in Russia, not least because we are the only Russian manufacturer of navigation satellites. It is clear enough that many other Russian enterprises are engaged in the satellite manufacturing process and together we have forged powerful partnerships. Our Russian partners supply us with devices which besides from their navigational function, are also used to provide additional capabilities so much required since the GLONASS system became global. Indeed, with a global system it is easy to solve other problems besides
A Glonass-M spacecraft in ISS-Reshetnev’s assembly room
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navigation and communication. I mean the work being done in the interests of the COSPAS‑SARSAT search and rescue system. Now that the system has been modified, there is no need to wait for several hours for a satellite to come into view. A global system implies continuous communication and continuous signal reception. - What is the role of ISS-Reshetnev’s specialists in the exploitation of satellites? ‑ Our specialists have deployed their own satellite mission control center called Information Computation Center, though we do not actually control satellite constellations, as there are specialized companies for that. Still, simultaneously with them, we receive all telemetry data which enables our specialists, without leaving their workplace, to perform satellite health monitoring and model possible deviations from normal satellite operation as well as validate or disprove our hypotheses. This pattern of interaction is very effective and creates a high level of spacecraft
reliability. Thus, our satellites are not only controlled, but they also get continuous in‑orbit support from their manufacturer. - What are the company’s prospects in the navigation satellite business? ‑ The Russian government has introduced legislation on navigation which determines the order of signal creation and provision to the global community. All activities being undertaken by the Russian Space Agency ensure effective implementation of these tasks as well as the fulfillment of the State’s obligations to the world community. The GLONASS constellation is almost complete. In accordance with the Russian Law it will be maintained and developed by means of continuous modification of satellites and the ground control segment. Besides, the GLONASS system development is ensured not only by improvements in satellite performance, but also by fundamental research being done in order to specify the model of the Earth’s shape, rotation parameters,
Electrical and radiotechnical testing of the Glonass-K satellite etc. As a matter of fact, many branches of science and technology are involved in the modernization of the GLONASS system. As there will always be a need for navigation, one of the most ancient sciences, our enterprise will continue to provide support and develop Russia’s orbital constellation.
Glonass-K mounted on a transportation test bed
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neW QuALitY of satellite navigation One of ISS-Reshetnev’s key areas of activities is focused on the development and manufacture of navigation satellites. With many years’ experience and solid expertise in this field, the company is now in the vanguard of satellite navigation technology both nationally and globally. Today among the company’s current projects, “Glonass-K” stands out as a program of high national priority. Launch of this next-generation navigation spacecraft will mark the beginning of a major upgrade of the Russian navigation satellite system. Glonass‑K satellites designed for operational lifetimes of 10 years are being built at ISS‑Reshetnev’s manu‑ facturing facility in Zheleznogorsk, Siberia, in accordance with the following normative documents: The federal target program “Global Navigation System 2002‑2011”. The document defines directions of the country’s space activity in the field of satellite navigation, specifies major research and development efforts to be undertaken as well as milestones of the GLONASS program and contractors responsible for the system implementation and modernization. The development concept of the GLONASS navigation signals. The document specifies requirements for the GLONASS system signals, defines their types as well as target dates for the introduction of the new navigation signals.
The next-generation Glonass-K satellite
Информационные спутниковые системы
The preliminary design of the Glonass‑K spacecraft that defined the satellite’s description in accordance with the design specifications was developed by the Reshetnev team in 2002. Even at that time it was clear that in terms of design and functionality the new satellite would excel its predecessor, the Glonass‑M spacecraft. It is an interesting fact to know that flight tests on the Glonass‑M satellite began a year later, in 2003. Thus, the Glonass‑K project represented a great challenge to the Reshetnev team, for they had to design a third‑generation satellite while the second‑generation spacecraft was just entering a pre‑ launch preparation phase. The Glonass‑K satellite is based on ISS‑Reshetnev’s Express‑1000 unpressurized satellite platform. The satellite body, a parallelepiped made up of honeycomb structures (also manufac‑ tured at ISS‑Reshetnev), accommodates onboard instrumentation capable of operating in outer space. The absence of a pressurized instrument container brings a significant advantage in terms of satellite mass. For instance, in comparison with the 1415‑kilogram Glonass‑M satellite, Glonass‑K weighs 935 kg. The satellite has an increased power supply capability of 1.6 kW. By comparison with their predecessors, Glonass‑K satellites will have additional functions. In particular, they will carry COSPAS‑ SARSAT search and rescue payloads. One of their most important functional improvements consists in the new code division multiple access (CDMA) civil signal that satellites will broadcast at the GLONASS L3 frequency. The new improvement will result in higher accuracy of GLONASS navigation data as well as in the upgrade of user ground equipment. Modern Glonass‑M satellites, the core of Russia’s current orbital constellation, broadcast 4 FDMA signals at the L1 and L2 frequencies. The customer’s requirements for the Glonass‑K series output characteristics got stiffened several times in the process of development. As a result, the series production was split into several stages. Flight tests on the first Glonass‑K satellite of Block I are expected to verify the performance of the satellite’s onboard subsystems as well as its accuracy and compliance with the design specifications. Upon completion, the satellite will become a full member of the GLONASS fleet. If flight test results show that some
ISS-Reshetnev’s specialists assembling Glonass-K refinements are needed, the next satellites will be improved accordingly. Qualification tests will be conducted at the final stage to verify performance characteristics of the whole system, including the ground control segment. The launch of the second Glonass‑K satellite (Block I) is scheduled for the end of 2011. Simultaneously with the flight tests, ISS‑Reshetnev will continue to upgrade the Glonass‑K satellite. In 2010 the Reshetnev team completed the preliminary design and finalized the design concept of the Block II Glonass‑K spacecraft. The first satellite of Block II is planned for launch in 2013‑2014. The exact launch date will be determined in accordance with the federal target program Global Navigation System for 2012‑2020 currently under development. The Block II Glonass‑K satellites will broadcast two CDMA signals in the L1 and L2 bands and one open signal in the L1 band. The satellites will carry an additional payload, which will cause an increase in mass and power consumption. With the launch of the next‑ generation Glonass‑K satellites, and providing that all the satellites in the constellation are operational, the GLONASS system accuracy will increase 2‑2.5 times to reach the 2.8 m mark for civil users. Such precision would be impossible without ground technical means. That is why a lot of effort is being invested into the modernization of the ground control segment planned for completion by the end of 2011.
