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U RBAN FA R M S

PLANNING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR S찾O BENEDITO, VIT처RIA, BRAZIL

Vasiliki Bourli

Master Thesis Technische Universit채t Berlin Berlin 2014


Technische Universität Berlin Institut für Architektur Fachgebiet Entwerfen und internationale Urbanistik (Habitat Unit) Fakultät VI Planen Bauen Umwelt

U R BA N FA R M S Planning a sustainable future for São Benedito, Vitória, Brazil by

Vasiliki Bourli Matriculation Number: 335453

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Urban Design

Supervised by Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz Assistant Supervisor Renato D’Alençon Castrillón

March 2014


Hiermit erkläre ich an Eides statt, dass ich die vorliegende Arbeit selbstständig und eigenhändig sowie ausschließlich unter Verwendung der aufgeführten Quellen und Hilfsmittel angefertigt habe.

Berlin, 28.03.2014

…………………………………………….. Vasiliki Bourli


Abstract The present master thesis proposes sustainable upgrading through communal urban farming in the São Benedito favela, Vitória, Brazil. It explores the potentials of such a strategy for the reformation of a community and the provision of satisfactory answers to environmental, social and economic matters. Moreover, it discusses technical, architectural, and administrative issues. Another important aspect of our strategy is the involvement of the local population in all phases and levels of the implementation process. Our approach is based on material collected during a field trip to Vitória in March 2013 and later theoretical research conducted from Berlin. During our stay in Brazil, we had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of four important stakeholders: the local community, an NGO acting there, academia conducting research in the area, and the State. Thus, our perception is based on different narratives, which enabled us to have a spherical overview. The methodology followed starts with a short introduction of Vitória that exposes current economic and urban patterns, and makes brief reference to the city’s urbanization. Then, our findings (from the field trip and theoretical research) are categorized as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities or Threats (SWOT analysis). The resulting list of vulnerabilities and local qualities is useful for articulating our strategy. After completion of the previous analysis, we define specific aims for our project and design our strategy. This is realized in four steps: development of a communal concept, creation of farming space, addition of circulation elements and, finally, integration of public space. Then, for each of these steps a series of interventions is planned: • To develop a communal concept, the area is divided into blocks and two new stakeholders are introduced: the block-keeper and the Local Enterprise. Moreover, a series of communal spaces, such as the Local Enterprise headquarters, block storages and an open market, as well as a strategy of acquiring communal land are designed. • Creating farming space involves the creation of green roofs, the transformation of steep unbuilt areas into farmland, and the installation of rainwater storage and grey water treatment systems. • The addition of circulation elements includes the construction of a new road and the incorporation of stairs and bridges on the green roofs for circulation above ground level. • Integration of public space is realized through multiple minimal-scale interventions spread across the whole area and intended to stimulate public realm. Finally, an implementation process chart and the cost organization are given. Hereafter, one block is chosen in order to exemplarily demonstrate our interventions. Maps related to the initial SWOT analysis enable us to see the area’s transformation. As a final step, we zoom into a neighborhood, design each and every intervention, and illustrate the distribution of farmland according to family size. In its concluding remarks, the thesis presents the impact and the limitations of our strategy.


Zusammenfassung Mit meiner Masterarbeit untersuche ich das Potenzial für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung der Favela Sao Benedito in Vitória, Brasilien das sich aus dem Einsatz einer lokalen, partizipatorischen und urbanen Landwirtschaft für den Ort ergeben könnte. Da mein Entwurf die extensive Einbindung der lokalen Bevölkerung in den Verwirklichungsprozess vorsieht, wären weitreichende Veränderungen zu erwarten. Es sollen daher besonders die Folgen dieser Strategie in Hinblick auf ihren möglichen positiven Einfluß auf die ökonomische, ökologischer und nicht zuletzt soziale Entwicklung einer solchen Gemeinde beleuchtet werden. Unser Arbeitsansatz basiert auf Eindrücken und Erfahrungen die wir während einer Studienreise im März 2013 vor Ort sammeln konnten sowie auf der kritischen Überprüfung dieser Eindrücke über Studien hier in Berlin. Insbesondere war es uns während unserer Reise möglich mit Vertretern der vier wichtigsten Interessengruppen direkt zu sprechen: den Bewohnern der untersuchten Favela, einer Nicht-Regierungs-Oranisation die schon in dem Gebiet arbeitet, Forschern die ebenfalls bereits in dem Gebiet tätig sind, sowie Vertretern des Landes. Das differenzierte Bild der Situation vor Ort ergibt sich folgerichtig aus der Auswertung dieser sehr unterschiedlichen Blickwinkel. Diese Gespräche haben entschieden zu unserem differenzierten Bild der Situation vor Ort beigetragen.


