Les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme CirVath International Journal of Tourism
Publication juin 2020 Centre International de Recherche Vatel en Tourisme et HĂ´tellerie
Vatel 140, rue Vatel BP 7128 30913 Nîmes cedex – France ISSN 2678-7660
Les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme numĂŠroÂ 12
Les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme numéro 12 CirVath International Journal of Tourism
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LES CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DU TOURISME CIRVATH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM Préface en français
Preface in English
PAPERS IN ENGLISH Lorena P. VALERIO Sense of Classroom Community and Academic Performance of Hospitality Management Students: A Correlational Study Page 15 Dr Godofredo Cristobal UTANES, Ong Joo SUN Marriott International vs. Accor Hotels: Battling over cost and margin supremacy Page 39 Dr Sng BEE BEE Battling food wastes: The role of NGOs and the Hospitality Industry Page 67 Dr Benigno Glenn RICAFORTE Fostering 21st Century Skills Through Inquiry-Based Learning Modules In Sustainable Tourism Page 87 Maria Paz A. CASTRO, Geronio G. ULAYAO The Filipino Construct of International Independent Leisure Travel Page 113 Angelo Marco U. LACSON, Maria Paz A. CASTRO Breaking Barriers to Internship Inequity: An Evaluation of an InterestFree Student Loan Program for International Internship Page 129 -7© CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
ÉTUDES EN FRANÇAIS Dr Line LAFFOND Pour la co-construction d’une culture de terrain dans le cadre d’un cours de langue en immersion au cœur d’une région d’implantation de Vatel France : Nîmes, vers une application nationale et internationale Page 151
STUDENT DISSERTATION Work Group of Students from Vatel Nimes: Tangui CAMPO, Melina CONROY, Lena KOLENDA, Chen LEI & Yael LANCE Zannier Ko Chang: Property Development in Thailand
CIRVATH PRESENTATION Présentation en français Page 219 English presentation Page 223
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PRÉFACE Alors que le monde est actuellement touché par une pandémie sans précédent, le tourisme, les transports, l’hôtellerie, la restauration et la culture apparaissent comme les secteurs économiques les plus affectés. Secteurs à forte concentration humaine, ils ont été totalement et brutalement arrêtés dans la majorité des pays. Composés la plupart du temps par des petites et moyennes entreprises, les conséquences d’une telle décision sont fortement ressenties et beaucoup d’entre-elles, hélas, ne pourront s’en remettre. L’éducation n’a pas été épargnée, puisque dès les premiers mois de l’année 2020, dans de nombreux pays, les écoles et les universités ont été fermées afin de protéger les enseignants et les étudiants contre le virus. Les établissements ont dû revoir en urgence toute l’organisation de leurs études et des examens afin de permettre aux étudiants de poursuivre, dans les moins mauvaises conditions, leur formation et sans risquer de perdre leur année scolaire. Le Groupe Vatel a su innover et imaginer les meilleures solutions pour atteindre ces objectifs. Les enseignants ont également mis en ligne leurs cours et ont suivi l’avancée pédagogique de leurs étudiants. Le Corporate s’est organisé pour assurer le déroulement des examens en ligne, sur une plateforme dédiée, tout en restant disponible pour leurs interlocuteurs. Cette situation extrême, doit permettre une analyser des points négatifs et positifs des actions mises en œuvre de manière à être mieux préparé en cas de nouvelle alerte. C’est souvent dans l’urgence que naissent les meilleures idées ! Dans un cadre plus large, les enseignants-chercheurs de nos écoles pourraient écrire des articles sur la gestion des crises dans le secteur de l’éducation et/ou dans celui de l’hôtellerie-restauration-tourisme. Un cours, intitulé « Gestion de crises », pourrait alors être intégré dans les programmes de MBA afin de préparer les futurs cadres dirigeants de l’hôtellerie/tourisme à anticiper et à surmonter des situations exceptionnelles, comme par exemple : une pandémie, le terrorisme, un krach boursier, les conséquences du réchauffement climatique, un tsunami, un tremblement de terre, un accident nucléaire, une cyberattaque, etc. L’édition No 12 des Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme parait donc cette année dans un contexte de pandémie, la Covid-19. La production des articles soumis à publication, n’a donc pas pu se dérouler normalement. Sur les 19 articles attendus, 7 articles ont été reportés en 2021, n’ayant pu être soumis dans les temps. Sur les quatre thèmes de recherche proposés pour l’édition 2020, seuls -9© CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
les deux premiers ont été traités, à savoir : “Future Jobs & Functions in the Hotel Industry due to New Technology and AI” and “Educational Resources: Innovative & Good Practices in Hospitality Management”. Cette année encore, Vatel Manila est l’école qui soumet le plus de recherches et dont les étudiants sont souvent intégrés dans le panel d’expérimentation. Si on ajoute Vatel Singapour, on voit que le continent asiatique est de loin le plus gros contributeur de nos Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme. Vatel Nîmes est, quant à elle, la plus fidèle contributrice de la zone Europe. Dans l’idée de valoriser le travail fait par nos étudiants nous avons décidé de publier, à titre expérimental, un travail de recherche réalisé par un groupe d’étudiants internationaux en 5e année des programmes Vatel, dans le cadre du cours de Management Opérationnel. Nous pourrions à l’avenir, si l’idée était validée par les écoles, lancer un Challenge International de la Recherche et de l’Innovation (CIRI), destiné à publier, sous le label du CirVath, les meilleurs travaux de recherche réalisés par les étudiants du groupe Vatel en formation de Bachelor et en MBA. Nous continuons enfin à espérer qu’à l’avenir, d’autres écoles du groupe viennent contribuer à notre publication ou que des équipes de chercheurs, issues de pays et d’écoles différents, travaillent ensemble pour traiter un thème de recherche commun afin de mutualiser leurs travaux et partager ainsi les résultats de leurs recherches et leurs expériences avec les autres écoles du réseau Vatel.
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PREFACE While the world is currently affected by an unprecedented pandemic, Tourism, Transport, Hotels, Restaurants and Culture are emerging as the most affected economic sectors. Areas with high human concentration, they were totally and brutally stopped in the majority of countries. Composed mostly by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s), the consequences of such a decision are strongly felt and many of them, alas, will not be able to recover. Education has not been spared, as in the early months of 2020, schools and universities in many countries have been closed to protect teachers and students from the virus. Institutions had to urgently review the entire organisation of their studies and exams in order to allow students to continue their training in the least bad conditions and without risking wasting their school year. Vatel Group has been able to innovate and imagine the best solutions to achieve these goals. Teachers also put their courses online and followed the educational progress of their students. The Corporate has organized itself to ensure the conduct of the examinations online, on a dedicated platform, while remaining available to their interlocutors. This extreme situation should allow an analysis of the negative and positive points of the actions implemented in order to be better prepared in the event of a new alert. It is often in a hurry that the best ideas are born! In a broader context, teachers/researchers in our schools could write articles on crisis management in the education and/or hospitality-tourism sectors. A course, entitled “Crisis Management”, could then be integrated into MBA programs to prepare future hotel/tourism executives to anticipate and overcome exceptional situations, such as: a pandemic, terrorism, a stock market crash, the consequences of global warming, a tsunami, an earthquake, a nuclear accident, a cyberattack, etc. The No. 12 edition of the International Journal of Tourism is therefore published this year in the context of a pandemic, the Covid-19. The production of the articles submitted for publication, therefore, could not proceed normally. Out of the 19 items expected, 7 papers were postponed in 2021, which could not be submitted on time. Out of the four research themes proposed for the 2020 edition, only the first two were covered, namely: “Future Jobs & Functions in the Hotel Industry due to New Technology and AI” and “Educational Resources: Innovative & Good Practices in Hospitality Management”. This year again, Vatel - 11 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Manila is the school that submits the most papers and whose students are often included in the experimental panel. If we add Vatel Singapore, we can see that the Asian continent is by far the biggest contributor to our International Journal of Tourism. Vatel Nîmes is the most loyal contributor in Europe. In order to enhance the work done by our students we decided to publish, on an experimental basis, a research work carried out by a group of international students in the 5th year of Vatel programs, as part of the Operational Management course. In the future, if the idea were validated by the schools, we could launch a International Research and Innovation Challenge (CIRI), designed to publish, under the CirVath label, the best research carried out by the students of Group Vatel studying in Bachelor and MBA courses. Finally, we continue to hope that in the future, other schools in the group will contribute to our publication or that teams of researchers from different countries and different schools will work together to address a common research theme in order to pool their work and share the results of their research and experiences with the other schools in the Vatel network.
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LES CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DU TOURISME CIRVATH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM
PAPERS IN ENGLISH
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SENSE OF CLASSROOM COMMUNITY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT STUDENTS: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY Lorena P. VALERIO*
ABSTRACT Many researchers have supported the critical role of classroom community in effective learning in traditional, online, and blended learning environments. They found that the students in cooperative learning classrooms who perceived higher sense of community reported greater motivation in achievement goals. That is, if learners feel a sense of classroom community, it is likely that this emotional and social connectedness may offer the needed support of students to learn more and complete the course or program successfully. This idea is supported by social constructivism theory, which stated that knowledge which is built though interaction with others is important for successful learning. The context of sense of community in this study is the level of emotional and social connectedness of students in a blended learning environment (traditional classroom learning and online classroom community). The course-learning experience in BigSky, a cloud-based learning platform, represents the online classroom community. The purpose of this study was to find out if there is a relationship between (1) sense of classroom community and course-learning experience, (2) sense of classroom community and academic performance and lastly, (3) course-learning experience, and academic performance in a blended learning platform. A quantitative research, this study had sixty (60) participants, all hospitality and tourism management students who are under the instructor-researcher’s Strategic Management course for the second term of the academic year 2019–2020. The participants sense of classroom community was measured with the validated survey instrument, Classroom Community Scale by Rovai (2002) and the perceived course-learning experience was gauged using the validated survey instrument * MBA, CHE at De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde/Vatel Manila
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by Hung and Yuen (2010). Both instruments were revalidated and obtained a Cronbach’s Alpha of .835 and .890, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and statistical findings were supported by qualitative results (i.e. the interview with participants). The results showed that sense classroom community and perceived course-learning experience is positively and significantly correlated (r=.347, p<.05). Having a positive correlation indicates that students with higher sense of classroom community tend to have higher course-learning experience using BigSky. Conversely, those with lower sense of classroom community tends to have lower perceived course-learning experience. However, the sense of classroom community is not correlated with academic performance (r=.216, p>.05), and the course-learning experience is not correlated with academic performance (r=.014, p>.05). Interviews revealed, however, that course-learning experience in the online community (BigSky) was interpreted as favorable because BigSky is there to provide learners support with course contents to prepare them for face to face classroom meetings. The said online platform also allows them to track their performance which give them the time and the opportunity to improve their performance. When it comes to sense of community, although not correlated with academic performance, still, the learners felt a higher sense of community when they feel they are supported, heard, and given the opportunities to ask questions or hold forums (online and traditional face to face) and that motivated them to finish their collaborative projects. The findings of this study supported the studies of many researchers to apply blended learning approach, where a combination of face to face learning (traditional classroom community) is supported by electronic approaches (online classroom community). This community-centered pedagogy responds to the needs of the learners of today which is considered an effective way of enhancing learning to achieve learning outcomes. However, these learning outcomes may not necessary translated into grades, but a completion of the course or achieving the learning goals. Keywords: Sense of community, classroom community, blended learning.
INTRODUCTION Since traditional classroom set-up, limits or prevents the technology driven learners to fully interact and collaborate with other learners because of the limitation of time and space, Brook and Oliver (2003), and Fink (2013) gave importance to the adoption of teaching method which allows the educators to facilitate student learning, that is a student-centered instruction. Studies shown that Google-eyed YouTube generation (Ashraf 2009) or the digital natives (Prensky 2001) learn by utilization of technologies, so the move from traditional teacher-centered - 16 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
classroom to student-centered teaching and learning pedagogy is needed. With present technologies, which provide internet-based facilities and interactive sites allow learners to be engaged by sharing, creating and transmitting information faster, frequently, and easily (Underwood & Flint 2015). Examples of these facilities would be e-learning platforms or cloud-based Learning Management Systems (LMS). Social Networking Sites are also tools used in higher education (Underwood & Flint 2015, Valerio 2017). These internet-based technologies made an enormous change in education, that is, from mere face-to-face, educators embraced online learning or blended learning to capitalize the utilization of technology to engage different dimensions of learning. The main features of e-learning platforms responded to the digital natives who require accessibility, flexibility of accessing learning materials or resources, online interactivity (e.g. interaction with peers and teachers) directed to the enhancement of student learning. However, online learning and teaching to be successful, the facilitation of active engagement and collaboration by students in problem solving and knowledge creation are needed (Phillips, McNaught, & Kennedy 2012). Given this background, the researcher of this study is interested in finding the following; The purpose of this study was to find out if there is a relationship between (1) sense of classroom community and course-learning experience, (2) sense of classroom community and academic performance and lastly, (3) courselearning experience, and academic performance in a blended learning platform.
LITERATURE REVIEW Classroom Community According Rovai (2001) Community is the relationship between people that makes for collective learning, which promotes a sense of belongingness among members. The community boosts the constructing and sharing of knowledge. A classroom community is “a specific type of psychological community based on the following characteristics: (a) world of education is the context; (b) learning is the primary purpose; and (c) the ‘community’ is based on a fixed organizational duration, example is the length of the course or program in which members are enrolled.” This definition of a classroom community means that each course in which students are enrolled can be considered a classroom community. Researchers have endorsed the significant role of classroom community in effective learning whether traditional, online, and blended learning environments (Hung & Yuen 2010). A learning community, which is cohesive, encourages respect, trust, so members are motivated and feel safe to contribute ideas (Rovai 2002). Being engaged in a classroom community allows members to learn and being influenced becomes what they are (Wenger 1998). In the - 17 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
context of education, according to Chapman (2003) being engaged means the level and intensity in terms of feeling, thinking, and behaving during the process of learning. It’s been recognized that learning engagement is positively affecting the achievement of learning outcomes (Carini, Kuh and Klein 2006) reinforced by social-constructivist theories, when the learning environment should promote peer to peer or learner to learner interactions in supporting co-construction of knowledge and information and resources sharing (e.g. group work, or any collaborative activities). When students feel safe to contribute and exchange ideas, with other members, they are also receiving and learning from others. Students in social interactions; it also includes the socio-emotional factors, which according to Jochems, Merrienboer, and Koper (2004) is considered as the solution to the feeling of isolation from other learning community, so there is a feeling of sense of community. Even for children, group activity encourages the building of a classroom community. Groupings develops children’s sense of identity because in groups they contribute their skills and feel that they are not just a part of the group, but as though, a part of a family. This sense of community since childhood should continuously be developed as people move through different stages of their lives (Church 2006). Sense of Classroom Community Sense of community or sense of classroom community is the learners’ feeling of personal relatedness which make them perform the tasks assigned to them and works toward the achievement of common goals (Rovai & Lucking 2000). Sense of classroom community is the feeling of belongingness, that members feel they are important to the group and to one another, and members are committed to meet the needs of the members of the group (McMillan & Chavis 1986). Also, when learners’ opinions are welcomed and given importance during class discussion, learners’ sense of community increases (Kim, Solomon & Roberts 1995). Summers and Svinicki (2007) found that the students in cooperative learning classrooms perceived higher sense of community and reported greater motivation in achievement goals than those in non-cooperative learning classrooms. This finding is supported by empirical evidence in the context of eLearning when Bangert (2009) surveyed higher education students enrolled in fully online and blended courses at a university in the USA. The relationship between sense of community and achievement of goals is reinforced by Rovai (2002b, p. 321), which stated that: “If online learners feel a sense of community, it is possible that this emotional connectedness may provide the support needed for them not only to complete successfully a class or a program but also to learn more.”
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Learning Management System as the Classroom Community Schools have to adapt to the ways in how students learn. With students who are always online using their mobile devices, face to face or physical interactions are lessen and the challenge for educators is to continuously discover how to engage technology-driven students to achieve their academic goals, thus the birth of e-learning platforms came about. An e-learning platform to practice community-centered pedagogy is needed to serve as the classroom community, where students can engage in learning and have a sense of community. Hung and Yuen (2010) used social networking site, Ning, as a classroom community to supplement face-to-face courses in public schools in Taiwan, while Valerio (2017) utilized the social networking tool, Facebook, as the learning community to promote sense of community. Other than social networking sites (SNS), Learning Management Systems (LMS) are adopted by higher education for classroom management and for instructor-led courses. LMS was first introduced in the late 1990s (Davis, Carmean, & Wagner 2009) which concept came directly from e-Learning. LMS is a software application, which focus on online learning delivery, serving as a platform for online courses content, which can be accessed asynchronously or synchronously. All course content can be downloaded to a computer or mobile so it is accessible even when internet is not available. Taking into consideration the Google-eyed YouTube generation and digital natives, with the utilization of online technologies, learners are given the opportunity to interact and perform collaborative tasks asynchronously. This asynchronous performance of tasks gives learners the chance to spend more time reading, reviewing thinking, writing before contributing to the discussion posts which can promote higher learning outcome (De Wever, Schellens, Vanke, &Van Keer 2006) so LMS developers make sure that all content and platform features are accessible anytime anywhere through a mobile device. According to the 6th Annual LMS Data Update (2018) the top three Learning Management System based on the number of higher education institutions, in the United States, were Blackboard (31%), Canvas (30%), and MOODLE (18%). MOODLE or Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Dougiamas & Taylor 2003) is a web-based, free and open-source learning management system. MOODLE may be utilized for communication between the instructor and students in and outside the classroom, learning materials can be uploaded and downloaded, assessments can be automated computerized for administration to grading. With MOODLE, students can access and share information according to the provisions designed by the instructor. Another is Brightspace, an online learning environment to help ensure a mobile-ready experience for its users. Contents and features are available anytime and anywhere because it is a cloud-based integrated learning platform to give users access to learning anytime, anywhere (D2L 2019). Brightspace or BigSky (See Appendix A), platform allows faculty - 19 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
to interact with co-faculty, upload course materials in different form including learning videos made by the faculty, set-up discussion boards, quizzes, exams, grading system, track attendance, and students’ online participation through submission of requirements through its DropBox (See Appendix B). Bigsky promotes active learning because students can interact through discussion board, take exams and submit requirements online, track their personal progress, and receive feedback and assessment scores in real time. Course materials uploaded by instructor can be downloaded by students directly into their devices (i.e. mobile phones, laptops, iPads) so the students may review the materials offline (See Appendix C). Using the Pulse application that allows students to receive notifications calendar updates, important announcements, reminders, and can be received real-time so users can be updated even outside the classroom. BigSky has built-in analytics reports which help tracks and understand performance of groups or individuals. These analytics can be used to tailor each learner’s experience to fit their learning needs and academic goals. Conceptual Framework of the Study This study uses a correlational framework to answer the following research questions. In Valerio (2017) study showed that course-learning experiences (CLE) via Social Networking Site (SNS), Facebook and sense of community are negatively correlated, for this study, the researcher attempted to find out if there’s a positive correlation between sense of classroom community course-learning experiences (CLE) using BigSky (Figure1). Sense of classroom community
Figure 1. Sense of Classroom Community and Course Learning Experience Correlation. Reviewed studies of researchers promoted the relationship between sense of community and achievement of learning goals. That online learners who perceived higher sense of community reported greater motivation in achievement goals, and not only to complete successfully a class or a program but also to learn more. Figure 2 represents the framework to find out in this study if there’s a relationship between sense of community and academic performance (AC). Sense of classroom community
Figure 2. Relationship between Sense of Community and Academic Performance. - 20 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Also, studies showed that e-learning platforms/LMS (online classroom community) are avenues to accommodate the learning needs of the students today as a supplementary learning tool in a blended learning platform, because they learn by utilization of internet-based facilities and interactive sites to achieve their academic goals. Given that background, Figure 3 represents the framework to find out if there’s a relationship between the students’ course learning experience in BigSky and their academic performance. Course-learning experience
Figure 3. Relationship between Course Learning Experience and Academic Performance. Hypotheses From the above framework, the researcher proposed the following hypotheses. H1: Students with higher sense of classroom community have higher course-learning experience (CLE). H2: Students with higher sense of classroom community have high academic performance (AP). H3: Students with higher course-learning experience (CLE) have high academic performance (AP). Significance of the Study The results of the study will present to the administrators and educators the significance of providing a e-learning platform/LMS which will serve as classroom community designed to build or strengthen the students’ sense of community, which has a potential to influence their academic performance. The developers of the e-learning platform/LMS will benefit from this study on how to design the platform with features that will allow users to build strong sense of community and enhance the learning experience while taking the course to help them achieve their target academic performance. Scope and Delimitations This study is limited to the Hospitality and Tourism Management students and confined within one course (i.e. Strategic Management) being taught by the instructor-researcher in one academic term applying a blended learning approach (i.e. traditional face to face classes supported by BigSky). The measurement of perceptions of sense of community is emotional connectedness, feeling of personal relatedness, feeling of belongingness, that members feel they are
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important to the group and to one another in a blended learning platform. The measurement of course learning experience pertains to the learner’s perception on their experience using Bigsky as their online classroom community. While the measurement of academic performance covers only the midterm grade of the students from January to February 2020, or 8 weeks of the 14 weeks (8/14) of the academic term. This study did not include demographic variables such as sex, age, or nationality, and will not factor in the students’ learning strategies, styles, or interventions that students may apply in pursuit of their grades. This study did not measure the teaching style of the instructor. But the role as a facilitator of classroom community in blended learning platform played a role but not measured.
METHODOLOGY Research Design This study is a correlational research employing inferential statistics. Although this is generally a quantitative study, some qualitative data will be collected using an open-ended question to support the results. Participants and Context Convenience sampling is selected for the purpose of this study because it meets the practical criteria, such as geographical proximity, availability at a certain time, easy accessibility, and the willingness to volunteer, and captive audience and institution (Dörnyei, 2007). Sixty (n=60) Hospitality and Tourism Management students, under the instructor-researcher’s Strategic Management class in a tertiary school, in Manila, were requested to sign a consent form (See Appendix D) indicating their participation in this study during the 2nd Term, academic year 2019–2020. Since targeted participants are all under the instructor-researcher’s class, they were assured that participating in the study will not affect their class standing. The Strategic Management course, employ a blended learning approach, where in face to face classes are supplemented by the school’s e-learning platform, BigSky. The role of the instructor-researcher to conduct lessons Instrumentation Measurement of Sense of Classroom Community To measure students’ sense of community the researcher patterned the survey instrument from Classroom Community Scale (CCS) survey instrument which was developed, validated, and utilized by Rovai (2002). The questionnaire consisted of 10 items, and used a five-point Likert using a scale of responses: - 22 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. By checking one of these choices, the students can respond to each item with 4 representing strong agreement and 0 representing a strong disagreement (See Appendix E). For the purpose of this study, the researcher revalidated the reliability of CCS variable and obtained a Cronbach’s Alpha of .835 (See Table 1). Measurement of Course-Learning Experience (CLE) Using Bigsky as the online classroom community, the measurement of courselearning experiences CLE is through the utilization of the survey instrument patterned from Perceptions of Course-learning Experiences Scale which was developed, validated, and utilized by Hung and Yuen (2010). The questionnaire consisted of 8 items using a five-point Likert scale of responses: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree with 4 representing strong agreement and 0 representing a strong disagreement (Appendix F). As mentioned, for the purpose of this study, the researcher revalidated the reliability of CLE variable and obtained a Cronbach’s Alpha of .890 (See Table 1). Variables CCS CLE
Number of items 10 8
Cronbach’s Alpha .835 .890
Table 1. Reliability of the CCS and CLE variables. Measurement of Academic Performance (AP) The measurement of academic performance (AP) of the student is the midterm grade they received covering January to February 2020 or 8 weeks of 14 weeks (8/14) of the academic term. The composition of the grade is participation in class (i.e. recitation, activities during face to face interaction), quizzes (paper and pen and via online in BigSky), and two collaborative projects (i.e. group outputs submitted and graded on Bigsky and defended during face to face classes). Data Collection and Analysis Both the CCS and CLE survey instruments were offered in electronic form using BigSky survey/poll feature. The instruments were administered on the 8th week of the term when students’ midterm grades were already computed but not yet released to them. Answering of the survey instruments were done inside the classroom using their electronic devices (mobile and laptops) synchronously, so that students had the opportunity clarify the questions with the instructorresearcher, when necessary. Pearson Correlation is the statistical method used to establish relationship between (H1) sense of classroom community and courselearning experience (H2) sense of classroom community and academic performance (H2), and (H3) course-learning experience and academic performance. - 23 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Qualitative data from the open-ended survey question were content-analyzed to provide more in-depth information in the students’ views. Personal communication was used to supplement the researcher’s interpretations of the research findings. Research Findings and Discussion The mean and standard deviations of the variables, sense of community measured by community classroom scale (CCS), academic performance (AP), and course learning experience (CLE) are presented in Table 2. Variables CCS AP CLE
Minimum value 3.50 0.00 2.62
Maximum Value 5.00 4.00 5.00
Mean 4.27 2.84 4.02
SD 0.409 0.960 0.574
Table 2. Mean and SD of the Variables. Descriptive statistics of classroom community scale, course learning experience mean and standard deviations are shown in Table 2.1 and 2.2 respectively. According to the results of perceived sense of classroom community (Table 2.1), students being surveyed agreed most that their community (i.e. the course they enrolled in) promotes desire to learn, and the ample opportunities given to them to learn. They also agreed that their learning needs are being met which can be interpreted that the use of blended learning approach make them feel a sense of belongingness because their need to learn using technologies is present, and with these technologies, asking questions, asking for help from classmates or giving support to classmates, are easy to do anytime and anywhere making them feel that they are connected to the classroom community. Classroom Community Scale (Rovai 2002) 1. I feel that students in this course care about each other 2. I feel that i am encouraged to ask questions 3. I feel that this course is like a family 4. I feel that it is easy to get help when i have a question 5. I feel connected in this course 6. I feel that my educational needs are being met 7. I feel that i can rely on others in this course 8. I feel that i am given ample opportunities to learn 9. I feel confident that others will support me 10. I feel that this course promote a desire to learn Overall
Mean 4.10 4.22 4.21 4.31 4.21 4.40 4.15 4.46 4.10 4.56 4.27
SD 0.62 0.58 0.71 0.65 0.69 0.53 0.73 0.56 0.77 0.56 0.41
Table 2.1. Descriptive Statistics of Classroom Community Scale, Mean and Standard Deviations.
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Results of perceived course-learning experiences (Table 2.2) show that majority of the students perceived that their online classroom community, BigSky allows them to find and share educational resources, that this platform promotes knowledge sharing, collaborative learning opportunities. And since BigSky is online, and available anytime, anywhere, students of this course saw the importance of Bigsky in encouraging them to perform learner-centered activities, because they can learn in their own pace using their electronic devices. Results also showed that students, also agreed that BigSky allows them to share their personal views, hold forums, express individual creativity, and communicate with classmates on related topics. Course Learning Experience (Hung & Yuen 2012) 1. BigSky allows me to share my personal views on topics of interest 2. BigSky allows me to express individuality and creativity 3. BigSky allows me to hold forums to discuss topics of interest 4. BigSky allows me to find and share educational resources 5. BigSky allows me to communicate with classmates about course-related topics 6. BigSky encourages learner-centered activities 7. BigSky promotes knowledge sharing 8. BigSky provides collaborative learning opportunities Overall
Mean 3.84 3.84 3.79 4.33
SD 0.80 0.76 0.78 0.57
4.11 4.28 4.20 4.02
0.75 0.76 0.75 0.57
Table 2.2. Descriptive Statistics of Course-Learning Experiences Mean and Standard Deviations.
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Results of Research Hypothesis 1 (H1) The researcher’s hypothesis’ students with higher sense of classroom community have higher course learning experience (CLE) was supported by the results of this study (See Table 3). The classroom community scale (CCS) results is positively and significantly correlated with the results course learning experience (CLE) (r=.347, p<.05). Having a positive correlation indicates that students with higher sense of classroom community tend to have higher course learning experience. Conversely, those with lower sense of classroom community tends to have lower perceived course learning experience. Different from Valerio (2017) study, which resulted in a negative correlation. The reason of the difference can be attributed to the classroom community utilized that is, Valerio (2017) used Facebook, and the current study used Bigsky which is very different considering the learning management features.
CCS vs CLE
There is a significant relationship. See Scatterplot A.
Table 3. Pearson Correlation Classroom Community Scale and Perception on Course Learning Experience. A. Scatterplot between CCS and CLE
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Results of Research Hypothesis 2 (H2) The researcher’s hypothesis’ students with high academic performance (AP) have higher sense of community was unsupported by the findings of this study. Table 4 shows that academic performance (AP) is not correlated with sense of community as measured by classroom community scale (CCS) (r=.216, p>.05). Students grades have no relationship with sense of classroom community. Bangert (2009), Rovai (2002b), Rovai and Lucking (2000), and Summers and Svinicki (2007), studies which gave light to the relationship between sense of community and achievement of learning goals was not supported by the statistical results of this study. Learning goals included finishing a class or a program but may not be translated into the context of academic performance in this study, which is the midterm grade.
AP vs CCS
No significant relationship. No relationship is depicted in Scatterplot B below.
Table 4. Pearson Correlation of Academic Performance and Classroom Community Scale. B. Scatterplot between AP and CCS
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Results of Research Hypothesis 3 The researcher’s hypothesis’ students with higher course learning experience have high academic performance (AP) was unsupported by the statistical results of this study. Table 5 shows that academic performance (AP) is not correlated with course learning experience (r=.014, p>.05).
AP vs CLE
No significant relationship. No relationship is depicted in Scatterplot C below.
Table 5. Pearson Correlation of Academic Performance and Perception on Course Learning Experience. C. Scatterplot between Midterm Grade and CLE
Statistically, the students’ grades have no relationship with the course learning experience (in BigSky) of students, but still, the researcher interviewed students who have high grades and requested them to share their views how BigSky played its role in the achievement of their academic performance (i.e. midterm grades) to establish a “connection qualitatively”. The first set of responses (See Set A of Responses) acknowledged Bigsky learning management features (also the teacher’s role in uploading the course contents in advance) in the achievement of their grades. And the second set of responses considered BigSky only as platform to access course materials and submit their course requirements but they considered their study habits, and being active in class participation, and their over-all performance during face-to-face classes (classroom discussion, seatwork, defense) a big contributing factor (See Set B of Responses). - 28 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Set A of Responses “BigSky really helped a lot in order for me to achieved a high Midterm grade because I can easily check my recorded grades. By that, I can assess myself right away in which requirements should I put some extra effort so that I can have a grade that I want (a higher grade). Also, the teacher was really hands-on to post some of the learning material that we need ahead of time. Every time there’s a discussion or recitation, we can easily answer and get it because we already read some of the PowerPoints that our professor posted.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “BigSky had contributed in achieving high midterm grade because it serves as a way for students and professors to communicate regarding the lessons. At the same time BigSky helps me as a student to go back or advance to the lessons that we missed, we forgot, or we like to advance study. Also, BigSky also helps us submit all needed requirements to our professors outside our class hours.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “Big Sky has become a huge factor in terms of giving us students the convenience that we want during our college years. Moreover, it has help us not only us students, but also our professors to give us PowerPoint presentations that we will be using in order to make a reviewer for our future quiz or exam. Aside from that, we can easily download hand-outs that we will be using in our future lectures that’s why I think Big Sky has helped so much to achieve that grade that I target.”(Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “Through BigSky, I was able to conveniently access the modules and PowerPoint presentations of my professor, which I can read in advance and be prepared during class discussion, and quiz. Also, BigSky helped my group in submitting our outputs without the hassle of finding or using external devices such as flashdrives.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “BigSky helped me with organization, because I myself is a bit messy, forgetful and disorganized so it is good to have a safe place where I can access and keep track of my progress and have digital copies of lectures and notes to help me keep track of my performance.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). Set B of Responses “I don’t think BigSky is a factor for my high grade in this course. What made me achieved that grade is the positive qualities that I have. I consider self-motivation and support from other people including my professors as one factor. It keeps me focused to my studies and encourages me to do better every time in which Bigsky cannot provide. Another factor is listening, being attentive and participating in class. I can understand the lessons better through face-to-face communication. - 29 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
I prefer writing down notes instead specifically just the key words mentioned during the discussion for me to review. Lastly, I believe that my study habit is the most important factor that helped me achieved my grade. I always keep in mind that it doesn’t matter what channel or medium in learning we use as long as we are eager and willing to learn, we can achieve high grades.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “BigSky has nothing to do with my grade. Factors that made me achieve a high grade are class participation and face to face defense. Actively participating during class discussion by answering the questions of our teacher, as well as being present in class so I able to perform seatwork, quizzes, and of course recitation during class discussion.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “Why I able to achieve a high grade is not because of BigSky, but it does helps when it comes to accessing the PowerPoint presentation uploaded by our professor so we can study in advance, or review them to be prepared for future class discussion or quizzes. Good grades come from teacher’s ability in teaching and student’s hard work in listening and understanding, and participating in class discussion. For me BigSky is a tool but does not really help that much, because we may have a tool to put things easier, however there are always another way to do things that can also be done in other media apps.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “BigSky is a platform wherein we can better access and view our grades, but that not entirely helps in achieving a higher grade. I was proudly able to achieve a high grade by actively participating through recitations, and on the spot expression of opinions.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020). “I think the major factor why achieved a high grade would be from the recitation and other forms of participation during our class, not because of the use of BigSky. Additionally, communication becomes much easier in the physical classroom which makes questions and other concerns to be resolved real time.” (Personal communication, March 25, 2020).
CONCLUSION The findings of this study make the researcher arrive to the conclusion that although, statistically, learners’ sense of community and course-learning experience (via BigSky) are not correlated with their academic performance, it is still imperative for educators to create a learning environment (i.e. classroom community) both in the traditional classroom set-up and online community (Bigsky) where students can feel a sense of community. Students, according to the findings, gave importance to the feeling of being cared for, supported and - 30 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
being part of the group not only to receive help but also give support so they feel they are important in the classroom community. Also, students who felt that their online community (BigSky) helped them achieved a higher grade because of its accessibility to course content which is supported by the study of Ajam, Tani, Bahram, and Ahanchian (2013) which suggested that access to course learning materials, gives more convenience and flexibility in terms of time and space, and this resulted to the improved effectiveness of learning. The online community (BigSky) is there to provide learners support with module contents to prepare them for face to face classroom meetings. The findings of this study supported the continuous practice blended learning approach. A combination of face to face classroom sessions supported by electronic approaches, which is considered an effective way of enhancing learning to achieve learning outcomes (Abdoli, Amir-Teimuri, Moradi, & Mehrvarz 2014). According to De Wever, Schellens, Valke, and Van Keer (2006) the asynchronous way of learning allows students to have more time to study before they can contribute and share their ideas, and this can result to higher learning outcome. The role of the online classroom community (BigSky) is a supplementary tool in blended learning since traditional face to face teaching will definitely not respond to the needs of the learners today (Najafi & Heidari 2018) and since face-to-face instruction has not yet replaced by e-learning fully (Wu & Liu 2013). It is also important to note that the role of the teacher in managing the online learning management features plays a vital role in facilitating the learning experience of the students since students rely on the uploading of updated course materials to aid them in their study which prepares them for formal, traditional face to face meetings (i.e. class discussion, seat work, quizzes, and oral presentations), as revealed in the interviews with the students. Lastly, this study also concludes that some learners felt a higher sense of community but it was not correlated with grades, because not all students are grade conscious. In the future, instead of actual grade, researchers may use academic goals (e.g. finish the course) or learning outcomes (apply the learnings through a collaborative output/project). To some students, they are not aiming for higher grade but to pass the course is already an achievement. Also, a mediation analysis may be adopted in the future. How course-learning experience in the e-learning platform influences the students’ academic performance and what is the role being played by having a higher sense of classroom community in the course-learning experience.
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REFERENCES (2011) “Sense of community breeding success: Shared knowledge deepens a company’s resources”, Strategic Direction, Vol. 27, Issue: 7, pp. 21–23. ABDOLI, S., AMIR-TEIMURI, M., MORADI, M. and MEHRVARZ, M. (2014). “Blended learning: a study of the attitudes and capabilities of Tabatabaei University’s faculty members”, Iranian Journal of Educational Engineering, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 11–19. AL-MUKHAINI, E., AL-QAYOUDHI, W. and AL-BADI, A. (2014). “Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman”, Journal of International Education Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 143–154. AJAM, A., JAFARI TANI, H., BAHRAM, B. and AHANCHIAN, M. (2013). “The role of motivation and computer skills in students’ attitude toward blended learning”, Iranian Journal of New Approaches to Education Management, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 63–82. BANGERT, A.W. (2009). “Building a Validity Argument for the Community of Inquiry Survey Instrument”, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 104–111. BIGSKY BENILDE 2019, viewed 19 January 2019: https://bigsky.benilde.edu.ph BROOK, C. and OLIVER, R. (2003). “Online learning communities: Investigating a design framework”, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 139-160. CARINI, R., KUH, G. and KLEIN, S. (2006). “Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages”, Research in Higher Education, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–32. CHAPMAN, E. (2003). “Assessing student engagement rates”. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation. CHO, H., GAY, G., DAVIDSON, B. and INGRAFFEA, A. (2007). “Social networks, communication styles, and learning performance in a CSCL community”, Computers and Education, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 309–329. CHURCH, E. (2017). “Creating a Classroom Community” (2006), Scholastic Early Childhood Today; 21, 3; ProQuest Central p. 45. - 32 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
D2L DESIRE2 LEARN 2019, viewed 21 January 2019: https://www.d2l.com DAVIS, B., CARMEAN, C. & WAGNER, E. (2009). “The Evolution of the LMS: From Management to Learning”, The ELearning Guild Research. DE WEVER, B., SCHELLENS, T., VALCKE, M. & VAN KEER, H. (2006). “Content analysis schemes to analyze transcripts online asynchronous discussion groups: A review”, Computers and Education, 46 (1), 6–28. FINK, L. D. (2013). “Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses”, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. HUNG, H. and YUEN, S. (2010). “Educational use of social networking technology in higher education”, Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 703–714. JOCHEMS, W., MERRIENBOER, J. G., VAN and KOPER, R. (2004). “Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology and organization”, London: Routledge Falmer (Open and flexible learning series). JOHNSON, L., ADAMS, S. and CUMMINS, M. (2012). “The NMC horizon report: 2012 higher education edition”, Austin, TX: The New Media Consortium. MCMILLAN, D. W. and CHAVIS, D. M. (1986). “Sense of community: A definition and theory”, Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 6–23. NAJAFI, H. and HEIDARI, M. (2018). “Blended Learning and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis”, Quarterly Journal of Iranian Distance Education (IDEJ), Vol. 1, no. 3, Winter 2019 (P 39–48), Payame Noor University. PHILLIPS, R., MCNAUGHT, C. and KENNEDY, G. (2012). “Evaluating E-learning: Guiding research and practice”, New York: Routledge. ROVAI, A. P. (2002a). “Building Classroom Community at a Distance: A Case Study”, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 33–48. ROVAI, A. P. (2002b). “Sense of community, perceived cognitive learning, and persistence in asynchronous learning networks”, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 319–332. ROVAI, A. P. and LUCKING, R. (2000). “Measuring sense of classroom community. Paper presented at Learning 2000: Reassessing the Virtual University”, sponsored by Virginia Tech, Roanoke, Virginia. SUMMERS, J. J. and SVINICKI, M. D. (2007). “Investigating classroom community in higher education”, Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 55–67. - 33 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
UNDERWOOD, J. and FLINT, L. F. (2015). “Learning and the E-Generation”, First Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. VALERIO, L. (2017). “Hospitality Management Students’ Experiences and Views on the Integration of Facebook in Promoting Classroom Communities of Practice”, 9e Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme, CirVath International Journal of Tourism, 9th Ed., pp. 129-156. WU, J. and LIU, W. (2013). “An empirical investigation of the critical factors affecting students’ satisfaction in EFL blended learning”, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 176-185.