Within the framework of the Glonass‑K program ISS‑Reshetnev is cooperating with a number of Russian enterprises. Among these are the Russian Institute of Radionavigation and Time responsible for the onboard synchronizer, Russian Space Systems (dedicated onboard navigation equipment) and Research Institute for Precision Instrument Engineering (onboard instruments). Thus, the Glonass‑K satellite will be equipped with all Russian‑made instruments and devices. A lot of engineering solutions introduced in the Glonass‑K program have already received their “flight qualification” status. The method used by ISS‑Reshetnev consisted in the following: additional payloads with items to test were installed onboard earlier modifications of navigation satellites. Thus, Glonass‑K’s onboard equipment (lithium‑ion batteries, onboard computer, intersatellite laser navigation system, AOCS sensors, etc.) were first flight‑tested on Glonass‑M satellites. If necessary, the same method can be applied to any projected satellite devices and assemblies within subsequent navigation programs. Besides, both satellite types – Glonass‑K and Glonass‑M can accommodate information plates with information (lettering and graphics) about enterprises, organizations and individuals that have made important contributions to space research and activities. Mounted on satellite bodies, they will “sparkle” in space at an altitude of 20 km.
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dYnAMicS oF cooperAtion The Reshetnev Company takes pride in having close and longterm relationships with its partners and customers. Among these is Gazprom Space Systems, a company that has recently placed an order with ISS-Reshetnev for the manufacture of the Yamal-300K and Yamal-401 spacecraft. Today we are talking about the partnership relationships and prospects of cooperation between the two companies with Nikolay Sevastyanov, head of design bureau at Gazprom Space Systems. - Mr. Sevastyanov, which of your company’s activities is of high priority today? What are the company’s main tasks? Gazprom Space Systems is a satellite operator providing information satellite services to domestic and international markets by means of our Yamal satellite fleet. We set up industrial information space systems on the principles of commercial return and attraction of extra‑budgetary funds. Our company aims to develop
highly competitive systems so that our services can compete in both national and international markets. In this regard, at our company we promote activities that are focused on the development of new space systems and their elements, including spacecraft, ground communications and television networks. For example, when it comes to spacecraft, we undertake the development of payloads and TCR units, including onboard equipment and ground control stations.
- In this connection how do you regard ISS-Reshetnev’s activities? ‑ To compete in the satellite services market successfully, satellite operators have to demonstrate excellent performance in every new project. Progress in informatization is advancing by leaps and bounds and is very impressive. The competition in this market is getting tougher. Nowadays well‑known international companies conduct revolutions in the information services sector every few years. It has become possible due to the rapid development of technical means, such as spacecraft. A satellite consists of 2 basic parts – a payload and a satellite platform. The main task of Gazprom Space Systems is to develop highly competitive satellite payloads with functional characteristics much better than those of our competitors. That is why co‑operation with ISS‑Reshetnev is very important for us. The Reshetnev Company manufactures
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About the company: The joint‑stock company “Gazprom Space Systems” is part of the Gazprom group of companies. The company is engaged in the telecommunications sector and positions itself as: a satellite operator; a space and communication systems designer and integrator; a payload developer; a satellite communications service provider. The company has created and operates the Yamal satellite communications system which consists of three telecommunications satellites (Yamal‑100, Yamal‑201 and Yamal‑202) and an advanced ground‑based infrastructure (the ground control segment, three teleports, digital satellite TV center, a wide network of ground stations in the Russian regions).
satellite platforms, designs and builds satellites. Their main task is to develop reliable satellite platforms for our payloads. What is more important today for competitive performance is to ensure that our satellites have lifetimes of 15 years. Our companies’ latest developments in satellite payload and platform design are complementary, and therefore, our collaboration is crucial for the competitiveness of our space‑technology products. I think that today ISS‑Reshetnev demonstrates highly dynamic development. - What is your assessment of the companies’ joint projects? ‑ At present we are working together on the Yamal‑300K project. Summarizing the results of our meetings I can say that we are quite satisfied with the progress of work and the milestones achieved by ISS‑Reshetnev, and we hope that the project will be implemented on schedule and in accordance with the design specifications. I think that our companies have forged strong partnership in the process of work on the Yamal‑300K project and what is more, our engineers have found a common language. That is why we have made another contract with ISS‑Reshetnev for the manufacture of the Yamal‑401 spacecraft. ISS‑Reshetnev has already commenced activities under the new program. Unlike the Yamal‑300K satellite, the Yamal‑401 spacecraft will be based on ISS‑Reshetnev’s Express‑2000
platform to ensure increased power capability for the payload. The satellite has been designed to run for 15 years and to produce 11 kW of payload power. It is scheduled for launch in 2013. In my opinion, it is a quite complicated project that will definitely enable us to make an important breakthrough in the development of satellite technology. Together with the Reshetnev Company we aim to manufacture a “super” satellite with an operational performance comparable with the world’s best counterparts. It is of crucial importance for us, that ISS‑Reshetnev is not afraid of setting and solving difficult tasks. Manufacturing spacecraft based on new platform types is a serious step forward and, thus, requires considerable “scientific” and “technological” courage. I am sure that the Reshetnev team will meet the challenge successfully. Besides, I believe that our companies are bound to hit this target due to the solid expertise and experience we have gained each in its own field, and mainly, due to the deep understanding existing between our companies at both managerial and technological levels.