CONTE N TS List of images

I

List of tables

IV

Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil

1

SWOT analysis

4

Strengths

5

Weaknesses

15

Opportunities

26

Threats

28

COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION COMPONENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES

29

Create a communal concept

31

Create farming space

36

Add circulation elements

52

Intergrade public space

57

MAP OF InterventionS

60

Implementation process

62

Block 10

64

ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD

71

List of references

77


L ist of F I G U R E S 1.

Vitória’s urbanization during the 1960s,

1

2. Basic sectors in Vitória’s economy, 2 3. 3 Basic urban patterns, 3 4. ‘Território do Bem’ localized in Vitória, 3 5. Communities of ‘Território do Bem’, 3 6.

Map of un-built spaces in São Benedito,

6

7.

Map of central spine with trade and institutional uses in São Benedito,

8

8.

Appropriation of open spaces in São Benedito,

9

9. Bem Maior Forum, 10 10.

Core activities of NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias,

10

11.

Partnerships of Bem Maior Forum & ‘Ateliê de Idéias,

11

12.

‘Bem Maior’ Forum & ‘Ateliê de Idéias interventions in São Benedito,

12

13. Houses’ hidden spatial capacities, 14 14. Landslide accident reasons, 15 15. Map of landslide risk, 15 16.

Landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas in São Benedito,

17

17. Section A-A’, 18 18.

Mobility and accessibility map of São Benedito,

19

19.

Map of São Benedito’ public spaces,

21

20. Income per household, 22 21. Income per person, 22 22. Education-related percentages, 22 23.

Negative stereotypes against favela inhabitants,

23

24.

Map of education facilities and crime incidents in São Benedito,

24

25.

Urban Master Plan of Vitória with detail of São Benedito,

26

26.

Local development plan of São Benedito,

27

I


27.

Terra Mais Igual interventions in São Benedito,

27

28. Polygons of Terra Mais Igual, 27 29. Wealth distribution in Vitória, 28 30. The vision, 29 31. Large-scale interventions, 30 32. Small-scale interventions, 30 33.

Development of a communal concept, 32

34.

Block storage facilities, Open market on São Benedito’s central square and

Central storage facility, 33 35. The communal concept, 35 36. Creation Of Farming Space, 37 37.

Each house as a potential production unit,

38

38. Extensive and intensive green roofs, 39 39.

Container farming and Infrastructure stations,

40

40. Retaining walls made of gabions, 49 41. Retaining walls construction, 50 42. Grey water treatment system, 51 43. Addition of circulation elements, 53 44. Construction of a new street, 54 45.

Modular and permanent circulation elements,

55

46.

Houses for short-term and permanent relocations,

56

47. Integration of public spaces, 58 48.

Small terraces on green roofs, Tiny squares around trees and views of the two open markets,

59

49. Map of Interventions, Scale 1:1000, 60 50. Map of Interventions, Scale 1:1000, 61 51.

Implementation process and Cost organization,

63

52. Houses of Block 10, 65 53. Block 10 on the SWOT maps, 66 II


54.

Block 10 Masterplan, Scale 1:500, 68

55.

New un-built areas and Table-shaped structures map and Mobility map

of Block 10, Scale 1:1000, 69 56.