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APPENDICES Appendix A
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Appendix D Dear Participant, I invite you to participate in a research study entitled Sense of Classroom Community and Academic Performance of Hospitality and Tourism Management Students: A Correlational Study. I am currently doing a research under Faculty Rese arch Program of De La Salle College of Saint Benilde. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between sense of classroom community and perceived course-learning experience, sense of community and academic performance, and lastly, courselearning experience and academic performance. The questionnaires, which are available in BigSky has been designed to collect information. Your participation in this research project is completely voluntary. You may ask the instructor-researcher in case you need clarification in any of the questions. Your responses will remain confidential and anonymous. Your grade in the enrolled course will not be affected in any way. If you agree to participate in this project, please answer the questions on the questionnaire as best you can. It should take approximately 10 minutes maximum to complete. If you have any questions about this project, feel free to contact the instructorresearcher, Lorena Valerio at 09175489880. Thank you for your assistance in this important endeavor. Sincerely yours,
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Appendix E: Classroom Community Scale (Rovai 2002b) Items
1. I feel that students in this course care about each other 2. I feel that I am encouraged to ask questions 3. I feel that this course is like a family 4. I feel that it is easy to get help when I have a question 5. I feel connected in this course 6. I feel that my educational needs are being met 7. I feel that I can rely on others in this course 8. I feel that I am given ample opportunities to learn 9. I feel confident that others will support me 10. I feel that this course promotes a desire to learn
Notes: A five-point Likert scale was provided for each item. SA, strongly agree; A, agree; N, neutral; D, disagree; SD, strongly disagree. Appendix F: Perceptions of course-learning experiences (Hung & Yuen, 2010) Items
1. BigSky allows me to share my personal views on topics of interest 2. BigSky allows me to express individuality and creativity 3. BigSky allows me to hold forums to discuss topics of interest 4. BigSky allows me to find and share educational resources 5. BigSky allows me to communicate with classmates about course-related topics 6. BigSky encourages learner-centered activities 7. BigSky promotes knowledge sharing 8. BigSky provides collaborative learning opportunities Please share your views how BigSky played its role in the achievement of your midterm grade (academic performance).
Notes: A five-point Likert scale was provided for each item. SA, strongly agree; A, agree; N, neutral; D, disagree; SD, strongly disagree.
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MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL VS. ACCORHOTELS: BATTLING OVER COST AND MARGIN SUPREMACY Dr Godofredo Cristobal UTANES* Mr Sun ONG JOO**
Global hotel business continues to grow phenomenally as the world’s economic condition reaches unprecedented heights. The hotel industry has never been so progressive in the past. Today, with the availability of more affordable airfares provided by low-cost airlines, the cheaper hotel rates through online travel agents (OTA’s), and the free information provided by the Internet regarding any tourist destination, hotel business owners are among the most fortunate beneficiaries. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council’s report in 2017, accommodation services was at the forefront of international travel and tourism with direct contribution amounting to US$2.6 trillion in that year. A forecast of 4.0 per cent was made prior to the start of 2018 (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2018, P. 1). Worldwide hotel occupancy rate was recorded at 50 per cent to 70 percent in 2017. In the United States, it averaged 65.9 per cent in the same year. Occupancy rates from Paris to London ranged from 73.5% to 81.7% (Statista, 2018). At the onset of the hotel industry development, Marriott International leads the race to supremacy in America while AccorHotels remain the Number One hotel group across Europe. In this case study, a comparative analysis of Marriott International and AccorHotels as regards their respective historical backgrounds, the way these hotel groups reported their financial statements, consolidated profitability, financial risks, and the management control practices they exercise. In comparing the financial risks, the 5-point approach was used that involved looking at five general financial areas. These are liquidity, operating efficiencies, leverage, profitability and shareholders’ value. A few management control systems were explained and recommended for the use of these two global companies.
* DBA, Vatel Singapore ** DBA, Vatel Singapore
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This case study compares the management control practices of and financial risks encountered by Marriott International and AccorHotels. As two of the world’s largest hotel groups, there is the tall order to ensure bigness that could mean financial profitability as well. Revenues have to continue to increase while costs should constantly be controlled without sacrificing key organizational objectives. In this case study, it was found that there were similarities in financial statement reporting between the hotel groups but there are significant differences in the way they present their financial statements. These varying practices was brought about by the proportions of types of business growth—chain management, franchising, and ownership—; the diverse economic, political, and legal factors the properties are subjected to; and many other practices that are both universal, i.e., according to generally acceptable accounting principles, as well as specific to corporate and financial peculiarities. The profitability analysis between the two hotel groups provided a glaring discovery that the AccorHotels seems to be more profitable than its American counterpart, based on the financial statements within the time period considered in this case study. This was presumably partly due to each group’s management philosophies and the varying priorities between economic and non-economic goals. The financial risks also significantly varied in terms of financial liquidity, operating efficiencies, leverage, and shareholders’ value. For one, AccorHotels’ price-earnings ratio appeared better while Marriott International’s share prices increased remarkably within the time period of comparison. Other non-financial risks involved non-financial factors. Management challenges for Marriott International included slightly low net profit margin due to regulations outside the US, mortgages, liens, early termination of management contracts, remedy costs, environmental political costs, renovation costs, completion costs, and union-related costs. For AccorHotels, the challenges included legal and regularity costs, complex competitive environments, costs incurred due to economic and environmental forces, and heavy reliance on management and franchise partners. Revenue management systems that highlight the importance of hotel occupancy rates, ADR (average daily rate), and RevPAR (revenue per available room) tops the list of highly recommended management controls. The ABC (activity-based costing) system, procurement method of cost control, and cost budgeting method are already been practiced, like revenue management, and could be considered for this type of business. - 40 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
INTRODUCTION In 2016, a daring strategic move had surprised the global hospitality circles. Marriott International, then perceived to be ranked only second among the biggest international hotel groups, had acquired Starwood Hotels & Resorts, one of the world’s most promising hotel chains (Statista, 2018; Touryalai, 2018). The acquisition was valued at US$13.6 billion, a decision that Marriott in 2015 did not consider doing at first when Starwood opened itself up for sale (Nusca, 2017). Marriott’s CEO, Arne M. Sorenson, in 2017 justified the change of mind primarily to gain leverage over online travel agents (OTA’s) like Expedia, Priceline, Google and Facebook that had in years been enjoying huge commissions increasing at the expense of the hotel’s profit margins. Increasing hotel guest loyalty to 100 million as a result of the acquisition gave Marriott an advantage to push for more hotel bookings directly on both Marriott’s and Starwood’s websites. Outside the US, AccorHotels remained to be Europe’s biggest hotel group (Reuters, 2018). The Number One spot position had been the case for years and was attributed to the aggressiveness of the Paris-based parent company’s growth strategy through corporate partnerships, alliances, mergers and acquisition of more hotel properties around the world as well as increasing stakes in tourismand travel-related businesses. Reuters correspondent Vidalon (2018) reported in CNBC that in June 2018, AccorHotels signified its intention to acquire 14.3% shares in Air France-KLM, then wrought by corporate troubles seeking to address the change in top management. It could have been another intrepid approach to incremental growth had it not been opposed from various fronts. In 2017, Accor partnered with Qatar Airways to achieve a massive synergy in their loyalty schemes (Cannon, 2017). Way back in 2015, Accor bought Fastbooking, a digital services provider based in Europe dedicated to the hospitality industry (Tepkanjan, 2016). That move made it possible for independent travel agents to work more closely with AccorHotels. Accor’s relentless M&A and shares acquisition bespeak of the hotel giant’s commitment to cut costs down and its unyielding battles against OTA’s like Expedia and Booking.com (Vidalon, 2018).
HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDS Hotel founders John Willard and Alice Marriott did not start with a hotel but with an A&W root beer stand in 1927. Quenching people’s thirst of Washington D.C.’s residents especially during very hot summers. The couple was guided by the concept of good food and fair price. From that year to 1956, the Marriotts focused on that principle to grow the Hot Shoppes restaurants. In 1957, when their son, Bill, was fully-grown and ready to take over the family business, the - 41 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Marriotts made a radical shift to open the world’s first motor hotel in Arlington, Virginia. Bill’s visionary prowess revolutionized the hotel industry. In 1972, J.W. Marriott, Jr., became the CEO and carried on the rapid growth tradition that run in the family. By the time J.W. Marriott, Sr. passed away in 1985, the company was already at the Washington D.C. where the headquarters was then located. J.W. Marriott, Jr., carried the Sr.’s legacy of aggressive expansion until 2012 when Arne Sorenson became the CEO and President of Marriott International. The combined achievements of J.W. Marriott, Jr. and Sorenson brought the group to operate in 127 countries with 30 brands, that was 5 continents with 6,500 properties housing 1.1 million rooms excluding more than 460,000 in the pipeline. In 2017, the hospitality giant recorded US$22 billion in revenues and US$1.372 billion in net profits. The Year 1963 was an auspicious year for Paul Dubrule and Gerard Pelisson, both French nationals who founded the Accor hotels. Novotel was their first brand established in 1967 Lille, Lesquin, a city in Northern France. The Novotel chain grew overseas in Switzerland in 1972 and 1973 in the Middle East. The group’s acquisition spree began in those early years with the Courterpaille chain of restaurants and hotel chains like Ibis and Mercure. By 1983, the Accor identity was born, and at that time, the group was already operating in 45 countries with 440 hotels and 1,500 restaurants run by 35,000 employees. Concurrent with the unstoppable expansion, Accor put up the Academie Accor, the first corporate university of its kind in France. Accor acquired the Motel 6 chain in the United States in 1990 and from then on expanded in the Americas. However, Accor chose to compete more aggressively outside North America and thus in 2017 became the biggest hotel group in Europe. Other than Europe, however, Accor operates in 4 other continents, in 100 countries (accor.com; accorhotels.group). In 2018, Accor had more than 20 brands operating in 4,530 properties housing 652,939 rooms (Baker, 2018). Revenues in 2017 were reported at 5,631 million euros (US$6.6 billion) with net income at 481 million euros (US$562 million) (accor. com). Following are the comparative information on Marriott International and AccorHotels relevant to this case study.
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Marriott International http://www.marriott.com 10400 Fernwood Road, Bethesda, Maryland, Washington D.C.* Hotel accommodation and other amenities that goes with it
Websites HQ address Nature of business
To be the world’s favorite travel company*
AccorHotels http://www.accor.com 77, rue de Bercy, 75012 Paris, France** Tourist and travellers’ accommodation Reach 25 equally demanding brands from economy to luxury (each brand has a vision)**
To enhance the lives our customers Open new ways towards by creating and enabling positive hospitality unsurpassed vacation and leisure (each brand has a mission)** experiences* “Our promise - Marriott”* “Feel welcome”** Put people first Constantly improve services, Achievement, character, dedication, develop flagship hotels, effort and perseverance firmly establish leadership, Corporate citizenship, diversity aim for excellence, surprise guests and inclusion, excellence with innovation, meet the needs of in demonstrating core values, international travellers, and creating TakeCare culture act for people and planet of heath and well-being A&W F&B: 1927, 1967 Hotel business:1957 (51 years old)* (61/91 years old)* 1953* 2010/2011* Started as an A&W root beer Opened the first Novotel hotel franchise in 1927* in Northern France** * J. Willard and Alice Marriott Paul Dubrule and Gérard Pélisson** Arne M. Sorenson* Sébastien Bazin**
Established Public listing Beginnings Founder/s Current CEO Staff compliment worldwide
North America, Caribbean and Latin America, Europe, Middle-East and Africa, and Asia Pacific*
North and Central America, South America, Europe, Middle-East, Africa, and Pacific Asia**
Number of countries territories
Number of properties
Number of rooms
1.1 Million + 460,000 in the pipeline
4,530 (Baker, 2018) 652,939 (Baker, 2018) 25% in France
Number of brands (chains)
US$22 billion (2017)
Euro 1.9 billion (2017)+ (US$2.0 billion) Euro 441 million (US$500 million, 2017) 68.72% (2017)
Revenues Net income Worldwide occupancy rate
US$1.372 billion (2017) 73.7% (2017)
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Marriott International US$157.92 (2017) (Sicker, 2018) US$131.14 (2017) (Statista, 2018) Marriott Rewards, Ritz-Carlton Rewards, Starwood Preferred Guest 110 million members*
Average daily rate (ADR) Revenue per available room (RevPAR) Loyalty programmes
AccorHotels US$101.55 (2017) (accorhotels.group, 2018) US$71.20 (2017) (accorhotels.group, 2018) Le Club AccorHotels** London Stock Exchange (25 July 2018)
Day high: US$132.31 NASDAQ (24 July 2018)
Day low: US$128.77
Day high: Eur 45.32 (US$52.99)
Stock price rose by nearly 45% in 2017
Day low: Eur 44.28 (US$51.78) Settled: Eur 44.37 (US$51.88)
• 2018 - Marriott’s new loyalty program - Marriott’s new Chase Visa proved not to be too bad for loyalty guests as initially feared (marriott.com)
• 2018 - Marriott International recently started a six-month experiment in London with about 200 homes managed by HostMaker - Tribute Portfolio Homes, a home-sharing scheme
* www.marriott.com ** www.accor.com
• 2018 - Bidding to acquire Movenpick Hotels & Resorts and Chile’s Atton Hoteles for US$564.5 million and US$105 million, respectively (Baker 2018) • 2018 - Proposed to buy 14.3% share of Air France-KLM (Vidalon, 2018) +Hotel News Resource
Table 1. Comparative Information Marriott International vs. AccorHotels. Table 1 highlights the recent developments that have or will have a potential influence on the current or future financial operations of each organization. What follows discusses the profile of management as well as the managerial control practices of the two hotel giants. Marriott International’s Top Management Armed with a Bachelor of Arts degree which he took in 1980 from Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, a solid experience in the litigation of mergers and acquisition, and a Juris Doctor degree in 1983 from the University of Minnesota Law School, Arne M. Sorenson, had successfully held the fort that the founding father (and mother), John Willard and Alice Marriott, had established in 1927 what in Year 2016 became the world’s largest hotel group.
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Mr. Arne M. Sorenson was primarily responsible for the incremental growth of Marriott International through the acquisition in 2016 of a smaller yet also one of the top largest hotel organizations in the world, the Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide. In a YouTube.com interview in 2016, Sorenson emphasized the group’s secret weapon, “Putting people first,” the company slogan that is far from lip service but has remained the guiding principle for the group’s fast growth and consistent success (www.marriott.com). AccorHotel’s Top Management Sébastien M. Bazin was born on the 9th of November 1961. He is one of those prevalent CEO’s of huge corporations like those in the Fortune 500 that had a strong finance background (Savitz, 2011). He holds an MA in Economics, an MBA from Sorbonne University, and a BA at Sorbonne University in 1985. He held numerous positions in Finance as board chairman and CEO of hospitality corporations (Sebastien M. Bazin, 2018). Bazin began his career in 1985 in the finance sector in North America, becoming Vice President of M&A at PaineWebber (Sebastien M. Bazin, 2018). Bazin worked in several financial positions in New York, San Francisco, and London. He held CEO position in 1990 in an investment bank called Hottinguer Rivaud Finances. In 1992, Bazin became CEO of a French hotel developer, L’Immobilière Hôtelière. Then, he moved in 1997 to Colony Capital, a private real estate investment firm. There, he led its European branch and undertook several acquisitions in the hospitality sector (accorhotels.group, 2018).
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – PRESENTATION DIFFERENCES There were differences in the presentation of the group’s financial statements. These notable differences are briefly explained in each type of financial statements, as follows. Consolidated Income Statements The way each of these hotels presented their profit and loss statements (statement of profitability) differed from each other significantly. Those were based on Year 2016 and Year 2017 annual reports. Marriott International presented the breakdown of revenues, OPEX (operating expenses), and other incomes. (See Appendix B, Table 1.) It even added a - 45 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
detailed and comprehensive statement of incomes. (See Appendix B, Table 2.) Revenues were broken into base management fees, franchise fees, incentive management fees, other revenues and cost reimbursements. OPEX was broken down into rentals, reimbursed costs, depreciation, interest expenses, general and administrative costs, and miscellaneous expenses. (EPS and price per share in the analysis were added by the researcher for easy and orderly analysis.) AccorHotels presented its consolidated income statement without the specifics. See Appendix C, Table 1. Moreover, the net profit for the year was immediately followed by the details of earnings per share (basic and diluted) that was more detailed than Marriott’s. Consolidated Balance Sheets The noticeable difference in the presentation of the balance sheets between Marriott International and AccorHotels was the order of portraying the types of assets and types of liabilities. As if the order of presentation signified the priority items in both the assets and liabilities accounts, Marriott following the more common way, i.e., current assets first before non-current assets and current liabilities first before non-current liabilities. AccorHotels seems to put an importance to “goodwill” in that the non-current asset items were presented on top of the current assets. This is even when comparing the two hotel groups’ goodwill values, AccorHotels’ is five times less than that of Marriott’s. See Table 2 in Appendix C. Though this is a presumption of this paper’s writers, these observations could provide a good perspective of the real situation. It is noticeable also that the shareholders’ equity portion was presented first before the liabilities which in turn portrayed non-current liabilities on top of current liabilities. Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows The two parent companies used entirely different methods of cash flow presentation. One used the direct method and the other used the indirect method. Marriott International presented its consolidated cash flow statement using the indirect method. The statement portrayed the net income and then followed by adjustments to reconcile to cash provided by operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities (Stott, 2000). See Table 4 in Appendix B. AccorHotels used the direct method whereby cash from operations and business transactions are presented in a series of pluses and minuses. Yet, the presented cash flow statement also provided a reconciliation of the net income provided by operating activities (Averkamp, H., 2018). See Table 3 in Appendix C. - 46 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Consolidated Shareholders’ Equity Statements Marriott International’s consolidated shareholders’ equity statement was presented in a similar format as that of AccorHotels. The differences lie on the subtitles used as well as the clearer specification of changes in equity items. AccorHotels’ statement did not specify that the equity items were changes. Both were indicative of the three-year renditions. Marriott used the terms, “common shares outstanding,” “Class A common stock,” additional paid-in capital,” “retained earnings,” “treasury stock at cost,” and “accumulated other comprehensive loss.” Accor on the other hand used “number of shares,” “currency translation reserve,” “equity group share,” and “minority interests”. Everything else was the same. See Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY The financial ratio comparison for Marriott International and AccorHotels (Table 2) shows in the profitability section that Marriott provided higher return on shareholders’ equity, Return on Equity of 14.56% and 36.77% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. This indicated a significant increase of 22.21% over the years. AccorHotels did have a laggard increase at 3.21% over the same years with lower Return on Equity figures at 5.05% and 8.26% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Therefore, both hotel groups with these ROEs showed positive returns to investors but those of Marriott’s were more pleased, one could reckon. High gross profit margins were reported by Marriott at 94.73% and 93.77% during those consecutive years. However, note that only direct expenses were considered here. Note also that AccorHotels does not reveal their COGS. Accor’s properties generated much of their businesses from revenue sources that do not require high direct costs as are typical of hotels. Operating profit margins reported by the two hotel giants showed an indication of efficiencies varying between them. In the operating efficiency section of the table below, Marriott’s operating profit margins from 2016 and 2017 increased by 5.45% that was favorable for the business. However, the actual margins of 6.94% and 12.39%, respectively of the two consecutive years, were only 2.5 to 5 times less than AccorHotel’s high figures, namely: 30.80% and 32.32% during those same years. This indicates that the latter organization appeared to have managed operating efficiencies better than its US counterpart, notwithstanding the slower 1.52% increase in this indicator within the two years.
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Matthews (2016) stated that cost reimbursement is Marriott International’s generally unconventional practice of charging salaries to employees who work in Marriott’s managed hotels. Cost reimbursements contribute around 80% of Marriott’s revenues yet they report them under operating costs and expenses. This is high compared to what other hotel groups like Hyatt Hotels Corporation and Hilton Worldwide Holdings with their 35% to 40% of cost reimbursements. So, in effect, this big proportion is income to Marriot International, the parent company. This could be considered as profitability that is understated. Notice that in Marriott’s consolidated income statement (Table 1 in Appendix B), the same figure, US$17,765, was both included among revenue contributors and operating expenses as well zeroing out this value. This is explained in the risk analysis part of this paper later. Profitability is frequently used to determine the effectiveness of management (Financial statement analysis primer, n.d.). Net profit margins would generally be the ultimate test of profitability. Referring to the table of financial ratio comparison below, it is evident that AccorHotels fared much better than Marriott International. Figures reported by Marriott International showed 4.57% and 6.24% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. AccorHotel’s net profit margins during these same years were reported at 18.71% and 24.83%. This indicates that AccorHotels seems to have managed their operating expenses to the minimum, presumably much better than Marriott.
FINANCIAL RISK ANALYSIS Table 2 is the comparison of financial ratio values for Marriott International and AccorHotels. The 5-point approach framework was used (Evaluating a firm’s financial performance, n.d.; (Open Textbooks for Hong Kong, 2015). As the profitability element had been fully discussed earlier in the preceding question item, only the four remaining classifications of financial ratios are explained in this section, namely: liquidity (explained in general in the profitability comparison above and is discussed in more detail in this section), operating efficiencies, leverage, and shareholders’ value. See Appendix A for the formulae of selected ratios used in this analysis. Following the order of financial ratios under each of the criteria used to evaluate the financial performance of both companies, the comparative evaluation is discussed below.
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Table 2. Financial ratio comparison Marriott International and AccorHotels. Liquidity Liquidity is a criterion to evaluate a company’s financial performance that determines how fast or able a firm could meet its operational obligations in the conduct of its going concern (Evaluating a firm’s financial performance, n.d.). The higher the values company has better liquidity. In this paper the ratios selected for use were the current ratio, acid test ratio, average collection period, accounts receivables turnover, and inventory turnover. See table comparing the companies’ financial ratios above. AccorHotels appeared to be more liquid than Marriott International during the period. Marriott’s 2017 cash equivalents amounted to US$383 million while Accor had 1,063 million euros or US$1,236 million. Both improved on average collection period but Marriott in general looks tight with their 1-month versus Accor’s more than 2-months collection. AccorHotels did not indicate explicitly in their financials how much inventory they maintain during the period covered. Cash flow for Marriott translates to US$58,923 yearly cash per Marriott property whereas US$272,848 per property for Accor per year. Marriott is cash tight. See Table 2. Operating efficiencies The next criterion to evaluate a firm’s financial performance is operating efficiencies. This tests how efficient or effective a company is able to generate operating incomes through the use of its company assets (Evaluating a firm’s - 49 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
financial performance, n.d.). Ratios used in this analysis type were operating return on assets, operating profit margin, total asset turnover, and fixed asset turnover. Refer to Table 2. Both Marriott and Accor showed efficiencies in operations. However, Marriott seems to have worked harder in generating operating income. The lower margins indicate signs of improvements needed in the overhead. Asset turnover values indicate a slow trend. Yet, it is good both hotel groups improved. Marriott showed better operating efficiencies than Accor as shown by higher improvement in fixed asset turnover through the two years. Leverage “How is the firm financing its assets?” was question answered by leverage ratios (Evaluating a firm’s financial performance, n.d.). Financial institutions check this as a gauge of the company’s ability to pay up financial obligations as well. Debt ratio, times interest earned and debt-to-equity ratio were used in this section. Table 2 shows that both hotel groups have similar debt-ratio. Both seem to use debt much to generate operations funds. But Marriott is in a more precarious situation because while the debt ratios of both groups were within the 50%-range, Marriott was closer to 60% while Accor was closer to 50%. This self-explain the differences between the two in terms of this leverage indicator. Times interest earned ratios shows that Marriott manages its debt interest payments better while Accor seems not to particular about this seemingly because they have lower debts to service. Marriott’s debt-to-equity ratio goes beyond industry levels of around 2.00 which the threshold for most industries (What is considered, 2018), more accurately, 2.55 and 3.81 in 2016 and 2017, respectively, with the percentage change of almost 50% increase. On the other hand, AccorHotels’ debt-to-equity ratios in the same years were at the very comfortable levels of 1.00 and 1.07 with only a negligible increase of 0.07% over the years. Shareholders’ value Is the management team creating shareholder value? This question is very essential especially to the company’s investors as the latter would like to look at the management’s performance which in turn creates or negatively impacts shareholder value (Evaluating a firm’s financial performance, n.d.). The two ratios used here were the P-E ratio and the P-B ratio. - 50 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Price-earning ratio (P-E ratio) is the ratio for valuing a company through its stock share price against per-share earnings (Price-earning ratio, 2018). While AccorHotels registered a higher price-earnings ratio, Marriott continued to improve in 2016-2017 unlike AccorHotels, -23.72% versus 19.58%, respectively. Nonetheless, the highest related figure of 40.26 P-E ratio of AccorHotels is above Marriott’s 36.89. Again, refer to Table 2. Marriott International reported higher improvements in price per book ratio at 118.12% increase over the course of the year. Accor’s PB-ratio approached 0.00 and decreased by 100% over the years. This however does not completely tell the whole story of whether the stock values are good for shareholders; other factors like recent buy-outs, write-offs, etc. Speaking of share value, Table 3 compares the stock prices of Marriott International and AccorHotels from December 2015 to the time of this paper’s writing in July 2018. Changes in stock prices are also an indication primarily of a firm’s public perception as influenced by the company’s business performance. Covering the aforementioned time period, Marriott International reported a very favourable 64.07% average stock price increase from the year when the parent company bought over another relative huge hotel group, Starwood, increasing the firm’s brands from 11 to 30 and the number of properties to 6,500+ as reported earlier in this paper, making the hotel group as one of the top if not the top accommodation enterprise in the world. AccorHotels share prices increased by 20.99% on the average. It is notable though that the company experienced a slump as the average percentage change in share price was recorded at a minus 11.55%. There was however a slight increase projected until the end of 2018 based on the mean change between 2016 and 2017. It was a sign of recovery in terms of delivering better value to the shareholders using stock prices as the parameter. It goes without saying that Marriott International performed better that its counterpart in this area. Close (US$)* Low High Average
Dec 2015 67.04 67.04 67.04
Marriott International Dec Dec 2016 2017 82.54 135.73 82.68 135.35 82.61 135.54
Jul 2018 126.60 125.25 125.93
Proforma Dec 2018 182.03 179.75 180.89
Close (Euro)* Low High Average
Dec 2015 39.88 40.01 39.95
AccorHotels Dec Dec 2016 2017 35.23 42.49 35.43 43.00 35.33 42.75
Jul 2018 42.02 42.02 42.02
Proforma Dec 2018 43.90 44.10 44.00
* Source: morningstar.com, with the exception of the proforma data.
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% Change Low High Average
Dec 2016 23.12% 23.33% 23.22%
Marriott International Dec 2017 64.44% 63.70% 64.07%
Jul 2018 -6.73% -7.46% -7.09%
Proforma Dec 2018 43.78% 43.52% 43.65%
% Change Low High Average
Dec 2016 -11.66% -11.45% -11.55%
AccorHotels Dec 2017 20.61% 21.37% 20.99%
Jul 2018 -1.11% -2.28% -1.70%
Proforma Dec 2018 4.47% 4.96% 4.72%
* Source: morningstar.com, with the exception of the proforma data.
Table 3. Stock prices comparison, Dec 2015 - Jul 2018 Marriott International and AccorHotels.
SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL RISKS In summary, Marriott International’s strategy to utilize its credit credibility despite weak leverage poses a big risk of insolvency. Moreover, pursuing its business model whereby they collect cost reimbursements from managed property owners and disburse them back to managers and staff in properties the parent company manages brings down profitability figures (Matthews, 2016). The researchers of this study at hand also are at the opinion that this was the main reason why Marriott depended heavily on non-current liabilities, mainly long-term debts. Marriott also hedged on liquidating liabilities for guest loyalty programs that was reported at precarious levels, namely: US$2.9 billion in 2017, a rise of 7.51% from 2016. This put too much heavy a pressure on the firm’s liabilities and could have both financial and customer-service related implications if not managed well. AccorHotels’ financial risks appeared minimal compared to its American counterpart. However, its apparent management philosophy that focuses on profitability more than non-economic factors like employee welfare, not that it does not take care of its manpower assets, puts many of its properties’ operations to be affected by high manpower turnover, cost of hiring and other related contributors to operating costs. This assumption was arrived at based on the comparison between the two hotel groups’ corporate philosophies as well as this paper’s researcher’s personal interviews with some industry practitioners (Gan, personal communication, 21 Jul 2018; Murali, personal communication, 23 Jul 2018). - 52 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CHALLENGES The common practices between the two hotel groups whose operations are no less than global in span and nature revealed the use of technology besides the aggressive acquisition of properties, stakes in promising related businesses, and alliances with the rising stars in the industry. The concern about costs is no longer addressed internally alone but also by ideas outside the box utilizing current assets and by attempting to eliminate the middlemen (OTA’s). Digitalizing hotel bookings and customer services draw the loyal customers closer to the two hotel giants. Finding more incentives through much better accommodation indulgences via adoption and acquisition of apps and digital systems makes it more challenging to online intermediaries to make a deep dent on the sales of these two formidable industry leaders. In the future, while OTA’s continue to sharpen their double-edged sword—the benefits they offer hotel organizations through increased sales but with the hefty commission requirements they impose—bigger hotel groups like Marriott International and AccorHotels will not take this challenge sitting down. The latter will continue to seek technological innovations and approaches outside the box in order to wage the “war” against the ruthless scheming of the OTA’s. Marriott International’s cost management challenges There were numerous cost management-related challenges that Marriott faced during the conduct of its business operations. Many of them are controllable but some are beyond management’s control.
1. Low net profit margin due to laws involved in operating outside of
the United States. In 2017, around 36 per cent of Marriott’s operations were outside the United States. This meant diminished control of business operations and unpredictable regulatory changes in destination countries that were either different or even clash with US laws. Dealing with competition laws, cyber-security and privacy laws were only some of them. Currency exchanges also affect cash flows and operating costs.
Anti-corruption laws and US trade sanctions also could increase costs and reduce profits. Especially with the merger with Starwood where many properties were outside the US, restrictions imposed by the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as well as the UK Bribery Act could go head-on and conflict with countries where corruption was common. These therefore put pressure on operating costs.
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2. Mortgages and liens, early termination of management contracts.
Many of Marriott’s operating agreements were subordinated under mortgages or other liens securing indebtedness of the owners. Also, many of Marriott’s operating agreements allow the owners to terminate those agreements if the company did not meet certain performance targets and failed profit achievement. In some cases, owners who pre-terminate could bring matters to court and vice-versa. Any which way, Marriott management would incur additional costs in the form of legal fees, management costs, and opportunity costs. Any damages that Marriott would anticipate to collect would often be lower than these expenses. 3. Franchisee- or licensee-related remedy costs. Marriott International’s franchisees and licensees could sometimes interact with guests outside the control of the parent company. If and when unsettled disputes happen, bad publicity and word-of-mouth could damage the Marriott brand. In settling issues there could be times when legal costs and management-related expenses would have to be incurred. Marriott also required comprehensive property insurance. As such, in the many properties it operated, cost of insurance serves as another challenge that affected management cost, 4. Environmental and political costs. External factors like the recession in the United States and the new national administration clamping on foreign migration put pressure on low demand for hotel rooms as well as operating costs. Global as well as national conditions also affected cost management of Marriott properties. 5. Renovation costs. Most properties that Marriott International operate, franchise, or license set aside capital to renovate and refurbish furnishings, fixtures, and equipment. 6. Competition costs. Highly competitive markets where Marriott operated posed challenges that threaten operating margins, market share and net earnings. 7. Union-related costs. As Marriott did its business in over 125 countries, labour union-related activities are inevitable concerns of management. Cost incurred due to collective bargaining, increased manpower costs, and other results of CBA’s (collective bargaining agreements) had to be dealt with and continued to pose as a major challenge in operating hotel businesses.
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AccorHotels’ cost management challenges
1. Legal and regularity costs. Countries where AccorHotels properties
were located might have unstable legal requirements such as pertaining to carbon taxes or value-added tax (VAT), and protectionist measures in a number of host countries. Costs incurred therefore could destabilize cost projections. 2. Complex competitive environments. Highly competitive environments impacted by the fast-changing technological advancements posed as a big challenge to market share. AccorHotels therefore had to take action by investing in further brand building and embracing technologies that could get the group ahead of the competition. 3. Costs incurred due to economic and environmental forces. AccorHotels had to contend with natural disasters and economic forces in the many countries that it operated. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, hurricanes, and changes in weather conditions did not only threaten revenue figures but increased operational costs. 4. Heavy reliance on management and franchise partners. AccorHotels’ heavy reliance on partners like franchisees and operators put the company in precarious situations whereby the quality of service and customer satisfaction were jeopardized. Customer complaints and even legal suits could add-up to costs that were not normal and could hurt profitability. Moreover, these lawsuits could take vital time from management that could keep them away from their main business activities and therefore put a burden on the company’s financial stability.
RECOMMENDATIONS “The 2017 Smart Decision Guide to Restaurant Management and POS Systems” reported that streamlined operations and better management controls across hotel organizations should result in reduced operational costs and improved staff efficiencies. Enhanced management of guest relationships should advance customer satisfaction, loyalty and retain hotel guests more effectively. (PR Newswire Association, 2017). The report further stated that enhanced analytics, revenue management, and channel management translate into financial strengthening. This goes to prove that cost control does not stand isolated or alone in campaigning for business viability, let alone, profitability. And indeed, the end-goal for managing costs alongside sales revenue growth is profit maximization. Thus, cutting-edge cost management and control practices that are needed by Marriott and Accor shall not veer away from the revenue management discipline, - 55 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
however that approach takes direct costs and overhead expenses as part and parcel of that discipline. In this discipline, occupancy rates, ADR (average daily rate), and RevPAR (revenue per available room) are the three indicators that these two hotels continue to watch out for. Among the three, occupancy rates and RevPAR need to increase constantly normally using ADR changes. Increasing occupancy (i.e., rooms sold divided supply multiplied by 100%) would reduce unit costs. Likewise, changing prices (ADR, i.e., revenue divided by rooms sold) could change occupancy and revenues. Decreasing ADR during slack season could sustain or increase occupancy. Increasing ADR during high peak seasons could increase revenues significantly. Both would therefore reduce the property’s unit costs. It is also reported in each group’s latest annual reports that technology acquisition, partnerships with technology companies, and corporate co-branding are key strategies that provide the competitive advantage that not only enables member-guests to buy direct, as against OTA’s but also streamline operations for guest satisfaction, company effectiveness, productivity and cost reduction. Integrated loyalty programs constituted 50 per cent of purchased room nights. This provided a low cost and high-impact approach to revenue generation (Marriott International, 2018). There are traditional cost control models that are either being implemented by hotels or have been recommended by studies in this environment. One of these is the ABC system or activity-based costing. The ABC system that some hotels refer to also as factor-based accounting costing paved the way for the activitybased budgeting (Murali, personal communication, August 6, 2018). Holst and Savage (1999, as cited in Vazakidis & Kargiannis, 2009) defined ABC as the method of cost control whereby resources and fixed costs especially – some hotels call them “factors” – are assigned or allocated in the books of accounts to specific departments or functions following a fair proportion. This system accepts the reality that such departments, e.g., housekeeping and front desk departments, utilize a proportionate amount of overhead and therefore should share in the accounting or “payment” of such costs, whether they are profit, cost, or investment centers. Sun (2017) related to a couple of cost control systems, namely: (1) the procurement method of cost control and (2) cost budgeting method. The procurement method of cost control acknowledges the importance of controlling purchasing costs. This justifies the inclusion of the function of purchasing to part of the overall financial management process. That way, it is assumed that integration of various departments could be enhanced as procurement cuts across different functions, the hotel would behave more according to market forces, and any adjustments in the purchasing activities could beat timelines. - 56 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
The cost budgeting method of control espouses that costing to be done in an objective and scientific approach (Sun, 2017). In managing the finances of the hotel, objective assessments are believed to achieve more effective control of cost in hotel operations. Abiding by the scientific method of evaluating as part of budgeting costs, it is anticipated that staff efficiency. With high motivation, the staff can become more efficient and effective. Yemer and Chekol (2017) proposed the internal control systems framework that stands by the principle that internal controls correlate strongly with revenue generation. The components that need to observe in this framework consist of the control environment, risk assessment, information and communication, control activities, and monitoring activities. The control environment establishes the context by which policies and procedures exist or do not exist. It comprises activities related to fraud, ethics, administration, organizational structure, staff attitudes and other non-financial areas that could affect revenue generation. Risk assessment audits danger zones and alert areas which anyway big hotels like Marriott and AccorHotels already are doing. Actions or mitigation techniques and procedures are determined as contingencies. Effective communication of information, which is another concept in this method, is necessary if controls are to be instituted toward business goal achievement. Documentation of standard operating procedures is synonymous to control activities. Hotels especially smaller ones fall short of this basic requirement to standardize service quality and cost control. Monitoring activities are essential in any hotel that is committed to correct possible mistakes and enforce the adjustments in a timely and most effective manner. Discussion Questions:
1. What possible trade-offs if a global hotel business like Marriott
International prioritizes on non-economic goals at the expense of higher profit margins? Explain. 2. Is it possible for AccorHotels, Europe’s top hotel group, to improve on non-economic goals like manpower welfare without compromising high profitability? If so, how could this be done? What steps could AccorHotels take to balance the stakes? 3. It makes sense to implement varied management control systems in big hotel groups like Marriott and Accor. Which management control system mentioned in the case study should be the priority of Marriott International and why? Which one should be the priority of AccorHotels and explain why?
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4. What specific recommendations could you give both Marriott
International and AccorHotels to address their specific financial risks? Go through them one-by-one and provide specific and realistic steps or examples applicable to these hotel groups, respectively. 5. How could Marriott and Accor address the many financial challenges that threaten them? Explain fully.