- What prospects of cooperation can you see between the two companies? ‑ Undoubtedly, Gazprom Space Systems will be eager to invite the Reshetnev Company to participate in its future programs, and in our turn, we are ready to take part in ISS‑Reshetnev’s satellite projects. Such win‑win partnership relations will allow us to increase the competitive power of our products in the international market. As for our future targets we plan to launch a new project to be named Yamal‑600. As a customer, we are now laying down conditions of the new project so that the Reshetnev Company can act as our project partner. Another joint project we are currently implementing is the manufacture of the Arktica multifunctional satellite system designed to provide communications services in the Arctic region by means of HEO satellites. So far, the President of the Russian Federation has made a decision to commence activities under the Arktica program and the Russian Government has prepared all the relevant documents. Now it is our turn to exert every effort to perform the mission.
Representatives of Gazprom Space Systems at ISS-Reshetnev
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A satellite’s life begins in orbit soon after launch. The environment in space differs radically from the conditions in which satellites are created. Today most spacecraft are designed to run for no less than 15 years. To ensure their continuous faultless in-orbit operation satellite manufacturers undertake a lot of testing on earth so that spacecraft can withstand aggressive environments in space. With this end in view, ISS-Reshetnev has formed a state-of-the-art testing complex that allows the company to perform a complete cycle of mission-critical satellite testing in the shortest possible time and with high quality.
ISS‑Reshetnev’s test complex emp‑ loys dedicated test equipment which enables test engineers to get a full appreciation of satellite performance and capabilities for operating in space at any stage of manufacture. Test data also allows the staff to validate the correctness of engineering decisions, make adjustments to the design documentation and eliminate defects. The availability of its own test facilities allows the company to save time and money on manufacturing and transportation. At ISS‑Reshetnev satellite testing is carried out at all stages of manufacture. Component parts (devices and assemblies) are tested first and, what is more, at two levels ‑ component and subsystem. Only after that integrated satellite level testing
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begins. Satellite materials and coatings are tested in advance. The company also tests foldable structures, such as antenna reflectors, solar panels and
by federal standards and the Complex Satellite Verification Program. General technical requirements and satellite specifications are taken into account as well. Therefore, every type of spacecraft has its own test program.
Static tests To verify the structural integrity of a future satellite ISS‑Reshetnev conducts static tests on a satellite’s structural model. Static tests allow engineers to measure deformations and strains, the load‑carrying capacity of a satellite structure as well as its margin of safety. The test model is subjected to various loads which resemble transportation and in‑flight conditions critical to the load‑bearing structure. Loading conditions are chosen on the basis of the analysis of the satellite’s future working environment, stresses and strength calculations.
Thermal vacuum tests
Glonass-K’s antenna assembly in testing solar panel deployment mechanisms. In other words, every engineering decision, every device and every system is subjected to rigorous testing. In the satellite development process different engineering qualification models of a satellite are built and submitted to a variety of tests in environments similar to that the spacecraft would encounter during its transportation to the launch site, launch and life in orbit. Test results determine the decision about the time when to start building the real satellite. Such an approach enables the company to create reliable space technology and spot potential problems before production starts. The consecutive order of tests as well as test methods are chosen in accordance with a satellite’s mission and technical capabilities determined
The thermal vacuum test is one of the most critical spacecraft environmental tests that help to ensure reliable operation of a satellite in orbit. It includes functional tests on the spacecraft thermal behavior in flight‑like conditions within simulated thermal extremes. The thermal vacuum test also verifies the functionality of the spacecraft thermal control subsystem. Today ISS‑Reshetnev manufactures satellites based on unpressurized satellite platforms, which implies continuous operation of satellite devices and instrumentation in open space, under extreme temperature conditions. New high‑accuracy thermal control subsystems installed onboard such satellites are required to maintain temperatures of the mission‑critical equipment to within 0.1°С. ISS‑Reshetnev operates two unique large chambers, i.e. a thermal vacuum chamber, KVU‑400, and a space environment simulation chamber, TBK‑120, designed specifically for performing system level TVAC. It must be mentioned that small satellite parts and some materials and coatings are tested in smaller chambers (50‑100 litres) developed and manufactured in‑ house. During TVAC it is important to verify the temperature range of a test object as required in the design documentation. Thus, the minimum temperature in the TBK‑120 chamber is ‑180/190°С; vacuum ‑ 10‑6 Torr.
The KVU‑400 chamber is also intended for thermal balance and leak tests. ISS‑Reshetnev constantly mo‑ dernizes its thermal vacuum test equipment and procures new state‑ of‑the‑art items compliant with international standards. Thus, in 2010 the KVU‑400 and TBK‑120 chambers were equipped with new automated control complexes developed for ISS‑Reshetnev in accordance with its technical design assignment. The necessity for the modernization of the chambers was determined by the increased requirements to thermal vacuum testing which led to an increase in the amount of telemetry data and the accuracy of power control parameters during testing. The new systems are fully‑automated and allow for programmable cyclogram control of the thermal model equipment operation. The new software also enables primary data processing and curve plotting in real time, which makes it possible to take engineering decisions while testing and to monitor temperature parameters with high precision. In 2009 the company modernized the TBK‑120 Chamber Solar Simulator by installing new radiation sources and an automated heat flux control system.