Farming land map and Public spaces maps of Block 10, Scale 1:1000,

70

57. Zoom in on a neighborhood, 72 58. Neighborhood’s Masterplan, Scale1:200, 73 59.

+78.00 Floorplan and Pop-up market plan, Scale1:200,

74

60. +69.00 Floorplan, 75 61. Section A-A’, Scale 1:100, 76 62. Section B-B’, Scale 1:100, 77

III


L ist of tables 1.

Exports/Imports of Vit贸ria and Brazil (in US$ & tons)

2

2.

Ranking the 50 most violent cities of the world in 2011

28

3. Youth homicides in Brazil (15 to 24 years), 2000-2010

28

IV


Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil Vitória is the capital of Espírito Santo, a small state in southeastern Brazil. It is located on an island surrounded by rivers meeting the Atlantic Ocean. According to the 2010 census, it counts a population of 327,801 inhabitants (Municipal prefecture of Vitória 2010). Its strategic location and port infrastructures connect nearby production centers to international markets and give Vitória a great importance for the Brazilian economy. In 1998, it was rated by the United Nations as the fourth best Brazilian state capital to live in, in terms of health, education and social improvement projects. However, this positive indicator is relativized by sharp differences in the residents’ quality of life. The greatest part of the population experiences poverty, lack of opportunities and is excluded from the economic boom that causes Vitória’s good rating, whereas a small part of the population is very affluent. These social and economic characteristics are also reflected in the urban fabric.

BRASIL Espírito Santo

Vitória Capital of Espírito Santo (ES) Population: 325,463 Inhabitants

In the 1960s, Vitória experienced a shift from an agricultural into an industrial and services economy. The catalyst for this change was the establishment of big mining and steel manufacturing industries in the area, such as CVRD (today Vale) and CST (today Arcelor Mital), along with the opening of the new port of Tubarão in 1968. Urban growth was correlated with economic development. Masses of internal immigrants moved from rural areas to Vitória in search of better employment opportunities. The newly arrived population settled on the hills, the city’s most devaluated areas. This happened spontaneously and without any planning, and has ever since been a big obstacle for the implementation of infrastructure. Fig.1. Vitória’s urbanization during the 1960s

1960s

immigrants from rural areas

Agriculture

Eurico de Aguiar Salles Airport

Industry

1966: Port of Tubarão construction

[...] Well, girl, I came from the hinterland, there are people who came from another state. There are people who came to work and ended up staying here. Everyone came to São Benedito in 1968, more or less. I came because I could no longer stay in Córrego de Água Branca or Córrego Preto - maroon communities outside São Mateus and Conceição da Barra. (Nossa História Nosso Bem, cited in Bruno Bowen, V. N. 2011)

Port of Vitória

1


Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil Economy In the contemporary economy of Vitória, three main segments can be distinguished: agriculture, industry and trade, with the latter two being significantly more important. The basic agricultural products are coffee and fruits. Since the transformation of Vitória’s economy in the 1960s, iron mining and steel manufacture have been basic industry sectors. Moreover, there are many marble and stone industries. In the last decades, after discovering oil reserves off Vitória’s coast, the local industry has been enriched with a new sector, with Brazil’s state owned oil company Petrobras being a major development lever for the area. Half of Vitória’s GDP is linked to international trade (Brazil Webpage 2011). Its two ports are part of the Espírito Santo Port Complex, the biggest in Latin America, providing transit services for 28,94% of the exports and 12,33% of the imports of Brazil in 2010 (CODESA 2011).

Table 1. Exports/Imports of Vitória and Brazil (in US$ & tons)

Fig. 2. Basic sectors in Vitória’s economy Iron mi nin g

Agricultu re

s

Basic sectors in economy of Vi ia

M

nd gas Oil a uction Po rt of T od ub l pr tee nd granite Port of Vitó arão ds a ria an rble a

Indust ry

de and servic e Tra

CODESA (2011)

Urbanization Vitória’s urbanization can be defined as very divided. On the one hand, there is the planned city, located on the island’s eastern part and its extension to the north, and on the other there are informally produced urban areas on the hills. The former is characterized by high-rise buildings, rectangular blocks and car-oriented urban development, whereas the latter by self-built constructions, lack of infrastructure and public spaces, and restricted accessibility. A third pattern identified in Vitória’s urban fabric is its historic center, which occupies a limited area though. It is densely populated, has mixed uses and preserves remains of colonial architecture.