REFERENCES ACCORHOTELS (2017). 2016 annual report. Retrieved from https:// www.companyreporting.com/sites/default/files/annual-report-index/accorannual-report-2016.pdf ACCORHOTELS, (2018). 2017 annual report. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/academic1/Downloads/Interim_Financial_ report_30062017%20(3).pdf ACCORHOTELS GROUP (2018). Retrieved from https://www.accorhotels. group/en/group/our-governance/executive-comittee ACCORHOTELS GROUP (2018). RevPAR excluding tax by segment and market – Q4 2017. [PDF file]. Retrieved from file:///Users/FredU/Downloads/ RevPAR_au_31122017_en%20 (2).pdf AVERKAMP, H. (2018). “What is the difference between the direct method and the indirect method for the statement of cash flows?” Accounting Coach. Retrieved from https://www.accountingcoach.com/blog/ direct-and-indirect-method-cash-flows BAKER, T. (2018). Accor sees RevPAR jumps, sells 7% more of AccorInvest. Hotel News Now. Retrieved from http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/ Articles/287538/Accor-sees-RevPAR-jumps-sells-7-more-of-AccorInvest CANNON, M. (2017). Qatar Airways partners with Accorhotels to offer reciprocal benefits. Business Traveller. Retrieved from https://www.businesstraveller.com/business-travel/2017/02/02/ qatar-airways-partners-accorhotels-oer-reciprocal-benefits/ EVALUATING A FIRM’S FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE (n.d.). [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://slideplayer.com/slide/8804238/ FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS PRIMER (n.d.). Wiley. Retrieved on August 3, 2018, from https://www.wiley.com/college/kieso/0471363049/ - 58 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
dt/analysttool/faprimer/fap06.htm HOTELNEWSRESOURCE.COM (2018). Retrieved from https://www.hotelnewsresource.com/article98575.html MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL (2017). 2016 annual report. Retrieved from https://investor.shareholder.com/mar/marriottAR16/pdfs/Marriott_2016_ Annual_Report.pdf MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL (2018). 2017 annual report. Retrieved from https://marriott.gcs-web.com/static-files/b82978a6-9d28-4e38-9855-fc4ae2cebe11 MATTHEWS, S. (2016). Understanding cost reimbursements as a key part of Marriott’s international’s revenues. Market Realist. Retrieved from https://marketrealist.com/2016/01/understanding-cost-reimbursements-keypart-marriott-internationals-revenues MORNINGSTAR.COM (2018). Retrieved from https://www.morningstar.com/ stocks/xpar/ac/quote MORNINGSTAR.COM (2018). Retrieved from https://www.morningstar.com/ stocks/xnas/mar/quote NUSCA, A. (2016). “Marriott CEO: Here’s Why We Did the $13.6 Billion Starwood Deal.” Fortune. (2017). Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune. com/2017/05/26/marriott-starwood-sorenson/ OPEN TEXTBOOKS FOR HONG KONG (2015). Horizontal and Vertical Trend Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/23609 PRICE-EARNINGS RATIO - P/E RATIO (2018). Investopedia. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/price-earningsratio.asp SAVITZ, E. (2011). “The path to becoming a Fortune 500 CEO.” Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2011/12/05/the-path-tobecoming-a-fortune-500-ceo/#48447a43709b BAZIN, S. M. (2018). Bloomberg. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/ research/stocks/private/person.asp?personId=1857031&privcapId=648902 STATISTA (2018). “Occupancy rate of hotels in leading city destinations in Europe in 2017.” Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/602505/ hotel-occupancy-rate-ranking-european-cities/ STATISTA (2018). “Revenue of selected leading hotels worldwide in 2016 (in billion U.S. dollars).” Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/273064/ revenue-of-the-largest-hotel-groups-worldwide/ STATISTA (2018). “Revenue per available room Marriott International hotels worldwide from 2010 - 59 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
(RevPAR) to 2017,
region (in U.S. dollars).” https://www.statista.com/statistics/271129/ revpar-marriott-international-inc-hotels-worldwide/ STOTT, D. M. (2000). “An empirical evaluation of the alternative operating cash flow presentation method.” College of Business and Economics, Washington State University. Retrieved from https://libproxy.globalnxt.edu.my:2151/business/docview/304629679 /52C1A5BD3E09454DPQ/1?accountid=35207 VIDALON, D. (2018). “France’s AccorHotels upbeat about 2018 after strong first quarter sales.” Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/ us-accorhotels-results/frances-accorhotels-upbeat-about-2018-after-strong-firstquarter-sales-idUSKBN1HP2OG WHAT IS CONSIDERED A GOOD NET DEBT-TO-EQUITY RATIO? (2018). Investopedia. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/ask/ answers/040915/what-considered-good-net-debttoequity-ratio.asp WORLD TRAVEL & TOURISM COUNCIL (2018). Travel and tourism economic impact 2018: World. Retrieved from https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/ reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2018/world2018.pdf
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APPENDICES Appendix A: Financial ratios under each criteria (adapted from Evaluating the Firm’s Financial Performance, n.d.)
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Appendix B: Analyses of Marriott International’s financial statements
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Appendix B: Analyses of Marriott International’s financial statements
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Appendix C: Analyses of AccorHotels’ financial statements
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Appendix C: Analyses of AccorHotels’ financial statements
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BATTLING FOOD WASTES: THE ROLE OF NGOS AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Dr Sng BEE BEE*
ABSTRACT Food waste is a serious problem in the hospitality industry. In addition, there is a lack of recycling and waste management in airlines, airports and hotels. In 2018 alone, Singapore produced 703,200 tons of food. Subsequently, this research aimed to evaluate how hotels can learn from the work of NGOs in Singapore in order for hotels to achieve sustainability in their operations. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 volunteers in NGOs and 5 staff members in 3 hotels. The interviews revealed that the hotel industry can learn from the experiences and work of NGOs. The findings of this study showed that hotels can reduce food waste by having an efficient inventory system, distributing unused food and composting food waste. Furthermore, the Singapore government should implement regulations to reduce food waste in the food supply chain.
I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The term “green economy” has evolved, spread and adopted by United Nations and other international organizations. It refers to an economic approach that considers sustainable development, poverty alleviation and conservation of environment. Tourism is considered a critical key industry in this approach since together it contributes $7 trillion to the global economy in 2013, constituting 9.5% of global GDP. “It is increasingly recognized that the tourism sector can play a pivotal role in a green economy through more sustainable business practices, climate change mitigation and adaptation techniques.” (Reddy and Wilkes, 2015, p. 4). Sustainable development is defined as a compensation that the present generation should provide for the future generation for the depletion * PhD, Vatel Singapore Lecturer
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of resources brought about by the current generation (Reddy and Wilkes, 2015). Compensation for the future generation means that the current generation should leave the next generation with as much capital wealth as it has inherited as well as environmental wealth (Reddy and Wilkes, 2015). The economy should not be seen separately as environmental issues since both interact in an implicit way. With the exponential rate of increase of global travel, this means that tourists have a wide and deep impact on many countries and the countries which are the least equipped to deal with the impact of wastes are the poorer and less developed countries. In the United Nations, the concept of green economics gained importance preceding the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Following this, a report was released which emphasized the key role tourism played as a global industry that can contribute to environmental conservation, sustainable development as well as motivating countries to develop these measures (Reddy and Wilkes, 2015). At the same time, there was also a focus on the role of tourism industry in reducing unsustainable consumption and increase environmental sustainability (Reddy and Wilkes, 2015). Therefore, there is a need for the tourism industry to adopt practices and measures which are compatible with conserving the environment and ensuring long-term sustainability for the indigenous people of the countries. Solid waste is still an enormous problem in tourism, with a lack of recycling and waste management in airlines; airports; hotels; restaurants and bars (Wood, 2017).
1.2 Aim Therefore, the objective of this research project was to evaluate how connections can be made between NGOs which are working on the issues of food wastes with the hospitality industry in Singapore.
1.3 Scope There are a number of NGOs which are working on reducing food wastes. Interviews were conducted with 3 NGOs and 3 staff members working in the hotel industry. The research was conducted over 2 months.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 The Critical Problems with Plastic and Food Wastes Food wastes are the top most global waste management problem for hospitality industry such as hotels. Research in the U.K. shows that 920,000 tons of food is wasted by the hotel and food industry in the U.K., which amounts to - 68 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
U.S.D.$4.1 billion annually. Only 46% of this food waste is recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion, while 75% of this food waste could be eaten. In addition, reduction of this food waste by hotels can aid in reducing 2.7 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions. It was found that hotels were losing U.S.D.$6,500 for every ton of food wasted due to the higher value of food wasted such as fruit, meat and fish (Wood, 2017). It was also found that small hotels do not want to recycle as they do not have space to place recycle bins; are unwilling to pay staff to separate wastes or wash items so they can be recycled. Therefore, it is crucial to influence the hospitality industry to reduce food wastes. A special branch was developed in UNEP called the Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) branch to deal with the environmental problems resulting from the hospitality industry. The three main objectives of SCP are as follows:
1. Cease environmental destruction from economic growth by consuming
less. Instead, economic growth should be encouraged by reducing use of resources, environmental destruction and pollution. There should be an emphasis on the entire lifecycle and improving the quality of life. 2. Implementing the lifecycle mindset. This means improving the efficiency of sustainable management of resources in both production and consumption stages of the lifecycle, such as resources abstraction, manufacturing of intermediate inputs, distribution, marketing, use, wastes removal and recycling of products and services. 3. Seizing opportunities for developing countries and “leapfrogging”. SCP provides opportunities for developing countries such as the creation of new markets, green and ethical jobs which are more efficient, and conducive for welfare and natural resource management. This leads to the potential to “leapfrog” to more resource and environmentally friendly technologies, overcoming the polluting and resource wasteful previous development approaches of developed countries. UNEP (2014) in (Reddy & Wilkes, 2015). Such objectives aim to encourage the hospitality industry to adopt a circular economy mindset in which they reduce the amount of wastes; regenerate the wastes or recycle. The first step that hotels can adopt in reducing food wastes is to ensure sustainable preparation and consumption of food by encouraging the consumption of local produce and ensure careful preparation of food to meet demand at specific times. The second step is to ensure that food that is not consumed can be reused by distributing these to the staff or needy. The next step is to recycle food wastes by composting them so that these can be used as fertilizers to grow fruits and vegetables.
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Sustainable consumption and production of food are advocated as a solution to this global environmental crisis (Slocum, 2015). An important part of this initiative is to re-localize food chains which has led to an increase in local produce, made available through farmer’s markets etc. The current trends of tourism rely on diverse and mass commodities, especially meat produce and use of scientific interventions in the food processes. On the other hand, the more traditional and sustainable method is based on the traditional methods of food production in the indigenous culture and ensures food security for the rural poor. Emphasis is placed on small-scale agriculture that is both culturally and ecologically viable for the local community. It is sustainable for the reasons that it is more environmentally friendly and emphasizes sufficiency over efficiency. This approach encourages local production and prevents costs of emissions that result from international transport of produce (Slocum, 2015). While some studies have shown that tourists prefer food they are accustomed to, other studies have shown that tourists are increasingly interested in trying out local foods (Slocum, 2015). Therefore, by encouraging tourists to consume local produce, the tourism industry can contribute to the local economy and ensure the livelihood of the indigenous people. Furthermore, it ensures greater food sustainability by cutting down the costs and pollution of transportation needed to bring food from one country to another as well as the need to preserve food which contributes to health risks. The problem of food wastes could be reduced considerably if the hospitality industry cultivates the mindset that begins with the prevention and minimization of such wastes; reuse and recover food items and finally, sustainable disposal of such wastes. The rationale in this approach is to prevent wastes before they are incurred, subsequently, reuse and recycle the leftovers. Hotels also need to realize that they benefit from these measures and plan to cut wastes. In fact, hotels can gain from the investment returns by cutting down on food waste, through careful planning of the menu to cater to the appropriate portion size in demand. More developed methods of measuring the required amount of food to produce in the menu are needed to enable hotels to cater to the seasonal demand. In addition, it is unethical to waste food considering that 12% of the world’s population is undernourished. Furthermore, reducing food wastes can also reduce the amount of water that is required to produce food. In the Accor Hotels’ Planet 21 report on their Life Cycle Analysis, food and beverage operations account for 86% of the hotel group’s water footprint. Therefore, it is important to create more environmentally-friendly menu (Wood, 2017). One of the recommendations for greening the tourism and travel sector includes making use of community-based knowledge and competency such as improved ecosystem management and conservation of rainforest (Reddy & Wilkes, 2015). - 70 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Much of this community-based knowledge and competency already exist among the local NGOs. In Singapore, many NGOs are involved in conservation of nature reserves; marine biodiversity and food sustainability through activities to reduce food wastes and promote growing local produce in communities. Such community-based knowledge and competency are, therefore, useful for the hotels and some of such practices can be adopted by hotels.
2.3 The Situation of Food Waste in Singapore Food and plastics wastes constitute two of the biggest types of wastes in Singapore. Much of the food wastes is generated in the supply chain, namely, in the distribution of food from wholesalers to retailers. As supermarkets feel the pressure to conform to consumers’ demand for perfect looking fruit and vegetables, tons of food are discarded when they look less than perfect. Much of such discarded food, which is still fit for consumption, is incinerated. Considering that much of the world’s population is still undernourished and lacking in food, this shows a lack of consideration to the needy. Consequently, NGOs in Singapore sprung up, such as SG Food Rescue and Ugly Food in which the volunteers, comprising mainly universities undergraduates, rescue discarded food from supermarkets, F&B and hotels, and redistribute to other people, especially needy families. In various residential constituencies, community fridges were set up so that these NGOs could stock the fridges with discarded food which are fit for consumption for needy families. In general, much more effort and initiatives need to be implemented to address the problem of huge amounts of food wastes. According to Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang (2015), Singapore is a highly urbanized country with a high level of food wastes. The Ministry of Environment and Water Resources (MEWR) in Singapore states that Singapore produces 703,200 tons of food wastes in 2013 and only 12% are recycled into animal feed, organic fertilizer and bio-energy (Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre in Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). The rest of the food wastes is incinerated. This is the similar situation with small hotels in U.K. (Radwan, Jones, and Minoli, 2010). The recycling of food wastes has not met MEWR’s target of 30% and it is believed that recycling can be improved by five times so that a 60% recycling rate can be achieved (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). In 2012, almost 33% of food in Singapore is discarded. A market survey was conducted in 2003 on 71 local licensed food manufacturers. A statistical analysis was conducted between the responses of this study and National Environment Agency’s statistics on wastes. This analysis revealed that 585 tons of food wastes was generated by the F&B industry. 61% (915 tons per day) of food wastes originate from municipality, namely households and food outlets like food courts, coffee shops, hawker centers, markets and hotels. Out - 71 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
of this, 2% are from hotel industry and the rest from F&B industries (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). Therefore, there is a need to confront the problem of food wastes in the hospitality industry in Singapore. This can be done by firstly, careful planning of food preparation to meet demand; and changing public perception that fruits and vegetables must look perfect. In addition, composting facilities should be accessible for food vendors to compost the parts of vegetables and fruits which are discarded in the process of food preparation. Like many developed countries, Singapore disposes wastes by incinerating them and using the ashes for landfill (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). The wastes are incinerated in plants in Tuas, and shipped to an island called Semakau where it is used for landfill. Semakau is created by joining two tiny islands. 12 cells are created in which the marine life has been removed from the seawater. These cells are then filled with the ashes. Currently, 11 cells have been filled, leaving one cell. It is forecasted that by 2030, all the cells would have been filled, in which case, Singapore will have to come up with an alternative plan to deal with its wastes. In addition, China has closed down its plastic recycling plant, which means that many countries will be faced with the problem of how to manage its plastic waste. Incineration of wastes continue to be the sole and major method of waste management for Singapore since the island is going to be completely filled with the ashes in a few years’ time. There needs to be a much greater effort to reduce wastes by the public. Before incineration technology was used in 1979, landfilling was the only method that Singapore uses for its food wastes. Food wastes were deposited directly to the ground. This led to land, water and air pollution, because the moisture from the food wastes produces high microbial decomposition activity which releases leachate and methane in an anaerobic environment (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). This is the same case with small hotels in U.K. Food wastes from small hotels go into landfills which gave rise to leachate and methane, polluting the environment (Radwan, Jones, and Minoli, 2015). Therefore, an alternative method of wastes management was needed and landfilling was chosen. Both incinerable and non-incinerable food wastes were deposited as landfill in Semakau Island. As all the cells is predicted to be filled up by 2030, recycling, reusing and reduction of wastes are highly encouraged, and a target was set to achieve zero landfill needs (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). After incineration, the volume of food wastes can be reduced by 99.9%. However, building more incineration plants to remove wastes is not a sustainable method as the largest plant in Tuas costs Sing$900 million with 3000 tons of industrial food wastes daily (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). Due to the high cost of building incineration plants, a third method of waste management, anaerobic digestion (AD) was introduced (Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015). - 72 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Food waste 1500 tonnes/d 61%
Municipal food waste 915 tonnes/d 2%
Industrial food waste 585 tonnes/d
Hotel industry 35 tonnes/d
Self-initiative recycling activities, e.g. composting, etc.
Others, 880 tonnes/d
39% Food and Beverage industry 540 tonnes/d
Food waste being incinerated 1410 tonnes/d
Food waste being recycled 90 tonnes/d
Source: Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang, 2015.
FigureÂ 1. Material flow of daily food waste in 2003 (raw data obtain from ). The whole culture and mindset that drive the demand for attractive and gourmet food in Singapore has resulted in enormous food wastes in both the supply chain and F&B and hotel industries. A study done by university students in Singapore revealed that 300,000 kilograms of food were discarded daily by wholesalers and this figure does not include the food discarded by supermarkets etc. The reason is that supermarkets lead consumers to desire only perfect looking fruit and vegetables through their display and packaging. The less than perfect fruits and vegetables are then discarded (Low and Aw, 2010). The university students drew the following conclusion in their study: In sum, food waste is more than just the simple act of throwing away edible food. Our research and field work showed us that the problem prevails because modern society does not understand the source of the food that they find on the shelves of supermarkets. In essence, we learned that society has scant appreciation for how and where their food is grown (or raised) and what the actual food production process involves in terms of labor, effort and the impact on the environment. - 73 ÂŠÂ CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
As a result, food waste becomes a matter of economic expediency for the food and beverage industry and is of no consequence to a citizenry that has no concrete understanding of deprivation and hunger. One of the solutions advocated by people who are involved in urban farming in Singapore is to grow local produce and encourage public consumption of local varieties. This will prevent pollution and costs resulting from transportation of produce across long distances. It will also address the problems of massive discarding of produce as people will appreciate the produce once they go through the hardship of growing their own fruits and vegetables. So, community gardens managed by local residents have sprung up in which they grow their own produce and share among the community. Online gardening groups such as Urban Farmers and Plants I Eat are also initiated by Singaporeans in which people encourage and support one another in urban farming. The posts of the harvests of fruits and vegetables by Singaporeans who grow these crops in their limited urban spaces and pictures of recipes created from such produce spur online viewers to do likewise. Such efforts by indigenous NGOs are a rich resource for the hospitality industry and this research seeks to investigate how the two parties could share knowledge and experience to address the two serious problems of food and plastic wastes.
III.â&#x20AC;&#x192; METHODOLOGY Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 3 people who are working in NGOs related to reducing food and plastic wastes and 3 staff working in hotels. Of these, one interviewee, Alexius, started and ran his company to help people to grow vegetables and garden as well as educate people about gardening. The second interviewee, Augustine, started his social enterprise called Ugly Food to reduce food wastes by rescuing rejected food from F&B; supermarkets and wholesalers, then reselling them. He started this social enterprise after learning about the vast amount of fruits and vegetables that are wasted when they are supplied from the wholesalers and retailers. The present researcher volunteers in these NGOs in their events. She then approached the leaders to ask if she could interview them for her research. An interview was held with Alexius (pseudonym) who has started his own company that provides educational workshops; nature-based activities and build urban farms. All of them conceded and she met them for one hour of interview for each of them. 3 interviews were conducted with 3 staff working in hotels. One of these interviews was with a Human Resource Manager, Yvonne, who is working in - 74 ÂŠÂ CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
a boutique hotel. She has been working in the hotel industry since 1999. She has worked in big groups of hotels that range from 600 to 200 rooms each. In addition, the general manager of a five-star hotel, John, was also interviewed. John oversees both the operation and business of the hotel. He is accountable to the stakeholders; guests of the hotel and his “internal customers” (to quote him), namely, his staff. The last two interviews were with a sustainability project manager and a beverage manager in a boutique hotel which is a strong advocate of environmental practices in the hotel. For the sake of this research, they were given the pseudonym, Mary and Ron. The interviews lasted around one hour and were conducted in public cafes. The questions covered in the questionnaire are:
1. What do you do in your work or research? How does it contribute towards sustainability?
2. What is the situation of food wastes in Singapore (from your work/
research), the harmful effects of microplastics, what you know about humans consuming microplastics because of plastic pollution in the sea? 3. What you think the tourism and hospitality industry can do about food waste? 4. How do you think your work/research can contribute towards helping hospitality industry to cut down on plastic wastes? 5. How do you think NGOs and hospitality can work hand-in-hand to achieve the aim of sustainability? The interviewees from NGO includes Alexius, who has started his own company to educate people to grow their own vegetables, and Richard, who is heading a school green program of an international NGO. In addition, a researcher who researches marine microplastics in a university and a staff of a local, official organization that educates students about environmental issues were interviewed.
IV. RESULTS 4.1 T he Importance of Influencing the Hospitality Industry to Reduce Food Waste It is learnt from the interviews conducted with the volunteers of NGOs that food wastes can be reduced when people eat more local rather than imported produce; recycle food through composting and educate people about growing their food so they understand the difficulty of growing fruits and vegetables. Alexius started his own company with the aim of educating people about gardening - 75 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
and reducing food wastes by consuming more local produce. Richard influence people around him through his involvement in the school projects sector of an international NGO in which he encourages schools to engage in environmental projects. In addition, he seeks to raise awareness of sustainability through the American Club he serves as a volunteer and the condominium he works in. Jeryn explained in the interview that his NGO will be focusing on food wastes the year following this research and they hoped to work with F&B industry. Jeryn explained that one can look at two sectors of the F&B industry when evaluating food wastes: the upmarket sector and the lower F&B sector. In the upmarket sector, which involves fine dining, food wastes come from food preparation which involves trying to make food attractive. In the lower sector, food wastes result as the portions served are too big and patrons cannot finish eating them. In addition, the drive to seek the best ingredients also increase food wastes as the less-than-perfect food is discarded. The section below outlines two main areas in which NGO can influence people, including those in hospitality industry to reduce food wastes.
4.2 R educing food wastes by encouraging people to grow vegetables The way Alexius contributes to food sustainability in Singapore is to help people to grow their own food. He believes that a change is needed in people’s mindset in that they need to focus on eating local edible plants. This is because of the high carbon footprint in transporting food across great distances. He feels that there is a need for Singaporeans to substitute temperate plants with local vegetables. In addition, chefs are switching to cooking local vegetables. Consuming local vegetables will reduce food wastes if people grow and consume what they need. John, the general manager of the five-star hotel also contrasted the past with the present by reminiscing how people grew their own vegetables. He said that growing vegetables in the past was much less expensive than currently where people used high tech equipment. In line with this objective of encouraging Singaporeans to grow their own vegetables, Alexius works with schools to teach them composting. In addition, he helps them to build farms on rooftops. Alexius believes that if we grow our own plants, we eat what we need and vegetables can have a longer shelf life. He suggested that effort can be made to help hotels, shopping centers with the rooftop space to start farms and produce vegetables locally. He pointed out that there are obstacles to changing the mindset of the hospitality industry regarding using local vegetables as the industry is focused on being fast and efficient. Furthermore, the speed of production of recipes in Food and Beverage industry - 76 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
is too fast. It is hard to train the staff in these industries to be economical with food. Another interviewee, Richard, attempts to influence people to conserve through his voluntary work in the NGO in which schools engage in environmental projects such as reducing plastics and growing their gardens. In addition, he tries to influence the American Club that he belongs to introduce vegetarian food in their menu. In addition, there is a sustainability committee in the club where he influences them to reduce water and food wastes and use less plastic and food wastes. He also influences the condominium he lives in to reduce electricity and wastes. Below are the measures which are advocated to reduce food wastes:
1. Alexius recommended reduction of consumption by using every part of
the plant. In addition, Richard emphasized that it is important to teach people to store food more effectively in order to reduce food wastes. In addition, food wastes can be reduced if people buy the right amount of food that they require which will also help them to reduce costs. In addition, Richard commented that there is a lot of room for improvement for the food wastes situation in Singapore. The food wastes situation in Singapore is incredibly high, and the recycling rate extremely low. He gave the example of how there is a mandatory regulation to reduce food wastes in Seattle and anyone guilty of food wastes will be fined. He expressed that there are a lot of fines in Singapore, but not on businesses that are guilty of food wastes. He felt that the government should do more to reduce food wastes. He added that banks can also have a tremendous impact on the environment by the kinds of projects that they sponsor. Some banks are sponsoring farmers and retailers to supply organic food. He also gave the example of the sustainability farming projects in Africa that have been developed by the NGO he is involved in. He also emphasized how the promotion of vegetarian diet can have a significant impact on food production and ultimately, reduce food wastes. 2. Alexius also suggested to devise a method of managing food wastes, by composting. Composting machines could be used which make use of black solder flies to compost food wastes. Alexius himself has started a composting project in which he composts coffee grounds from cafes; green grass clippings and shredded paper wastes. He connects with businesses in his work. He felt that F&B does not have the knowledge to deal with wastes and they should connect with NGOs which deal with wastes. A partnership could be set up between NGO and the hospitality industry. Richard also advocated - 77 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
that the hospitality industry uses food digesters to turn food wastes into fertilizer. Alexius explained that with climate change there is a sudden rise with prices of food due to the food supply problem. Climate change has resulted in erratic food supply. It is a challenge to grow food sustainably to cater to the market. On the other hand, locally grown food is hardier. The question lies in what methods to influence the demand sector so producers can produce vegetarians. This can be the possible outcome of a local horticulture education program. Alexius advocated permaculture which is a design approach which adopts and teaches traditional farming and composting techniques. Traditional methods are more sustainable. Small farms can be built in private homes and companies. Alexius works with government organizations like the National Parks to explore urban farming. There is a lot of opportunity to work with the government to support food-based projects and financial aid. Alexius confessed that it is difficult to meet the target of government financial support. He explained that there is a lack of consolidation and coordination among the many NGOs which are afraid to lose their craft to their competitors which are trying to start businesses. Consequently, the private section is not progressing fast enough to deal with food and plastics wastes. Alexius emphasized that there is a need to raise the knowledge level about food and plastic wastes; bring businesses together and increase the efficiency of businesses to deal with such wastes.
4.3 Reducing food wastes by rescuing food Augustine is an undergraduate student in a local university who came to learn about the enormous amount of food wastes in Singapore in his course of study. He then started a social enterprise called Ugly Food to reduce food wastes by rescuing food from supermarkets, startups, hotels and wet markets (open markets where fresh produce is sold). He works with another partner to run this social enterprise. Currently, there are two big supermarkets, Sheng Siong and RedMart that give their rejected fruits and vegetables to him, in addition to a food wholesaler. When asked if he needed permission from the National Environment Agency (NEA) when he collects this produce and resell them, he responded that there is no need for license. He sold the produce through an online store in social media like Instagram and Facebook, in addition to asking his friends to spread information about his store by word-of-mouth. His company has only been running for 5 months at the time of this research and he has already redistributed 2,000 kg of fruits and vegetables, amounting to 14,000 pieces of fruits and vegetables saved per month. - 78 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
When asked how his rescue of food contributes to food sustainability, Augustine responded that it achieves this aim through reducing food importation. In addition, it saves on the use of waste land for disposal of food which can still be consumed. He explained that there is actually enough supply of raw fruits and vegetables for everyone, but consumers were led to think that there is a lack of supply which leads to a spiraling of the costs of this produce. Augustine commented that the hotel and F&B industry is trying their best to cut down on food wastes. However, there is still a lot of food waste due to over importation of food and there is wastage of food in the entire food preparation chain. Also, hotels overbuy food, leading to wastage. In addition, hotels provide baskets of fruits in guestrooms, and when these are not consumed, they cannot serve these fruits to other guests, so they are thrown away. UglyFood collects these fruits and resell them. The hotels are willing to give them these fruits and vegetables as Augustine approached them in an appropriate way. Augustine mentioned that there are a few NGOs that rescue food like him, such as SG Food Rescue and Food Bank. These NGOs either redistribute food by selling them or cook them and serve them as soups etc. He explained that his organization is a social enterprise and not a NGO which works closely with the hospitality industry. Ugly Food buy the excess food, process some of them into ice-cream etc. and resell them in an attempt to cut food wastes. He related how he visited a warehouse and saw a mountain of food which were going to be thrown away. He said it is a pity that all this food is going to be thrown away when they are still edible. The food is rejected because they did not pass certain requirements or is over a certain deadline. He explained that many Singaporeans want to support environmentally friendly campaigns but they do not know where to buy food apart from the major supermarkets. He emphasized a need to raise people’s awareness of where to purchase rejected food, and to buy these, not just for the lower price, but also to support the cause. Jeryn reiterated this point by emphasizing the importance of cutting food wastes at the source of the supply chain. He explained the need to reshape fruits and vegetables that are not selected for sales because they look less than perfect. He gave the examples of how rejected apples are turned into crisps in the U.K which have a higher value. He suggested that Singapore can adopt the same approach of transforming rejected food.
4.4 How hotels manage food wastes For the hospitality industry to reduce food wastes, it takes education and the concerted effort of all the hospitality industry. This was highlighted by John, the general manager of the five-star hotel. He emphasized that advanced planning is important so that food wastes is reduced in the preparation of food by using every part of food. - 79 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Mary and Ron from the boutique hotel which has a strong ethos and mission of promoting environmentally friendly practices, explained that they evaluate every process of food preparation and ensure that they reduce food waste at every stage. For instance, parts of vegetables that have been cut off were used to make soup, and fruits parts were used to make fruit juice. In addition, the hotel has a rooftop garden where they grow edibles and seek to educate their guests about their green initiatives. Ron, the beverage manager, explained that he tried to cut down food wastes by drying fruit and vegetables peels using a desiccator and making tea out of these. In addition, he does not order more drinks that is needed and would rather tell guests they are out of a certain drink, rather than over order. Yvonne, the human resource manager in the boutique hotel explained that hotels manage food wastes by distributing food which is going to expire to their staff, example, milk, or place the food in the staff canteen for the staff to consume within the period before the expiry date. John explained that the hotel is cautious to ensure food safety and health in the way they manage food wastes. Despite this, he commented about how in the past, food wastes are recycled. When asked if hotels give guests fruit baskets in their rooms, Yvonne answered that five-star hotels give special guests fruit baskets because of the high room rate. If the fruits are not consumed after 1 week, they are brought to the staff canteen and made into fruit juice. John, on the other hand, explained that they offer “touch service” by first trying to find out what fruits the guests like and giving them those fruits in the fruit basket, instead of supplying five kinds of fruits and have these wasted. The unconsumed fruits can also be sent back to the kitchen and used to make desserts. So, this cut down on food wastage through reusing food. He emphasized that they still abide the guidelines of food safety procedures. Yvonne also confessed that she has worked in F&B banquet before. In terms of solutions to this problem, firstly, she emphasized a need to influence consumers’ behavior not to take excess food, meaning, more than they can consume, in a banquet. The hotel deals with this problem by putting up signs that excess food that is not consumed will be charged. Secondly, there is a need for close monitoring of the ordering and preparation of food in the hotel in order to reduce food wastes. When asked if it is feasible for hotels to compost their food wastes, Yvonne replied that this is a feasible idea. She explained that a person must be appointed to be in charge of composition and she is aware that there is a special bin that can compost food wastes in a short period of time. She felt that hotels could purchase this bin and compost their food wastes. She also expressed that she is aware that - 80 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Japanese restaurants in Japan recycle their oil. They sent their oil to a factory to be purified and this oil is in turn supplied back to them to be reused. John is aware that certain hotels have special bins where they compost their food wastes. He pointed out the gaps in the way Singapore conducted its recycling program. For instance, when wastes get thrown into recycle bins, what actually happened to them? He explained that a few more crucial steps needed to be implemented to ensure that the wastes are properly recycled. He raised the problem of how all the wastes are dumped together after they are thrown into the recycle bins and incinerated, due in part to Singapore’s lack of land and highly urbanized environment. He contrasted this situation to the recycling program in Europe in which people are self-motivated to separate their wastes so that proper recycling can be conducted. Concerning redistribution of food that is not consumed by guests, Yvonne added that these restaurants also allow their staff to consume the sushi that is not sold though this must be done within 4 hours, as sushi will turn bad after that. John, the general manager of the five-star hotel, explained that his hotel reduced food wastes by ensuring that every part of food is used in the preparation of food. For instance, when the fat of meat is trimmed off, it is used for sauces etc. In addition, he ensured that his staff served food in small portion that catered to the demand of the customers. They also used smaller plates so that the customers do not take more than what they could consume at buffet table. In terms of beverage, he let the guests help themselves to tea, coffee and juices so they take what they need. The problem is that there is a lot of wastes that results from banquets as they cannot give the leftover food away. A lot of food is thrown away as a result. She suggests that an organization could collect the food and distribute to homes. When I told her if she was aware that such an organization already exists, she confessed that she was not aware. John explained that they are take cautionary steps to avoid giving leftover cooked food away after four hours, but he added that certain food items can still be given away, such as bread, which he distributed to his staff. He is aware of NGOs that collect cooked food to give to the needy.
4.5 The Way Forward - Education, NGO and Technology When asked if he is aware of current NGOs which are working to reduce, reuse and recycle food wastes, John responded that he is aware of such groups and are in contact with them. He explained that certain food items which can last longer, such as bread, can be turned into dishes like bread pudding and resold. However, he emphasized that the problem is whether the hotel has the volume of food for them, especially as the hotel is reducing food wastes at the planning level.
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Secondly, when asked how technology can be implemented to assist hotels to reduce food and plastics wastes, Yvonne explained that there is a procurement food system that big hotels use to track the amount of food they order. Once the amount of food purchased is keyed into this inventory system, it will calculate the amount of food that is required in the hotel in each season. This will then help the hotel to order according to demand and not in excess.
V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION It can be seen from this research that the situation in Singapore that people’s habits regarding wastes is guided by their values. Where values are placed on consumerist attitude and expectations of having abundant choices of food, especially exotic imports, and perfect foods; efficiency and speed, a lot of wastes can result as the lesser products and much of the leftovers of buffets are discarded. Reducing wastes entail changing people’s attitude and values so that they appreciate the hard work that goes into production of food and are concerned about the lack of facilities and means for waste management. The NGOs which are involved in reducing food wastes adopt the strategies of education and community values. The leaders of the NGOs I interviewed work to educate students about food and plastic wastes and in the case of Augustine, he has a following of interns from schools and polytechnics who shadow him and learn how he rescues food and reuse them. Education is vital in preparing the young people to conserve resources for the future. The hotel industry can adopt a similar approach of educating their staff and guests by sharing about their best green practices and promoting tours that advocate protecting the environment. In addition, the NGOs harness resources by involving grassroots members of the community to grow edible gardens; consume products of their gardening and composting wastes. Such collaborative effort at grassroots level perpetuate mutual support for growing of local vegetables and fruits which Alexius advocates. It also ensures the sustainability of such projects compared to farming alone. One of the hotels in this study has a roof-top garden in which the staff grows their own edibles. It can be seen that hotels can utilize their existing space in the highly urbanized environment of Singapore to keep an edible garden. This will encourage the hotels to produce menus using local fruits and vegetables since the local produce harvested from the garden can be used in the kitchen. This will also reduce wastes considerably, as well as reduce pollution and high costs of transporting imports from other countries. The promotion of local fruits and vegetables can also lead to publicizing of the local cultures and traditions, thus
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helping to preserve the heritage of the country. In developing countries, if the hospitality industries promote the local produce, it contributes greatly to sustainable livelihood of the indigenous people as it goes towards supporting their agriculture. Consumption of local produce also leads to better overall health of people as the communities and hotels that grow their edibles can avoid using pesticides. In the long run, it will also mean that the overall health costs in the country can be reduced. Concerning food wastes, the hotels in this study address this issue by having an efficient inventory system and ensuring that the amount of food ordered matches the demand at particular seasons in the year. One big hotel also takes careful steps in the preparation of food and ensures that the parts of food which are cut off are reused. As Augustine explained in his interview, the problem of the supply of food from wholesalers to retailers, where much of the food is discarded, has to be addressed. There needs to be a greater effort to channel such food to needy people such as migrant workers; low-income families and charities. The community fridges where these NGOs can stock up food for the needy is a viable and effective idea. Hotels can also start these community fridges by leaving the food that they do not serve for the needy. The public also needs to be educated that perfect looking food does not mean the best kind of food for them. Also, urban farming in small scale should be encouraged in the spaces that people have at home, such as corridors, rooftops and community gardens so that they can experience how difficult it is to grow crops and not waste food. Hotels should also be encouraged to compost their food wastes and use the compost to fertilize their gardens. In general, they should be provided with the know-how to develop a circular economy among their operations which will help to reduce their costs in the long run. Lastly, there is a need for the government to motivate industries to reduce food wastes. In the long run, the public needs to see that this is a national issue and not simply isolated events and efforts by NGOs and a few selective hotels. The public needs to see this as a real problem relating to sustainability and not simply a fashionable trend.
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REFERENCES ABU TALEB, M. (2005). “A Study on Benefits of Applying Waste Recycling Programs in the Hotel Industry (PhD thesis)”. Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University, Egypt in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). BECKLAKE, S. (1991). “Green Issues Thinking for the Future Waste Disposal and Recycling.” London: Aladdin Books in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). CHAN, W. W. and LAM, J. (2001). “Environmental accounting of municipal solid waste originating from rooms and restaurants in the Hong Kong hotel industry.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 25(4), 371-385 in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). DAIRY AND SWINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE (2000). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, in Ng, Mao, Chen, Rajagopal and Wang (2015). FAO (2011). “FAO/OECD Expert Meeting on Greening the Economy with Agriculture.” Paris, France, September 2011, www.fao.org/fileadmin/ user_upload/sustainablity/Presentations/Naqvi.pdf. in SLOCUM, S. L. (2015), “Local food: Greening the tourism value chain”. FRIENDS OF THE EARTH CYMRU (2003). “Briefing: Zero Waste in Wales.” Retrieved December 25, 2008, from http://www. foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/ zero_waste_wales.pdf in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). GRAY, L. M. (1997). “Environment, policy and municipal waste management in the UK.” Transactions IBG, 22(1), 69-90 in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). GREENPEACE INTERNATIONAL (2018). “Recycling” from developed world dumped in Malaysia and left to rot., 27 November 2018. https://www. greenpeace.org/international/press-release/19566/recycling-from-developedworld-dumped-in-malaysia-and-left-to-rot/- Accessed on 30 November 2018. HOLDEN, A. (2015). “Environmental ethics and challenges to tourism’s place in the Green Economy” in REDDY, M. V. and WILKES, K. (ed.), Tourism in the Green Economy. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. LOW, E. and AW, M. (2010). “Uncovering the Dirty Secrets of a Food Paradise: Young Journalists Go Undercover.” Singapore Management University: Singapore Management University Institutional Knowledge at Social Space Lien Centre for Social Innovation.
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MATTHEWS, I. (2009, Spring). “Waste incineration will not combat climate change and there are environmental and health concerns.” The Green Party Newspaper for Wales, p. 3 in Radwan, Jones and Minoli (2015). NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (2018). “Waste Statistics and Overall Recycling. Retrieved from National Environment Agency.” http://www.nea.gov. sg/energy-waste/wastemanagement/waste-statistics-and-overall-recycling NG, B. J. H., MAO, Y., CHEN, C.-L., RAJAGOPAL, R. and WANG, J.-Y. (2015). “Municipal food waste management in Singapore: practices, challenges and recommendations.” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. June 2015 - DOI: 10.1007/s10163-015-0405-8. RADWAN, H. R. I., JONES, E. and MINOLI, D., “Managing solid waste in small hotels”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:2, March 2010, pp. 175-190. REDDY, M. V. and WILKES, K. (2015). “Tourism in the Green Economy: Rio to post-2015” in REDDY, M. V. and WILKES, K. (ed.), Tourism in the Green Economy. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. SLOCUM, S. L. (2015). “Local food: Greening the tourism value chain” in REDDY, M. V, and WILKES, K. (ed.), Tourism in the Green Economy. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. UNEP (2014). “What is SCP?” www.unep.org/10yfp/About/WhatisSCP/ tabid/106246/Default.aspx in REDDY, M. V. and WILKES, K. (2015), Tourism in the Green Economy: Rio to post-2015. UNITED NATIONS (2012). Rio+2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development Provisional Agenda – Outcome of the Conference. www.unep.org/rio20/portals/24180/Docs/a-conf.216-5_english.pdf. in Slocum, S. L. (2015), “‘Local food: Greening the tourism value chain’. WASTE ON LINE (2006). After it has been binned. Retrieved May 21, 2006, from http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/WasteDisposal. htm#top in Cummings, 1997 in Radwan, Jones, and Minoli, 2015. WOOD, M. E. (2017). Sustainable Tourism on a Finite Planet. London and New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. WTTC (2014). ‘Travel & tourism: Economic impact 2014 - World’. WTTC: London in REDDY, M. V. and WILKES, K. (2015), Tourism in the Green Economy: Rio to post-2015.