Glonass-K EQM for thermal testing
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By the end of the year ISS‑Reshetnev plans to replace outdated mechanical pumps at its thermal vacuum test stands with new equipment to ensure contamination‑free vacuum inside the vacuum chamber. Besides, at present ISS‑Reshetnev is assembling a new horizontal vacuum plant, GVU‑600, designed for thermal vacuum testing of unpressurized satellites whose thermal control subsystems are based on the heat pipe technology. The impressive vacuum plant whose chamber volume is almost 600m3 will allow the company to test large satellites in a horizontal position, which is crucial for the performance of heat pipes in the conditions of terrestrial gravity.
GEO-IK-2 EQM for dynamic testing
Loutch-5A antenna reﬂector in testing
During transportation and launch a satellite must withstand severe dynamic and acoustic loads that may cause failures in operation. Dynamic tests are carried out to verify the integrity of a satellite structure and usually represent a three‑step process encompassing acoustic, vibration and transportation tests. In dynamic testing a full‑scale engineering qualification model (EQM) is submitted to various stresses in the dedicated Mechanical Test Laboratory.
Acoustic tests are conducted to verify satellite tolerance to acoustic loads encountered during the orbit insertion phase. The loads are produced by a rocket fairing and cause fluctuations of air masses under the fairing, thus, resulting in vibrations of large satellite surfaces (honeycomb panels, radiators and solar arrays). Satellite devices are also affected. During acoustic tests satellite parts and devices are checked for their capability to withstand very intense noise similar to that a satellite will encounter during insertion. Hypersonic loads are simulated in a special acoustic chamber, where a complete satellite is subjected to noise pressure similar to that a launch vehicle engine produces during liftoff and atmospheric entry. The peak noise level can reach 149dB, which may cause damage to satellite electronics. Acoustic testing is, thus, an important risk mitigation factor that helps to cut the likelihood of emergency and abnormal situations during liftoff and insertion. Another phase of dynamic testing is the vibration test carried out in a simulated environment to verify a satellite’s tolerance to vibrations experienced during launch. Vibration tests help to examine the dynamic
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behavior of a satellite structure, its vibration strength and limits as well as the effects of vibration on the performance of satellite subsystems, assemblies and devices. In other words, vibration tests help to qualify a satellite for operation in the rigorous vibration environments encountered during launch and insertion. In 2009 ISS‑Reshetnev implemented a new test system based on the high‑force Electrodynamic Shaker V994. The system employs a horizontal test table that allows testing 3.5‑ton satellites or, in case of a tandem launch, 1 to 3 medium‑class satellites simultaneously. For transportation load tests it is important to simulate the conditions of air, rail and automobile transportation as they are during transportation of a spacecraft to the launch site. The main goal of this type of testing is to subject a satellite to cyclic loads that may help to detect possible design and technical defects caused by man. At all stages of dynamic testing a satellite is submitted to various stresses gradually, from low load levels up to the peak ones. At each level the collected test data is thoroughly analyzed and conclusions are formed. Besides, in its Mechanical Test Laboratory ISS‑Reshetnev performs
system level testing of foldable spacecraft structures. Thus, the company carries out tests to verify the deployment reliability of solar arrays, reflectors and booms. Since the reliable deployment of foldable structures in space is crucial to satellite performance and mission, tests are conducted both in normal and thermal vacuum conditions. To that end, ISS has equipped the laboratory with state‑of‑ the‑art machinery and tools. In particular, a unique work area has been created for assembling, aligning and testing solar panels with a panel area of over 40 m2. At present ISS‑Reshetnev is building a new facility for testing large‑sized foldable spacecraft structures.
Electrical and radiotechnical testing Electrical and radiotechnical tests hold a special place in a cycle of spacecraft testing as they allow testing spacecraft characteristics and the condition of spacecraft equipment. Besides, during electrical and radiotechnical tests satellite performance can be demonstrated to the customer. This type of test also allows for verification of satellite
electrical equipment and includes electrical and environmental tests. Electrical testing is carried out in several stages: before environmental tests; during thermal vacuum and thermal balance tests; after environmental tests. A cycle of electrical testing is followed by acceptance tests. Modern spacecraft are equipped with sophisticated and highly sensitive electronics. Testing electronics at a satellite level is a rather time‑consuming job. During electrical testing a spacecraft is placed in a special environment with well‑controlled temperature and humidity conditions and levels of cleanliness. The test equipment is operated by means of remote control. Preparations for electrical and radiotechnical testing begin with the preparation of the working area. Every satellite (or a series of satellites) undergoes electrical testing at several special test sites tooled up with specialized test and auxiliary equipment. These include a site for electrical testing in normal conditions, a thermal vacuum chamber and an anechoic chamber. Each of them is equipped with auxiliary systems such
Thales Alenia Space specialists working in ISS-Reshetnev’s small anechoic chamber
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Electrical and radiotechnical testing of the GEO-IK-2 satellite as power supply, air conditioning, air cleaning, etc. All electrical tests are performed with the use of an automated test system (ATS) that helps operate sophis‑ ticated test equipment and carry out test procedures. The ATS includes several computers programmed to conduct testing. The checkout equipment consists of computing hardware, complicated measuring instruments and devices. During electrical and radiotechnical testing it is crucial to check the electromagnetic compatibility of all the satellite electrical and radio equipment items. To that end, the satellite together with the checkout equipment is placed into the anechoic chamber that allows test engineers to assess the electromagnetic compatibility of the satellite radio electronics in the microenvironment. The sufficiency of the onboard equipment shielding is tested as well. During the compatibility tests it is important to exclude the interference of the satellite radiotechnical systems and to test the effect of high‑frequency transmitter radiation on the satellite optics. Anechoic chambers are used to simulate on‑orbit environments and test satellites under the conditions of maximum radiation. Tests in the anechoic chamber usually run for 5‑7 days and allow engineers to get accurate test results. ISS‑Reshetnev is now doing research into the effects of electrostatic
discharge on satellite performance. ESD can cause failures and even damage to satellite equipment. Therefore, at ISS‑Reshetnev all satellites are designed with an allowance for this factor and accommodate technical means that minimize the undesirable impact of electrostatic discharge on satellite subsystems and equipment. The satellite manufacturing process ends at an acceptance phase, during which the satellite performance and compliance with the design and contract requirements are demonstrated to the customer. The next step involves preparing the satellite for its normal operation. This milestone is achieved at ISS‑Reshet‑ nev’s satellite manufacturing facility, which excludes the necessity for extra electrical testing at the launch site, thus, allowing the company to cut the pre‑launch preparation time. This practice was introduced at ISS‑Reshetnev 20 years ago and since then it has proved to be highly efficient and cost‑effective.