2


Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil Fig. 3. 3 Basic urban patterns Hills – Spontaneous urbanism

Costal area and city’s extension – Planned city

Historic center

‘Território Do Bem’ São Benedito is an area on the Morro Grande (‘Big Hill’) of Vitória with a population of 3,431 residents. It is part of the Polygon 1, which is colloquially called ‘Território do Bem’. Polygons are defined as areas with a vulnerable population, deficits in urban infrastructure and a high degree of social interest by the State Program ‘Terra Mais Igual’ (More Equal Land). ‘Território do Bem’ consists of eight communities with a total population of approximately 35,000 inhabitants and is limited by four main avenues (Municipal Prefecture of Vitória 2013). Its urban structure is irregular and often labyrinthine: Dead ends, self-built housing units and a self-regulated urban development form a peculiar urban landscape. Being informally developed, it lacks public spaces and infrastructure. Fig. 4. ‘Território do Bem’ localized in Vitória

Fig. 5. Communities of ‘Território do Bem’

e

am al C ech

Mar

ue Silva Aven

ruíp Ma

Leitão da

e

nu Ave

01 - São Benedito 02 - Consolação 03 - Jaburu 04 - Floresta 06 - Bairro da Penha 07 - Itararé 08 - Engenharia

pos Avenue venu Vitória A

e

3


SWOT Analysis In this part we would like to expose facts and tendencies related to São Benedito that could be a catalyst or an obstacle for the area’s sustainable future and the success of our strategy. We categorized these into four groups according to their impact: The first (‘Strengths’) comprises un-built space, a central spine with trade and institutional uses, the ‘Bem Maior’ Forum, the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias’, and the area’s hidden spatial capacities. The second (‘Weaknesses’) consists of limited public space, marginality, crime, a low education-level, poverty, environmental issues, landslides, dumpsites, blocked green areas, limited mobility and accessibility, self-constructions and poor quality dwellings. As ‘Opportunities’ we defined Vitória’s Urban Master Plan and the program ‘Terra Mais Igual’. Finally, crime as a form of informal employment is considered a ‘Threat’.

Un-built space Central spine with trade and institutional uses Appropriation of open spaces ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias

Limited public space Marginality, crime, a low education-level, poverty Environmental issues: landslides, dumpsites, blocked green areas Limited mobility and accessibility

S

Area’s hidden spatial capacities

Self-constructions and poor quality dwellings

O

Urban Master Plan

Crime as a form of informal employment

W T

Program ‘Terra Mais Igual’

4


STRENGTHS Un-built space Steep un-built areas on block interiors that usually remain abandoned can play an important role in areas revitalization.

Un-built area in S達o Benedito

Un-built area in S達o Benedito

Un-built area in S達o Benedito

5


STRENGTHS Un-built space

0

40

80

120

Fig 6. Map of un-built spaces in S達o Benedito

6


STRENGTHS Central spine with trade and institutional uses São Benedito’s central area coincides with the major street of the area, the Rua Tenente Setúbal, which forms its central spine. The main land uses, apart from housing, are commercial (shops, bars and a parking space) and institutional (a school, an NGO and the police station). Moreover, the area’s principal public space, the central square, is located on this spine.

Shops and bars along the central spine

Primary school of São Benedito

NGO SECRI

NGO that works with families, children and youngsters. Projects: Structuring family, dancing studio, internet education, children care.