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FOSTERING 21ST CENTURY SKILLS THROUGH INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING MODULES IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Benigno Glenn R. RICAFORTE*
Benigno Glenn R. Ricaforte, PhD is presently an Associate Professor. Dr. Ricaforte is the former president and former board member of the Philippine Society for Microbiology, Inc. and the Philippine Association of Researchers for Tourism and Hospitality, Inc., respectively. He has delivered more than 35 lectures in scientific conferences and academic conventions. Dr. Ricaforte has already published research articles and books, and his latest research publication, entitled ‘Sustainability Assessment of Selected Philippine Accredited Farm Tourism Sites: Basis for Proposed National Accreditation Guidelines’ was published in International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, a Clarivate Analytics journal --- proving his versatility in academic writing and research.
ABSTRACT The study developed a set of inquiry-based sustainable tourism modules and determined its effects on undergraduate tourism students” achievement and understanding of environmental concepts The modules were developed and evaluated in terms of subject matter and pedagogical experts’ assessment and readability through the Readability Calculator. Using quasi-experimental pretestposttest control group design, the following research problems were addressed. Results in all criteria for evaluation by the subject matter and pedagogical experts showed that it is nearly outstanding with a weighted mean value of 3.69 out of 4.00. The readability statistics of the modules was found to be appropriate for college level with a Flesch Reading Ease weighted mean score of 33.2. Students exposed to inquiry-based learning performed better significantly in the achievement test than those exposed to conventional teaching Conceptual understanding of environmental concepts of students exposed to inquiry-based learning was significantly better than those exposed to conventional teaching. * De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde/Vatel Manille
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Verification of concept maps using propositional complexity revealed that those exposed to inquiry-based learning had a higher pretest-posttest percent difference than those in the conventional group. Qualitatively, the experimental group’s evaluation emphasized that they cognitively learned topics pertaining to environmental issues, environmental protection and tourism impact while affectively, professionalism, creativity, innovation and critical thinking got the highest mark --- key parameters of 21st Century Skills. The study recommends that inquiry-based learning as a learner-centered pedagogical approach may be integrated with conventional teaching approach and menu-type guided approach in scientific investigations as this will exemplify how professional scientists work in generating and validating scientific knowledge. As the outcome of inquiry-based learning is multifaceted academically and non-academically, it is encouraged that future research include variables such as literacy skills, scientific skills, attitude towards a certain concept or discipline, inquiry skills and higher-order thinking skills. Keywords: sustainability, sustainable tourism, inquiry-based learning, concept mapping, 21st Century Skills.
INTRODUCTION It is acknowledged that one of the learner-centered strategies is inquiry-based learning (IBL) which emphasizes higher-order thinking skills. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) pointed out that IBL may take several forms, including analysis, problem-solving, discovery and creative activities, both in the classroom and the community. Further, through the inquiry process, students will develop a set of skills as outlined in Fadel’s description of 21st Century Learning --- learning and innovation (critical thinking & problem solving, communication & collaboration and creativity & innovation), digital literacy skills and career & life skills. The United Nations World Tourism Organization (2013:17) has defined sustainable tourism as “tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities”. It is imperative, then; that tourism and hospitality students acquire good working knowledge and understanding of environmental concepts and the nature of science. Consequently, the IBL modules in sustainable tourism may be of great help in solving some key issues affecting directly and indirectly political, economic, and social factors in sustainable tourism development. The instructional package may subsequently develop critical thinking & problem-solving skills, collaboration, creativity, - 88 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
innovation, digital literacy skills and career & life skills through activities requiring analysis and decision-making. The study utilized a developed and evaluated inquiry-based learning modules in sustainable tourism, and determine its effects on students’ achievement and understanding of environmental concepts. Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following research questions:
1. Do students exposed to inquiry-based learning perform better in the achievement test than those exposed to conventional teaching?
2. Do students exposed to inquiry-based learning perform better in conceptual understanding of environmental concepts through concept mapping than those exposed to conventional teaching? 3. What are the perceived impacts regarding the acquisition of 21st Century Skills of students exposed to inquiry-based learning?
LITERATURE REVIEW Learning Through Inquiry Inquiry refers to the work scientists do when they study the natural world, proposing explanations that include evidence gathered from the world around them (National Research Council, 1996). Inquiry-based learning (IBL), is a learning model grounded in constructivism which revolves around learning through the inquiry process, or simply, learning by doing (Saunders-Stewart et al., 2015). Though there is some debate about the effectiveness of IBL among scholars, they agreed that IBL may lead to deeper, transferable learning (Cervantes, Hemmer and Kouzekanani, 2015; Saunders-Stewart et al., 2015.). Students in every domain of science should have the opportunity to use scientific inquiry and develop the ability to think and act in ways associated with inquiry, including asking questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate learning tools and techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, and communicating scientific arguments (National Research Council, 1996). Kahn and O’Rourke (2004) pointed out that IBL is used as a broad umbrella term to describe approaches to learning that are driven by a process of inquiry which can be summarized as follows: • Engagement—with a complex problem or scenario—that is sufficiently open-ended to allow a variety of responses or solutions. • Students direct the lines of inquiry and the methods employed. • The inquiry requires students to draw on existing knowledge and to identify their required learning needs. - 89 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
• Tasks stimulate curiosity in the students, encouraging them to actively explore and seek out new evidence. • Responsibility falls on the students for analyzing and presenting that evidence in appropriate ways and in support of their own response to the problem. Although IBL offers undeniable opportunities for science learning and teaching, there are also challenges facing its successful implementation. In general, Roberts (2013) emphasized that IBL provides three sets of challenges for students, for teachers, and in relation to current educational context. Students need to be aware of the key inquiry question(s) framing a unit of work in which they should become familiar with the kinds of questions teachers ask and learn to formulate questions themselves. It follows then that students need to reflect on the extent to which the original inquiry questions have been addressed and how their investigation in the field or in the classroom might have been limited by the data gathered and used. IBL demands on teachers’ pedagogical knowledge which means that the teachers should need to (1) adopt a stance towards the question being studied that conveys their fascination and sense of puzzlement in the subject matter, (2) plan activities that help address the key inquiry questions, (3) change patterns of classroom talk through dialogic teaching which encourages the whole class and small group discussions wherein students can share and challenge ideas freely and (4) shift emphasis in teacher’s role from expertise of knowledge transmission to using it to guide learning. Moreover, failure to address any of the five challenges posed for IBL mentioned by Edelson, Gordin and Pea (1999) may prevent students from successfully engaging in meaningful investigations and might undermine learning. The five challenges are as follows: (1) Motivation. For students to engage in inquiry that can contribute to a more meaningful learning, they must be fully motivated. The challenging and extended nature of inquiry requires a higher motivational level for learners than which is demanded by most traditional learning activities. When students are not fully motivated or are not motivated at all by legitimate interest, they either fail to participate in inquiry activities or they may participate in a disengaged manner that does not support learning. (2) Accessibility of investigation techniques. For students to engage in inquiry, they must know how to perform tasks that their investigation requires, they must understand the goals of these practices, and they must be able to interpret their results.
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(3) Background knowledge. In IBL, the challenge is to provide opportunities for learners to both develop and apply science content knowledge and understanding. If students lack this knowledge and opportunity to develop it, then they will be unable to complete meaningful investigations. (4) Management of extended activities. A scientific investigation requires planning and coordination of activity and management of work resources and work products. If students are unable to organize their work and manage an extended process, they cannot engage in openended inquiry or achieve the potential of inquiry-based learning. (5) Potential constraints of the learning context. The technologies and activities of inquiry-based learning must fit within the potential constraints of the learning environment like limited resources and schedules. Critical considerations should be given then through course design and available technology 21st Century Skills One of the proponents of the 21st Century Skills as a learning framework is the Partnership for 21st Century Skills which developed a unified, collective vision for learning known as the Framework for 21st Century Learning. This framework describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a blend of content knowledge, specific skills, expertise and literacy (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009). Within the context of core knowledge instruction, students must also learn the essential skills for success in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world, such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration which can be achieved through inquiry-based learning. Educational groups such as The United States Ministry of Education and MacArthur Foundation also support this learning framework (Learning Theories, 2014) which advocates that skills necessary for students to master in order for them to experience school and life success in an increasingly digital and connected age include digital literacy, traditional literacy, content knowledge, media literacy and innovation skills. According to the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009), mastery of core subjects and 21st century themes is essential for all students in the 21st century. Core subjects include: reading or language arts, world languages, arts, mathematics, economics, science, geography, history, government, and civics. In addition to these subjects, it is believed that schools must move to include not only a focus on mastery of core subjects, but also promote understanding of academic content at much higher levels by weaving 21st century interdisciplinary - 91 ÂŠÂ CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
themes into core subjects such as global awareness, financial, economic, business and entrepreneurial literacy, civic literacy, health literacy, and environmental literacy. The National Science Teachers Association of the United States of America (2011) recommends that the science education community support 21st century skills consistent with best practices across a science education system, including curriculum, pedagogy, science teacher preparation, and teacher professional development. It further proposes that quality science education and 21st-century skills support each other when • quality inquiry-based curricula and support materials promote science learning and 21st-century skills; • science leaders cultivate 21st-century skills that best align to good science teaching; • students meet the standards for scientific inquiry and technological design; • students have a complete, accurate, and working understanding of the nature of science; • ongoing professional development opportunities and effective preservice and induction programs for science educators support the integration of 21st-century skills in classroom teaching; • assessments are aligned with 21st-century curriculum and instruction, and appropriately students’ evaluation a wide range of technologies serve as tools to engage students with real-world problem solving, conceptual development, and critical thinking; • instruction includes a variety of opportunities for students to investigate and build scientific explanations, such as laboratory experiences;
METHODOLOGY Research Design The study used mixed-methods design. For the quantitative research design, quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study to determine the effects of modules on students’ achievement and understanding of environmental concepts. This research design was chosen to control the internal validity threat of the study as it allows the determination of the effect of the experimental manipulation by the difference between pretest and posttest results. Control and experimental groups were both pretested and the results were subsequently used as statistical control. The control group was exposed to - 92 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
conventional teaching approach while the experimental group utilized inquirybased learning approach. Figure 1 shows the research design. Experimental Group
Where O1 = Pretest - O2 = Posttest - X = Treatment = Inquiry-based Learning Approach - C = Control = Conventional Teaching Approach.
Figure 1. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. For the qualitative portion, a survey and focus group discussion were conducted using open-ended questions to ascertain the impacts regarding the acquisition of 21st Century Skills of students. The Sample Two heterogeneous intact classes of tourism major students enrolled in Ecological Tourism under the program of Bachelor of Science in Hotel, Restaurant and Institution Management of a private college in Manila, Philippines were the subjects of the study. The assignment of two sections to either the experimental or control group was randomly done through drawing of lots. To establish compatibility of the two groups, grades in Natural Science and Principles of Tourism 2 as antecedent variables were analyzed to determine the mean equality using t-test for independent samples. Results of t-test showed that there is no significant difference in the grades of students in Natural Science (NATSC13) in the control group and experimental group at t(59) = .293, p = .770. Likewise, results of the t-test showed that there is no significant difference in the grades of students in Principles of Tourism 2 (PTOUR-2) in the control group and experimental group at t(59) = .388, p = .699. The Instruments The following are the research instruments that were used in the study:
1. Expert’s Assessment Checklist. This checklist was based on Doll
(1996), UNESCO (2010) and Galileo Educational Network (2014) The module was validated using the following criteria: attainment of objectives, characteristics as inquiry-based learning, integration of the nature of science, accuracy of the content, originality of the modules, clarity of the modules, module appeal and other evaluation indicators. This was done prior to module implementation. 2. Pre-Post Achievement Test for Inquiry-based Sustainable Tourism Modules. The researcher-made multiple-choice achievement test was subjected to item analysis, content validity and reliability test. Three experts in tourism education, environmental education and ecology - 93 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
conducted content validation. A pilot test was done to determine its reliability using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha which yield a value at 0.87. Likewise, a table of specifications was made accordingly using the cognitive domains of knowing (29.0%), applying (37.0%), and reasoning (34.0%) based on the Trends in International Mathematics Science Study Assessment Framework. Expert validation and pilot testing were done before module implementation. The validated achievement test was given in the first and last week of the term. 3. Concept Mapping of Understanding of Environmental Concepts Through Propositional Complexity and Graphical Sophistication. This study adapted the method used by Meager (2009) which showed that significant increases in concept map propositions and graphical complexity support how students develop skills in articulation of knowledge and demonstrate a more literate understanding of environmental content. Concept maps were collected twice during the term: in the first week of class and on the final examination day during the last week of class. Each student made five concept maps based on the general topic and sub-topic of the module. At the start of the first day of class, a review was given on how to construct a concept map. Once accomplished, they made their individual concept maps. Inter-rater reliability with Spearman’s Rho Correlation Coefficient has a value of r(500) = .997, p = .000. 4. Cognitive and Affective Domain Survey. As part of perceived impact and assessment for 21st Century Skills, the survey was modified from Vela (2005) and reviewed by a panel of experts before it was administered to the experimental group of tourism students. Module Development and Evaluation The modules consisted of the following topics: Module 1: Introduction to Sustainability, Module 2: Environment and Tourism, Module 3: Tourism Impact and Global Issues, Module 4: Sustainable Tourism and Module 5: Ethics in Tourism. The modules aimed to support one of the features of the K to 12 program of the Philippine government through the following objectives: – provide relevance through contextualization and enhancement by providing local cultural, and historical realities as examples and activities without neglecting the similarities and interconnection with the world, and – ensure integrated and seamless learning by starting from simple concepts to more complicated ones paving the way for a deeper understanding of core concepts. - 94 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Hence, it would provide a model for teachers and curriculum developers of K to 12 science courses and higher education. For module evaluation, it was subjected to subject matter and pedagogical experts’ assessment using a modified rubric for discipline-based and inter-disciplinary inquiry studies formulated by The modules were initially revised after subject matter and pedagogical experts’ assessment. Aside from expert validation, the modules were also validated through readability index using a free on-line readability tool available at http://www.onlineutility.org/english/readability_test_and_improve. Comparative Instructional Delivery of a Typical 1.5 Hour Class Introduction Time Allotment
Inquiry-Based Learning Approach The teacher began with a question that can be answered in a scientific way and bridges the past and present class lectures and activities. Example: Why is biodiversity important in nature-based tourism?
Exploration Time Allotment
Inquiry-Based Learning Approach
Student-led activity as they were motivated to gather evidence in attempting to answer the question. Example: Webquesting.
Conceptualization Time Allotment
Inquiry-Based Learning Approach Student-led discussion through cooperative learning (student-student interaction) in which the module encouraged students to form an explanation to answer the question based on the evidence collected.
Example: Each group assigns a researcher, editor and layout artist to come up with a poster. Concept Evaluation and Communication Time Allotment Inquiry-Based Learning Approach • Class presentation through poster explanation as the modules 10 minutes per group prompted students to evaluate, presentation communicate and justify their the following meeting explanation based on scientific knowledge
Conventional Teaching Approach The teacher began bridging the past and present class lectures and activities.
Conventional Teaching Approach Teacher-led discussion (teacher-student interaction) using PowerPoint presentation and chalk-board method of explanation and discussion Conventional Teaching Approach
Conventional Teaching Approach
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Data Collection Procedure Validation of modules and achievement test were performed prior to experimentation. Once validated, the experiment proceeded as scheduled. The researcher formally requested the College Administrators for him to teach two sections of ECOTOUR class, one section for the use of inquiry-based ecotourism modules and the other section for conventional approach. Pretest was given during the first week of classes while the posttest was given in the last week of classes during which a focus group discussion was also conducted. The 5 modules were implemented for a term equivalent to 14 weeks. Data Analysis All statistical tests were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS VersionÂ 21) software for MS Windows. Related t-test was used to determine if students exposed to inquiry-based learning perform better in the achievement test and understanding of environmental concepts than those exposed to conventional teaching. The pre and post concept mapping sessions were analyzed using a combination of graphical organization and quantitative data analysis of concept map components. First, maps were scored by tabulating the number of structural components for each map which included counting the number of nodes, links, and link terms. Ratio of link terms to links (propositions) was computed for each concept map made by students. Total scores of nodes, links, link terms and propositions were determined for each of the concept map, at pre and post concept mapping sessions during the term. Link terms also play a critical role in concept map formation, as these terms describe the relationship between two node concepts (Novak, 1991). Moreover, concept maps were analyzed for graphical sophistication. According to Kinchin and Hay (2000) and Yin, Ruiz-Primo, Ayala and Shavelson et al. (2005), concept maps need to be grouped at collection points based on structural categorizations such as linear, circular, tree, hub and spoke, network or wheelshaped maps by qualitative visual comparison of student maps to example templates. Linear, circular, tree, hub and spoke concept maps are considered to be simple while network or wheel-shaped is considered to be complex. Totals were calculated for each graphical category and total percentage for each category was tabulated and presented in a bar graph. Qualitative data for the perceived impacts regarding the acquisition of 21st Century Skills of students exposed to inquiry-based learning were obtained from survey and focus group discussions and were analyzed through themes and their interrelationships. - 96 ÂŠÂ CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION IBL Modules in Sustainable Tourism The IBL modules in sustainable tourism were developed and focused on topics related to: (1) introduction to sustainability, (2) environment and tourism, (3) tourism impact and global issues, (4) sustainable tourism and (5) ethics in tourism. Module 1 introduced the students to the sustainability concept and provided them activities to answer the following questions: (1) What is sustainable development and its dimension?, (2)What are the issues facing the world today? and (3) What are the interrelationships of these issues? Module 2 tackled the relationship of environment to tourism to address the following questions: (1) Is tourism an industry or a system?, (2) What is an ecosystem and its value? and (3) What is a biome? Module 3 highlighted tourism impact using Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework and global issues relating to tourism including loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer and climate change through answering the following questions: (1) What are the impacts that can be made by tourism development?, (2) What is the relationship of tourism with biodiversity? and (3) What is the relationship of tourism with climate change? Module 4 explored the characteristics and objectives of sustainable tourism through a series of activities to answer the following questions: (1) What is mass tourism?, (2) What is carrying capacity? and (3) What is ecotourism? Activity related to answer these questions help students identify ways in which sustainable tourism can be implemented. Lastly, Module 5 integrated the learning from the previous modules anchored on the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and positive actions to promote and protect communities and environments by answering the following: (1) What is the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism? and (2) What will be the future of tourism? The students’ capstone project involved ecotourism scale model (3-dimensional model) integrating the environmental and sustainability concepts learned from the modules. Evaluation of Eco-Inquiry Modules The characteristics of the modules as inquiry-based learning, integration of the nature of science and module appeal got the highest rating of 3.78 out of 4.0 Likert scale which is qualitatively classified as nearly outstanding. Though all criteria for evaluation can be qualitatively classified as nearly outstanding. Module modification and improvement were done as suggested by the evaluators. - 97 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Readability Indices of the Modules Readability as summarized by Begeny and Greene (2014) is an attribute of written text, commonly deﬁned by factors that theoretically make text more or less difﬁcult to read. The complete modules have a mean Flesch Reading Ease score of 33.2 with highest score (43.1) and lowest score (26.1) for Module 1 and Module 4, respectively. Accordingly, a Flesch Reading Ease score of 33.2 is considered to be difficult and appropriate for 13th to 16th grade as described in the reading scale formulated by Flesch in 1949 (as cited in DuBay, 2004). The mean value for the four indeces used is computed at 13.3 corresponding to the estimated reading grade of 13th-16th grade. Subsequently, the modules are deemed appropriate for 2nd year to 3rd year tertiary level students. Effect of Inquiry-based Learning in Students’ Achievement Test Pretest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group are summarized in Table 1. Test Pretest
Table 1. Independent samples t-test of pretest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the pretest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group. Results showed that there is no significant difference prior to intervention in the scores for control (M=50.16, SD=10.63) and experimental (M=53.36, SD=10.65); t(57) = -1.141, p = .259. These results suggest that the two groups are comparable and students do not have the relevant knowledge and skills that the validated achievement test is measuring during the pretest. After the intervention, both groups’ achievement test results are significantly improved as shown in Table 2 which summarizes the posttest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group. An independentsamples t-test was conducted to compare the posttest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group. Results showed that there is significant difference after the intervention in the posttest mean scores for control (M=51.27, SD=10.82) and experimental (M=69.01, SD=8.11), t(57) = -7.047, p = .000. These results suggest that the two groups gained relevant knowledge and skills that the validated achievement test is measuring during the posttest. Though significantly improved, there is high disparity in the mean of the control and experimental groups --- the control group has a mean score - 98 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
of 51.27 while the experimental group has a mean score of 69.01. These results suggest that inquiry-based learning as an intervention plays an important role in gaining knowledge and skills which necessitates verification through paired samples t-test. Test
Posttest Control Experimental
Table 2. Independent samples t-test of the posttest mean scores in the achievement test of the control group and experimental group. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare the difference in the pretestposttest mean scores in the achievement test within the control and experimental groups as shown in Table 3. For the control group, there is no significant difference in the pretest (M=50.21, SD=10.79) and posttest mean score in the achievement test scores (M=49.62, SD=14.01); t(32) = .249, p = 0.805. These results suggest that the conventional approach may not have a significant effect on achievement test scores. In fact, there is negative value for the difference in pretest and post test at -0.59. For the experimental group, there is a significant difference in the pretest (M=53.36, SD=10.65) and posttest mean scores in the achievement test scores (M=69.47, SD=7.63); t(24) = 8.154, p = 0.000. These results suggest that inquiry-based approach has a significant effect on the achievement test scores with 16.11 difference between means of the pretest and posttest achievement scores. Test Control
Experimental Pretest Posttest
Table 3. Paired samples t-test results on the difference in pretest-posttest mean scores on achievement test within the control and experimental groups. These results further support the findings from researches conducted from1984 to 2002 which showed that positive trend favoring inquiry-based practices emphasizing student active thinking and drawing conclusions from data with teaching strategies that actively engage students in the learning process through scientiﬁc investigations are more likely to increase conceptual understanding than strategies that rely on more passive techniques, which are often necessary in the current standardized-assessment laden educational environment (Minner, - 99 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Levy & Century, 2010). Likewise, in another meta-analysis conducted by Saunders-Stewart, Gyles and Shore in 2012 concluded that through inquiry: (1) students will consequently attain a knowledge base in the subject matter; (2) learners should progress beyond declarative knowledge to differentiation, elaboration, qualification, and integration of knowledge; and (3) students’ achievement and knowledge acquisition can significantly improve as compared with more traditional learning. Moreover, a synthesis of a historical sample of studies from 37 experimental and quasi-experimental studies published between 1996 and 2006, indicated a positive effect of inquiry-based approach on student learning, with a particularly large effect of students engaging in the epistemic domain of inquiry and the procedural, epistemic, and social domains combined (Furtak, Seidel, Iverson, & Briggs, 2012). Favorable results on the effects of inquiry-based learning can be attributed to the core components as described by the National Research Council (NRC) (2000) from the learner’s perspective as “essential features of classroom inquiry” to include: (1) Learners are engaged by scientiﬁcally oriented questions, (2) Learners give priority to evidence, which allows them to develop and evaluate explanations that address scientiﬁcally oriented questions, (3) Learners formulate explanations from evidence to address scientiﬁcally oriented questions, (4) Learners evaluate their explanations in light of alternative explanations, particularly those reﬂecting scientiﬁc understanding, and (5) Learners communicate and justify their proposed explanations. Effect of Inquiry-based Learning on Students’ Understanding of Environmental Concepts through Concept Mapping The pretest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts of the control group and experimental group are summarized in Table 4. Test
Table 4. Independent samples t-test of pretest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts of the control group and experimental group. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare pretest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts of the control group and experimental group. Results showed that there is no significant difference prior to intervention in the scores for control (M=6.48, SD=6.38) and experimental (M=7.96, SD=6.09) conditions; t(263) = -1.856, p = .065. These results suggest - 100 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
that the two groups are more or less equal and students do not have the relevant knowledge and skills in understanding of relevant environmental concepts pertaining to Eco-inquiry modules. After the intervention, students’ understanding of environmental concepts are significantly improved as shown in Table 5 which summarizes the posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts of the control group and experimental group. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare posttest mean scores of understanding of environmental concepts between the control group and experimental group. Results showed that there is significant difference after the intervention in the scores for control (M=17.15, SD=10.60) and experimental (M=46.00, SD=23.05); t(263) = -13.850, p = .000. These results suggest that the two groups gained relevant knowledge and skills to understand environmental concepts as discussed in classes. Though significantly improved, there is high difference between the means of the control and experimental groups; the control group has a mean score of 17.15 while the experimental group has a mean score of 45.00. Test
Posttest Control Experimental
Table 5. Independent samples t-test of posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts of the control group and experimental group. A paired samples t-test was conducted to compare the difference in pretestposttest mean scores on conceptual understanding of environmental concepts within the control and experimental groups as shown in Table 6. For the control group, there is a significant difference in the pretest (M=6.48, SD=6.38) and posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts (M=17.15, SD=10.60); t(164) = -13.094, p = .000. For the experimental group, there is a significant difference in the pretest (M=7.96, SD=6.09) and the posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts (M=46.00, SD=23.05); t(99) = -16.826, p = 0.000. These results suggest that both the conventional approach and inquiry-based learning approach have a significant effect on student understanding of environmental concepts. Though both show significant improvement, there is a big difference between the means of the control and experimental groups; the control group has a mean score of 17.15 while the experimental group has a mean score of 46.00.
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Experimental Pretest Posttest
Table 6. Paired samples t-test results on the difference in pretest-posttest mean scores on conceptual understanding of environmental concepts test within the control and experimental groups. To further determine if inquiry-based learning as an intervention plays an important role in gaining and understanding of environmental concepts, verification was done using propositional complexity and graphical sophistication of the concepts maps made by students from control and experimental groups. Results for the propositional complexity showed that students exposed to inquiry-based learning have a higher pretest-posttest percent difference (51.8%) than their counterparts who were exposed to conventional approach (42.5%). The pretest comparison between the conventional approach and inquiry-based learning of concept maps’ graphical sophistication of students’ understanding of environmental concepts is depicted in Figure 2. Categorically, concept maps can be simple (e.g., linear, tree, circle and hub and spoke) and complex (e.g., network). The categories of concepts maps of the pretest comparison between the conventional approach and inquiry-based learning are illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 2. Pretest comparison between conventional approach and inquiry-based learning of concept maps’ graphical sophistication of students’ understanding of environmental concepts. - 102 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Figure 3. Categories of concepts maps of pretest comparison between conventional approach and inquiry-based learning. Results of concept maps’ graphical sophistication and their categories in the pretest for conventional approach and inquiry-based learning of students’ understanding of environmental concept are almost the same in percentage value including students who did not present a concept map. This may indicate that both groups are more or less the same at the start of the study. After the intervention, there is a notable shift of graphical sophistication to network type of concept map particularly for students who were exposed to inquiry-based learning. The posttest comparison between the conventional approach and inquiry-based learning of concept maps’ graphical sophistication of students’ understanding of environmental concepts is depicted in Figure 4. There is a shift from simple to complex concept maps with all the students exposed to inquirybased learning able to make their own concept map as illustrated in Figure 5.
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Figure 4. Posttest comparison between conventional approach and inquiry-based learning of concept maps’ graphical sophistication of students’ understanding of environmental concepts.
Figure 5. Categories of concepts maps of posttest comparison between conventional approach and inquiry-based learning. The study conducted by Reiskaa, Soikaa, Möllitsa, Rannikmäeb and Soobardb (2015) on students’ assessment of cognitive components of scientific literacy through concept mapping pointed out that the concept map can be a predictor of students’ cognitive components of scientific literacy and is suitable if quality measures inclusion of the number of high quality propositions. Concept map propositions are included in the study in assessing the effects of Eco-inquiry modules on students’ understanding of environmental concepts. Likewise, concept mapping allows for an organized approach to learning, from unknown to
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known, from the core concept to the subordinate, illustrating how knowledge can be organized for cognitive retention through an analytical approach (Akinsaya & Williams, 2004). Concept mapping strategy as applied to environmental understanding showed that concept maps revealed substantial differences in understanding among students enrolled in an informal environmental education program and a comparable control group of middle school students as reflected in the frequencies of important concepts and propositional elements and in the subsumption, differentiation and integration of the knowledge frameworks as revealed in hierarchical organization, branching and cross-links (Andrews, Tresslera & Mintzes, 2008). The advisory group of Environmental Literacy Council, an independent, nonprofit organization made up of scientists, economists, and educators that strive to connect teachers and students to science-based information on environmental issues endorsed inquiry-based approach to enable students not only to investigate and understand specific content material but also to investigate to understand (Goodwin, 2016). Results of this study are consistent with the data obtained on using inquiry-based learning and improvement in understanding of environmental concepts. The study of sustainability conducted by Harsh and Harsh (2013) concluded that from the instructor’s and students’ perspective, the inquiry-based project successfully engaged students in the learning process, challenged them to think critically, contributed to their integration of class topics with real-world applications and improved in some of them the appreciation of local environmental problems and sustainable solutions. Perceived Impacts on the acquisition of 21st Century Skills of Students exposed to IBL Modules in Sustainable Tourism Using a five-point Cognitive and Affective Domain Likert-scale adapted from Vela (2005), the experimental group evaluated the IBL modules in sustainable tourism and their acquisition of 21st Century Skills as shown in Table 7.
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Statement 1. I was able to develop awareness of the existing environmental issues 2. I was exposed to new challenging information about the environment. 3. I became aware of the state of environmental conditions brought about by tourism 4. I was able to develop my inquiry and problem-solving skills. 5. I learned to appreciate the value of protecting our natural resources for sustainable use. 6. I was able to express my creativity. 7. I was able to appreciate individual worth. 8. I became more socio-culturally responsible. 9. I was able to achieve a level of professional competency for tourism professional and entrepreneur. 10. I was able to deepen my understanding on innovative education. 11. I became more aware of the implications of the current social, environmental, economic and government policies to the general welfare of people and its community.
M 4.88 4.71
SD 0.33 0.47
4.76 4.59 4.76
0.56 0.51 0.44
Table 7. Experimental Group’s Evaluation of the IBL Modules in Sustainable Tourism. For the cognitive domain, students were able to exemplify learning on topics pertaining to environmental issues, environmental protection and tourism impact with mean rating of 4.88, 4.88 and 4.82, respectively. It can be said that the students were able to learn, understand, apply, and synthesize new and evolving knowledge critically. In the affective domain, professionalism got the highest mark at 4.88. They were able to appreciate and value the importance of their learning in their future professional practice. These pertains primarily Career & Life Skills of the 21st Century Skills. Likewise, creativity, communication, collaboration, innovation and digital literacy were exemplified in their class outputs and capstone project. The focus group discussion resulted to the following themes: collaborative learning; use of appropriate information, media & technology; activity driven connecting the purpose, concepts and learning and practical and fun activities. To synthesize all major learnings on ecotourism, a capstone project was instituted by creating a 3-dimensional ecotourism destination (island, forest, retreat place, etc.) incorporating the best policies and practices of sustainable tourism designed aesthetically and imaginatively. The College’s tourism organization was in charge of the activity participated by three sections of ECOTOUR classes including the experimental and control groups involved in the study (Figure 6). There was an independent panel of judges. The capstone project took into account the following: (1) social, economic and environmental impacts, (2) tourism activities promoting changes in practice to protect historical, cultural and environmental resources including conservation, (3) technology and its - 106 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
positive contribution, (4) sustainability principles and (5) tourism code of ethics. The winning entries are from the experimental class showcasing Hidden Bay Eco Island, Cagragay Island, Bacacay, Albay,es and Panglao Island, Bohol, Philippines (Figures 7and 8).
Figure 6. Ribbon cutting ceremony for 3D Model capstone project for ECOTOUR led by the panel of judges.
Figure 7. Hidden Bay Eco Island, Cagragay Island, Bacacay, Albay, Philippines as grand prize winner for 3D model capstone project for ECOTOUR. - 107 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Figure 8. Panglao Island, Bohol as runner-up winner for 3D model capstone project for ECOTOUR. Inquiry-based learning provokes the intelligence and creativity by enabling processing in the mind and allows acquisition of scientific literacy, vocabulary knowledge, conceptual understanding, and attitudes toward science (Lawson, 2010; Minner, Levy, and Century, 2010). As sustainable tourism is an applied subject, inquiry helps students to understand how knowledge is generated from different disciplines and promotes development, transformation and representation of ideas (Krajcik, et. al., 1998).
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The following are the findings of the study based on the objectives:
1. All criteria for module evaluation to include attainment of objectives, characteristics as inquiry-based learning, integration of the nature of science, content accuracy, module originality, module clarity and evaluation indicators by the subject matter and pedagogical experts are qualitatively classified as nearly outstanding with a weighted mean value of 3.69 out of 4.00. 2. IBL modules in sustainable tourism had a Flesch Reading Ease weighted mean score of 33.2 which is deemed appropriate for 2nd year to 3rd year tertiary level students. - 108 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
3. Students exposed to inquiry-based learning performed better with
significant difference in the achievement test than those exposed to conventional teaching. A paired samples t-test revealed that for the control group, there is no significant difference in the pretest and posttest mean scores in the achievement test. For the experimental group, there is significant difference in the pretest and posttest mean scores in the achievement test. 4. Students exposed to inquiry-based learning performed better with significant difference in the conceptual understanding of environmental concepts through concept mapping than those exposed to conventional teaching. A paired samples t-test revealed that for the control group, there is significant difference in the pretest mean and posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts. For the experimental group, there is also a significant difference in the pretest and posttest mean scores of students’ understanding of environmental concepts. Moreover, verification of concepts maps using propositional complexity made by students from the control and experimental groups reveals that students exposed to inquiry-based learning have a higher pretest-posttest percent difference than their counterparts who were exposed to the conventional approach. Similarly, graphical sophistication of concept maps reveals that there is a notable shift from simple to network type for students who were exposed to inquiry-based learning. 5. The capstone project vis-a-vis with evaluation survey and focus group discussion among students showcased the ability of students from the experimental group to communicate clearly, integrate fully, think critically and apply subsequently the knowledge in sustainability, environmental impacts and tourism and tourism ethics using appropriate medium and information --- truly, these are the manifestations that students were able to foster and to develop the much needed 21st Century Skills through inquiry-based learning. The modules provided relevance through contextualization and enhancement through local cultural and historical realities as examples and activities without neglecting the similarities and interconnection with the world and ensure integrated and seamless learning by starting from simple concepts to more complicated ones paving the way for a deeper understanding of core concepts of sustainable tourism. Consequently, the modules will be of great help in solving some environmental issues which can be of triple-bottom line effect --- political, economic and social. The instructional package will subsequently develop critical thinking skills through activities requiring analysis and decision making.
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The self-learning package may develop enthusiasm through learner-centered and activity-based lessons presented creatively. Ultimately, the students will be encouraged and motivated to participate actively in the efforts towards environmental protection and sustainable tourism. The following recommendations are given based on the findings and conclusions of the study:
1. Faculty in-charge should integrate and implement the learner-centered
inquiry-based pedagogical approach with their conventional approach to teaching and menu type guided approach in scientific investigations. This strategy, in general, will exemplify how professional scientists work in generating and validating scientific knowledge.
2. Academic administrators should lead and organize trainings, seminars
and workshops in inquiry-based strategies integrating the nature of science. Furthermore, they may require their teachers as part of learnercentered inquiry-based pedagogical approach to teach implicitly or explicitly the nature of science as an introductory topic.
3. Given the proper resources, it is recommended that the Solomon four-
group test be used to ensure the researcher that confounding variables and extraneous factors including testing and social threats to validity do not influence or interfere with the results.
REFERENCES AKINSANYA, C. and WILLIAMS, M. (2004). “Concept mapping for meaningful learning”, Nurse Education Today, 24(1), pp. 41-46. ANDREWS, K. E., TRESSLERA, K. D. and MINTZES, J. J. (2008). “Assessing environmental understanding: an application of the concept mapping strategy”,. Environmental Education Research, 14 (5), pp. 519-536. BEGENY, J. C. and GREENE, D. J. (2014). “Can readability formulas be used to successfully gauge difficulty of reading materials?”, Psychology in the Schools, 51(2), pp. 198-215. CERVANTES, B., HEMMER, L. and KOUZEKANANI, K. (2015). “The impact of project-based learning on minority student achievement: Implications for school redesign”, NCPEA Education Leadership Review of Doctoral Research, pp. 50. - 110 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
DOLL, R. C. (1996). Curriculum improvement decision making and process. (9th ed.). MA: Allyn & Bacon. DUBAY, W. H. (2004). “The principles of readability”, available at: www. impact-information.com/impactinfo/readability02.pdf (accessed: December 14, 2020). EDELSON, D. C., GORDIN, D. N., and PEA, R. D. (1999). “Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8, (3/4), pp. 391-450. FURTAK, E., SEIDEL, T., IVERSON, H. and BRIGGS, D. (2012,). “Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of inquiry-based science teaching: A meta-Analysis”, Review of Educational Research, 82(3), pp 300-329. GALILEO EDUCATIONAL NETWORK (2014). “Rubric for discipline-based and inter-disciplinary inquiry studies”, available at http://galileo.org/rubric.pdf (accessed December 12, 2019). GOODWIN, D. (2016). “Why choose an inquiry-based approach to APES labs?”, available at http://collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_ corner/28743.html (accessed December 12, 2019) KAHN, P. and O’ROURKE, K. (2004). “Guide to enquiry-based learning”, available at www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/resources/guides/kahn_2004.pdf (accessed December 18, 2019). KINCHIN, I. M. and HAY, D. B. (2000). “How a qualitative approach to concept mapping can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development”, Educational Research, 42, pp. 43-57. KRAJCIK, J., BLUMENFELD, P. C., MARX, R. W., BASS, K. M., FREDRICKS, J. and SOLOWAY, E. (1998). “Inquiry in project-based science classrooms: Initial attempts by middle school students”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3/4), pp. 313-350. LEARNING THEORIES (2014). “21st Century Skills (P21 and Others)”, available at http://www.learning-theories.com/21st-century-skills-p21-and-others. html. (accessed December 18, 2019) MEAGER, T. (2009,). “Looking inside a student’s mind: Can an analysis of student concept maps measure changes in environmental literacy?”, Electronic Journal of Science Education Volume, 13 (1), pp. 1-28. MINNER, D. D., LEVY, A. J. and CENTURY, J. (2010). “Inquiry-based science instruction -- what is it and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002”, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), pp. 474-496. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1996). “The National Science Education Standards”. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. - 111 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (2000). “Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards”. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (NSTA) (2011). “NSTA position statement on quality science education and 21st-century skills”, available at http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/21stcentury.aspx. (accessed December 18, 2019). NOVAK, J. D. (1991). “Concept-Mapping: A useful tool for science education”,. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, pp. 475-492. PARTNERSHIP FOR 21ST CENTURY SKILLS (2009). “Framework for 21st century learning”, available at http://www.p21.org/our-work/p21-framework. (accessed February 12, 2020). REISKAA, P., SOIKAA, K., MÖLLITSA, A., RANNIKMÄEB, M., and SOOBARDB, R. (2015). “Using concept mapping method for assessing students’ scientific literacy”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177, pp. 352-357. ROBERTS, M. (2013). “The challenge of enquiry-based learning”, Teaching Geography, 38(2), pp. 50-52. SAUNDERS-STEWART, K. S., GYLES, P. D. T. and SHORE, B. M. (2012). “Student outcomes in inquiry instruction: A literature-derived inventory”,. Journal of Advanced Academics, 23(1), pp. 5-31. SAUNDERS-STEWART, K. S., GYLES, P. D. T., SHORE, B. M. and BRACEWELL, R. J. (2015). “Student outcomes in inquiry: Students’ perspectives”, Learning Environments Research, 18(2), pp. 289-311. UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2010) Teaching and learning for a sustainable tourism, available at http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/mod16.html. (accessed December 4, 2019). UNITED NATIONS WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (2013). “Sustainable tourism for development guidebook”. Spain: World Tourism Organization. VELA, E. (2005). “Development and evaluation of environmental education module on biodiversity conservation for biology major” (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). De La Salle University-Manila, Malate, Manila, Philippines. YIN, Y., RUIZ-PRIMO, M. A., AYALA, C. C. and SHAVELSON, R. J. (2005). “Comparison of two concept-mapping techniques: Implications for scoring, interpretation, and use”, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, pp. 166-176.