Flight tests Flight testing starts the moment the satellite separates from the launch vehicle. On average flight tests take from one and a half to three months. During this period specialists verify the operation of the satellite equipment and set the designated orbit parameters. This phase also establishes the satellite on‑orbit performance compliance with
the design specifications. Actual and set‑up parameters that require verification are registered in a compliance matrix. To facilitate the process, ISS‑Reshetnev has created a unique information computation center (ICC) which allows the Reshetnev team to provide technical support to customers’ mission control centers at all stages of satellite operation, including launch. Several hours after the launch (the exact time depends on the type of the desired orbit) ISS‑Reshetnev’s technical staff together with the ICC team members verify the deployment of all the satellite’s mechanical subsystems and the implementation of the sun and earth acquisition as well as the activation of the onboard equipment. After that the satellite is ready to be transferred to its designated orbital position. During the on‑orbit test phase the satellite telemetry data is collected and processed daily. The satellite equipment performance is tested in both standard and stand‑by modes. Meanwhile on‑orbit flight parameters and other mission‑critical information are sent from the ground to the satellite’s onboard computer. The flight test program depends on the mission and the customer’s requirements. For instance, testing repeater physical characteristics is essential with telecommunications satellites. Acceptance of the satellite takes place upon completion of the flight test, on‑orbit correction and commissioning. This is called a turn‑key delivery. Successful flight test results of the first spacecraft in a series of satellites are nowadays an indispensable condition for launching series production.
The keystone of success ISS‑Reshetnev’s complex test base is one of the company’s most valuable assets, which allows conducting a complete test cycle in‑house at both subsystem and integrated levels to ensure successful satellite on‑orbit operation during and even over a satellite’s projected lifetime. Thanks to ISS‑Reshetnev’s highly qualified staff and state‑of‑the‑art equipment satellite testing is performed in strict compliance with international standards, which is of deciding importance for Russian and foreign customers.
Information Satellite Systems
Modern production management
Today technology is developing by leaps and bounds. With the present level of computerization and its impact on society and business, special attention at most Russian enterprises is given to the implementation of computer-aided technologies. The Reshetnev Company launched the process in 1972 with the advent of the first electronic computing machines. Since then ISS‑Reshetnev has established an integrated automated system that allows the enterprise to get a complete picture of its activities and processes as well as monitor work in its numerous departments.
Recent years have witnessed a tremendous growth in the flow of documents as well as the increasing use of computers and digital media in business processes. Put together and reinforced by other objective factors they led to the establishment of new organizational management systems based on the principles of industrial automation. Computer‑aided manufacturing (CAM) is a set of computer software, computer‑based media and other means (technical, linguistic, organizational and technological) as well as the human factor (skilled professionals) which assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including business planning, management and control.
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Computerized testing According to expert opinion, enterprise management supported by computer‑aided technologies increases the competitiveness of a company’s products. The presence of a common database with detailed information about the company allows its staff to significantly reduce time spent in search of necessary data. A common database also helps large organizations to monitor work in their numerous departments, which is crucial for organizational decision making. ISS‑Reshetnev attributes much of its success to the implementation of an integrated corporate‑wide computer‑aided management system which was built and developed in‑ house. Today this comprehensive system incorporates a number of computer‑aided technologies such as CAM, CAD, MRP (manufacturing resource planning), computer‑aided finance and electronic document
Manufacturing resource planning and control
management. Looking back, it is hard to believe that sometime in the past the company had only a few computers to start with and a team of enthusiasts inspired by the possibilities that the future might bring.
Computer-aided manufacturing During the first few years of the company’s existence finance and accounting calculations were performed by the tabulating department located at the Krasmash plant in Krasnoyarsk by means of tabulating and punching machines and verifiers. With the company’s expansion in the early 70s there arose a necessity to automate the accounting process. By the summer of 1972 the necessary software had been designed and developed in‑ house. In January 1973 the enterprise launched the new program to assist in payroll processing and material flow accounting. It was the first significant victory of ISS‑Reshetnev’s programmers and the first steps of the soon‑to‑be Information Technology Department. In the late 1980s with the advent of computer‑aided manufacturing the company implemented a software system to enable computer‑aided production planning, both at the enterprise level and at the shop floor level. Now machines were used to create route sheets and programs for NC machine tools and to prepare monthly plans as well as for routine accounting operations. In subsequent years the Reshetnev Company continued to procure modern
computer equipment and develop computer programs and data storage systems. With the creation of a common database of procured items the company got the possibility to start planning budgets of the procurement department. Today there are two large computerized material management systems at the enterprise. The first system, MRP‑I, has been designed to assist in material requirements planning; the second system, MRP‑II is dedicated to manufacturing resource planning and control. Both programs are indispensable and help to solve a great many production tasks. The increased capacity of the centralized database allows the company to store and process almost any data including information on the amount of raw materials required for the manufacture of a part as well as data on additional materials that might be needed in the manufacturing process. Besides, it enables managers to track and control the flow of the procured materials all the way from their manufacturers until they are written off. The MRP‑I system data is used to generate detailed production analyses. This part of the planning process is the direct responsibility of the Department of Planning and Coordination whose staff works in a fully automated environment. The MRP‑I system is also used for processing payroll which is performed in accordance with the pre‑set parameters such as “employee’s position”, “bonus payments”, “sick pay”, “travel allowances” and others. The implementation of the MRP‑I system allowed the company to solve many tasks, for instance, to create an automated parts record system. MRP‑I is an enterprise‑wide solution. At the shop floor level the system provides data support to ISS‑Reshetnev’s numerous workshops through a shared network and a retrieval system. The latter provides easy access to the company’s internal information and has some ready‑to‑use analytical data to facilitate decision‑making. The implementation of com‑ puter‑aided technologies is well under way at ISS‑Reshetnev. Thus far, the Department of Finance has been reequipped with new high‑speed computers that save a considerable amount of time. Besides, it is planned to add several new servers to the whole system so as to increase its fault tolerance.