7


STRENGTHS Central spine with trade and institutional uses

2. Shop

4. Shop 5. Bar 7. Bar

6. Shop

9. Shop 10. Shop

8. Bar

12. Shop 14. Shop

17. Bar

19. Bar 18. Garage 24. Bar

23. Bar 25. Bar 26. Bar 27. Bar Commercial use 28. Shop

Institutional use Public uses spine 0

40

80

120

Fig 7. Map of central spine with trade and institutional uses in S達o Benedito

8


STRENGTHS Appropriation of open spaces São Benedito’s public space is limited and of bad quality. However, inhabitants seem to know how to make the most out of it. By placing furniture, planting flowers, spraying graffitis or simply hanging their clothes, public space often becomes an extension of their private sphere outside their homes.

Sitting Learning

Socializing Hanging washing Sitting

Graffiti Learning Planting flowers

Planting flowers

Graffiti

Putting furniture

Hanging washing

Playing

Fig. 8. Appropriation of open spaces in São Benedito

9


STRENGTHS ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias The ‘Bem Maior’ Forum is a grassroots initiative serving as an open space for discussion, meeting, self-help and knowledge exchange open to all 35.000 inhabitants of the 8 communities of ‘Território do Bem’. It is a place where residents can exercise local governance. After surveys on living standards in the area and discussions with State institutions and other partners, the Forum elaborated a strategic Community Plan called ‘Bem Maior’ (Better Off ) defining social, economic, political, environmental and cultural objectives for projects. The Forum cooperates with the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias’, which focuses on issues of local governance, co-represents the Forum before state authorities and important stakeholders relating to concrete projects.

NGO’s coordinator, Denise Biscotto, said about their cooperation with the Forum that Forum is the ‘head’ and the NGO is the ‘hands’.

s of eig stet ht re

Forum Bem Maior

mmunities co

rmonise int ha e

‘Bem Maior’ Forum + NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias = Close co-operation

Objectives Raise education level SOcIAL

Promote the culture of peace Raise residents’ involvement in Forum Train Leadership

POLITIcAL

ENVIRONMENTAL EcONOMIc cULTURAL

Strengthen partnerships Involve Forum in policy design Promote environmental awareness Employment and income generation Rescue of local memory

8 communities of Território do Bem Fig. 9. Bem Maior Forum

Community bank ‘Do Bem’

c Solidarity O economy R E A Habitat c T I V community I developT ment I E Social S

technologies

Technical support for small businesses and local enterprises Habitation credit

3 credit lines: productive, consuming, habitation

Banking services for low-income families

Marketing and Support of products Courses and workcommunication and services shops for technical consulting development Technical assistance with construction

Production of low-cost materials

Consult the Advocacy and representation of Forum ‘Bem Train community Training in Forum ‘Bem Maior’ in public sector, public policies leaders local government and businesses Maior’ Program Environ‘Ecos do mental Bem’ education

Raise awareness in collecting waste

Mapping of local dumpsites

Cleaning and revitalization local dumpsites

Exchange of Expansion of Creation of regional Network of knowledge, tools network of Espirito Santo’s Espirito Santo’s and resources community banks community banks community banks Espirito Santo’s Co-ordination of actors and leaders of the solidary economy for the organization of a public center to public center of support small groups in their marketing process solidary economy

Fig. 10. Core activities of NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias

10


STRENGTHS ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias SPONSORS Inter American Foundation Ashoka Cooperforte Institute Institute EDP Solidarity Institute of HSBC NGO Housing and Citizenship Citi Foundation UNDP Marist Institute of Solidarity Municipal Prefecture of Vitória Ministry of Employment Ministry of Cities SENAES Caixa Bank BANDES BANESTES Arcelor Mittal Company Unimed Vitória Ateliê de Idéias

NETWORKS Living Lab Habitat Brazilian network of Community Banks

PARTNERS Municipal Prefecture of Cariacica Municipal Prefecture of Serra University of São Paulo EMAU UFES SEBRAE Rummos CISV NESOL SECRI ACCACI