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THE FILIPINO CONSTRUCT OF INTERNATIONAL INDEPENDENT LEISURE TRAVEL Maria Paz A. CASTRO* Geronio G. ULAYAO**
ABSTRACT The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) reported that in the last five years, tourism arrivals have grown significantly across all regions of the world. In Southeast Asia, arrivals have grown by 10% from January to April of 2018; while a steady increase in arrivals have been likewise noted in the Philippines. As cited by the Department of Tourism, inbound tourist arrivals in the Philippines grew by 11% in 2017. There is also a 9.74% increase in arrivals from January to July 2018 compared to the same period in 2017. Meanwhile, domestic tourism in the Philippines also reached an estimated 97,720,627 trips in 2017 (Philippine Statistics Authority). Amidst these developments, independent travel has registered consistent growth and is considered a significant market. Independent travelers are defined as those “who have flexibility in their itinerary and some degree of freedom in where they choose to travel within a destination” (Prayag et al. 2015). The study of Hsiao and Chuang (2015), described independent travelers as “more spontaneous and adventurous, with a lower level of vacation planning and a desire to do what comes on the spur of the moment.” Several studies have been conducted on the motivations and behaviors of independent travelers and how they differ from those of package mass tourists. Prayag et al (2015) cited a previous study on the core motivations of independent travelers. These motivations included exploring other cultures, increasing one’s knowledge, mental relaxation, affiliation or social motives, seeking novelty or action, and desiring a perceived authentic or genuine experience. From its stages of backpacking, independent travel has continuously grown into a market of its own. Factors attributed to this growth are, among others, technology, availability of information, transactional ease and new business * CHE De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde/Vatel Manila ** MS-IRM De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde/Vatel Manila
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models that connect service providers directly to clients. In the Philippines, the same growth could be said with the same factors contributing to such. From the same report of the Department of Tourism, data showed that three (3) out of five (5) Filipinos, fifteen (15) years old and older, travel around the country every quarter. In the absence of literature on this matter, this exploratory research looked into the Filipinos’ construct of independent leisure travel specifically the determinants influencing the decision-making of Filipino independent leisure travelers and the general perceptions of Filipino independent travelers. Data gathered from thirty-two (32) survey respondents and interview with two (2) key informants revealed that a) cost is still the key factor in decision-making of independent traveler, and b) freedom in itinerary planning and customizability of schedule are the prevailing concepts when it comes to independent travel. The researchers believe replicating the study to increase the number of respondents and Philippine locations and correlational studies will further define the profile and preferences of Filipino independent traveler in order to enrich the literature on this topic.
INTRODUCTION In the 2017 Annual Report of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 2017 was a record year for international tourism. International tourist arrivals grew for the eighth consecutive year and destinations worldwide welcomed 1,323 million international tourist arrivals. It was a significant increase of about 84 million compared to 2016. In Southeast Asia, arrivals had grown by 8.4% in 2017; while a steady increase in arrivals had been likewise noted in the Philippines. As cited by the Department of Tourism, inbound tourist arrivals in the Philippines grew by 11% in 2017, reaching 6.62 million arrivals. There was also a 9.74% increase in arrivals from January to July 2018 compared to the same period in 2017. Meanwhile, domestic tourism in the Philippines reached an estimated 97,720,627 trips in 2017 (Philippine Tourism Trends and Statistics Report). Amidst these developments, independent travel had registered consistent growth and is considered a significant market. Independent travelers are defined as those “who have flexibility in their itinerary and some degree of freedom in where they choose to travel within a destination” (Prayag et al. 2015). The study of Hsiao and Chuang (2015), described independent travelers as “more spontaneous and adventurous, with a lower level of vacation planning and a desire to do what comes on the spur of the moment.” Several studies had been conducted on the motivations and behaviors of independent travelers and how they differ from those of package mass tourists. Prayag et al (2015) cited a previous study on the - 114 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
core motivations of independent travelers. These motivations included exploring other cultures, increasing one’s knowledge, mental relaxation, affiliation or social motives, seeking novelty or action, and desiring a perceived authentic or genuine experience. In the Philippines, the same growth could be said with the same factors contributing to such. From the same report of the Department of Tourism, data showed that three (3) out of five (5) Filipinos, fifteen (15) years old and older, travelled around the country every quarter. This research looked into the Filipinos’ construct of independent leisure travel. The authors posed the following questions namely, (1) What are the determinants influencing the decision-making of Filipino independent leisure travelers?; and (2) What are the general perceptions of Filipino independent travelers?. The results are expected to be relevant to other academic researchers to pursue the matter further on a larger scale investigation as well as to travel professionals who will have an empirical basis in offering appropriate travel products to the independent travel market.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Theorizing Independent Leisure Travel From early terms in literature such as “drifter”, “hippy” and “backpacker”, Hampton and Hamzah (2016) stipulated in their article that there remains no internationally accepted definition for this market segment. They cited previous studies on how backpackers were described such as “tourists who travel with backpacks, live on a budget, and normally travel for longer periods than conventional holidays” and “people desirous of extending their travels beyond that of a cyclical holiday, and, hence the necessity of living on a budget, they are escaping from the dullness and monotony of their everyday routine, from their jobs, from making decisions about careers, and the desire to delay or postpone work, marriage and other responsibilities.” The study of Salvaggio (2016) discussed backpackers’ preferences for independence, budget travel, experiential, and personal/social growth; and how backpackers rely on the internet for informal information sources and from word of mouth. Chang (2009) stated that when compared with conventional mass tourism, backpacker tourism is characterized by independent travelers who autonomously pursue travel experiences and often experience and expect lower safety during a trip, greater demand on the traveler’s language capability, and higher flexibility in the arrangement of travel plans and itineraries. Chang (2009) further described how in contrast to mass tourism, with its often pre-set budget in terms of food, accommodations, and transportation, backpack travelers usually plan and adjust their travel budget along the way. - 115 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Furthermore, Hampton and Hamzah (2016) cited Lew and McKercher’s study that there were three variables to the travel patterns of backpackers and these were time budgets, personality, and place knowledge. For time budgets, backpackers have more time to travel compared with conventional tourists who normally take shorter holidays. Likewise, backpackers tend to have small budgets and travel more slowly using cheaper transport to more remote destinations than conventional tourists. The second group of variables concerned personality and motivation and the third group of variables concerned knowledge of place. There was also the role played by intermediaries such as local specialist backpacker companies, travel guides and websites. Potential of Independent Travel From its stages of backpacking, independent travel has continuously grown into a market of its own. Factors attributed to this growth are, among others, technology, availability of information, transactional ease and new business models that connect service providers directly to clients. Hsiao and Chuang (2015) described that independent travel is often associated with a propensity for novelty-seeking and risk taking. They further discussed how independent travelers favor independent travel to have flexible itineraries, avoid paying tour fees, and avoid being forced to purchase souvenirs. Unlike backpackers, independent travelers exhibit a variety of expenditure levels in choosing accommodation types and transportation modes. What these varied travelers have in common is not a level of expenditure on vacation elements, but a lack of pre-booking of vacation elements. They cited Hyde’s study which found that independent travelers do not pre-book the details of their vacation itinerary. A full 62% arrived at the international destination without any prior booking of vacation elements. Moreover, independent travelers in general prefer travelling with family, which is different from backpackers who travel individually or with friends. Still from Hsiao and Chuang (2015), independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minority of travel arrangements including transportation, accommodation, and choice of attractions and activities before departure. Thus, independent travel is a growing sector of worldwide tourism, in contrast to a relative decline in package travel. Independent travelers do not have tour guides and must arrange their own accommodations, transportation, and food, therefore giving more flexibility when planning an itinerary, offering greater freedom to choose attractions, accommodations, and travel times. The price for independent travel is generally higher than for tour group travel. Therefore, choice of the itinerary for independent vacation represents a complex series of purchase decisions involving multiple leisure and tourism services. As Paris et al (2015) explained: “the continued globalization and mainstreaming of the backpacker culture has resulted in an increasingly diverse backpacker population.” - 116 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Independent Travel Decision-Making Framework Consumer behavior in tourism can be defined as the “ensemble of its acts, attitudes and decisions regarding choosing, buying and consuming tourism products and services, and also its post-consuming reactions” (Pawaskar and Goel 2016). As tourism is related to human beings and human nature, it is always a complex proposition to investigate why people travel and what they want to enjoy. The authors noted that tourist motivation is a complex subject that explains individuals’ decision-making processes and the reason why they behave the way they do, both before and during their holidays (Pawaskar and Goel 2016). Backpackers arguably set new travel trends so understanding their decision making process can be of value to the tourism market as a whole. Moreover, increasing incomes and freedom to travel combined with the possibility of backpackers returning to a destination later on in life means attracting this market can be seen as a crucial stage in a long term marketing policy for certain destinations, not to mention their positive contribution to the local economy. Because independent travel has become increasingly popular and highly accessible, it has been suggested that they are not different from ordinary tourists in terms of their travel styles, behaviour and motivations and in some cases, also define themselves as tourists (Hindle et al. 2015). Motivations: rite of passage, fun and adventure Style of travel: unplanned, serendipitous and independent Trip duration: extended travel, typically several weeks or months Accomodation: backpacker hostel Trip activities: adventurous and risk-taking experiences Figure 1. Typology of Independent Travel. Drawing from relevant literature on backpacker tourism, King and Gardiner (2015) outlined the independent traveler’s motivations, length of stay, accommodation, activity preferences and styles of travel as shown on Figure 1.
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METHODOLOGY, SCOPE/LIMITATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS This project is exploratory in nature and was aimed at uncovering the construct of independent travel among Filipino leisure travelers. Specifically, the study intended to identify the determinants that influence the decision-making of Filipino independent leisure travelers and to establish the general perceptions of Filipino independent travelers. In this research, the operational definition of an independent leisure traveler would be one who travels on flexible itineraries with a preference for organizing his or her own accommodation, transport and activities, and tend to avoid packaged tours and experiences. To achieve the objectives of the study, a quantitative survey was conducted using a questionnaire consisted of basic questions related to the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; travel history such as number of travels per year and chosen destinations, with leisure travel as the main focus. The respondents were also asked which travel arrangements are done by themselves and the basis of their decisions in making these arrangements. The questionnaire also included a question if the participants consider themselves as independent travelers or not, as well as an open-ended question on their best views and perceptions about independent travel. The contents of the questionnaire were validated by three experts, one from the travel and tourism industry, another one from the academe, and a seasoned traveler. The questionnaires were distributed to and received from thirty-two (32) respondents, giving a response rate of 100%. Purposive and convenience sampling was applied with respondents fitting the demographic profiles of backpacking and independent tourism based on previous studies. The results of the survey were tabulated and ranked by frequency. An informal interview was then conducted to two key informants who are considered independent travelers to validate the data. The authors used descriptive statistics in the data analysis and for developing categories in presenting the results.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic Profile of Respondents The respondents were asked about their basic information such as age, gender, profession, the industry they belong to, average salary, and city and country of residence.
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Attribute Age (average in years) Gender Male Female TOTAL Position Executive/Director Manager Supervisor Staff Freelance/Consultant TOTAL Industry Education/Academe Medical IT Hospitality (Hotel, F&B) Marketing/Advertising Real Estate Creative Travel BPO Banking/Insurance Power Plant (No Answer) TOTAL Monthly salary Less than Php 20,000 Php 20,000-35,000 Php 35,001-50,000 Php 50,001-65,000 Php 65,001-80,000 Php 80,000++ TOTAL
17 15 32
53.1% 46.9% 100%
10 13 1 4 4 32
31.25% 40.63% 3.12% 12.5% 12.5% 100%
7 1 3 4 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 7 32
21.9% 3.12% 9.37% 12.5% 9.37% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 6.24% 3.12% 21.9% 100%
0 4 1 4 4 19 32
0% 12.5% 3.12% 12.5% 12.5% 59.38% 100%
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Attribute City and country of residence Parañaque, Philippines Pasig, Philippines Manila, Philippines Las Piñas, Philippines Quezon City, Philippines Makati, Philippines Mandaluyong, Philippines Pasay, Philppines Taguig, Philippines Cavite, Philippines Laguna, Philippines Bulacan, Philippines Bangkok, Thailand Singapore, Singapore (No Answer) TOTAL
4 2 8 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 32
12.5% 6.25% 25% 6.25% 6.25% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 3.12% 15.67% 100%
Table 1. Demographic profile of respondents. Table 1 represents the demographic profile of the selected participants. The average age is 44 years old and out of the thirty-two, seventeen are male (53.1%) while fifteen (46.9%) are female. All respondents are professionals with positions ranging from director/executive level (31.25%), managerial level (40.63%), supervisory level (3.12%), staff level (12.5%), and free lancers or consultants (12.5%). They belong to various industries including education/academe at 21.9%, hospitality (hotel and food & beverage) at 12.5%, information technology and marketing/advertising tied at 9.35%, banking/insurance at 6.24%, and others are from the medical, real estate, travel, business process outsourcing, power plant, and creative fields. However, there were seven respondents who did not disclose the industry they belong to. A big percentage of the respondents enjoy a monthly salary of Php 80,000 + + (59.38%), while the rest are in the Php 65,001-80,000 range (12.5%), Php 50,001-65,000 range (12.5%), Php 20,000-35,000 range (12.5%), and Php 35,001-50,000 range (3.12%). None of the respondents were earning less than Php20,000. Majority of the participants are from the Greater Manila Area (total of 56.23%), some are from the nearby provinces (total 9.36%), and two from other countries (total of 6.24%). There were five respondents who did not answer their place of residence. Travel History The travel history of the participants was established by gathering information on the frequency of their travels per year, the nature of travel (business or leisure), and the destination. - 120 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Travel Information Frequency of international travel per year 1-3 times 4-6 times 7-9 times 10+ times TOTAL Nature of travel 100% business 75% business/25% leisure 50% business/50% leisure 25% business/75% leisure 100% leisure TOTAL
18 11 3 0 32
56.25% 34.38% 9.37% 0% 100%
2 3 9 10 8 32
6.25% 9.37% 28.13% 31.25% 25% 100%
Table 2. Frequency and Nature of Travel. Table 2 shows the respondents’ frequency of travel per year. Eighteen or 56.25% travel one to three times per year, eleven or 34.38% travel four to six times per year, three or 9.37% travel seven to nine times per year, and none of the respondents travel more than ten times per year. The nature of their travels is also shown. There were two participants (6.25%) who answered that their travels are 100% business. Three (9.37%) answered that their travels are 75% and 25% leisure. Nine (28.13%) replied that they travel for 50% business and 50% leisure. There were ten participants (31.25%) who answered that their travels are 25% business and 75% leisure. And lastly, eight respondents (25%) answered that they travel for 100% leisure. Destination
Southeast Asia/ASEAN Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, etc.) Australia/New Zealand North America (US, Canada, Mexico) Central America/Caribbean South America Europe Africa Middle East Antarctica/Arctic
1-3 times 22 17 10 14
4-6 times 7 1 1 2
Table 3. Destination and Frequency. Table 3 illustrates the most popular destinations and frequency of visits of the respondents. The top three destinations are Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and North America. Southeast Asia is being visited one to three times by twenty-two - 121 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
respondents and four to six times by seven respondents. On the other hand, Northeast Asia which includes China, Japan and Korea is being visited one to three times by seventeen of the respondents and as often as four to six times by one respondent. The third popular destination is North America which is being visited one to three times by fourteen respondents and four to six times by two respondents. Meanwhile, Central America, Africa and Antarctica were the least popular with no visits recorded. Travel Arrangements Part of the survey was to determine which among the different travel needs such as airline tickets, hotel accommodation, transportation, and tours are being arranged by the respondents themselves or through a travel professional. Travel needs Airline Tickets Accommodation Intercity/Land Transfers Local Transportation Airport Transfers Tours and Tickets None
Arranged by travel professional 7 3 4 3 5 7 17
Arranged by self 26 29 26 27 26 27 0
Table 4. Type of Travel Arrangement. In Table 4, the data proves that majority of travel needs are being arranged by the respondents themselves rather than availing of the services of a travel professional. Basis for Decision-Making Using a Likert scale, the respondents were asked to rank the basis for making decisions regarding their travel. These factors were cost or budget, accessibility of information, control of time and schedule, freedom in itinerary, ease of payment or payment options, and other factors to be specified if any. Decision-making factors Cost/Budget limitation Accessibility of information Control of time and schedule Freedom in itinerary Ease of payment/payment options Others: Feedback/reviews (1) Sights and activities (1)
1 19 3 8 2 0
2 4 2 10 13 3
3 6 8 7 8 2
Table 5. Basis for Decision-Making. - 122 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
4 0 11 5 6 8
5 3 8 2 3 19
Based on data shown on Table 5, the top criteria for independent travelers is the cost or budget, followed by control of time and schedule, accessibility of information and freedom in itinerary. In the meantime, ease of payment and payment options have no bearing on the decision-making of independent travelers. Perceptions on Independent Travel The participants of the survey were asked if they consider themselves as a totally independent traveler, a partially independent traveler, or not at all. Replies Yes, totally Yes, partially No TOTAL
Results 16 14 2 32
Percentage 50% 43.75% 6.25% 100%
Table 6. Do Respondents Consider Themselves as Independent Travelers. Half of the respondents (50%) consider themselves as totally independent travelers, while fourteen (43.75%) only consider themselves as partially independent travelers. Two respondents (6.25%) do not consider themselves as independent travelers at all. An open-ended question on the respondents’ general views and perceptions on independent travel was part of the questionnaire. Twenty-five out of the thirtytwo respondents answered the question which is tabulated in Table 7 below. Theme
Value for money
Availability of information
Actual Replies “An independent traveler gets more value from his/her money. Having a limited time to explore the places, I see to it that I have an itinerary and the hotel should be close to restaurants. Tours and hotels already pre-paid. I make use of the information (reviews) on the internet to check on places to visit, companies offering tours, hotels, transportation, etc. I compare prices from Agoda, Expedia, Booking. com and other sites. Credit card companies are offering low airline tickets and you get to earns points. I sign up for membership to avail on benefits/discounts/mileage.” “Easy and direct access to airline companies, hotels, transportation, etc. make it easy for independent travel. Also, information on the internet such as business hours, costs, etc. make it possible for one to be an independent traveler.” “Information/data should be easily accessible. Everything stems from there.” “I believe in having all necessary documents and information arranged before travelling to ensure that dependencies on information available at the airports/hotels are not necessary. As an independent traveler, you need to have some form of control over your itinerary and contingency planning if your plans don’t fall through.” “For me, an independent traveler is not dependent on travel websites and blogs, and is very self-sufficient. I am reliant on the information I am able to gather online when I make travel arrangements for myself and for my family.”
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Actual Replies “Arranged travel is ok for first timers. But I would prefer if I can organize/plan for myself according to my needs and that of my family. Similar to that of plans offered by Globe, you choose according to your needs.” “Independent travel decisions relies a lot on social media posts, websites, endorsements and to a great extent, free accommodations offered by friends and relatives. It is a great way to be in control of the total experience as compared to packaged trips.”
Control of time and schedule
“Travelling independently makes the travel itself a journey. Controlling your own pace and having your own preference gives you freedom and luxury to enjoy every minute that even a business trip becomes a fun experience.” “Independent travel gives you more flexibility and control over all aspects of your trip. It allows you to choose which ever accommodation you prefer and which areas to go having total control of your itinerary and budget for the trip.” “Having control over most aspects of a certain trip makes me feel free to choose which aspect of a country’s culture to focus on, be it modern or traditional. It also makes me learn to wisely spend money, at times splurge on anything.” “Best way to plan itinerary and limit cost.” “It is freedom to select from your preferences rather than choose from canned options.” “A traveler who makes his own itinerary.”
Freedom in itinerary
“Although I am usually part of a contingent, I always wish to be on my own outside of the business time that I have abroad.” 7
“I prefer flexibility in itinerary and accommodation as compared to traveling with a schedule done by the travel agent.” “Travelling is exploring. Of course prior to travel, we make our research and ask friends for info and while on travel, explore on our own and discover a destination by ourselves specially if travelling with family.” “Independent travel does not necessarily mean budget travel. Preferences and freedom are the key elements in this type of travel.”
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Actual Replies “Independent travel is all about customization based on one’s travel preferences.” “Independent travel for me means that there is no strict schedule to follow. One makes a trip based on his own preference, rather than joining tour groups or purchasing tour packages for convenience. Personally, being an independent traveler allows much more flexibility, to enjoy each place even more by going when locals would go to like where they eat and drink, rather than mostly have Chinese food during tours. It allows one to be adventurous, to revel in the beauty of each place and discover new things. I find joy in searching for off the beaten paths, asking for suggestions from friends and mostly when I get to find really good local restaurants to eat. And more than anything, independent travelers go on their trip with an open mind who simply hopes for the best but is ok if it didn’t reach their expectations. I always believe that travelling is a journey rather than just a trip to see popular sights and taking pictures.” “I’ve joined tour groups before and I’ve travelled alone or with family and friends outside of fixed tour packages, and I find independent travel more fulfilling, but I do not discount the benefits of arranged tour packages, especially for worry-free leisure trips in countries where I do not speak the language.” “Independent travel is when a person plans a trip or travel by themselves or their families with minimal help from experts. I always believed in the process of learning something new every day and planning for a trip helps me learn most of the time. Whether getting lost and finding your way or learning to communicate without knowing the language to exploring the culture of the destination through food and history. Travelling independently makes one a confident traveler.”
“I utilize business principles in planning, researching & implementing my journeys to maximize the experience: project management (how to plan & execute it), financial control (costeffective measures, discounts & promos), people skills (interaction with locals & fellow travelers), opportunity-spotting (free guided tours & museum entrance fees), self-management (fitness program, budget control), branding (being on one’s best behavior as country ambassador), innovation & creativity (exploring new places, finding new routes, indulging in exotic traditions, problem-solving applications), continuous development (utilizing travel insights in personal & professional endeavor, life-long learning). Independent travel is totally aligned with my aim of enhancing both book-smart & street-smart capabilities.” “DIY Do it yourself.” “Independent travel = no need for any travelling agency to arrange your tour, accommodation, airfare, etc.” “Independent travel is planning, organizing, booking, purchasing by yourself.”
Table 7. General Perceptions on Independent Travel. Six general themes were extracted from the raw data gathered and these are: value for money, availability of information, control of time and schedule, freedom in itinerary, personal preferences, and self-sufficiency. Based on the - 125 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
frequency of responses, freedom in itinerary is the main concept of independent travel among the participants, followed by control of time and schedule and being self-sufficient. Validation by Key Informants In order to further validate the results of the survey, an informal interview was conducted with two key informants who are also frequent international travelers. The first one agreed with the results of the basis for decision-making since he is also applying the same factors. However, he noted that since the respondents are all Filipinos, then this may have an effect on the choice of destination. It appeared in the survey that Southeast Asian countries are the most visited. Since Filipinos do not need to secure visas to these countries, then this could be the reason for the popularity of these destinations. Another decision-making factor that the informant added is the availability of airline promotions which also affects his own choices for travel. The second informant also validated several data that was gathered in the survey results. The first is the demographic profile of the respondents. The mean age derived from the study, 44 years old, is valid because this is the age where people have the ample resources and energy to pursue independent traveling. However, the informant recommended that it should also be observed on how these travelers process their reservations, such as online, over the phone, or through ticket stations. This way, a deeper insight may be gathered with regard to which channel/s these travelers are more comfortable using in conducting travel needs. The next is on the frequency and nature of travel wherein eighteen respondents said that they go out of the country one to three times a year. According to him, this decision may be supported by the two regular long holidays in the Philippines, namely the summer/Holy Week and Christmas. Third, the informant validated the data gathered regarding destination and frequency where twenty of the respondents claimed that they stayed frequently in Southeast Asia/ASEAN countries. As previously validated by the first informant, this may be due to the ease of entry in these countries or no visa restrictions. Other factors may also be the cost or budget limitations on transport and shopping, and the proximity to the Philippines hence reducing travel time. Another confirmation was on the basis of decision-making. Although most of the respondents’ income range falls beyond Php80,000+, the main concern is still keeping the cost low. This is supported by the Filipinos’ our natural frugality and the idea that independent traveling is more inexpensive than having a professional do it for us. Lastly, the informant considers himself an independent traveler, however, he felt that the definition of independent traveler is still “foreign”, hence the ambivalence of the results.
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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The results of this exploratory study revealed that the primary consideration of an independent traveler is still cost. The concept of the backpacker that conjures hostels for accommodation, public transportation for mobility, guidebooks and maps for sightseeing, street foods and market stalls for dining, among other things, still hold true even decades after the phenomenon began. This concept is sustained by rapid developments in information technology that allow easier and faster access to information about different places of interest and attractions according to the travelers’ varied preferences. The trend is further complemented by the landmark shift of travel industry players to offer their products and rates— airfares, rooms, vehicle rentals and tour packages—directly to consumers, much to the consternation of traditional travel sales channels such as travel agencies and operators. Additionally, the rise of new types of travel products such as ridesharing (Uber, Lyft, Grab), accommodation options (AirBnB, Couchsurfing) and low-cost carriers (Cebu Pacific, Scoot, Ryanair) allow travelers to consider and use alternatives in order to lower travel costs. It should be noted, however, that while cost is still the key determinant in independent travel, freedom in itinerary planning and customizability of schedule are the prevailing concepts when it comes to independent travel. It seems that the very same aspects that influence cost-based decision-making in independent travel—easy access to information, alternatives, sales channels—also shape the perceptions and opinions of independent travelers. As this study is exploratory in nature, further researches are recommended in order to create a much clearer picture of Filipino independent traveler. Replicating the study to increase the number of respondents and Philippine locations may be a worthwhile undertaking both for academics and travel professionals. Correlational studies on age and destinations, salary and frequency of travel, age/salary and basis for decision-making, among others, may also be undertaken to further define the profile and preferences of Filipino independent traveler.
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REFERENCES CHANG, S. (2009). “Information research in leisure: implications from an empirical study of backpackers”, Library Trends, vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 711-728. DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM, “Philippine Tourism Trends and Statistics Report 2018”, Manila, Philippines. HAMPTON, M. and HAMZAH, A. (2016). “Change, choice and commercialization: backpacker routes in Southeast Asia, Growth and Change”, vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 556-571, DOI: 10.1111/grow.12143. HINDLE, N., MARTIN, A. & NASH, R. (2015). “Tourism development and the backpacker market in Highland Scotland”, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15(3), pp. 178-192, DOI: 10.1177/1467358415578471. HSIAO, T. and CHUANG, C. (2105). “Independent travelling decision-making on B&B selection: exploratory analysis of Chinese travelers to Taiwan”, Anatolia – An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 408-420. KING, B. and GARDINER, S. (2015). “Chinese international students: an avantgarde of independent travelers?”, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 17, pp. 130-139, DOI: 10.1002/jtr.1971. PAWASKAR, R. and GOEL, M. (2016). “Improving the efficacy of destination marketing strategies: a structural equation model for leisure travel”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9 (15), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/ v9i15/92154. PARIS, C., MUSA, G. and THIRUMOORTHI, T. (2015). “A comparison between Asia and Australasia backpackers using cultural consensus and analysis”, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 175-195, http://dx.doi.org/1 0.1080/13683500.2014.920771 PRAYAG, G., COHEN, A. and YAN, H. (2015). “Potential Chinese travelers to Western Europe: segmenting motivations and service expectations”, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 18, No. 8, pp. 725-743. SALVAGGIO, M. (2016). “Bursting the backpacker bubble: Exploring backpacking ideology, practices and contradictions”, PhD thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. UNITED NATIONS WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (UNWTO), Annual Report 2017, http://www2.unwto.org/annual-reports (viewed January 2019). - 128 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
BREAKING BARRIERS TO INTERNSHIP INEQUITY: AN EVALUATION OF AN INTERESTFREE STUDENT LOAN PROGRAM FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERNSHIP Angelo Marco U. LACSON* Maria Paz A. CASTRO**
ABSTRACT Previous studies showed evidence that among the different types of aid, grants and scholarships have the most positive effect on graduates. Financial assistance points out the impact of aid on academic achievement, educational commitments, student engagement, and persistence to graduation. Furthermore, the availability of funds to meet tuition and other college-related expenses not only affects a student’s decision to attend college but also the choice of school made by that student. This research is on inclusion practices of De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde or Vatel Manila that focus on students with financial challenges – specifically, the interest-free student loan program for international internship. It aims to evaluate the aforementioned program through insights from past and current loan recipients. The goal is to improve the program design and implementation and to determine whether or not to continue with the same. A survey questionnaire was administered and a focus group discussion was conducted with students who were/are beneficiaries of the interest free loan program. The responses of the participants were summarized and presented thematically to establish the evaluation highlights. Moreover, the conclusions of the study may be relevant to policy makers and implementers in determining the sustainability and effectiveness of this particular program of Vatel Manila. Keywords: international internship, internship inequity, inclusive education, inclusion, internship accessibility. * College of Saint Benilde, Vatel Manila ** College of Saint Benilde, Vatel Manila
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INTRODUCTION In the Salamanca Framework of Action of 1994, inclusive education is defined as “the education in the mainstream of regular education regardless of race, linguistic ability, economic status, gender, age, ability, ethnicity, religious and sexual orientation.” It follows a philosophy of education which includes students with disabilities and special learning needs as valued members of the community. Inclusion is when students are provided with equitable and participatory learning experience, removing the barriers that impede learning. It involves a process of addressing and responding to the diverse needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures, and communities and reducing exclusion within and from education. The De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde (DLS-CSB) brands itself as an inclusive school that accommodates economically disadvantaged students, Persons with Disabilities (PWDs), and students with special learning needs. As of Academic Year (AY) 2018-2019, the College accommodated a total of 1,121 scholars, 97 Deaf scholars, 117 students with special learning needs, 109 with psychological emotional needs, and 20 students with physical disabilities. With a total inclusion count of 1,464 out of 9,183 students, the inclusion efforts represent 18.68% of the entire student population of the College (DLS-CSB Five Year Strategic Plan AY2019-2024, pp. 16-17). In support of the institutional scholarships and financial aid, there are programinitiated inclusion practices that focus on students with financial need. In the DLS-CSB School of Hotel, Restaurant and Institution Management (DLS-CSB SHRIM), there are several inclusion programs in place that help students with financial need such as the fully-subsidized educational tour, the Vatel scholarship, the international internships in Italy, USA and Dubai, and the interest-free internship loan. These programs were initiated to provide equal opportunities for the financially-challenged students through the support of the College’s Student Grants Office and SHRIM’s academic partners. For domestic and international educational tours, one financial scholar will be given an opportunity join the tour for free for every twenty paying students. On the other hand, the Vatel Scholarship provides one year of full scholarship to a deserving Vatel student. Furthermore, SHRIM was able to negotiate with academic partners abroad, namely: the Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management (Dubai), the Italian Culinary Institute for Foreigners (Italy), and the International Food Style Education (Italy), to provide a concession of full internship program subsidy for a certain number of paying students. Meanwhile, SHRIM’s internship partner in the USA, the International Trainee Network (ITN), provides two slots for students every year for full program fee subsidy. Due to the popularity of the US internship among SHRIM students since its inception in 2008, the Office of the - 130 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Vice Chancellor for Academics introduced a financial inclusion program thru a loan facility for qualified students to last AY 2016-2017. This specific interest-free student loan for international internship program will be the focus of this paper. The rationale as well as the existing policies and guidelines will be enumerated. It will also describe the profile of the students who have availed of the program. This study aims to evaluate the aforementioned program and its processes through insights from past and current loan recipients. The goal is to improve the program design and implementation and to determine whether or not to continue with the same.
LITERATURE REVIEW Financial Inclusion Defined Financial inclusion refers to efforts to make financial products and services accessible and affordable to all individuals and businesses, regardless of their personal net worth or company size. It strives to remove the barriers that exclude people from participating in the financial sector and using these services to improve their lives (Grant, 2019). In a study by Yoshino and Morgan (2016), the authors quoted several definitions of inclusion. One of which is by Atkinson and Messy (2013) who defined it as “the process of promoting affordable, timely and adequate access to a wide range of regulated financial products and services and broadening their use by all segments of society through the implementation of tailored existing and innovative approaches including financial awareness and education with a view to promote financial well-being as well as economic and social inclusion.” Another definition quoted was from Chakraborty (2011) who defined financial inclusion as “the process of ensuring access to appropriate financial products and services needed by vulnerable groups such as weaker sections and low income groups at an affordable cost in a fair and transparent manner by mainstream institutional players.” Finally, the authors cited Consultative Group to Assist the Poor’s (2013) vision for “a world where everyone can access and effectively use the financial services they need to improve their lives that does not mean developing separate financial markets for the poor.” Internship Inequity The benefits of internships are clear – they provide the needed experience and connections to help a student’s future career. According to Mayo and Shethji (2010), it has become a critical component of students’ resumes and an important stepping stone when applying for jobs after college since employers cite relevant work experience as the primary factor in hiring decisions. Sadly, many of the most worthwhile internship opportunities are also the most prestigious - 131 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
and competitive. Financial barriers often prevent low-income students from accessing high quality internships, many of which involve costs such as travel and living expenses. Mayo and Shethji (2010) further described that limiting internships to those who can afford them simply perpetuates existing inequalities. Students from high income backgrounds are more likely to hold internships that can help them gain the contacts and experience needed to secure positions in their preferred careers after graduation as compared to their less affluent peers. Thus, providing lowincome college students with equal opportunities ensures that they will be able to reap the same benefits as students from high-income families. One solution is to provide student loan facilities. According to Scott-Clayton (2015), loans are unpopular but they are a critical element in college financing, and their design might be significantly improved to minimize students’ repayment risks. The author further described that students clearly would avoid debt if given an alternative, but recommended that more work should be done to ensure that students understand the loan repayment process upfront, so that they are not afraid to take advantage of this important tool for access. Given a streamlined, income-contingent repayments and better guidance upfront, student loans might be a much more effective tool for promoting access than they currently are. The DLS-CSB SHRIM J-1 Internship Assistance Program The College recognizes that local and international exposure is essential in the development of a national and global mindset among its students. This provides the students a broader national and world view of their chosen field of specialization. It is also acknowledged that these activities entail a significant amount of financial investment on the part of the student. To provide equity in the participation of students who have shown good academic performance but are in financial need, the College implements a competitive system to provide a loan facility for financial assistance to qualified students to participate in the 12-month US Internship Program through its service provider, the International Trainee Network or ITN. This program has been named the “J-1 Internship Assistance Program” or “JIAP”. Policies and guidelines were developed for the J-1 Internship Assistance Program which includes the qualifications and process of application, number of slots available, budget allocation, disbursements and payments. The Revised Policy on J-1 Internship Assistance Program (JIAP) lists only three (3) qualifications for a student to be eligible for the interest-free international internship loan. These include the following:
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1. The student must be a financial scholar of the College with good
academic standing. Specific financial scholarship are also indicated in the policy. Furthermore, the student must have been receiving the scholarship for three (3) continuous terms.
2. The student must have a cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of
2.5 with no failing marks. Following the DLS-CSB grading system, 4.0 is the highest grade a student can receive which is equivalent to an “Excellent” standing while 2.5 is equivalent to a “Good” standing (Benilde Manila Undergraduate Student Handbook 2019, pp 71-72).
3. The student should have no disciplinary record, whether minor or major
offense. According to the website of De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde (DLSCSB 2020), the College offers six (6) different types of scholarships namely (1) Academic Scholarships, (2) Merit/Talent Grants, (3) Financial Aid Grants, (4) Service Rendering Grants, (5) Government Endorsed Scholarships, and (6) Institutional Scholarships. The revision history section of the Revised Policy on JIAP notes that in 2016, students receiving Honors Scholarship under the Academic Scholarship category may already apply for the loan and may be finally eligible if the Student Grants Office further validates the financial need of the applicant. Since the slots are limited to forty-five per school year (and 15 per trimester), the CGPA will be the sole ranking criterion should all pre-conditions be met. For the application process, the students are guided by a step-by-step application form that begins with seeking clearance from the Internship Coordinator of the school. The Internship Coordinator checks if the student is currently enrolled in his/her penultimate term and is eligible to enroll in the final internship course for the following term. Once eligible, the student applicant proceeds to the scholarship office to confirm being a recipient of a financial scholarship or honor’s scholarship from the College. For student’s receiving an Honor’s Scholarship, they are required to submit extra documents such as (1) certificate of employment of parent/legal guardian indicating salary, (2) a copy of the pay slips for the past three months, (3) copy of the most recent Income Tax Return of the parent/ legal guardian, and (4) copies of proof of billing (e.g. electricity bill) for the past three months. Should the scholarship office clear the student, the student then requests for the Registrar’s Office to input his/her CGPA. If the minimum CGPA requirement is met, the student then proceeds to the Office of Student Behavior to determine eligibility based on discipline record. The last step in the application is seeking the endorsement from the respective program heads and - 133 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
School Dean. After which, the student proceeds to the Finance Department to process the loan. The interest-free student loan for international internship should be able to assist the student in advancing expenses related to a student’s participation in a US internship including relate program fees, US visa fee, one-way airfare, and other relocation and settling-in costs. The maximum loanable amount per student is set at USD7,000. The Finance Department prepares the payment requests for various expenses and the student’s cash advance for relocation and settling-in allowance of the student. For the repayment process, the policy allows for a 10-month amortization of the loaned amount which starts on the 3rd month after the student’s arrival in the US. This 2-month repayment grace period upon arrival should allow the student to focus on settling-in rather than on payment obligations. Once the loan has been completely processed and released, a promissory and note and an agreed schedule of payment must be signed by both the student and his/her parent or legal guardian and submitted to the Finance Department of the College.