Information Satellite Systems
Computer-aided design and electronic document management ISS‑Reshetnev began to automate the satellite design process in the mid 80s. By that time computer‑aided design systems had become widespread in the West as they allowed companies to considerably shorten design cycles and increase productivity. In 1993 the Reshetnev Company started installing different CAD software packages intended for computer‑aided satellite design, development and manufacture as well as for the preparation of design and technical documentation. In 2008 ISS‑Reshetnev implemented Dassault Systemes solutions to facilitate onboard cable systems design and development. Thus far, for some types of products, the company has switched to the CAD data exchange technology using CATIA 3D modeling of satellite parts. Dassault Systemes solutions also allow the company to speed up NС programming. In the nearest future the company aims to design not only separate units, sets and components but whole digital models of spacecraft. ISS‑Reshetnev’s electronic docu‑ ment management system is a combination of computer tools and various databases that enable the company to store, organize, retrieve and process electronic documents. At present most of the company’s documentation is prepared and approved in electronic form. Thanks to DS’ ENOVIA SmarTeam workflow control module, documents are now signed and approved using digital signatures encrypt data (represented by a unique series of symbols identifying the signer of a digital document). Such attributes of the digital signature as reliability and uniqueness make it an indispensable component of any electronic document. At this year’s Reshetnev Company Technical and Scientific Council meeting it was decided to create a working group to develop a concept of CAD and CALS technologies implementation at the enterprise. The concept is scheduled for completion by the end of 2010. Thus far, the company has created an electronic archive of design documents. The program, despite its complexity, provides easy access to archival information and allows ‘quick search’. 180 000 out of 700 000
documents issued by the enterprise during its existence have been already included in the archives. As well as the archiving process, there is parallel work going on to convert paper documents into electronic forms, which will allow the company to reduce the size of its paper archives.
Personnel training The implementation of the com‑ puterized management system, like any other serious reform, is a complicated process. First of all, it affects personnel. Though corporate‑wide computerization can significantly facilitate employees’ work it can be sometimes quite difficult for the staff to get used to new working methods. The company’s management has made provisions against the possibility of future problems in order to eliminate any risks and solve problems before they happen. Such an approach helps to facilitate the implementation of the system and increase its effective‑ ness. Besides, the HR Department orga nizes regular training courses for the employees to acquire excellent computer skills in a wide range of activities such as computer‑aided design (from fundamentals to advanced levels), electronic document manage‑ ment, modern machine learning and others. In addition, the company organizes in‑service training to allow the employees to grow professionally and gain expert knowledge at the workplace.
In today’s competitive environment it is essential that companies implement computer aided technologies. The absence of automated systems at an enterprise can be a sufficient reason for licensing authorities not to grant an operating license. That is why the new production management model enhanced with computer aided technologies enjoys so much popularity today. As a rule, the advantages are optimized business processes, efficient databases, instantaneous access to digitized documents and as a result, effective and quick decision‑making. Document management systems with computer‑based record keeping and storage of design, technical, financial and other documents are cru‑ cial for companies switching to modern computer‑aided technologies. What is more, automated systems determine their future success and help to achieve corporate objectives. Experience and knowledge accumulated by the Reshetnev Company in this sphere can bring significant advantages to many of its industrial partners. In 2009 ISS‑Reshetnev integrated nine Russian enterprises specializing in spacecraft manufacturing. Today the Government of the Russian Federation plans for ISS‑Reshetnev to continue integration and include new members. In this context the company is now considering the possibility of providing a secure environment for sharing confidential information between its business units quickly and confidently.
Operating a computer controlled machine
Information Satellite Systems
Hardly had the Reshetnev Company completed the integration of 9 companies into a single structure in December, 2009 when the Federal Space Agency started considering the possibility for the Siberian satellite manufacturer to include another 7 large space enterprises. The final resolution in favor of a new integration process was adopted at the meeting of the RF Government Military-Industrial Committee on 10 June, 2010. In modern society the term “integration” can be heard almost in all areas of human activity. Borrowed from Latin, it denotes the process of combining two or more units, groups, organizations, etc., so as to form a whole. Therefore, an integrated company represents a group of legal entities united into a single corporate body through the assignment of part of their rights to the dominant parent and subordination of their interests to the general good of the group. At
present integrated companies play an important role in the formation of a technically competent national defence industry. The integrated company “Acade‑ mician M.F.Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems” was formed in the process of restructuring the national military‑industrial complex undertaken with a view to optimization of the production management system. The new corporate body was formed from nine Roscosmos’s
enterprises specializing in spacecraft manufacturing. These are Scientific and Production Enterprise “Kvant” (Moscow), Research & Production Enterprise “Geophisika‑Cosmos” (Moscow), Scientific and Production Center “Polyus” (Tomsk), Siberian Devices and Systems (Omsk), Scientific and Research Enterprise of Space Instrumentation Industry “Kvant” (Rostov‑on‑Don) and four companies from Zheleznogorsk: NPO PM – Razvitie, NPO PM‑Small Design Bureau, Technical Test Center‑NPO PM and Sibpromproekt. In accordance with the Presidential Edict the integration was carried out through privatization of the enterprises with the transfer of their shares to ISS‑Reshetnev. As a result, the Reshetnev Company today has a 100% stake in each of the above‑mentioned enterprises but minus one share. As for the company’s legal status, it remains a 100% state‑owned entity.