METHODOLOGY, SCOPE/LIMITATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS Since the program was implemented in AY 2016-2017, a total of thirty-one (31) students have availed of the loan. These identified students will be the participants of the research. The first source of data for the study was secured from the Finance Department of the institution through the Internship Coordinator of the school. The obtained report identifies the students who have availed of the interest-free loan for international internship since its inception and the total loaned amount (and breakdown of allocation or usage) per student. The source data was analyzed by the researchers through summaries, percentages, and averages. A survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers using Google Forms. This covered five (5) parts – (1) profile, (2) adequacy of qualifications for loan eligibility, (3) evaluation of the loan application and disbursement process (4) adequacy of the loanable amount and the purposes for which it can be used for, (5) the loan repayment status and experience, and (6) overall evaluation and recommendation for improvement of the loan facility. Before it was administered, the survey questionnaire was validated by the implementing stakeholders of the loan program from the Finance Department, the Student Grants Office, and the Internship Unit. It was also subjected to validation by the designated Research Coordinator of the school. Once finalized, the survey questionnaire - 134 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
was distributed to all loan grantees through email and Facebook messenger. Follow-up emails and messages were also made. From the summarized data of the collected survey questionnaires, the quantitative results were analyzed through frequencies and percentages and thematic analysis for the qualitative responses. Further consultations with implementing stakeholders of the loan program were conducted to confirm and validate data results. Online focus group forums were also arranged to clarify certain responses and to elicit responses to follow-up questions.
KEY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The source data listed a total of thirty-one (31) students who availed of the interest-free international internship loan since its inception in AY2016-2017 up to the 1st trimester of the AY2019-2020. Figure 1 below illustrates the breakdown of grantees per academic year included in the study.
Number of Loan Grantees Per Academic Year (31 Total Students) 20 15 10 5 0
Figure 1. Number of loan grantees per academic year. The figure shows that the number of grantees spiked from an average of six (6) students for the first two (2) academic years to sixteen (16) grantees on the third year of implementation. Based on the Policy on J-1 Internship Assistance Program (JIAP) of the institution (2018), the large increase in the number of loan grantees was due to a change in the policy increasing the number of loan slots from five (5) per academic year to forty-five (45) effective AY2018-2019. Profile of the Respondents Of the thirty-one (31) loan grantees, only thirty (30) completed the survey materializing a ninety-seven percent (97%) response rate. Of the thirty, sixty-seven percent (67%) were female and thirty-three percent (33%) were male. Figure 2 breaks down the program of study of the respondents. - 135 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
PROGRAM OF STUDY OF RESPONDENTS 17%
BS-HRIM Culinary Arts BS-HRIM Hospitality Management BS-HRIM Travel & Tourism Management BS-International Hospitality Management (Vatel)
Figure 2. Program of study of research respondents. Among the respondents, thirty-three percent (33%) are from the culinary arts program (BS-HRIM CA), twenty-seven percent (27%) are from the hospitality management program (BS-HRIM HM), twenty-three percent (23%) from the travel & tourism management program (BS-HRIM TM), and seventeen percent (17%) are from the Vatel program in Manila (BS-IHM). Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the respondents, or twenty-nine out of thirty, availed of the 12-month internship in the US, forty-one percent (41%) of which through the Route 66 Program. The website of the International Trainee Network (ITN 2020) describes the Route 66 Program as a program that allows interns to experience two (2) host properties during the 12 month period. Only one (1) respondent indicated undergoing a 6-month internship in the US. Figure 3 below lists the host companies in the United States where the respondents completed their international internship. Name of Host Property Breckenridge Ski Resort Delano South Beach Four Seasons Resort and Residences Vail Grand Geneva Resort and Spa Grand Hotel Gurney’s Newport Resort and Marina
State/Country Colorado, USA Florida, USA Colorado, USA Wisconsin, USA Michigan, USA Rhode Island, USA
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Name of Host Property Hyatt Regency at the Arch, St. Louis, Missouri Hyatt Regency Clearwater Beach Resort and Spa Hyatt Regency Coconut Point Resort and Spa Hyatt Regency Tamaya Resort and Spa Inn at Perry Cabin InterContinental Milwaukee Montage Palmetto Bluff Omaha Marriott Downtown Omni Amelia Island Plantation Resort Omni Interlocken Resort Park City Mountain Resort Saint Kate The Arts Hotel Snowshoe Mountain Resort Stowe Mountain Resort Stratton Mountain Resort The Sagamore Resort The Greenbrier Hotel Winter Park Resort
State/Country Missouri, USA Florida, USA Florida, USA New Mexico, USA Maryland, USA Wisconsin, USA South Carolina, USA Nebraska, USA Florida, USA Colorado, USA Utah, USA Wisconsin, USA West Virginia, USA Vermont, USA Vermont, USA New York, USA West Virginia, USA Colorado, USA
Figure 3. List of host properties. The above-listed host hotels and resorts are located in fourteen (14) different states across the United States. Some of the properties are seasonal hotels/resorts which are only open for six (6) months and, therefore, only accommodate interns/ trainees for the same period. All of the above-listed hotels and resorts provide paid internships to student interns and trainees. Qualifications for Eligibility of the Loan Program The research findings show that ninety-seven percent (97%) of the respondents perceive that the current qualifications for loan eligibility are realistic and attainable. When further asked for recommendations for additional qualifications, the thematic analysis substantiates the above findings with majority stating that the current qualifications for eligibility are enough. Some of the respondents who thought otherwise listed the following additional qualifications for eligibility for consideration:
1. The student must exhibit involvement in community extension programs.
2. The student must be an active member of a student organization. 3. Students under other scholarship types (e.g. service-rendering scholar-
ship, government endorsed scholarship, etc.) should be considered. As mentioned previously, the Honors Scholarship was already added as a - 137 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
criterion for eligibility back in 2016 provided that further validation for financial need be conducted.
4. The student must be psychologically ready for an international internship experience.
5. The College must conduct parent/guardian income verification to vali-
date financial need. For the last recommended additional qualification, it is known to the researchers that the parent/guardian income verification is no longer done for this particular loan program since the financial need was already vetted and established during the application process for financial scholarship. It can be assumed that if a student is under financial scholarship, the financial need of the student has been verified to begin with. For the international internship loan program, the parent/guardian income verification is an additional step done only for applying students with an Honors Scholarship especially since the qualifications for this scholarship focuses on being in the top 10 of the graduating batch in either Junior or Senior High School from either public or parochial high schools. Loan Application & Disbursement Process The study reveals that only thirteen percent (13%) of the respondents noted experiencing some difficulty in the loan application process while eighty-seven percent (87%) did not. Similarly, only ten percent (10%) experienced difficulty in the release of the loan funds while ninety percent (90%) did not. For those that experienced some difficulty in the loan application and disbursement process, the respondents further corroborated that the bottleneck was in the release of the funds from the Finance Department of the College. One (1) student experienced a delay in his application due to the last minute cancellation of the host property. The student had to find another internship venue before she could proceed with the loan application. To secure the airline booking and the desired advantageous airline rate, two (2) students specifically mentioned that they had to borrow money from a third party to purchase their airline tickets because the release of their loan was delayed or not fast enough. Loan Allocation and Usage For three (3) academic years plus the 1st trimester of the current school year (AY2019-2020), a total of USD174,071.03 was loaned by all thirty-one (31) students from the College with an average of USD5,615.19 per student. While there is a maximum loanable amount per student (i.e. USD7,000), source data shows that most students only borrowed what they needed and did not reach the aforementioned amount. This was confirmed by the results of the survey showing that only fifty-three percent (53%) of the students availed themselves of - 138 ÂŠÂ CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
the maximum loanable amount while the rest did not. There were a few exceptions whose loan exceeded the maximum loanable amount. As confirmed by A. Alloro (personal communication, 13 February 2020), these were extended by the College with valid reasons such as necessary airline rebooking fees. Figure 4 shows the average amount loaned per student per academic year and as a whole.
Average Loan Amount per Student per Academic Year $8 000,00 $6 000,00 $4 000,00 $2 000,00 $0,00 AY2016-2017
Average per student
Figure 4. Average loan amount per student per school year. In its first year of implementation, the average loan amount per student was USD6,582.10 and USD6,060.62, USD4,865.60 for the subsequent years. As previously mentioned, the overall average loan amount per student covering all past and current loan grantees is USD5,615.19. For respondents that did not avail of the maximum loanable amount, the reasons that they gave include the following:
1. The actual expenses that they needed to be covered was below USD7,000.
2. Their parents’ money or the student’s personal savings were used to cover some of the expenses to minimize the amount to be loaned from the College.
3. Some students were worried about not being able to pay for the loan.
Said one, for example, “I was hesitant because I was afraid that I will not be able to pay the whole amount.”
4. The students were able to secure considerable discounted rates for
certain expenses such as their airfare and therefore excluded these from their loan needs. - 139 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
5. The students were granted other related scholarships that covered
certain expenses. Specifically, this pertains to the scholarship by the College’s US internship service provider, the International Trainee Network (ITN). Based on the ITN Scholarship Program Primer (ITN, n.d.), scholarship is valued at USD3,770.00 covering a student’s program fee and medical insurance. The findings of the study indicate that a vast majority or ninety-seven percent (97%) of the respondents perceived the maximum loanable amount of USD7,000 per student to be sufficient. Only three percent (3%) indicated otherwise. Based on current policy and the source data, the loan can and was used for the payment of the following related expenses:
1. Program fee paid to the US Internship Service Provider; 2. Registration fee paid to the US Internship Service Provider; 3. SEVIS fee paid to the US Department of Homeland Security; 4. US visa application fee paid to the US Embassy in the Philippines; 5. Housing/Accommodation expenses such as advance rent, deposits and other related fees;
6. Settling-in Allowance; 7. Arrival transport provision; 8. Airfare and travel insurance expenses; 9. Bank charges (i.e. wire transfer fees) and taxes. Figure 5 illustrates that the top allocations for the released loans were for the following purposes: payment for Program Fees (49%), settling-in allowance (20%), housing related expenses (12%), and airfare & travel insurance (11%).
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LOAN ALLOCATION USAGE 11% 0%
Registration Fee Program Fee
Sevis Fee Settling-in Allowance
US Visa Fees
Housing Advance Rent, Deposits & Other related Fees Bank Charges (Wire Transfers) and Taxes Airfare and Travel Insurance Arrival Transport Provision
Figure 5. Loan allocation/usage. When asked if there were any other purpose for which the loan should be used for, all respondents noted that the current purposes for which the loan can be used covers everything based on their experience. One of the respondents further wrote that the current purposes for which the loan can be used for are the most important ones. Loan Repayment The findings of the study also reveal that ninety-three percent (93%) of the respondents have paid the College in full by the end of their internship. For the two (2) students, or seven percent (7%) of the respondents, who indicated that they have not yet paid back the college, the reason they offered was that they were not yet done with their internship during the time of the survey. Both assured, however, that the remaining balance will be paid by the end of their internship. As confirmed with A. Alloro (personal communication, 13 February 2020), all students who availed of the loan facility and have completed their internship have already settled their obligations with the College. The repayment process gives students a two-month grace period before making their first payment to the College. The first monthly payment is therefore due on their third month abroad. For a twelve-month internship, less the two-month - 141 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
grace period, the loaned amount is therefore amortized into ten (10) equal payments representing the remaining months of their entire internship experience. Ninety-three percent (93%) of the respondents noted that the two-month grace period was sufficient to make the first payment on the third month. Similarly, ninety-seven (97%) also agreed that the monthly payment based on the ten (10) equal payments was feasible. Three (3) students argued separately that the feasibility of the grace period and the ten (10) equal monthly payments depends on the monthly stipend/salary received from the hotel and the cost of living in the state/city of internship deployment. To quote one student, “For my case, having my internship in two properties with different climates affected my expenses. I had to buy winter clothes for my second property. In Park City, housing (rent) is a big issue. I had to pay a total of $1300 for the rent (current month and advance deposit) which basically affected my payment to the school.” Based on past US internship monitoring trips of one of the researchers, some students reported cuts in work schedules depending on the business forecast. The irregular work schedules brought about by low business forecast contributed to their income stability. The concern of income instability, however, might be partially addressed by the regulation of thirty-two-hour mandatory work week regardless of business forecast. According to the Code of Federal Regulations covering Exchange Visitor Programs, the obligations of internship program sponsors include to “ensure that the training and internship programs are fulltime (minimum of thirty-two hours a week)”. This was further supported by the notes of one of the researchers about the US Department of State’s reminder to host companies about this regulation during ITN and Odyssey’s 6th Annual Host Company Conference (2019) in Miami Beach, Florida. Mr. Jones provided more details in an email on 19 February 2020 that some flexibility is allowed to average thirty-two hours per week within a four-week average. The study further reveals that only eighty percent (80%) of the respondents were able to religiously remit the monthly payments back to the College while twenty percent (20%) reported that they were not able to do so. Nine (9) respondents further commented that they decided to do lumpsum payments (either one to two lumpsum payments instead of ten monthly payments) due to high bank charges/wire transfer fees per transaction and possible losses due to currency exchange fluctuations. According to the survey respondents, bank charges for wire transfer payments range from $25-$50 per transaction as corroborated by the students’ qualitative responses. Two (2) respondents noted that they were not able to meet certain payment deadlines because they had prioritize other expenses (e.g. rent, family emergency) over the monthly loan dues. To further investigate, the students were asked in an online focus group forum whether they communicated the non-payment to the College and unfortunately, two responded that they did not. They just assumed that it was okay with the College to - 142 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
do lumpsum payments. They also confirmed that they did not receive any notice of non-payment or late payment from the concerned unit of the College. Overall Evaluation of the Loan Program One hundred percent (100%) of the respondents recommend that the College continue with the interest free loan program for US internships. All thirty (30) respondents justified that the interest free loan facility is a means for financially challenged but deserving students to have access to an international internship opportunity. Sample survey responses to justify the continuance of the loan program are as follows: “I recommend that DLS-CSB should continue with the J1 Internship Assistance Program as it is a great opportunity for students who are unable to finance their internship expenses but want to expand their skills and knowledge base in the hospitality industry in another level.” “This internship assistance program is a great help for students like me who cannot afford the expenses needed to do an internship abroad. This gave me a fair chance to build a competitive resume that helped me get a job in big companies locally and abroad. Without this opportunity, I know I will not be able to get the job in Royal Caribbean Cruises which is one of the biggest shipping companies in the world and in Solaire Resort & Casino rated as one of the Forbes Travel Guide five-star hotels in the Philippines. Most of the people who apply for jobs in these companies have a lot of experiences abroad.” “JIAP is a great program of the school. A lot of students who are financially challenged but with great potential were given a chance to experience cultural exchange, enjoy the privileges of working with different cultures, travel, discover the world, and deepen their understanding of their chosen field. In gratitude, those individuals who received this loan exemplified great work ethics. I know it is hard to generalize but I am speaking on behalf of all interns I know who had a loan from school. They were given recognition and appreciation for all their hard work. Moreover, with these experiences, students were indeed more real-world ready‚ The school, through this program, also promotes students with higher standards and these individuals became ambassadors of Benilde.” When asked about the positive impact of the program, all responses seem to sound grateful. The respondents were generally grateful for the opportunity to experience an international internship. They were also grateful for the valuable - 143 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
life lessons learned while living independently abroad and travelling across the US. They were also grateful for the professional training they received from the host properties. Two (2) students reported that, because of this opportunity, they were able to secure international jobs through recommendations within a particular hotel chain and the other, in a luxury cruise ship company that required international work experience. One (1) respondent claimed that the loan program reduced the additional financial burden on her parents for an optional international internship. While majority of the respondents noted that the interest-free student loan program for international internship had no negative impact on them, two (2) of them contradicted the rest by saying that worrying about making loan payments affected how they conducted themselves at work. Said one, for example, “There were thoughts that I wanted to complete my payment as fast as possible. I rendered lots of overtime work on my first 2 months to maximize the amount of money I can wire for every payment since it costs $50 to make a single wire transfer.” While thirty-seven percent (37%) of the responses pertaining to how the College can improve the program indicate that the current loan program and its processes need no further improvement, the rest recommended the following:
1. That more affordable payment alternatives be explored to reduce addi-
tional expenses such as wire transfer fees and potential losses due to currency exchange fluctuations.
2. That students be provided with loan statements and balances to remind them of their obligations.
3. That a faster process for loan approval and loan release be studied to
meet crucial and urgent payments such as US Visa fees and the purchase of airline tickets.
4. That the number of available slots be increased so that more qualified
and deserving students can avail of the interest free loan program. In the revision section of the JIAP Policy, it notes that the number of available loan slots was increased in 2018 from five (5) to forty-five (45) per academic year. The policy further states that the forty-five (45) slots be further broken down into fifteen (15) slots per trimester with provision to go beyond this number without affecting the annual limit. The source data shows that the number of loan applications received in AY2018-2019 were not even close to the increased forty-five (45) slots. This may also be connected to the next recommendation pertaining to lack of awareness of the students about the loan program. - 144 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
5. That more effort must be made to promote the loan program to students. The following insights were the data to support this particular recommendation.
“I wasn’t aware about the program before or probably the program just started during my time. But I think it would be better if they will inform financial scholars beforehand (during the scholars’ orientation) so they will have an idea and motivation to be active and study hard in order qualify for the program.” “The school must also promote the JIAP so there will be more deserving scholars who can avail of it. In my case, I didn’t know anything about JIAP until a friend told me about it on my last academic term.”
6. That the criteria for eligibility or the qualifications for loan eligibility be expanded as discussed in previous sections of this paper.
7. That the College consider allowing students to process graduation
requirements prior to full payment of loan. Quoting one student, “The Registrar’s Office won’t process our graduation until we pay off the Loan and be cleared. I think we should be able to have permission to process graduation requirements prior to coming back to the Philippines since it’s hard to process graduation (requirements) from the US”.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the research findings, it seems that the value of the interest-free student loan program for international internship is unquestionable. The program provides equal opportunities to students who are financially challenged but deserving to experience international internships. Since international internships are optional due to the costs involved, the interest-free loan program levels the playing field for students that would like to do their internship abroad but cannot afford it. This program is also aligned with the inclusion breakthrough goals of the institution. The institution hopes to serve all types of learners including those with special education needs, disabilities, learners on financial assistance and talent scholarships, and indigenous people. The findings of the study clearly supports the loan program as a platform for reducing internship inequity as experienced by many students. The more pressing priority, therefore, seems to be in the programs sustainability and improvement rather than its continuance. In terms of sustainability, the institution that offers the student loan program clearly does not profit from it since it is an interest-free loan. Certain amounts are earmarked by the institution for this loan program and its ultimate sustainability depends on the full repayment of each loan granted. While past students who - 145 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
have availed of the loan program and have completed their internship settled their full obligations, the research also clearly shows that a few loan grantees were not able to meet the monthly payment schedules. This could affect the cash flow of the institution especially since loan applications are received and released year round, with certain caps per trimester. For such instances, it is not uncommon for other regular loan facilities to charge penalties or additional fees for late payment or non-payment. Applying late penalties to the interest-free student loan for international internship might not be suitable because it might add financial burden and psychological encumbrance to a young adult who, most probably, took on a loan for the first-time. Therefore, further evaluation is necessary to achieve more flexible payment options vis-à-vis the cash position of the institution and in relation to new loan applications and disbursements. In terms of improvement of the loan program and its processes, the research results should be presented to the policy owner and its implementing stakeholders. Based on the relevant findings of the research, the presentation could focus on the following insights from the students discussed in previous sections:
1. Additional qualifications for eligibility for the loan program; 2. The concerns raised regarding the loan disbursement process; 3. The loan repayment challenges; and 4. The recommendations for the improvement of the program Should the group find merit in the issues raised and the recommendations offered by the students, then further discussion and appropriate revision of the policy can proceed. If a follow-up research or a second evaluation research will be conducted, the researchers recommend that special focus be made on the repayment process and the student’s loan repayment capacity with consideration of their internship income/stipend, the cost of living, and the way they manage their personal finances. Securing sample personal income statements for a certain period (e.g. 3 months) from the respondents might provide a clearer picture of the students capacity to pay their loan dues. This also might lead to a more realistic set of alternative solutions to the loan repayment issues. Finally, the unveiled perceived issues and challenges the interest-free student loan program for international internships may influence policy makers and implementing stakeholders as they develop other inclusive programs addressing internship inequity.
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REFERENCES BENILDE MANILA UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK 2019-2022 (2019). “De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde 2020”, DLS-CSB, Philippines, https://www.benilde.edu.ph/ (viewed 16 February 2020). DE LA SALLE-COLLEGE OF SAINT BENILDE 5-YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN AY2019-2024 (2019). DLS-CSB OFFICE OF THE VICE CHANCELLOR FOR ACADEMICS (OVCA), Revised Policy on J-1 Internship Assistance Program (JIAP) (2018). EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM, 22 C.F.R. Part 62 (2016). https://www. law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/22/part-62. (viewed 19 February 2020). GRANT, M. (2019). “Financial inclusion”, Investopedia, https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/financial-inclusion.asp (viewed 15 January 2020). INTERNATIONAL TRAINEE NETWORK (2020). ITN, USA, https://www. itnusa.com/ (viewed 16 February 2020). INTERNATIONAL TRAINEE NETWORK, n.d., ITN Scholarship Program, primer, ITN, USA. ITN AND ODYSSEY’S 6TH ANNUAL HOST COMPANY CONFERENCE (2019). Miami Beach, Florida. MAYO, L. and SHETHJI, P. (2010). “Reducing internship inequity”, Diversity & Democracy, vol. 13, No. 3, Association of American Colleges & Universities, retrieved 15 January 2020, https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/ periodicals/reducing-internship-inequity. SCOTT-CLAYTON, J. (2015). “The role of financial aid in promoting college access and success: research evidence and proposals for reform”, Journal of Student Financial Aid, vol. 45, issue 3, retrieved 9 February 2020, http://publications.nasfaa.org/jsfa/vol45/iss3/3 THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT AND FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION AND SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION, https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/ pf0000098427 (viewed 25 October 2018). YOSHINO, N. and MORGAN, P. (2016). “Overview of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education. ADBI Working Paper 591”, Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute, retrieved 25 January 2020, http://www.adb.org/ publications/overview-financial-inclusion-regulation-and-education/ - 147 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
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LES CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DU TOURISME CIRVATH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM
ÉTUDES EN FRANÇAIS
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POUR LA CO-CONSTRUCTION D’UNE CULTURE DE TERRAIN DANS LE CADRE D’UN COURS DE LANGUE EN IMMERSION AU CŒUR D’UNE RÉGION D’IMPLANTATION DE VATEL FRANCE : NÎMES, VERS UNE APPLICATION NATIONALE ET INTERNATIONALE Dr Line LAFFOND*
En quelles pratiques enseignantes consiste aujourd’hui l’encadrement pédagogique en cours de langue en immersion dans une région ? Le patrimoine de chaque site d’implantation vatélien, son agenda culturel soulignent la nécessité de rompre avec un apprentissage en milieu clos, de passer à une didactique axée sur la découverte de la région choisie par l’étudiant pour ses études et d’intégrer, ponctuellement, dans la progression pédagogique les différentes entrées culturelles offertes ; tradition, cuisine, festival, littérature, architecture… Chaque Vatel est une destination touristique originale. Si la France est la première destination touristique mondiale par son patrimoine architectural, ses paysages, ses traditions, son art de vivre, l’apprentissage de la langue doit prendre appui sur cette richesse et diversité. Trois moments sont à distinguer dans nos pratiques pédagogiques interactives : • celui qui s’appuie sur la participation de l’étudiant au programme F.L.E. (Français Langue Étrangère) ; • celui qui privilégie la distanciation critique pour affirmer personnalité et développement des compétences ; • celui, enfin, qui met en place un va-et-vient entre ces deux démarches pour une connaissance plus accrue de son univers professionnel, mais également de la région touristique de son école. * Docteure en Linguistique générale française Langue Étrangère Vatel NÎMES
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50 CAMPUS, 32 PAYS, FRANCE, EUROPE, ASIE, AFRIQUE, AMÉRIQUE Que révèlent ces ouvertures culturelles, ludiques, interactives ? • une prégnance des richesses de la ville, de la région, et du pays de la formation suivie ; • une conception élargie de la langue cible et de sa mise en pratique ; • un bénéfice de réflexivité et de motivation ; • le partage de connaissances propres au monde du tourisme. Si l’apprentissage d’une ou plusieurs langues vivantes a aujourd’hui une telle cote chez nos étudiants pour booster leur intégration professionnelle, il est centré sur la linguistique, sur l’expression écrite et orale. La place accordée à leurs connaissances du terroir culturel est insuffisante. Un double regard est porté sur les pratiques langagières propres à l’HôtellerieRestauration et sur les acquis culturels en formation. Voilà pourquoi notre objectif est de contribuer à une meilleure mise en relation entre lieu d’apprentissage et langue cible sur tous les continents. Les pratiques d’apprentissage d’une langue font l’objet de bien des jugements de valeur. Le dilemme est réel entre le suivi d’une progression pédagogique prédéfinie pour l’obtention du diplôme et la découverte d’un lieu de vie et de ses richesses culturelles. Connaître la région où est implantée l’école se réduit à quelques cafés, rues piétonnes, zones commerciales ou médicales. Or, étudier quelques lignes d’un écrivain de la région, découvrir la recette d’un chef sélectionnant des produits du cru ou présenter un site touristique répertorié au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO, sont aussi les points forts d’une formation en immersion pour se distinguer des standards : • traditions culinaires, produits du terroir, événements sportifs ou culturels ; • site médiéval ou romain, monument contemporain… La maîtrise d’une langue ne peut se passer de connaissances culturelles. La tendance croissante à penser que tout est sur Internet, la fameuse « toile », unique ressource au service de tous, accentue la dépendance des Millennials ou autres, légitimée par l’entrée en force du numérique dans la salle de cours. Le virtuel l’emporte sur le réel : on découvre l’intérieur des arènes via un concert sur - 152 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
YouTube et non en présentiel. La liste de spécialités régionales dispense de leur découverte sur le terrain.
ÊTRE AU SERVICE DU CLIENT, C’EST AUSSI L’INFORMER, LE CULTIVER DONC SE CULTIVER Une conception restreinte de l’apprentissage d’une langue faussement en immersion existe. Un profil lacunaire des savoirs propres à une région se dessine, la prise de conscience des manques n’apparaît qu’en fin de cursus. Si priorité est donnée à la compréhension et expression à l’oral comme à l’écrit, la culture générale est marginalisée. Les arts majeurs sont laissés de côté. Or, le client séjournant dans une région, par plaisir, pour affaires, est de plus en plus soucieux d’y vivre une expérience subjective, mais aussi objective liée aux connaissances partagées des professionnels de son hôtel-restaurant. Questionner nos étudiants sur leurs connaissances culturelles, c’est constater des manques. Leur formation en langue se construit sans lien véritable avec leur lieu de vie. Le poids des partiels, des notes freinent leur esprit d’ouverture à d’autres savoirs « utiles », incontestable valeur ajoutée une fois leur diplôme en poche. Dans le cadre d’un travail collaboratif d’échanges de connaissances, de découvertes, cette valeur ajoutée doit être impulsée en classe puis se construire et se développer hors classe. Notre réflexion met en exergue 3 profils d’enseignants. Le passionné dont l’objet premier est de faire aimer la langue. L’expert dans la préoccupation majeure est l’acquisition de savoirs propres à une formation diplômante. Le guide à la recherche d’authentiques richesses régionales.
SOMMES-NOUS PROFESSEURS DE FRANÇAIS OU PROFESSEURS DE FRANÇAIS DANS UNE RÉGION DONNÉE ? Ambassadeur de la région, c’est par l’enseignant que passe, au départ, l’image de la région. Il donne à ses étudiants l’envie de visiter, de goûter, de partager. Cette démarche collaborative, je la pratique depuis toujours, en fonction du niveau et des besoins des étudiants, afin d’élargir leur apprentissage et les immerger dans leur environnement de manière dynamique. - 153 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
L’enseignement semble être le lieu d’une tension entre deux grands paradigmes. L’un privilégie les pratiques langagières en relation directe avec l’obtention d’un diplôme, l’autre favorise un patrimoine culturel connecté à la maîtrise d’une langue. Le rôle clé conféré à l’enseignement d’une langue est d’assurer l’acquisition de compétences linguistiques, mais aussi de conduire à une culture efficiente. Acquérir des savoirs et la capacité de transmettre le patrimoine découvert, tel est l’enjeu. Cette combinaison didactique, langue et découvertes culturelles, devient indispensable. C’est cette coopération ludique qui fera, de chaque apprenant, un véritable connaisseur, et lui aussi, un ambassadeur du lieu. Plaidons auprès des enseignants en langue pour un élargissement de leurs implications vers cette nouvelle tendance inclusive « langue et territoire » complémentarité nécessaire pour l’obtention d’un réel outil de performance. Donnons de l’authenticité à nos cours de langues en immersion, conduisons nos étudiants vers l’appropriation d’expériences dans leur lieu de formation. Chacune de nos écoles dans le monde impulse une pédagogie sur mesure où l’accent est mis sur la pratique de la langue dans un contexte professionnel défini, mais aussi dans le cadre d’activités de découvertes culturelles, touristiques, de rencontres et d’échanges avec les acteurs de la vie locale. GENÈSE NUMÉRO 1 DE CET ARTICLE : LA MAGIE DE LA TRANSMISSION Il était une fois une exposition universelle… En 2015, en Italie, à Milan, l’exposition universelle a été conçue autour du thème de la nourriture, de l’alimentation, des problèmes de la sous-alimentation dans certaines régions du monde et de celui de la nutrition, mais aussi des OGM. 137 pays y ont participé, 22,2 millions de visiteurs ont fréquenté cette exposition. De retour de cette expérience enrichissante, le besoin d’en partager les découvertes m’a conduit à en parler aux étudiants de Master 2, le week-end suivant, quelques jours avant la clôture de l’événement, 8 d’entre eux s’y sont rendus, motivés par l’importance, la qualité des présentations sur le site italien et bien évidemment sa proximité, Milan, Italie.
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GENÈSE NUMÉRO 2 DE CET ARTICLE : IL ÉTAIT UNE FOIS UNE CARTE DE FRANCE… Faire passer un test, au retour de leur stage, après une phase d’échanges pour être à l’écoute de leurs expériences personnelles souvent réussies, toujours formatrices, est devenu un classique. Or, demander aux étudiants français, comme internationaux, de situer villes et fleuves sur une simple carte a perturbé, quelque peu, bon nombre d’étudiants pour qui l’exercice n’était pas si simple. Même Paris n’était pas positionnée sur la Seine, réelle surprise alors que pour plusieurs d’entre eux, toutes origines confondues, la traversée des ponts de Paris faisait partie de leur première belle découverte de la capitale (Pont des Arts, Pont neuf, Pont Alexandre III…). Les interroger sur leurs connaissances régionales, dans leur lieu de formation, a donc été une évidence. La prise de conscience de leur manque de bagages culturels leur a sauté aux yeux. Des questions basiques sur ce qu’ils avaient acquis, à la fin de leur premier semestre de formation et de stage, mais aussi en deuxième année, recevaient des réponses évasives et imprécises justifiées par des « on n’a pas le temps », « on n’a pas les moyens financiers », « on a besoin de récupérer de la fatigue de la pratique ». Nos Millennials, Zennials auraient-ils oublié leur smartphone et autres outils numériques qui offrent réponse à « presque » tout pour une première approche du terrain culturel ? La matière « Français Langue étrangère » est implicitement liée à la culture de leur région, mais cette dernière n’apparaît pas directement dans la progression pédagogique concernée.
QUEL EST, À CE JOUR, L’ÉTAT DES LIEUX QUANT AUX CONNAISSANCES DE CERTAINS ÉTUDIANTS EN CE QUI CONCERNE LA VILLE, LE DÉPARTEMENT, LA RÉGION DU PAYS D’ÉTUDES ? Force est de constater, riches de nos rendez-vous quotidiens avec notre public qu’il est évocateur. Tout semble indiquer que l’apprenant attend le fait accompli avant de sortir de son univers de confort, de découvrir, d’être curieux et de devenir un parfait connaisseur de son lieu d’apprentissage et de formation. Pour la grande majorité de nos étudiants, la connaissance de terrain est extrêmement décevante. Bien peu seraient capables de répondre, en réception par exemple, aux questions d’un touriste désireux de visiter les sites de renom, de découvrir un musée ou de goûter une spécialité locale ou régionale. Cela n’est pas au programme. - 155 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
L’étudiant pense « partiels » et « notes » et non compétences. Pour cette question posée à des 3e année en fin de cursus : Quelles sont vos connaissances sur les 8 thèmes suivants – Gastronomie, histoire, architecture, traditions, événements saisonniers de tout genre (concert, sport, fête…), nouvel hôtel, restaurant, lieu convivial – susceptibles d’être communiqués à la clientèle séjournant dans l’hôtel Vatel de Nîmes et désireuse de visiter la région Occitanie ? Les réponses sont souvent incomplètes et leur demandent un temps de réflexion important. Si l’apprentissage, le perfectionnement et l’approfondissement d’une langue vivante constituent une valeur ajoutée, il convient d’en cerner clairement les limites. La focalisation sur les compétences managériale, pragmatique et linguistique masque celle de la compétence culturelle. Avoir choisi de se former dans un établissement Vatel, quel que soit le pays, nécessite de dépasser la maîtrise de l’échange verbal en situations professionnelles (hôtel/restaurant). Les attendus, aujourd’hui, doivent prendre appui sur ce que nous pourrions appeler la « connivence » culturelle entre les étudiants d’origines plurielles présents sur le site d’apprentissage lors des semaines théoriques et entre les stagiaires, le personnel et la clientèle séjournant à l’hôtel Vatel en semaines de pratique. La maîtrise d’une langue représente un enjeu culturel et professionnel de taille pour les générations montantes : Échanger sur des contextes culturels différents pour mieux négocier plus tard. La méthode immersive est celle qui permet d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Il est difficile de comprendre pour quelles raisons, les apprenants, une fois installés dans la région d’apprentissage, perdent un temps précieux en s’enfermant de façon systématique dans leur univers de formation, au lieu de découvrir activement leur cadre de vie. La connaissance d’une langue et de son environnement culturel devient une condition sine qua non pour une réelle compétence linguistique. S’exprimer dans une langue cible sans faire preuve de connaissances culturelles sur son lieu d’apprentissage limite, de façon drastique, les réelles capacités de communication, d’études et de travail. Ce type de situation pourrait même être considérée comme une forme nouvelle d’illettrisme culturel.
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LANGUE ET CULTURE, CULTURE ET CIVILISATION SONT INTIMEMENT LIÉES Dès les premières séances de F.L.E, l’enseignant doit mobiliser tous les supports pédagogiques nécessaires pour permettre à l’apprenant de s’immerger dans la culture française. Les données de l’office du tourisme, les vidéos régionales sur YouTube, vecteurs de curiosité, sont aussi à intégrer dans le quotidien de chacun afin d’enclencher des conduites véritablement immersives. « La langue est une manifestation de l’identité culturelle, et tous les apprenants, par la langue qu’ils parlent, portent en eux les éléments visibles et invisibles d’une culture donnée. » (G. Zarate et A. Gohard-Radenkovic, 2003). La langue cible représente la culture nouvelle du locuteur qui se construit progressivement sur ses recherches personnelles (internet), mais, aussi, sur ses découvertes de terrain. Cette culture « bis » s’ajoute à celle que l’apprenant possède à son arrivée dans son lieu de formation. Il ne doit pas se satisfaire d’une formation technique et linguistique. Il y a dans l’apprentissage d’une langue et son perfectionnement bien plus à maîtriser que le lexique, la grammaire et la syntaxe. Il faut parvenir à « penser » dans cette langue et ce sont bien souvent, les « aventures ou expéditions » hors classe, lors d’événements (fêtes, manifestations, expositions…) qui développent le pouvoir « penser » et les acquis culturels. C’est par elles que l’étudiant sera à même de confirmer ou de dépasser les stéréotypes appliqués aux pays étrangers avant son arrivée. C’est par elles aussi qu’il établira un parallèle avec sa propre culture et qu’il construira son approche interculturelle. À la culture relative aux œuvres de l’esprit - littérature, beaux-arts – s’ajoute celle du quotidien – façon de vivre, de se vêtir, de se nourrir afin de mieux comprendre les Autres près de qui il va passer une partie de sa vie d’étudiant. Son rôle de guide, l’enseignant le vit souvent comme un moment de digression, lors d’une parenthèse sur un moment culturel, comme une certaine perte de temps par rapport à sa progression pédagogique alors que l’écoute apportée à ce moment « hors » leçon fait preuve du réel intérêt de l’apprenant en manque de détails concrets issus du terrain. Si l’apprentissage d’une langue vivante constitue une valeur ajoutée, la focalisation sur le plan purement linguistique entraîne un manque culturel certain. Confiner notre enseignement dans le développement des seules compétences linguistiques revient à entraîner l’apprenant vers une méconnaissance du terrain où s’effectue la mise en pratique des acquis linguistiques. - 157 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
L’ouverture au monde, la formation à l’étranger, les échanges, à l’exemple du programme Marco Polo (meilleure innovation pédagogique aux Worldwide Hospitality Awards 2018), font appel à un argumentaire basé sur l’acquisition nécessaire de références culturelles, littéraires, architecturales, mais aussi culinaires, musicales ou traditionnelles. Nous nous attarderons plus particulièrement sur la nécessité de coconstruire avec nos apprenants ce bagage de connaissances générales davantage sociétales en résonance avec l’identité culturelle de chacun d’entre eux. Cette connaissance du terrain constitue une composante de taille pour une intégration réussie dans le lieu de formation et devrait être une préoccupation d’ordre quasiment existentiel. Sans entrer dans une analyse sociétale force est d’admettre qu’acquérir cette double compétence linguistique et culturelle recouvre une pluralité de situations professionnelles tous postes de travail confondus (serveur, barman, réceptionniste, concierge et aujourd’hui cyber-concierge, guest relations manager…). Cette double compétence permet de faire la différence et de répondre de façon réactive aux questions des clients. En fait, la difficulté pour l’enseignant réside non dans l’appropriation linguistique – grammaire, lexique, syntaxe – examen oblige, mais dans l’acquisition de données culturelles hors cadre de formation. Cette acquisition ne peut se faire de façon constructive que dans le cadre d’un échange par la médiation d’acteurs régionaux : Étudiants natifs de la région d’études, enseignants, intervenants professionnels. Cette approche nous amène à cesser de confiner l’enseignement d’une langue vivante à l’univers « classe » et à l’inscrire dans l’exploration d’un dispositif digital d’informations dans un premier temps, puis ultérieurement dans le cadre de parcours de découvertes ciblées : musées, marchés, expositions, événements locaux, fablab, incubateurs de startups. De telles situations de découverte profitent à une mise en perspective communicationnelle sur un événement donné de retour dans l’univers classe. Avec internet, d’innombrables vidéos permettent d’inventorier les attraits d’une ville, d’un département, d’une région. Ce support numérique a révolutionné le voyage et les découvertes en tous genres ces dernières années. Préparations de recettes, extraits de concerts, visites virtuelles de musées, livres en ligne, etc. Tout cela est quasiment accessible gratuitement.