Information Satellite Systems
The business priorities of the new integrated company encompass design, development, manufacture, modernization and maintenance of space-based information and coordinate-measuring systems, complexes and spacecraft. The board of shareholders is the highest authority in the company. Determination of strategic priorities and growth prospects falls within the jurisdiction of the board of directors under the chairmanship of Anatoly Perminov, head of the Russian Space Agency. Executive management rests with Nikolay Testoyedov, General Designer and Director General of the Reshetnev Company. The new business units are managed on the same principle. At present each enterprise integrated into ISS‑Reshetnev has its own board of directors, including representatives of the parent company. The schedule of the second wave integration in the military-industrial complex was approved at the meeting of the RF Government Military-Industrial Committee in June, 2010. Thus, it is planned to form 11 more integrated companies from Roscosmos’s enterprises. ISS‑Reshetnev is expected to continue integration and launch Phase II following the initial pattern when enterprises transfer shares to the
parent. This time ISS‑Reshetnev will integrate a large holding company being formed on the base of the former federal state unitary enterprise NPP VNIIEM (Moscow) including NIIEM (Moscow), MZEMA (Moscow), Novator (Istra), NPO Novator (Mirny) and PKP Iris (Rostov-on-Don). Upon completion of the integration process, ISS‑Reshetnev will take full responsibility for the new business units. Besides the above‑listed companies, ISS‑Reshetnev will integrate S.A. Lavochkin Scientific & Production Association (Khimki), OKB Fakel (Kaliningrad) and Glavcosmos (Moscow). There is also a possibility of adding another holding company, the Scientific & Production Corporation “Precision Instrumentation Systems” to the Reshetnev group but the question is still under consideration. Thus, the ongoing large-scale integration process will definitely allow the Reshetnev Company to expand both numerically and geographically. Today, in the light of the on-going processes, ISS‑Reshetnev has a clearly defined goal: to complete integration by the end of 2012. Indeed, the integration of the large federal state unitary enterprises will definitely take time so as to carry out their privatization and, since these enterprises have lands and other property, to register
new ownership rights. At a rough estimate, the process will run through the 2011 calendar year. The concept of the integrated Reshetnev Company has been completely developed and shows the expediency of forming the industrial group. This document is expected to provide a base for a draft government decree on the expansion of the integrated company. At present joint efforts are being undertaken to work out a detailed schedule of activities to carry out by 2012. The large-scale expansion of ISS‑Reshetnev places great responsibilities on the company’s administration in terms of business unit management. Yet, taking into account the interests of the Russian Federation and the targets the company is expected to achieve on a national scale, there is no doubt that the Reshetnev Company will justify the high level of confidence of the Russian government and will certainly prove its leading role in the satellite manufacturing industry. Nikolay Chernov, head of the Corporate Development Department
Information Satellite Systems
THE OLYMPIC SATELLITE The Olympic Games held in Moscow in 1980 became an important event for our country. Thousands of people in different regions of the USSR as well as foreign countries got an opportunity to snuggle up in front of their TVs to watch the 1980 Olympic events. Only a few of them knew that it was possible due to the spacecraft built in the closed Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk-26 (now Zheleznogorsk). It was ISS-Reshetnev (then NPO PM) that in the late 70-s developed and manufactured satellites of the Gorizont series and in 1980, during the Olympic Games, assisted with their mission control.
Long before the 1980 Olympics NPO PM was a relatively young space company, the only one behind the Urals that had just converted from rocket production (Cosmosâ€‘ 3M) into satellite manufacturing. The enterprise had asserted itself powerfully by the early 1970s, after the launch of several modifications of the Molnia HEO spacecraft and Strela LEO satellites. In the mid 1970s the Siberian enterprise was the first in the country to begin the conquest of the geostationary orbit. Thus, in December 1975 the Raduga spacecraft was
launched, and a year after, in October 1976 it was followed by the direct TV broadcasting satellite Ekran. With the advent of geostationary satellite communications systems and the new benefits to reap, the preference for GEO satellites started growing considerably. Meanwhile the USSR was getting ready for the XXII Summer Olympic Games. Journalists from around the world were coming to cover the news and sports events. To provide TV and radio broadcasting worldwide the country had to deploy new technical means. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR adopted a resolution to place an order
for geostationary communications satellites with NPO PM. The company was challenged not only to manufacture satellites, but also to complete their inâ€‘orbit flight tests by the beginning of the 1980 Olympic Games. As soon as the order was received, NPO PM embarked on the Gorizont program. Gorizont satellites were intended for telephone, telegraph and phototelegraph communications as well as for broadcasting Central TV programs to the network of ground stations (Moskva and Orbita) so as to provide the whole country with multichannel TV and radio broadcasting services, to extend the coverage area and increase the capacity of the
Information Satellite Systems
international space communications system “Intersputnik”. The company implemented the program in the shortest possible time, i.e. in 2.5 years, including the documentation stage. On December 19, 1978 the first Gorizont satellite was launched. In spite of the fact that the upper stage failed to deliver the satellite into its designated orbit by an error of inclination, NPO PM, nevertheless, managed to conduct flight tests to the full. The satellite performance and all the solutions introduced by the Reshetnev team proved reliable. It must be mentioned that the implementation of the Gorizont program was supervised by Sergey Afanasyev, the Soviet Minister of General Engineering. Every day Mikhail Reshetnev, NPO PM General Designer and Director General, had to report on the progress of work on the Gorizont program. The second Gorizont satellite was launched 7 months later, on June 7, 1979. As soon as the flight tests of the onboard repeater were successfully completed, the spacecraft was ready for its ‘Olympic’ mission. In fact, the 1980 Olympics were covered by means of two satellites, the second and the third spacecraft, launched on December 28, 1979. Both spacecraft did a good job during the games. It was a real victory of the Siberian enterprise. Everybody in the company had a great sense of achievement while watching the Olympic Games and was proud of being a part of the grand event.