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Mais il faut le répéter : Aller sur le terrain est la meilleure façon d’être acteur de sa formation, de ses découvertes et un bon entraînement pour s’imprégner, à la fois, de la culture d’une région, de ses centres d’intérêt et de la langue française. « […] je suis un de ces écrivains qui situent généralement leurs scènes de leurs romans dans des cadres réels. Je ne connais guère de sensation plus agréable que celle de s’aventurer en des coins pareils comme un chasseur, gibecière ouverte, pendant qu’une histoire se trame dans votre esprit ; d’entrer dans un édifice, de traverser une rue en se disant : cet endroit me convient, je vais le mettre dans mon histoire, et d’imaginer les personnages en train de se déplacer en ce lieu même, de s’asseoir où l’on est assis, ou de voir ce que l’on voit. » Pérez-Reverte Arturo (p.155). Pourquoi ne pas s’approprier cette phrase de l’écrivain, scénariste espagnol pour donner à nos cours, quand le thème s’y prête, un cadre réel favorable à l’acquisition d’un fait de langue comme d’un détail culturel ? Pousser nos étudiants à compléter l’étude d’un document en allant sur le terrain. Maîtriser l’impératif en allant au marché acheter les ingrédients d’une recette étudiée en cours. Cette aventure que propose l’auteur espagnol il faut que nos étudiants la vivent à leur manière en arpentant ruelles, rues et routes. Ils doivent devenir eux aussi « chasseurs » de sites reconnus, de produits locaux, de traditions, mais également de lieux insolites, d’événements saisonniers singuliers, d’acteurs régionaux, marcher dans leurs pas ou créer leur propre itinéraire de découvertes.
DES PISTES LUDIQUES À S’APPROPRIER EN TRAVAIL DE GROUPE Pour celui qui connaît le jeu de société DIXIT, créé en 2008, l’appropriation du principe de ce jeu est aisée. On peut imaginer 84 cartes sans texte, toutes différentes, représentant un aspect culturel de la ville ou région dans laquelle se forme l’étudiant. Celui-ci, une fois, intégrée l’information, serait à même de donner une présentation orale à un client éventuel, désireux d’en savoir davantage sur un site touristique, un événement, une spécialité culinaire ou une fête locale. La création du Monopoly élaboré sur les bases d’une ville définie ou d’une région va, d’une certaine façon, dans ce sens.
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La démarche ludique ne s’arrête pas là et l’étudiant passionné de jeux partage ses propres expériences et noms de jeu ou participe à une création originale. Le célèbre jeu de l’oie, jeu de société, toujours revisité, élaboré sur un parcours de 63 cases peut également représenter les attraits culturels de la région de formation ; ce jeu devient alors une sorte de parcours utilisateur à l’image de ceux dont on se sert en design de service pour appréhender non le cheminement d’un client, mais celui d’un touriste en visite dans la région et, ainsi, l’accompagner au mieux tout au long de son séjour.
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Ce travail individuel, mais aussi collectif consiste à concevoir des parcours à la journée, week-end ou à la semaine susceptibles de permettre au client de l’hôtel de réaliser une série de découvertes et d’explorer, si besoin, son lieu de villégiature en suivant les conseils d’un interlocuteur Vatel « ambassadeur régional ». De fait, ceci présuppose une curiosité, un désir de connaître puis de transmettre de la part de l’apprenant/stagiaire, à la fois dans son propre intérêt, celui d’avoir la joie de satisfaire aux exigences du client, mais également, dans celui du client pour la réussite de son séjour et l’écho qu’il en fera en présentiel ou sur les différents réseaux sociaux. Le temps de la classe ne permet guère de s’éloigner de la progression pédagogique sur laquelle porte tout partiel. L’enseignant peut, cependant, ouvrir la voie de recherches et de travaux personnels pour innover et coconstruire avec sa classe cette partie culturelle.
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PARTAGER Imaginons un stagiaire en réception qui maîtrise quelques détails culturels sans faire concurrence à internet, mais qui oriente et éclaire son client par simple professionnalisme et bonheur d’informer en présentiel. Il se doit de connaître les sites culturels et un peu d’histoire, grande ou petite, les événements locaux lors du séjour « client », les produits locaux et quelques signatures régionales. Pour cela, l’apprenant a besoin de vivre des « parenthèses découvertes » pendant ses moments de liberté. Il doit, tout au moins, voyager dans le temps et dans l’espace via internet ou se déplacer dans sa région de formation. Pousser les portes des musées gratuits pour étudiants de moins de 26 ans, circuler grâce aux transports à « petits » prix à l’exemple d’Edgard sur la région. Rechercher, à l’office du tourisme, les informations propres à une période donnée. Il lui faut nourrir ses connaissances culturelles et les transmettre à ses camarades de classe ou à d’autres étudiants de son établissement. Et cela à l’horizontale : classe de même année ou à la verticale, classe de niveau inférieur ou supérieur (de la première année de Bachelor à la dernière année, en première et deuxième année de Master). Le travail d’équipe, dans ce domaine, permet d’alléger sa tâche et de la rendre plus dynamique par des échanges ponctuels. En fonction du groupe d’appartenance et de ses goûts personnels, il multiplie ses découvertes, en musique, peinture, histoire, littérature, cinéma, danse, sport, cuisine… Un simple balayage des attractions de la région de Vatel Nîmes apporte un minimum de connaissances nécessaires, mais non suffisantes pour l’acquisition de ces compétences culturelles. Il en est de même pour chacun des Vatel implantés dans le monde. En effet, cette prise de conscience et ce changement de comportement se déclinent à l’international. C’est là que se retrouve le rôle de « guide » de l’enseignant de langue désireux de ne plus dissocier langue et culture. Il initie sa classe à cette curiosité du terrain, la stimule par ses connaissances personnelles et les questions qu’il pose pour que ses étudiants aient envie de se doter de cette culture régionale et bien évidemment nationale auprès de leurs camarades natifs d’autres régions de France, mais aussi internationale par leurs échanges entre étudiants internationaux. L’enseignant attend, par juste retour des choses, d’être, à son tour, cultivé par les découvertes « revisitées » ou élargies de ses étudiants. - 162 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
ÉTUDIANTS DE VATEL NÎMES ET D’AILLEURS, LE SAVIEZ-VOUS ? La région Occitanie possède une richesse exceptionnelle avec ses 8 sites inscrits au Patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO, aucune autre région française ne peut prétendre en rassembler autant. À cela s’ajoutent les nombreux sites naturels à immortaliser en photos avec smartphone ou tablette.
NÎMES ET LE PONT DU GARD, monument antique le plus visité de France. Aqueduc romain, classé au patrimoine mondial de l’humanité conduisant l’eau de la Fontaine d’Eure, près d’Uzès, jusqu’à la ville romaine Nemausus, Nîmes, lieu historique toujours vivant par ses concerts, ses spectacles pyrotechniques et ses expositions.
LES ARÈNES, vues du Musée de la Romanité. En perpétuel mouvement, cette culture de terrain s’enrichit et l’étudiant, d’un semestre à l’autre, élargit ses découvertes : le nouveau Musée de la Romanité, conçu par l’architecte - 163 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Elizabeth de Portzamparc, est venu récemment compléter les richesses du génie architectural romain : Arènes, Maison carrée, Pont du Gard, niché dans la garrigue entre Nîmes et Uzès. Par sa curiosité et son désir d’apprendre, il se donne les moyens de faire séjourner intelligemment le touriste exigeant.
LA MAISON CARRÉE, temple romain du 1er siècle, et Carré d’Art Norman Foster, architecte. Dédié à Auguste pour la gloire de ses petits-fils, il est devenu, tour à tour, une maison consulaire, une église puis un musée des arts antiques. C’est le temple romain le mieux conservé au monde.
JARDINS DE LA FONTAINE, aménagés au XVIIIe siècle au pied du mont Cavalier les jardins sont surmontés de la Tour Magne. À l’époque gallo-romaine, des thermes, un théâtre et le temple de Diane composaient cet ensemble. - 164 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
À ses richesses s’ajoutent d’autres découvertes ou curiosités régionales grâce auxquelles, en fonction de ses centres d’intérêt, l’étudiant accroît son savoir et parfois celui de son professeur, lui-même pas toujours natif du lieu de formation. Qui plus est, certaines données culturelles sont vivantes et évoluent. Elles se transforment, se développent ou parfois disparaissent.
LE MUSÉE & LA SOURCE PERRIER, plus d’un milliard de bouteilles circulent chaque année sans compter les dernières créations pour s’adapter aux goûts de sa clientèle.
L’UNIVERS DE LA TRUFFE, sur 15 hectares dans la région d’Uzès, premier duché de France, à 25 kilomètres de Nîmes, le diamant noir livre quelques-uns de ses secrets pour mieux le déguster et parfaire les accords mets et vins.
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LE SALIN D’AIGUES-MORTES, sur plus de 200 km2 exploités depuis la moitié du XIXe siècle. En partie composée de sel, la solde des légionnaires était composée de sel, « salarium », origine du terme salaire actuel. C’est cette Fleur de sel de Camargue, cristal parfumé que recherchent nos chefs pour relever leurs préparations une fois la tâche du saunier accomplie à travers les tables salantes aux couleurs rosées.
TRADITIONS CULINAIRES À PARTAGER • Les marins troquaient autrefois des morues contre des sacs de sel d’Aigues-Mortes lors de leur retour de Terre-Neuve. Vers 1830, c’est le cuisinier Durand qui rendit célèbre la brandade de morue pochée dans du lait puis montée à l’huile d’olive régionale. • La deuxième grande spécialité des Nîmois est la gardiane de taureau marinée dans du vin des Costières de Nîmes, elle reste le plat traditionnel des fêtes votives, accompagnée du riz de Camargue IGP (Indication géographique protégée) qui pousse dans les rizières au bord du petit Rhône. • Les asperges gardoises, les asperges des sables, au parfum d’iode et de sel poussent dans cette région. • L’agneau des Cévennes cuit à l’étouffée, accompagné d’un émincé de pommes reinette du Vigan et d’oignons doux des Cévennes. • Les fameux Pélardons AOC (Appellation d’origine contrôlée) et AOP (Appellation d’origine protégée) des Cévennes, petits fromages affinés au lait de chèvre cru et entier sont appréciés avec un filet d’huile d’olive de Nîmes et/ou du miel de châtaignier.
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Quelques douceurs nîmoises • Le croquant Villaret depuis 1775, délicieux biscuit long, doré et bien consistant dont le secret de la recette est toujours bien gardé à base de citron et peut-être de miel ! • Le Caladon, plus moelleux, fabriqué à base d’amandes et de miel. • Les fraises Garriguette et Ciflorette séduisent par leur forme et leur parfum. • L’olivier fait également partie de la culture nîmoise avec la fameuse « Picholine », olive à la chair juteuse, craquante et douce, qui se déguste verte.
UN PEU PLUS LOIN, MAIS TOUJOURS EN RÉGION OCCITANIE
LA CITÉ DE CARCASSONNE, l’une des plus belles cités fortifiées d’Europe restaurée par l’architecte français du XIXe siècle Viollet-le-Duc. On y découvre traditions médiévales, spectacles et plats régionaux. Sans oublier la légende de Dame Carcasse.
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SAINT-GUILHEM-LE-DÉSERT, sur les chemins de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle.
LA COQUILLE, SYMBOLE DES PÈLERINS.
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LE CANAL DU MIDI, liaison entre l’océan Atlantique et la mer Méditerranée. Construit au XVIIe siècle par Pierre-Paul Riquet pour permettre le transport de marchandises : quatorze ans de travaux titanesques. Les richesses du lieu d’implantation de Vatel Business School se multiplient au gré des villes choisies. Les centres d’intérêt, les goûts des étudiants orientent les choix de l’enseignant et les informations à donner ou à faire découvrir. Cette démarche d’ouverture de la matière d’enseignement F.L.E sur la culture locale se conjugue sur un plan national comme sur un plan international. Chaque Vatel s’inscrit dans un univers riche d’un passé et d’un présent à explorer et à exploiter pour compléter toute formation initiale en management hôtelier. À son arrivée dans une ville « Vatel », l’étudiant se trouve, d’une certaine façon, face à un livre fermé. À lui d’en tourner les pages au cours de ses semestres de formation. Fort de sa première expérience, il réitèrera cet exercice sur la route de ses différents stages puis, un jour, il se formera à la perfection sur le site de son premier poste de travail. L’exercice ne se limite pas à l’Occitanie. Le lecteur l’aura bien compris. Il se module et s’adapte à tous les Vatel, lieux choisis pour leurs avantages culturels. La curiosité et les déplacements personnels de l’enseignant le poussent à une « sortie de territoire ». Son désir de culture personnel et sa passion pour la transmission en sont les moteurs.
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VATEL LYON Marchons un peu dans les pas des étudiants lyonnais. Premières pistes suggestives de curiosité à élargir sans modération (à 1heure 30 de Nîmes en TGV). Lyon : capitale « mondiale de la gastronomie » conserve ses traditions culinaires mises en valeur par « le prince des gastronomes » Curnonsky, mais les dépasse en s’ouvrant à de nouvelles tendances. Les traditions sont toujours bien présentes avec les bouchons lyonnais, première attraction du nouvel arrivant dans la ville. Autour d’eux, tout un vocabulaire associé à de multiples détails culturels pousse les étudiants à la découverte : la soie, les drapiers, les canuts, des noms liés aux spécialités culinaires : grattons, cardons, saucisson, tablier de sapeur, quenelle, cervelle de canut, bugnes, mais aussi la Mère Brazier, Monsieur Paul (Bocuse), le pape de la cuisine… Associations de prestige et récompenses de renommée mondiale sont également liées à cette ville : les Toques Blanches Lyonnaises. Le Bocuse d’or, l’un des concours culinaires les plus prestigieux au monde et dont la finale a lieu à Lyon, après des sélections en Europe, en Asie et en Amérique Latine. Le Salon International de la Restauration de l’Hôtellerie et de l’Alimentation (Sirha). La Coupe du Monde de Pâtisserie (créée par un Lyonnais, le pâtissier Gabriel Paillasson). De nouvelles tendances voient le jour. Les cuisines japonaises, bios, contemporaines ou inspirées de cultures différentes viennent offrir un nouveau visage à la restauration lyonnaise. Aujourd’hui, la gastronomie lyonnaise est portée par d’autres chefs à découvrir lors d’escapades lyonnaises.
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LES BOUCHONS LYONNAIS. Inscrite au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO, Lyon ne manque pas de richesses historiques que l’étudiant repère en arpentant rues et traboules, passages traditionnels qui permettent de passer d’un immeuble à un autre. L’innovation n’est pas de reste avec la Fête des Lumières et les fresques et trompe-l’œil. La capitale des Gaules compte près de 150 fresques réparties aux quatre coins de son agglomération.
LA FRESQUE DES LYONNAIS. Symbole de la ville, un trompe-l’œil de 800 m2 qui rend hommage aux hommes et femmes qui ont fait Lyon et contribué à sa renommée, de Paul Bocuse à l’Abbé Pierre en passant par Bernard Pivot et Édouard Herriot. - 171 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
L’histoire de Lyon se lit en parcourant ses rues et en levant la tête. Ses façades deviennent de véritables pages à déchiffrer.
LE MUR DU CINÉMA. Lyon a donné naissance aux inventeurs du cinéma : les frères Lumières. Ce mur peint de 500 m² représente une mise en scène du premier film avec un des frères Lumière associé à un clin d’œil à plusieurs films tournés dans la ville.
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VATEL BORDEAUX Marchons un peu dans les pas des étudiants bordelais… Faisons-nous plaisir et présentons quelques pistes pour pousser au voyage (à moins de 5 heures de Nîmes en TGV). Ville surprenante à découvrir en bateau, à pied : le vieux Bordeaux et la tour Pey Berland, le singulier miroir d’eau où une mince pellicule reflète l’architecture classique du XVIIIe siècle. Le port de la Lune qui était le plus important de France. Le quartier des Chartrons, fief historique des négociants en vins, marqué par le commerce colonial, fort de son nouveau souffle à l’aube du 21èmesiècle, présente ses belles façades restaurées, ses restaurants et bistrots accueillants implantés face à la Garonne, dans les anciens négoces aux larges porches qui permettaient, autrefois, le passage des tonneaux. Le Quai des Marques regroupe des restaurants, des bars, des écoles supérieures. Le Darwin Ecosystème, le lieu alternatif de la rive droite. La cité du vin, véritable phare de l’œnotourisme bordelais, complément indispensable de la route des vins qui mène jusqu’au village à la renommée internationale, Saint-Émilion.
GRANDS CRUS CLASSÉS BORDELAIS.
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LE MIROIR D’EAU (photo T. Laffond). Bordeaux possède, depuis fin juillet 2006, le plus grand miroir d’eau du monde (3 450 m2). Il est situé face à la place de la Bourse, entre le quai de la Douane et le quai Louis 18, créé par le fontainier Jean-Max.
LA CITÉ DU VIN, LE TOTEM DE BORDEAUX (35 mètres de haut). Son architecture originale renferme un équipement complet dédié aux richesses et à la diversité viticole mondiale. Son parcours sensoriel et interactif conduit le visiteur au Belvédère pour y déguster un vin issu des vignobles mondiaux, offrant une vue à 360° sur la ville. - 174 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
C’est l’un des musées dans le monde à visiter tout particulièrement quand on a choisi de se former en Hotel & Tourism Business School. Il guide l’apprenant, de façon interactive, au cœur des civilisations du vin et le mène, en fin de visite, à une meilleure maîtrise de l’association mets et vins. Tous les sens sont en éveil lors de ce parcours culturel original.
LES HALLES DE BACALAN. Depuis 2015, ce marché couvert, face à la cité du vin accueille, sur 950 m2, avec plus d’une vingtaine d’artisans, producteurs et leurs équipes, une clientèle jeune et gourmande privilégiant les valeurs marchandes actuelles : circuits courts, partages d’expériences et d’événements festifs. Des découvertes sucrées ou salées
• Les Cannelés, petits gâteaux croquants d’abord puis fondants, parfumés au rhum et à la vanille, en forme de cylindres cannelés à la croûte caramélisée. Ils ont été conçus dans le territoire de Bordeaux parce que les vins étaient filtrés avec du blanc d’œuf et cette recette nécessite beaucoup de jaunes d’œufs. Rien ne doit se perdre. Voilà ce qui est à l’origine de cette spécialité bordelaise. - 175 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
• Les bouchons de Bordeaux, associant amandes, agrume, miel et grains de raisin. • Le caviar de l’Estuaire de la Gironde : réintroduit en 1980 grâce aux esturgeons pêchés dans l’estuaire de la gironde il tient sa place aux côtés du caviar russe ou iranien.
• Les Huîtres D’Arcachon ou du Cap Ferret. • La pibale (ou civelle), l’alevin de l’anguille qui se reproduit dans le Mer des Sargasses en Atlantique pour pondre ensuite dans l’estuaire de la Gironde ou le Bassin d’Arcachon, relevée au piment d’Espelette, village mondialement connu en Pays basque français. • La lamproie, mets sacré de la région bordelaise, poisson péché dans l’estuaire de la Gironde est laid et repoussant. Sa chair fine est l’ingrédient majeur de la fameuse recette de la Lamproie bordelaise mijotée dans une sauce onctueuse réalisée à partir de Bordeaux rouges de caractère. « Les relations et les mobilités internationales ne cessent de se multiplier, de s’intensifier, de se diversifier. Chaque habitant de la planète a de plus en plus de probabilité d’avoir des contacts, de travailler, de résider avec des personnes de langues et de cultures différentes. Quelles qu’en soient les modalités, la mondialisation conduit inévitablement à un monde plurilingue et multiculturel où le vivre-ensemble devient la condition de l’avenir de l’humanité. C’est précisément le défi des enseignants de langues et de cultures étrangères, de plus en plus sollicités, que de préparer les jeunes, mais aussi les moins jeunes, à cette variété de langues et de cultures et de les encourager à profiter des différences plutôt que de les ignorer, de les redouter ou de les combattre. » J.-M. Defays.
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C’est aussi le rôle des enseignants de langues d’éveiller la curiosité, de stimuler la volonté de découvrir non seulement la langue et ses nuances, mais aussi le pays, ses régions, ses traditions et ses spécialités. Son rôle est bien alors celui de guide, tout au moins, pour les étudiants qui en ont besoin, ce qui est le cas dans ces classes au public de plus en plus hétérogène. La France à travers son histoire, son riche patrimoine, ses artistes et artisans, ses spécialités gastronomiques et ses savoir-faire, rayonne dans le monde entier. En apprenant le français, on découvre très vite que ce pays ne se réduit pas à Paris, au Louvre et à la tour Eiffel, et que ses habitants ne se promènent pas avec un béret sur la tête et une baguette de pain sous le bras, illustration fréquente dans les premières méthodes de français langue étrangère. Bien avant son arrivée, l’apprenant connaît déjà ce qui suit à condition d’être curieux : • l’hymne national : la Marseillaise, composée par l’officier français Rouget de Lisle en 1792 pour encourager ses troupes ; • l’emblème national : le coq et son cocorico. En latin, gallus signifie à la fois coq et gaulois ; • le drapeau : bleu, blanc, rouge ; • la fête nationale : le 14 juillet, prise de la bastille en 1789, symbole de la Révolution française ; • la devise : Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ; • Marianne : figure symbolique de la république incarnant ses valeurs, issue du célèbre tableau d’Eugène Delacroix, « La liberté guidant le peuple ». L’apprenant doit, au plus tôt dans son cursus, partir à la recherche de compléments d’information que ses enquêtes sur le terrain lui offriront afin d’acquérir une véritable culture vivante. La découverte d’acteurs et d’artistes incontournables qui ont marqué ou marquent l’histoire de ce pays dans de nombreuses régions, celle de la grande diversité des villes et des paysages, des produits et recettes de terroir mènent à la réussite de cette immersion dans cet « ailleurs » de formation et au cœur de cette vie à la française avec ses spécificités régionales bretonnes, alsaciennes, occitanes, provençales, basques, parisiennes… Enseignants et apprenants possèdent, à l’heure actuelle, davantage de ressources pédagogiques, scientifiques et technologiques. Il n’empêche que certaines innovations ont encouragé une réelle paresse. S’il y a nécessité de faire une recherche, on sait bien qu’en quelques clics l’information surgira. Mémoriser - 177 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
n’a plus véritablement de raison d’être sauf… en période d’examen. Un tel comportement dévalorise la démarche exigeante menant à l’acquisition des connaissances et au développement des compétences. Allier pratique et théorie est, plus que jamais, la valeur ajoutée de ces professionnels du tourisme en devenir. Quels que soient les objectifs d’apprentissage d’une langue : communicatifs, professionnels, politiques, ils ne peuvent être dissociés de connaissances culturelles. Avant d’être citoyen du monde, il faut l’être dans son lieu de vie et d’apprentissage. La notion de langue de service, forte de ses automatismes, de ses anglicismes, de ses raccourcis, supplante parfois celle de langue de culture, riche des valeurs de sa civilisation : n’est-ce pas une erreur ? Avec les progrès fulgurants de l’intelligence artificielle, il deviendra peut-être plus aisé, équipé d’une simple oreillette, de parler toutes les langues du monde (cf.la nouvelle fonctionnalité de transcription et traduction en temps réel » de Google Traduction présentée fin janvier 2020). De fait, qu’en sera-t-il demain de l’apprentissage de la langue de service ? Alors que pour la langue de culture, fondement de notre intelligence « naturelle » l’apprentissage engage d’autres formes d’investissement plus personnel, plus affectif prenant appui sur l’enrichissement culturel et relationnel. Dissocier l’apprentissage d’une langue de l’expérience personnelle de terrain c’est aussi dissocier la pratique de la langue de celle de la culture. Or, on n’enseigne pas qu’une langue, on transmet aussi les valeurs et les richesses du lieu d’apprentissage. La curiosité, les rencontres, les découvertes personnelles restent toujours les moyens les plus efficaces pour apprendre une langue. Si, par le passé, l’enseignement des langues était calqué sur celui du latin ou du grec ancien, enfermé dans des livres il ne faut pas, aujourd’hui, de nouveau, se laisser envoûter par nos ordinateurs, nos tablettes et smartphones. Cette transversalité pédagogique, articulée sur plusieurs domaines, nos étudiants en sont, aujourd’hui, les acteurs et les véhicules pour construire leurs compétences. La mondialisation, la circulation des informations et des personnes ont amené ces dernières et tout particulièrement nos apprenants « voyageurs » à voir leur monde autrement, plus accessible et plus « petit » d’une certaine façon. Cependant, malgré la possibilité d’aller à la rencontre de l’autre, d’échanger - 178 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
avec lui, nuit et jour, accéder à sa culture régionale comme nationale semble quelque peu superflu. Quotidiennement présents à leur côté en tant qu’enseignants, il est facile d’observer que nos étudiants ont encore du chemin à parcourir en ce qui concerne les richesses culturelles de leur lieu de formation. Ce sont ces exercices de découvertes hors classe qui faciliteront leur maîtrise de la représentation des Autres. Cela implique un challenge important pour eux, en tant qu’étudiants, stagiaires et plus tard, en tant que professionnels en hôtellerie/restauration/tourisme. Entrevoir cette transversalité, dans le cadre de notre formation en langue, nécessite de pouvoir définir, avec notre public, les centres d’intérêt précis d’une telle démarche d’investigation sur le terrain en dehors des heures de cours. Durant leur formation doit s’opérer ce questionnement sur leur niveau de culturalité en pays et région de formation. Avec l’appui de l’enseignant en langue, ils peuvent arriver aux interrogations suivantes : • comment peut-on organiser cette démarche « découverte culturelle » ? • quels sont les supports favorisant une telle manière de progresser pour dépasser l’approche superficielle effectuée en amont de leurs études ? Dès leur arrivée, ils sont, au quotidien, débordés par des messages « papier » (flyers, brochures, prospectus par exemple) ou numériques. Ils donnent, aussitôt, et c’est bien logique, la priorité à leurs études et examens. Le temps accordé au développement de leurs compétences culturelles se réduit telle une peau de chagrin alors qu’ils sont l’illustration même d’une société estudiantine pluriculturelle. La recherche de leur place dans l’école et le besoin d’appartenance à un groupe social les mènent parfois à s’enfermer dans leur nouvel univers, évitant tout accès à l’inconnu. Ils ont leurs lieux de prédilection pour se retrouver certains soirs ou jours. Pour vivre autre chose et s’évader, ils ont leur smartphone ou leur ordinateur pour un jeu, un film ou un Skype nocturne avec leurs connaissances ou familles. Le double enjeu, désormais, ici, est de créer une culture commune pour lier les individus : à l’école, par l’enseignement dispensé et les matières inculquées par exemple, mais également dans la ville et la région d’adoption pour ouvrir leur culture aux autres et éveiller, encourager leur curiosité. Le premier pas culturel vers leur site de formation passe donc par l’office du tourisme, véritable pont entre l’étudiant et sa région d’adoption, mais aussi par certains camarades de classe natifs du territoire. - 179 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Le rôle d’un enseignant est également fondamental dans la construction des compétences culturelles chez l’apprenant pour que celui-ci puisse en devenir l’acteur principal à l’écoute de ses propres centres d’intérêt. Un autre vecteur est celui de l’écrit : visiter et prendre des notes à partager en classe. L’acte de lecture est également un puissant moteur pour un tel enrichissement. Le développement et la diffusion exponentielle de l’écrit comme de l’image grâce notamment aux nouvelles technologies facilitent l’accès aux écrits de cultures diverses. Extraits littéraires, contes, mais aussi vidéos sous-titrées, films en région, documentaires, informations régionales. Ces nouveaux accès aux savoirs offrent une grande capacité à mobiliser les connaissances culturelles acquises et à en développer de nouvelles. Tout ce qui est authentique et représentatif du lieu de formation de l’apprenant, pictural ou sonore représente un fort intérêt quant à sa portée culturelle dans le cadre de ses études comme de celui de sa profession future en Hôtellerie/ Restauration. Se pencher sur la culture de site d’implantation de son école Vatel, c’est alors s’intéresser, non seulement à l’histoire et au quotidien des hommes qui l’habitent et qui participent à sa destinée, mais également à celle de ses institutions tant civiles que culturelles.
L’ÉTUDIANT « PÈLERIN » : OUVRIR SON ESPACE D’APPRENTISSAGE L’histoire, c’est à l’étudiant de la prolonger aujourd’hui, en arpentant rues et ruelles du centre historique de la ville, en poussant les portes des musées, des halles, des commerces, des lieux de partage pour s’imprégner d’un passé si riche, d’un présent en perpétuelle évolution et découvrir comment se tissent les richesses de son univers de formation : offres culturelles, festivals rythmant l’année, événements innombrables. Des créations innovantes se multiplient pour orienter tout public vers une meilleure connaissance du terrain : • le nouveau magazine Mia Europo souhaite, par sa démarche originale, faire découvrir sur papier et non sur tablette, les pays de l’Union européenne aux enfants de 8 à 13 ans Barcelone Berlin Budapest Lisbonne Paris Prague ; • MyCityExpress est le premier jeu de piste touristique permettant de visiter les plus belles villes du monde tout en s’amusant, afin de sortir la tête des guides touristiques et de l’écran pour vivre une expérience - 180 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
touristique différente. Il a été imaginé pour tout public pour une pratique ludique, interactive et culturelle du terrain. Il contient des questions, des énigmes, des jeux d’observation et des défis à réaliser en interrogeant les gens sur place afin de stimuler l’échange verbal. CityMap contient 20 étapes au cœur de la ville pour découvrir les sites incontournables et des lieux insolites avec l’obtention, en fin de jeu, d’un passeport de véritable CityExplorer ; • le groupe Toyota a annoncé, lors du CES 2020, que lui et ses partenaires, commenceront à construire une ville expérimentale au Japon afin de tester toutes les nouvelles technologies. Ce projet futuriste sera construit dès l’année prochaine sur un site d’environ 70 hectares au pied du mont Fuji. Son nom : la Woven City, la ville tissée. Bâtiments durables construits en bois pour « minimiser l’empreinte carbone », toits des immeubles recouverts de panneaux photovoltaïques pour produire de l’énergie en plus de celle produite par des piles à combustible à hydrogène qui alimenteront la ville en électricité. Le futur que nous promet la technologie implique une connaissance accrue de ce qui a permis d’en arriver là. Menons, nous aussi, enseignants motivés, nos étudiants vers la découverte de leurs villes et régions de formation avant que toute racine soit définitivement coupée et qu’ils oublient toute investigation sur leur territoire d’adoption. Ne l’oublions pas : Histoire et traditions, gastronomie et événements locaux consolident les connaissances linguistiques de l’apprenant et boostent ses compétences culturelles au service du client séjournant, pour son plaisir comme pour ses affaires, dans une région définie. En visitant un site touristique, un musée, un marché local, en assistant à un événement culturel, chaque étudiant ou groupe d’étudiants s’investit concrètement dans le retour d’informations et de découvertes immortalisées par des photos informatives de smartphone afin de réussir cet exercice de transmission. La grammaire de la langue cible et tout particulièrement les temps verbaux, le lexique, l’organisation syntaxique sont au programme pour un perfectionnement efficient utilisable au quotidien en classe, mais bien évidemment hors classe. C’est pourquoi nos étudiants ont sérieusement besoin de découvrir par euxmêmes les richesses de leur région de formation pour en maîtriser l’Histoire ancrée dans le temps et pas seulement les innovations numériques de leur génération. Alors se crée cette transversalité entre langue cible et connaissances culturelles effaçant toute notion de hiérarchie. - 181 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Ainsi formés et cultivés, nos diplômés deviennent non seulement les ambassadeurs de leur région de formation, mais aussi de véritables prescripteurs économiques en orientant, à leur tour, leurs clients vers des découvertes singulières de sites, d’événements, de produits locaux.
BIBLIOGRAPHIE/WEBOGRAPHIE CABANE, F. et JEAN D. (2019). « Nîmes au fil de l’Histoire » - Nîmes Éditions Alcide. CARETTE, E., CARTON, F. et VLAD, M. (2011). « Diversités culturelles et enseignement du français dans le monde : le projet CECA. » - Grenoble PUG. Collectif « 1001 sites à voir en France » (Français) Broché – (2019) Michelin. DEFAYS, J.-M. (2018). « Enseigner le français langue étrangère et seconde : Approche humaniste de la didactique de langues et des cultures » - Bruxelles, Éditions Mardaga. MAISONNEUVE, A. (2016). « Bordeaux l’essentiel » - Paris Éditions Nomades. MIA EUROPO, magazine. Directrice de la publication : Pauline Colin – Éditeur : Mia Europo SAS PARIS. PÉREZ-REVERTE, A. (2017). « Deux hommes de bien. » - Paris, Éditions du Seuil. PINEAU, G. (1983). “Produire sa vie, autoformation et autobiographie.” Montréal : Edilig, Ed. St Martin. RIVERO VILA, I. (2014). « L’interculturel à travers le multimédia dans l’enseignement du français langue étrangère. » - Éditions de l’université de Salamanque. VALODE, P. et LEROY, M. (2015). « Lyon Métropole du XXIe siècle. » - Caluireet-Cuire Edxodus Image et Communication. ZARATE, G., GOHARD-RADENKOVIC, A., LUSSIER, D. et PENZ, H. (2003). « Médiation culturelle et didactique des langues. » - Strasbourg : Édition du Conseil de l’Europe. DIXIT, jeu de société créé en 2008, édité chez Libellud. https://blog.orsys.fr/les-carnets/index.php/2020/01/24/ faites-de-linterculturalite-une-force/ - 182 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
https://generationvoyage.fr/visiter-nimes-faire-voir/ https://journals.openedition.org/rechercheseducations/2617 https://www.culture.gouv.fr/Actualites/Reinventer-le-tourisme-culturel https://www.innovation-pedagogique.fr/article23.html https://www.innovation-pedagogique.fr/article1701.html https://www.mycityexpress.fr/produit/citybox-paris/?v=11aedd0e4327 City Box, jeu de piste touristique https://fr.motor1.com/news/391465/toyota-woven-city-2021/ https://vimeo.com/378727816 Musée Gadagne – « Les bâtisseurs de Lyon » https://youtu.be/D44WzU9m8Jg (cyber-concierge)
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LES CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DU TOURISME CIRVATH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM
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ZANNIER KO CHANG: PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT IN THAILAND Tangui CAMPO, Melina CONROY, Lena KOLENDA, Chen LEI & Yael LANCE*
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT In the optic of conducting the project of international extension of the Zannier Hotel group and reach new markets, the first step was to conduct an environment and risk assessment analysis evaluate/assess the potential risks and opportunities for our company to open a new property in Thailand. Political - Thailand suffered some difficulties in the past with an unstable government and indeed lost their King in 2016, leaving the country with the task to face this loss and keep the monarchy. Moreover, the stability ranking of Thailand is good at A4 in country stability and A3 in economic environment. Thailand has good relationships with foreign allies such as the USA, Europe and China, our main potential BtoB and BtoC customers. The only negative point we can highlight for our project is the corruption rate which is quite high: 36/100 but there are now 7 anti-corruption agencies to fight against this phenomenon, and the government is willing to implement more regulations to combat this issue. * Work Group of Students from Vatel Nimes
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Economic - Thanks to the advancement in processes involved in registering a company, a low general monetary cost in terms of taxes, fees and living (approximately 36% less than in France) and an 8% growth forecasted for tourism. Thailand is among the best countries in South East Asia and the 17th easiest place to do business in the world. It is an economically stable and safe location to settle a hotel. Additionally, the country has laid out economic goals from 2017-2036 to improve their economic stability, equal economic opportunities, human capital, environmental sustainability and effective government systems among others. By improving the economic and environmental quality of life for Thai people, they will be investing in the future of the country making it a more stable and desirable country for investors. Environment - Thailand has a superior natural and geographical environment with plenty of water, sunshine, high temperatures throughout the year, large areas of plains and spectacular coastline. All these contribute to the development and promotion of tourism for Thailand. Nevertheless, floods and typhoons often threaten tourist’s safety during the summer season and must be considered. Legal - Because of its characteristics, we are building a type 4 hotel according to the ministerial regulation. We will roughly need 6 months to obtain all the licenses and permits needed for the construction to begin our activities. We must employ a large quantity of Thai employees (4 Thai employees for one foreign employee) and we must hire a Thai Director to be able to sign the application at the provincial office. Social - Like many other developing countries, Thailand continues to see economic and social inequality amongst their communities. Uniquely Thailand has been investing in improving the overall quality of life of their people and have already seen advancements with lower poverty rates. This has led the overall consumption in Thailand to increase and between 2015-2017 the average household consumption grew by 1.3%. The Thai Board of Investment states that the literacy rates in Thailand are at 94% for men and 90% for women making the Thai workforce highly adaptable with the potential for further development. Thailand is also a country that has never been subjected under foreign rules, therefore there is a strong sense of culture and identity. Ultimately, their warm culture and global location has placed Thailand at the regional center for trade and manufacturing, making it a rapidly developing country. This provides investors with the opportunity and security to conduct business in Thailand, which is why we have chosen to proceed with our hotel in this market.
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ARRANGEMENT OF THE PROPERTY ARRANGEMENT OF ROOMS & COMMON AREAS “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication” Guests will arrive to the island of Ko Chang by a private Zannier boat shuttle. Upon arrival, they will be transported in a small electric car, driving through the jungle and familiarizing the guests with the property. The first thing they will see once they arrive on the property will be the farm of the hotel on each side. Main building in the middle of the property (facing the ocean): – The lobby on the ground floor; – The Sukhawadee restaurant on the top floor. The Lobby and Main Building: The lobby ambiance: accessed via stone on the lagoon, fully opened entrance, high ceiling, eliminated with garland, spacious with personal sitting desk (front desk). There is a 22-seats area with comfortable sofas. A refreshing area: Local drinks, Fresh towels, Fresh local fruits. We will include a vegetal wall in the lobby, located behind the front desk the wall will be a decoration piece and an ecological system. Moreover, the lobby will have a fountain in the center of the hall. In fact: an indoor vegetal wall allows to purify the air, reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), humidify the air, and promote healthier. Moreover, we will collect and reuse the water of the vegetal wall to aliment the toilet of the lobby. In fact, after watering the wall automatically thanks to a redirection system of rainwater, the water will go through the wall and will be purified by the plants so we could use it for the lobby bathroom. The air conditioning system: there are various characteristics to be taken into consideration in order to have the least environmentally impacting air conditioning system. – The size of the AC unit is very important as a too big or too small unit can generate a waste of energy that what is truly needed. – One of the best ways to be greener is still to use scheduling programs. A lot of energy waste is generated because of an overused AC system. The objective is to manage efficiently the use of the AC. - 189 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
– Install Hybrid Heat pumps which help reduce energy consumption by making a more efficient use of the energy used. The Rooms: Total Number of Rooms on Property: 42 rooms. 2 Categories: – The Jungle Suites: 18 spacious suites with jungle view and private terrace; – The Beach Front Villas: 24 villas with private terrace. The Jungle Suites: “A different kind of minimalism” Concept: rather than imposing the property into the natural surroundings, the architecture is adapting itself to the native habitat and is largely inspired by local materials such as wood, bamboo and stone. This combination of pure, natural and imperfect materials provides the guest with warmth and a sense of organic character to the property. The Beach Front Villas: “The perfect combination of modern & traditional Thai elegance” Concept: Architecture integrating local culture and traditional Thai expertise design. Combining both modern minimalism with the elegance of traditional Thai culture. Integration of artisan craft furniture with a “homey setting” in opposition to grand & impressive architecture. The textures and colors reflect local culture, respect for the climate and ancestral customs. ● In room and common areas: implementation of rainwater recycling system. The rain shower: Implementing an outside, self-sufficient shower in the terrace of the room. Concept: a bamboo tank collecting rainwater, a natural system of stones to filter the water and a bamboo and wood style structure outside of the room.