(Leningrad); the propulsion subsystem by Kvant (Kaliningrad); AOCS devices by Geofizika (Moscow) and TCR by RNII KP (Moscow). The cooperation between the companies proved fruitful and continued through the Olympic Games, during which specialists from different space enterprises teamed up at the Shabalovka communications center in Moscow to control the satellites and provide high‑quality continuous broadcasting of the Olympic sports events.
Abreast of the times The Gorizont series embodied many technical innovations implemented in the previous programs such as Raduga and Ekran. For instance, the structural configuration was borrowed from the Raduga spacecraft and the high‑precision AOCS from the Ekran spacecraft. When commissioned the Gorizont satellites allowed the country to considerably increase the channel capacity of its satellite communication systems “Orbita” and “Intersputnik” (operational at that time) in the interests of the national economy and international cooperation.
The first Gorizont satellites’ repeaters had 6 versatile C‑band transponders intended for TV and radio broadcasting, multichannel telephony and newspaper data broadcasts. One of the transponders, with improved output power, was intended for transmitting television signals to a network of simple receiving stations (with 2.5‑meter diameter antennas) of the Moskva TV broadcasting and distribution system. In 1982 the USSR started launching modernized Gorizont satellites. The new satellites differed from their predecessors in having two additional transponders. One of them served the Navy and was intended for ship‑ to‑shore communications within the Volna system; the other utilized the higher Ku‑band. As a result, satellites of the modernized Gorizont series had improved functional and performance capabilities, which were later borrowed for new communications satellite projects.
Appraisal of merits It must be mentioned, that among the strongest stimuli to work on the
Built by joint efforts The period of work on the Gorizont program was quite intensive for the Reshetnev Company. In search of new innovative solutions and ways to increase the operational efficiency of the satellite subsystems, the Reshetnev team cooperated with a number of leading companies and scientific organizations. Thus, the repeater subsystem for the Gorizont series was developed by RNII KP. NPO PM together with the Suhumi Institute of Physics and Technology designed and developed the battery electronics unit and the voltage regulation unit for the electrical power supply subsystem. The solar cell array was manufactured by Kvant (Moscow); the storage battery by VNIIA
ISS-Reshetnev specialist assembling Gorizont
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Gorizont program was the intention of the team to carry out the state order with high quality and in due time and, what is more important, to support the company’s brand image. Those who were involved in the broadcasting of the Olympic Games did not have time to attend sports competitions. What they attended instead were daily briefings on the spacecraft operation that took place mornings and evenings in the Mission Control Center in Golitsyn. The Gorizonts’ performance was recognized to be beyond reproach. After the Olympic Games the USSR Ministry of Communications expressed gratitude to the Reshetnev team for the successfully implemented project. Satellites of the Gorizont series embodied the best technical solutions implemented in the first geostationary projects, Raduga and Ekran. The launch of the Gorizont spacecraft enabled the USSR to considerably increase the channel capacity of its satellite communications systems ‘Orbita’ and ‘Intersputnik’ and to nominally divide the country into five broadcasting zones. Thus, owing to the new satellites manufactured by the Reshetnev Company, residents from all over the country, from the
Far East to its European part, got the possibility to watch TV programs at their convenience.
New possibilities It is important to note that the Gorizont satellites were commercia‑ lized in the 1990s, when Russia started selling satellite channels to foreign satellite operators. The Gorizont satellite was the first spacecraft in the history of Russian cosmonautics designed exclusively for broadcasting TV and radio news from the largest international sports event. The satellite system that included 4 Gorizont spacecraft allowed 98 % of the country’s population to watch Central TV programs. Gorizont spacecraft carried out their missions successfully for more than 30 years and formed the basis for a number of communications systems, such as “Orbita”, “Orbita‑ RV”, “Moskva”, “Moskva‑Globalnaya”, “Volna” and “Intersputnik”. In fact, the Gorizont family proved to be one of the most reliable and long‑lived satellite series developed by the Reshetnev Company. On average Gorizont satellites functioned for about 6.7 years. It is noteworthy that Gorizont
1980 Summer Olympic Games Opening Ceremony
№ 28 ran for 15.4 years instead of the projected 5 years. Gorizont № 33, the last satellite of the series, was placed into orbit on June 6, 2000. The Gorizont series is Russia’s biggest geostationary satellite family, whose record will never be broken. Indeed, the lifetime of its modern ‘members’ has been increased considerably, so there is hardly any need for such large series of spacecraft. Today ISS‑Reshetnev’s information satellite systems offer new possibilities and opportunities for the organizers of the Olympic Games. Thus, events of the Sochi Olympics‑2014 will be broadcast by modern Express communications satellites built by the Reshetnev Company. These satellites incorporate many world firsts in their design and use of new technology, and there is no doubt that with their new capabilites they will provide much more possibilities than satellites of the Gorizont series. vladimir ShILov, engineering Department, head of section Nikolay PASeChKIN, engineering Department, senior engineer viktor IvANov, engineering Department, design engineer
Информационные спутниковые системы
Информационные спутниковые системы