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Rainwater to create natural lagoon: Thanks to the rain season very abundant in Thailand, we will create natural lagoon made with the system of garden stairs. The hotel proposes a pillow menu for each room composed of: • Feather pillow; • Ergonomic pillow; • Non allergenic pillow. The hotel will propose organic bed linen. In fact, it exists organic textile that can be used for bed linen, it is made from natural material such as cotton, flax and hemp. Therefore, the hotel will use bed linen respecting the certification “Global Organic Textile Standard”. ZANNIER HOTEL KOH CHANG - FOOD AND BEVERAGES Zannier Hotel Koh Chang features 2 restaurants, 1 All day dining Bar and 1 Bar: Salathai Restaurant - A casual restaurant which promises an array of vibrant Thaï and fusion flavours created using local ingredients. Salathaï is a traditional open pavillion used as a meeting place and to give people shade. Inspired by local and world cuisine; Salathaï Restaurant offers innovative dishes that make use of the extensive assortment of local seafood as well as exotic, organic fruits & vegetables, many of which come from our own organic gardens. Salathaï restaurant does not serve pork or red meats, but does offer exceptional menus for vegetarians.
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With a “no-menu” dining concept, Salathaï restaurant’s vast selection of dishes are inspired by ingredients grown on Koh Kood, Koh Chang, our organic gardens and seafood caught by local fishermen. Sukhawadee Restaurant - A contemporary casual fusion food restaurants with international cuisine. From the freshest seafood to the finest fusion meal − all the while delighting in Koh Chang’s beautiful sunsets and starlit nights above the jungle. Sukhawadi means heaven in Thaï. Sukhawadee means heaven in Thaï. The restaurant is inspired from the typical thai fisherman houses on the surrounding island but offers a luxurious atmosphere. The Coconut Hut Bar - A casual all-day dining bar where guests can order all day food from a thigh menu out of lunch and dinner time as well as fresh juices and smoothies. To balance with our “sans menu” F&B offer, we have installed a Snack bar in the hotels where guests can order all day food from a thigh menu out of lunch and dinner time. The Coconut Hut is a little garden hut Snack bar and juices/smoothies bar. It is the right place to savour sweet juices from local Thai fruits, snack on lateafternoon bites, and enjoy a wide range of cocktails and mocktails to cool off after a day in the sun. Sodchun Bar - The bar of the hotel offers original cocktails inspired from local flavors and senses, the best location to extent the night to its best moments. Sodchun means refreshing and delighting in Thaï. Concept: The bar of the hotel offers original cocktails inspired from local flavors and senses, the best location to extent the night to its best moments. The bar is using quality spirits and drinks and makes discover our customer typical local spirits or beverages from local producers. Sodchun means refreshing and delighting in Thaï. This bar also features a colonial style cigar bar with a wide range of a quality selection. Design: The hotel is located by the beach an gives you the feeling to encounter a bar counter in the middle of nowhere, it is an open space with a counter and some places to sit, such as a few high chairs and typical Thai mattress by the beach. F&B OFFER The hotel has a full board offer that includes breakfast, lunch and dinner at its Salathaï restaurant. As the island is pretty small, with a limited offer of restaurants on the island, it will be easier for us to propose a “sans menu” concept to our customers according to the harvest of the garden and manage the food wasting.
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To have this full board system to work, guests upon their arrival will have a form provided by the guest relations or reception colleague to be completed. On this form easy to complete the customer will have all a section with its food allergies or preferences diet. It is on this same form that they will find the general information of the hotel with amenities, opening hours of facilities and guest booking to be signed and to confirm the check-in. To balance with that concept, a Snack bar in the hotels where guests can order all day food from a thigh menu out of lunch and dinner time has been installed. The hotel also features a fine dining restaurant open only in the evening as well. Our customers provide their needs allergy-related or rooted in their religion or culture. We can cater to their dietary requirements. We invite them to let us know of any special preparations (plant-based, vegetarian, gluten-free, nut allergies, low-carb, etc.) that they need in advance. ARRANGEMENT OF FACILITIES The Garden: To constantly provide the best ingredients to our guests but also ensure the best harvesting practices to supply our F&B facilities, we have decided to create our own organic garden. Our organic garden is rich in fruit and vegetables, eggs, aromatic herbs, flowers and many other natural products we use in the hotel: fruits and vegetables for our restaurant, fibrous plants for bindings; leaves and stalks for use in the décor; essential oils… Swimming Pool: Our Pool is meant to be unique and provide the most qualitative swimming experience thanks to an ergonomic and economical filtration system. Indeed, it is the experience of natural, ecological and environmental friendly swimming pool that transports our guests to feelings like mountain lakes and rivers. In order to do this, a very innovative method is used combining techniques of aboveground cultivation and depollution by plants. The pool water is pumped and distributed to the plants of the greenhouse by a system of vertical cascades and horizontal flows. We rely heavily on gravity to reduce the energy cost of moving water through the system. Guaranteeing a reduction in expenses and a reduction in the environmental impact while offering a natural swimming pool experience, healthy and unprecedented.
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The design of our pool is meant to provide a variety of possibilities for our guest. On the beach side, the infinity edge will give the feeling of falling in the Ocean in front while comfortably sitting in the water from the other side of the pool, enjoying a fresh cocktail from the pool bar. Children will love swimming under the small bridge connecting to the Pool Garden where a variety of flowers and plants will generate this close to nature and calm atmosphere. WELLNESS EXPERIENCE In order to understand the Thai culture concerning wellness we need to consider the Thai religion and history. Thai healing evolved with the integration of these systems and ethno-practices being performed by local healers, shamans, and midwives. Based on a holistic approach that includes internal, external, and psycho-spiritual disciplines, or herbal potions, massage, and meditation, this medical philosophy focuses on the four elements, earth (din), water (nam), wind (lom), and fire (fai), and achieving body and mind harmony.
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The SPA will be composed of several elements: • The “indoor” room composed of: – One double massage cabin and 2 individual one; – One hammam; – One sauna; – Aromatic shower with local essential oils; – One relaxing cave; – A relaxing area which included sofas, the detox drinks, fresh fruits, bath for fish pedicure; – Changing room with hair dryer, hairbrush body cream; • One private massage area for 2 people on the lagoon with jungle view; • One private massage salathai type for 2 people on the beach with ocean view. YOGA AND MEDITATION • YOGA. The yoga and meditation classes will take place in the suspended room. Guest will enjoy an open area facing the ocean, all of it immersed in the island jungle. To remind the elements focused healing, the area is designed so that: – The WIND thanks to the opened structure, allowing the air to go from the ocean to the jungle. – The EARTH: the area is suspended in the trees, the trees are all around, the wood is very present. Some of the yoga classes will take place on the beach, for a regenerative wake up during the sunrise. • MEDITATION. Some of the meditation classes will take place in the same area than the yoga classes. But also; on the beach, on the inside room of the spa for couple or individual meditation sessions.
1. Pranayama. A breathing ancestral technic; 2. Gong; 3. Singing bowls; 4. Candle Gazing.
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• PERSONAL PROGRAM
a. Anti-stress program; b. Discovering yoga and individual development; c. Creating your own Thai natural products. DETOX The spa experience also includes our health advisor who will guide you to combine an unforgettable experience in a unique hotel with a journey to clean and detox your body and mind. The detox drinks will be able to be served: – in the spa area next to the yoga room; – in room every morning as a detox basket; – some detox smoothies and juice are available at the bar. PACKAGES Personalized packages experience depending on your stay’s length. – – – –
3 days packages; 5 days packages; 8 days packages; A la carte.
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Fitness Center: Fitness Center will be eco sustainable as energy will be generated by the users of our machines. Indeed, each time a client works out on one of the eco bikes, they are generating watts. A 50-minute spin class, with six gym goers and an instructor, generates between 1500–3300 watts. To put this into perspective, a desktop computer uses 400 watts an hour, a laptop uses 200 watts an hour, an incandescent light bulb uses 60 watts an hour, and a hair dryer uses 1200 watts an hour. With this amount of energy generated, lights, fans and atomizers should be almost completely supported by the Fitness center’s activity. Moreover, the materials used in the Fitness Center are recycled and eco-friendly. The ground will be made with recycled rubber, the wall and part of the machines will be made of eco-friendly wood coming from sustainable forests. OUR POSITIVE IMPACT ACTIVITIES Snorkeling and Planting coral: The hotel has its own diving center. In addition to arranging general diving courses, the hotel also provides services such as renting diving equipment and arranging diving guides and instructors. As part of our ongoing coral reef - 197 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
conservation efforts, our hotel has launched a coral claim program, with the help of our partner NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Green Fins, inviting guests to participate in this long-term project, planting corals in our coral reef nurseries, and checking coral growth through photo updates. With the launch of the Coral Claiming program, guests can claim a section of coral, grow it on a rope, wait for them to grow large enough, and plant it on a coral reef-just like you plant flowers in a garden. Every replanted coral helps the coral reefs thrive, and every guest plays a vital role. Our collaboration with Green Fins: This NGO has a team full of expert in this field, they are used to work for private or public places to advise, operate and monitor. Therefore, in order to create positive impact actions, we would make the ngos member come in the hotel once a year to train our staff members in order to acquire the necessary activity to make a Coral planting activity at least once a month. Jungle Tours: For the most adventurous of our guest, an immersive and trek in the surrounding jungle will be organized by the hotel every day. This activity will be led by a local guide, specialist on the fauna and flora of the Island. Starting at sunrise, the groups of guests leaving for the trek (5 people or more on request) will be provided with a food basket composed of a healthy breakfast and lunch. The guide will educate the guests on the many species living on the jungle and on their benefits and properties. Harvesting fun: We will invite guests to participate in the process of growing and harvesting the products of our gardens. The guests will them become actors of the values and philosophy of our hotel while participating in a more environmentally friendly way of producing the goods they will then collect. Through this activity, guests can select the products they wish to eat and after being labeled, they will be given to the chefs for preparation. HUMAN RESOURCES Mission statement: Sublimate the moment, glorify the place - Zannier Hotels aims to be a contemporary demonstration of excellence, innovation, integrity & simplicity. A burgeoning hospitality company recognized among its peers, that shares the dream and desire for capturing unique and authentic memories.
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Vision: Taking strident steps, Zannier Hotels aims: • To emerge from the position of the hotel industry novice to establish global brand in the short space of ten years, by emitting emotion through architecture, atmosphere and bespoke service. • To be identified and acknowledged as being at the forefront of intuitive & contemporary hotel design. • To spread uniqueness and authenticity through the ability to adapt to specific cultures and deliver a consistent approach of service in various places around the globe. Our Credo: We commit because we care. “We focus on what people care, rather than on what they need.” - Arnaud Zannier Company social responsibility: Involve & Become Involved: A Key Success Factor for Zannier Hotels In each of its selected destinations, Zannier Hotels strives to build a sustainable win-win relationship with local communities. With ZANNIER KO CHANG we are integrating our own “Corporate Responsibility” department which will oversee the implementation of all CSR programs for the property. Additionally, they will manage and review all our partnerships with NGOs, the responsible cycle budget and ensure the property is complying with the UNWTO global code of ethics and any certifications. They will also facilitate the participation of employees and clients in any CSR projects. For more details regarding this department please review the section “CR Department”. ZANNIER KOH CHANG BUSINESS BREAKDOWN Associates social benefits & payroll: Our hotel complies with all the standard Thai laws, which include: • Total working time per week must not exceed 48 hours; • Employees should take at least one day off per week; • Employers must not require employees to work overtime unless the employee agrees, and compensation must be paid to the employee for more than 1.5 hours of normal working hours; • No limit to sick leave days although employees cannot receive more than 30 paid sick days per year;
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• If more than 3 sick days are requested in a row, we will request a medical certificate; • We will comply with the current social security fund payment standard of 5% In addition to the standard legal social benefits, we offer our “associates” extra benefits to recognize how much we value their contribution to our company. These additional benefits include: • On property employee housing is available; • Transportation assistance is offered for those who live off property; • Full 90-day maternity leave will be covered and paid. Zannier Hotels - Employee Code of Conduct Zannier Hotel Group (the “Company”) takes pride in its high value for being a responsible employer and fostering a culture of excellence for all their stakeholders. Along with our reputation for delivering high-quality guest service, we also highly invest in our “associates” and strongly encourage our team members to innovate, share ideas, take risks, lead, and make a difference. Such a reputation must be carefully maintained by ensuring a clear understanding and acceptance of personal responsibility for the key principles and behaviors on which it is based. The continuing effectiveness of the Company depends on our recruiting, training and developing of committed, skilled and knowledgeable people for every position; people who earn the trust and respect of their co-workers and their managers by demonstrating the highest standards of integrity and professionalism. The Company has defined certain key concepts and approaches to ensure a consistent understanding among the employees of our hotels and resorts of those principles, which underlie the creation and maintenance of a positive, ethical work environment. This Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the “Code”) covers a wide range of business practices and procedures. The Code does not cover every issue that may arise but sets out basic principles to guide all employees of ZANNIER HOTELS. Our Employee Code of Conduct company policy outlines our expectations regarding employees’ behavior towards their colleagues, supervisors and overall organization. Legal: All employees must protect our company’s legality. They should comply with all environmental, safety and fair dealing laws. We expect employees to be ethical and responsible when dealing with our company’s finances, products, partnerships and public image. - 200 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Respect in the workplace: All employees should respect their colleagues. We won’t allow any kind of discriminatory behavior, harassment or victimization. Employees should conform with our equal opportunity policy in all aspects of their work, from recruitment and performance evaluation to interpersonal relations. Protection of Company Property: All employees should treat our company’s property, whether material or intangible, with respect and care. “Associates” (aka: Employees): Should not misuse company equipment or use it frivolously. Should respect all kinds of incorporeal property. This includes trademarks, copyright and other property (information, reports etc.) Employees should use them only to complete their job duties. Employees should protect company facilities and other material property (e.g. company transportation vehicles) from damage and vandalism, whenever possible. Professionalism: All employees must show integrity and professionalism in the workplace. Personal appearance: All employees must follow our dress code and personal appearance guidelines. Corruption: We discourage employees from accepting gifts from clients or partners. We prohibit briberies for the benefit of any external or internal party. Job duties and authority: All employees should fulfill their job duties with integrity and respect toward customers, stakeholders and the community. Supervisors and managers must not abuse their authority. We expect them to delegate duties to their team members considering their competences and workload. Likewise, we expect team members to follow team leaders’ instructions and complete their duties with skill and in a timely manner. We encourage mentoring throughout our company. Absenteeism and tardiness: Employees should follow their schedules. We can make exceptions for occasions that prevent employees from following standard working hours or days. However, generally, we expect employees to be punctual when coming to and leaving from work. - 201 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Conflict of interest: We expect employees to avoid any personal, financial or other interests that might hinder their capability or willingness to perform their job duties. Disciplinary actions: Our company may have to take disciplinary action against employees who repeatedly or intentionally fail to follow our code of conduct. Disciplinary actions will vary depending on the violation. Possible consequences include: Demotion. Reprimand. Suspension or termination for more serious offenses. Detraction of benefits for a definite or indefinite time. We may take legal action in cases of corruption, theft, embezzlement or other unlawful behavior. IMPLEMENTING FAIR MANAGEMENT Zannier group as well as our hotel are claiming for a responsible and fair management of our business. We want our business to be a place where we all have a chance to: discover the essence of the Thai culture and live a unique experience while contributing to a positive social and environmental impact. We praise for the development of human, social and environmental conditions, a neutral carbon footprint and we will work as fund raising for NGOs. We are working with a consequences approach; we need to focus on the issues we can face in order to set our priorities and thus create our responsible policy. WHAT ARE THE RELEVANT ISSUES SETTING PRIORITIES YOUR COMPANY FACES? Organizational Recruiting highly skilled local Creating a training and talent for top administrative development system that Governance positions allows internal growth Providing additional social Human Providing good work and benefits and safe employee Rights living conditions housing and working conditions Offering opportunities to Create a conduct code to Labour unemployed and unsafe ensure the partnership with our Practices population workers Climate condition Creating our internal CR department, partnering with Island structure NGOs and obtaining special Environment Ocean preservation certifications to ensure we are complying with our Adapt the building to the environmental goals wildlife and flora and following our Fair Working in a win-win business Creating responsible procurement Practices with suppliers and partners charter CORE SUBJECTS
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GRADES from 1 to 5 3
WHAT ARE THE RELEVANT ISSUES YOUR COMPANY FACES?
Mass tourism Bad tourist behaviors
Improving the quality of life not only of our local employees but the community we are working in
SETTING PRIORITIES Educating our customers before, during and after on local conservation issues and how to be a more responsible tourist Installing local social and environmental programs to impact community and support local agriculture and businesses
GRADES from 1 to 5
STAFF FACILITIES Staff House: In order to provide good working and living conditions to our partners (employees), we are providing accommodations. It allows them to reduce their living cost and thus increase their living conditions and family wealth. The accommodations will be in our property but hidden and away from the rooms and common parts. Our accommodation residence will include individual and dual rooms with linen (sheets and towels) provided, private bathroom, ac system, closet and desk. Common areas: – Laundry; – Business area with books and computers; – The canteen and entertainment area: an open space with big tables, coffee and tea machines, a fridge for homemade drinks and some fruits of the garden, a tennis-table, music speaker and a TV; – The “sabai sabai” room: a room dedicated for the staff wellbeing: time for them to relax. There are 3 long chairs where you can take a nap, 5 sofas and a tea station; – The praying temple: an outside and inside area dedicated to the religion: a temple and a place to pray and meditate. Staff benefits: Being part of our group and especially this hotel give to our employees the opportunity to: – – – –
Benefice from English training; Discounting price for their close family; On the field and managerial trainings; Career development plan. - 203 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
PARTNER NGOs Green Fins: which is an NGO protecting the ocean landscape: Thanks to their advices and knowledge we will implement disposals and advices such as: – Reef friendly sunscreen in every room: natural and biodegradable sunscreen with non-nano Zinc Oxide/Titanium Dioxide, all-natural and organic ingredients. There are some brands available in Thailand we will work with. – Take supplements: Taking Astaxanthin tablets daily helps protect the skin from the inside out. It protects our skin from solar injuries and even helps prevent DNA from being damaged by UV. – Using Shade: The hotel will provide in each room a set of local handmade hats for men and women as well as white organic cotton pareo. Plant A Tree Today (PATT): We will collaborate with the “Plant A Tree Today” NGO. This organization has a general concept of living a neutral carbon print life. As hotel, we stand for a 0-negative impact on the environment. Therefore, we would implement a planting tree event twice a year. The goal would be to involve the guests from the hotel, raise awareness for kids and locals, and involve the staff member of the hotel. Worldwide fund for nature They have a special program for the Thai territory. One of them called “The civil society, right and environment program” contribute to the development of the sensibility of the Thai local community about sustainable development and how to claim their rights and use their natural resources to develop the economy. This program fits perfectly with the spirit of our hotel since we aim to build a structure that does not leave negative impact on communities and environment but a positive one. We believe that the purpose of opening a hotel is not only to welcome guests and make revenues, but also to welcome guests to make them be part of something bigger, something they will be proud of. Therefore, we will create packages that will make them participate in sustainable development.
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POSITIVE IMPACT PACKAGES Package no1: • • • •
Jungle view rooms; Half board meal; Access to all amenities (swimming pool, hammam and sauna, jacuzzi). Wellbeing experience include: – 1 yoga class of your choice per day; – 1 spa treatment per person. • Our supportive environment activities: – The planting coral activity; – The jungle tour with local guide. Package no2: • • • •
Ocean view villas Full board meal package Access to all amenities Wellbeing experience include: – 2 yoga class of your choice per day – 2 spa treatment per person • Our supportive environment activities: – The planting coral activity – The jungle tour with local guide – The gardening and fruits harvesting activity These packages will allow us to contribute to our NGO’s partners by donating 10% percent of the revenues. Implementation the CR Department In order to implement a more responsible management in our company having a more responsible and positive impact, we are creating and implementing a new department, named CR department. This supporting department has an important function in the implementation of a more sustainable and responsible management in our company.
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The main roles and values of this department are: – Ensuring the consistency of partnerships with NGO’s and their renewals; – Managing the Responsible Cycle Budget; – Management and implementation of sustainable structure in the company such as phyto-purification system, greenhouse filtering, rainwater tanks, permaculture of the farm… – Monitor the responsible and sustainable activities of the hotel; – Ensuring that the hotel complies with UNWTO global code of ethics for tourism. Ensuring the consistency of partnerships with NGO’s and their renewal: To ensure the positive impact of the activity of our company, we are building partnerships with local and national NGO’s. The CR department will oversee auditing the different NGO’s to evaluate if their values and activities are aligning with the missions and values of our property. Then they will establish the letter of intent that will be transmitted to the organizations. Managing the Responsible Double-Cycle Budget: As responsible manager, we created a different type of budget responsible management for our company. This dedicated budget is called the Responsible Cycle Budget and acts as a cycle. From many of our research we have discovered that many socially oriented companies are fundraisers for social organization or organization. But the idea of this system is to integrate this cycle into the business model of the company. In that sense the CR department managers will have the integrate decision on budget management of the resources to decide where the money available will be allocated. For instance, instead of constantly giving and raising fund back for organization, the money earned can be used to contribute to social and sustainable investments of our company, strengthening and monitoring our relationship with our partners. Let’s have an example: The CR department creates with the marketing department an advertising campaign. In its short-term goals, the CR department needs to invest 7000thb in the phyto-epuration system for refurbishment and wants to donate 7000Thb to an organization that have been very active in the activity of the hotel this month. In order to support those goals, the marketing department will have to take in consideration these necessary resources needed for the CR department. In that sense, the marketing department will shape and work on offer with objectives that reflects those short-term goals. - 206 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
Also, the CR department will organize the partnership with the desired organization and the marketing department will integrate an action towards this selected organization it in its offer. Ex: Planting trees, in the package made from the marketing department the guest will be able to participate in an activity organized by the hotel and the organization. With an activity organized with local guide tour associate with this organization to increase public awareness of nature in Thailand and make them visit the lush forest and finally make them participate in replanting activities. Income generated by the selling of this package will be spare and distributed to CR department budget. The CR department also acts as a law and government officer. In fact, this department was set-up to focus and ensure that the hotel complies with National laws in favor of responsible and sustainable business. Monitor and Assess, responsible and sustainable activities of the hotel: This department will ensure that all departments are complying with sustainable behaviors in the company. Working closely with HR and managers specially to implement efficient training and CR soldier* program. Training provided, as well as assessment, will be done specifically on waste production, water consumption, energy use and for the HR department especially, equal employment opportunity for all employees. CR soldier*: are partners (employees) efficiently trained to CSR standards and custom. They are selected from different departments and act as mentors in the different positions around the company. Ensuring that the hotel complies with UNWTO global code of ethics for tourism: As a company that needs to improve its social impact and implement a fair management that complies with good code, we have decided to align our decision and strategies mastering the UNTWO global code of ethics for tourism. The main objectives for the department are to be sure by auditing and assessing stakeholder’s relation with our company and make sure that all interactions complies with this code of ethics. Eco-responsible materials and techniques: To match with our strategy of creating a responsible and sustainable business, it is essential to consider a sustainable and responsible elaboration, starting with the utilization of raw materials and the selection of suppliers. According to several researches realized including websites, blog, supplier’s platform and
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local feedback on eco-friendly materials. We are looking for materials that are not made from chemical products, with a 0 or low carbon emission, recycled and able to be recycled materials. From those raw materials, some are more relevant to our environment than the others. Wood and bamboo: In the process of conversion of raw timber to wood boards and planks, most percentage of wood may get wasted. This wastage can also be used to make structural parts like walls, boards, doors etc. in the form of engineered wood. Bamboo is one of the most used multipurpose and durable materials used in construction. These trees grow faster irrespective of climatic conditions. So, it makes it economical as well. They can be used to construct frames or supports, walls, floors etc. They provide a good appearance to the structures. Thatch: Thatch is nothing but dry straw, dry water reed, dried rushes etc. These are the oldest roofing materials, which are still in use in some remote locations of the world. It is one of the most famous material for roofing in Thailand for instance: Salathai. It is cheaply available for roofing and a good insulator too. Stone: Stone is a naturally occurring and a long-lasting building material. Very active in the environment of the island, we will be able to work locally with hand craft producers. Stones are good against weathering hence they can be used to construct exterior walls, steps, exterior flooring etc. Our will of being better hoteliers and doing business better brought us to have our property construction and direction ruled under national certifications to ensure best practices and decisions. LEED CERTIFICATION LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design is the most worldwide renowned sustainable building certification system. Approximately 2.2 million square feet of green building space are being certified every day. We decided to choose LEED because: LEED certification offers many different benefits to the owner. These include: • Reduced environmental impact through lower CO2 emissions and more sustainable building material use; • Better Building Performance with reduced operating costs;
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• Greater Asset Value; • Higher occupancy rates; • Better Internal environment for building occupants leading to greater productivity. Stakeholders Analysis Stakeholders = customers, suppliers, workers, employees, local communities, environment (discuss with ngo’s, scientist, government bodies, competitors, investors, bankers, owner) Customers: They have a strong power: they represent our brand, their values and what they stand for is what we share. They are our source of strength to evolve in a better vision of hospitality industry. Without them, we would not have the power to influence others, to build something positive for the environment and the society. And what we bring them in return, is the Thai culture, the traditions, the local products… Which will make them want to come back, and recommend the closest beloved. More than just being our main source of revenues, they are key actors in our sustainable intend. Suppliers: Our relations with the Suppliers will have a major Importance in the sense that our geographical location is isolated. This means that tight relations with suppliers are primordial as there will be no other available suppliers, for example, if there is an issue with a shipment to be delivered to the hotel, there will be no other option than to wait until it can arrive. This means that our relations with our suppliers will be a priority, but we will also have to be a priority for them. In order to do so, we must be one of the most important clients of our suppliers and also have a good organization and precise and recurrent information on the availability of their products and their stock. As we respect the Zannier chart, we will not be supplied by big companies but by responsible producers, that are more likely to suffer from the increasing weather variations and productivity issues. Workers: Our workers have a huge influence on our business. In fact, we consider our workers as our partners and associate in the field of growth and development. We believe everyone has a great importance and can add a precious value to our company.
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We do not want to consider the people we work with as employees because we want to have people who are as concerned and passionate as we are in welcoming guests, making them discover the Thai culture and project our vision of sustainability. Environment: Obviously, the environment has a crucial influence on our business. We basically create everything according to it. Our environment is: – An island. Which means we have to take into account all the transportation matters (guest coming to the hotel, supplies coming from the territory). We have to take in consideration the fact that an island has physical climate particularities especially that we are located in the beach. (changing tide, waves, tsunami, sand floor): – In Thailand. The specificities of this country in term of climate is the big difference between two distinct seasons: the monsoon season which is characterized by a lot of rain during several days, and the dry season because it barely never rains. Besides these seasons, Thailand is characterized by a very humid air and seawater spray. Consequently, we need to adapt our building: – – – – –
Rooms and buildings elevated from the sea, Evacuation system in case of hard rain, Resistant material to humidity, Resistant material to sea water spray, Recycling system using this heat and amount of water to optimize natural energy. Competitors: Our hotel provides a unique offer, especially in the Island of Kho Chang as there is only one other 5-star hotel in the Island. Moreover, there are also 18 4 star hotels in the Island but what makes our Hotel unique from its local competitors is that it is the only Hotel providing an eco-responsible experience following the Zannier’s responsible development chart. Our engagement into the preservation of the environment and of the Thai Culture will grant our hotel with a very good image and in the long term, the Hotel will become one of the most iconic of the region and hopefully Thailand in the future. Indeed, there are few other eco-responsible hotels in Thailand in General and it - 210 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
is the perfect time to develop this type of tourism as the demand increases and the offer is still very narrow as we have currently found only 5 others eco-lodge or eco-responsible Hotels in Thailand. PURCHASING Zannier Hotels – A different take on Luxury Responsible Procurement Charter Each location demands respects whether through its history or its natural environment. Discovering each site becomes a moment of pure pleasure, a gentle dive into times gone-by. Zannier Hotels is first and foremost a story of adventurer in quest of excellence, but remaining profoundly respectful of their working environment. Dear Supplier, We, as partner, have a relationship of integrity and respect in the promotion of social and environmental best practice. At Zannier Hotel Thailand, we are committed to the principles of responsible development with this main value: “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.” Wherever It is possible, we are seeking to do business with partners who commit or are willing to take steps in this direction. This Sustainable Procurement Charter was established in order to better reflect our commitment to a more responsible development in all areas of procurement (raw materials, energy, other goods or services…). In this charter you will find our commitment to our suppliers in terms of our own conduct and practices. In return we would request that you, as Zannier supplier, take all necessary steps to ensure that your practices are aligning the missions and values of our Charter. If you have any queries about the content of this Charter please do not hesitate to contact our Purchasing and Transportation Team or the procurement service– all details can be found at the end of this document. We look forward to doing business with you!
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Engagement to our Supplier: Fair dealing with you We treat you with honesty, fairness and respect. Our purchases activities are conducted with the highest ethical and professional standards, as set in our Code of Conduct. Transparency and communication We take the engagement to report on a regular and consistent basis, on our sustainable development supply chain project. Additionally, we will provide feedback to suppliers regarding improvements in their sustainable development performance. Local communities As a supplier partner of Zannier Hotels Thailand, we show active actions and interests in the support of local economy by contracting with local small to medium company. Health & Safety Health & Safety standard will apply the same to all contractors working on our sites as the same of our employees. Environment Taking care of our planet and our environment are important values for us, and we are working with companies that use sustainable materials coming from sustainable actions. Your Engagement to us: Environment As the environment needs to be preserved, we require you to comply with the environmental laws and regulations possessing all the required permits and registrations. You must show action toward reducing environmental impact and maintain a sustainable management improving constantly your environmental performance. You comply with the idea of using sustainable resources and recycle, re use and use the available technology to comply with this mission. Labor practices and human rights As an employer, you respect the International Organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at work and the international laws on human rights.
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You comply with action aligning with the abolition of child labor, forced and compulsory labor and freedom of association and the right of collective bargaining. Measure are also taken in order to eliminate discrimination in the workplace, fair treatment, compliance with local regulations for wages, benefits and working hours. Your employees are all aged of the legal working age, except in the framework of internship, training programs. Health and Safety You ensure that you have taken the necessary action to ensure the safety and health for your staff. Business Integrity Laws and regulations You apply high standards in the respect of laws and personal ethics, by respecting the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national laws and regulations. Corruption You are committed to work against all type of corruption and fraud. Transparency and accountability As part of your business, you are committed to transparency and accountability to prevent any illegal or unethical activities and transactions. Supply chain You undertake actions to promote and communicate the principles of sustainable procurement in your own supply chain. By acknowledging this document, your organization undertakes to adhere to the principles contained in Zannier Thailand Procurement Charter. You will develop and measure procedures and tools to guarantee compliance with the principles of this Charter. Non-compliance In case of non-compliance of the above statements, you may be required to provide a satisfactory or corrective action planned accordingly, otherwise if no action is undertaken to avoid any recurrence, our company will void all commercial contracts and terminate its activities.
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Ambience pictures of the hotel:
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REFERENCES HAYS, J. “Thai society: hierarchy, status,class, hi-so culture and the patronclient system.” Facts and Details, factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Thailand/ sub5_8c/entry-3228.html COMMUNICAID GROUP LIMITED. “Benefits of Doing Business in Thailand.” Communicaid, www.communicaid.com/cross-cultural-training/blog/ benefits-of-doing-business-in-thailand/ OVERVIEW, World Bank, www.worldbank.org/en/country/thailand/overview THAILAND POPULATION 2019. Thailand Population 2019 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs), worldpopulationreview.com/countries/thailand-population/ https://pugnatorius.com/hotel-license/ https://www.siam-legal.com/thailand-law/hotel-business-in-thailand/ https://www.indagare.com/destinations/unknown/articles/ indagare-insider-hotelier-arnaud-zannier-on-his-latest-projects https://theconstructor.org/building/green-building-materials/7028/ https://www.dfdl.com/uncategorized/thailand-legal-update-green-buildingenergy-standards/ http://www.wwf.or.th/en/our_work/forest/ strong_communities_for_sustainable_natural_resource_management/ https://www.greenfins-thailand.org/module.php?name=news&pg=view&m=95 https://www.dmg-thailand.com/leed-trees-certification/
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LES CAHIERS INTERNATIONAUX DU TOURISME CIRVATH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM
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CENTRE INTERNATIONAL DE RECHERCHE VATEL EN TOURISME HOTELLERIE C.I.R.V.A.T.H. I. PRÉSENTATION En créant le Centre International de Recherche Vatel en Tourisme et Hôtellerie, le Groupe Vatel s’est doté d’un outil performant visant à développer une recherche fondamentale et appliquée dans le domaine du tourisme et de l’hôtellerie. Prenant conscience que l’industrie du tourisme est un modèle à réinventer, que son modèle de gestion est brisé et que le secteur a besoin à la fois d’un changement de culture et d’un mode d’exercice de son activité, le CirVath a pour vocation d’être un pôle de réflexions et d’analyses touristiques qui contribue à redéfinir la culture du tourisme, à refonder l’enseignement hôtelier et à requalifier les métiers du tourisme et de l’hôtellerie. En promouvant la recherche au sein du Groupe Vatel, le CirVath : • favorise le développement professionnel du corps enseignant par l’élargissement des connaissances et des compétences, par une meilleure imbrication entre théorie et pratique et par la création d’une nouvelle identité professionnelle ; • crée une dynamique nouvelle au sein du groupe. De nouvelles formes de contacts, des échanges plus nombreux entre professeurs et chercheurs favorisent l’esprit d’équipe, motivent et apportent un esprit nouveau ; • permet d’améliorer l’enseignement. A des questions issues de la pratique sont apportées des réponses, des solutions, des évaluations et des méthodes, générant une compréhension théorique nouvelle qui retourne dans la pratique ; • met le Groupe Vatel en contact avec d’autres institutions de formation ou de recherche françaises et étrangères, favorisant ainsi l’interdisciplinarité, voire l’internationalité.
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En se profilant comme centre de compétences, le Groupe Vatel est l’un des partenaires privilégiés d’autres écoles, universités et institutions spécialisées dans le monde.
II. ORGANISATION DU CIRVATH Le CirVath est composé de membres d’honneur, de membres actifs et de membres bienfaiteurs. Il est géré par un Bureau comprenant un Président, un Vice-Président et un Directeur.
III. COMITÉ SCIENTIFIQUE Le CirVath s’est doté d’un Comité Scientifique dont le rôle est de : • définir la politique et les thèmes de recherche du Groupe Vatel ; • organiser des colloques et des conférences ; • faire appel à communications, valider les recherches et autoriser leur publication ; • proposer des changements dans les syllabus générés par les recherches ; Le Comité Scientifique est composé des 3 membres du Bureau auxquels viennent s’ajouter, pour des mandats de 3 ans, 3 collèges comprenant chacun : 2 Directeurs d’établissements, 2 Enseignants-chercheurs, 2 Représentants de l’industrie hôtelière et touristique.
IV. PUBLICATIONS Le CirVath assure la publication de ses recherches à travers : • • • •
les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme, les Actes des Colloques, diverses publications et revues, le site Internet de Vatel.
V. AWARDS Chaque année le CIRVATH attribue trois prix : • 1 prix de la Recherche destiné à récompenser les meilleures recherches • 1 prix de l’Innovation destiné à récompenser le thème de recherche le plus innovant, - 220 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
• 1 prix d’Encouragement destiné à inviter les lauréats à poursuivre des travaux de recherche dans le cadre de leur mission d’enseignement. Les prix sont officiellement remis pendant la cérémonie de clôture de la Convention Internationale Vatel.
VI. ACCÈS AUX PUBLICATIONS DE RECHERCHE Tous les articles publiés dans les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme sont téléchargeables sur le site du Groupe Vatel en libre accès : https://www.vatel.com/ fr/cirvath/les-cahiers-internationaux-du-tourisme
VII. CONTACT Pour tout renseignement, veuillez contacter : Monsieur Benjamin GARCIA Group Vatel 8, rue Duhamel F-69005 Lyon – France Tel. +33 4 7838 6313 E-mail 1 : email@example.com E-mail 2 : firstname.lastname@example.org
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INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER OF VATEL FOR TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY C.I.R.V.A.T.H. I. INTRODUCTION With the creation of the Vatel International Research Center in Tourism and Hotel Management, Vatel Group gave itself a high-performing tool aiming at developing fundamental and applied research in the field of tourism and hotel management. Completely aware that the tourism industry is a model that must be reinvented, that its managerial model is broken and that the field not only needs to change its culture but also the way in which it carries out its activities, the goal of CirVath is to be a hub where reflections and analyses on tourism will continue to redefine the culture of tourism, reinvent the industry surrounding it, while reclassifying jobs in tourist and hospitality industries. By promoting research inside the Vatel Group, the CirVath: • Facilitates professional development of faculty members by broadening their knowledge and skill sets, by creating conditions for closer links between theory and practical applications and by the creation of a new professional identity; • Creates new dynamics in the Group. New types of contacts, more fruitful exchanges between professors and research experts to boost team spirit, motivate and bring in fresh ideas; • Improves our educational methods and courses. Answers are given to questions stemming from practical matters; assessments and methods thus generate new theoretical comprehension which trickles back down into practical applications; • Puts Vatel Group in contact with other French and foreign schools and research centers, thus promoting interdisciplinarity, and we can even say, an international mind-set.
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Vatel Group, thus recognized as a center of excellence, becomes a privileged partner of other specialized schools and institutions throughout the world.
II. CIRVATH ORGANIZATION The CirVath is composed of honorary members, active members and contributing members. It is managed by a Board of Directors composed of a President, a Vice-President, and a Secretary.
III. THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE The CirVath also has a Scientific Committee which plays the following roles: • • • • •
Defining Vatel Group’s policy and research themes; Organizing seminars, symposium and conferences; Calling for papers and allowing them to be published; Proposing changes in the curricula generated by this research; Allowing and organizing oral defense sessions for final dissertations: choice of the examination board, rules and regulations for these sessions. The Scientific Committee is composed of the 3 members of the Executive Board to which are added, for three-year terms, 3 colleges each comprising: 2 School Directors, 2 Teacher-researchers, 2 Representatives of the hotel and tourism industry.
IV. PUBLICATIONS The CirVath ensures the publication of researches in: • • • •
International Journal of Tourism; Symposium Proceedings; Miscellaneous publications and magazines; Vatel Internet website.
V. AWARDS Each year the CIRVATH awards three awards: • 1 Research Award for the best research paper; • 1 Innovation Award for the most innovative research theme; - 224 © CirVath - les Cahiers Internationaux du Tourisme - no 12
• 1 Incentive Award to invite laureates to pursue research as part of their teaching mission. The awards are officially presented during the closing ceremony of the Vatel International Convention.
VI. ACCESS TO RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS All articles published in the International Journal of Tourism can be downloaded from the Vatel Group website with free access: https://www.vatel.com/en/ cirvath/the-international-books-of-tourism
VII. CONTACT For more information, please contact: Mr. Benjamin GARCIA Group Vatel 8, rue Duhamel F-69005 Lyon – France Tel. +33 4 7838 6313 E-mail 1: email@example.com E-mail 2: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Centre International de Recherche Vatel en Tourisme et HĂ´tellerie