Forum Bem Maior

SENAI PETROBRAS ADERES

Capixaba network of Community Banks

Santa Rita Church NGO Housing Action

MDG Brazil FEPS

Fig. 11. Partnerships of Bem Maior Forum & ‘Ateliê de Idéias Ashoka: Innovators for the Public is a nonprofit organization based in Arlington, VA, USA, supporting the field of social entrepreneurship. Cooperforte Institute: Cooperforte Institute is dedicated to reducing social and economic inequalities in Brazil. Its mission is to promote social and economic inclusion of vulnerable people with emphasis on promoting social and human development. Institute EDP: EDP is an energy company and its institute promotes human and social development. Solidarity Institute of HSBC: It is a non-profitable organization that promotes politics of social investment to reduce the poverty and environmental impacts by means of the sustainable development of the supported communities in Brazil. Housing and Citizenship NGO : It is responsible for initiatives such as education, employment and income generation and support for actions to combat hunger and poverty for low-income communities. Citi Foundation: The Citi Foundation supports the economic empowerment and financial inclusion of low- to moderate-income people in communities where Citi operates. UNDP: United Nations Development Program SENAES: National Secretary of Solidary Economy BANDES: Brazilian Development Bank BANESTES: Bank of Espirito Santo Arcelor Mittal Company: Steel Company in Vitória Unimed Vitória: Global healthcare network

Housing Action NGO: It promotes quality in social risk areas by building houses with green bricks, supporting to community enterprises, food security projects and responsible citizenship. UFES: Federal University of Espírito Santo ADERES: Agency for the Development of Micro and Small Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Espirito Santo SEBRAE: Brazilian support service of micro and small enterprises SENAI: National Service for Industrial Apprenticeship of S. Catarina Rummos: Nonprofit organization focusing on implementation and systematization of local development agencies in social risk areas in Brazil. NESOL: Support of Extension Activities of Solidary Economy of University of São Paulo. SECRI NGO: Community Engagement Service ACCACI: Association Against Childhood Cancer PETROBRAS: Integrated energy company EMAU: University project attached to the research process in architecture and urbanism schools in Brazil. Its aim is to engage students to the social reality of the community where the university is located. CISV: Children’s International Summer Villages Living Lab Habitat: Social network for research and development of environmental friendly technologies in low-income communities. Capixaba: Municipality located in the Brazilian state of Acre. MDG Brazil: Millennium Development Goals Brazil FEPS: Popular Solidary Economy Forum

11


STRENGTHS ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias

interventions in São Benedito 1. ‘Banco Do Bem’ 2. First former dumpsite 3. Second former dumpsite

Engenharia

Floresta

Itararé

Forum Bem Maior

São Benedito

Jaburu

Bonfim

consolação

Bairro da Penha 0

40

80

120

Fig. 12. ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & ‘Ateliê de Idéias interventions in São Benedito

12


STRENGTHS ‘Bem Maior’ Forum & the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias 1. ‘Banco Do Bem’ The ‘Banco Do Bem’ is a community bank working according to solidarity economy principles and aiming to help people improve their lives through loans. As a result, money remains in the area, where it strengthens the local economy. To achieve these goals, the bank receives money from the Brazilian Central Bank and various foundations, a part of which is converted into the area’s local currency. Then, loans are given, either in the national currency Reals (R$) or in the ‘Banco Do Bem’s’ own notes, depending on the reason for the loan. There are three credit lines: promotion of entrepreneurship, housing and consume. 2. First former dumpsite This former dumpsite was collectively cleaned by Forum members, volunteers and students of the Federal University of Espírito Santo, in order to be used by different stakeholders for local events.

3. Second former dumpsite This former dumpsite was cleaned and converted to a public square by volunteers and Forum members. The adjacent houses were painted, a dumpster was placed and flowers were planted in the center of the area.

13


STRENGTHS Houses’ hidden spatial capacities Although the area is densely occupied, hidden spatial capacities can be found on houses’ rooftops and foundations. Many roofs are built in a way allowing for an eventual vertical extension. Such step-by-step construction is very common in the area. Thus, they are spaces that can be used for circulation and smallscale farming. Most of the buildings have a small pilotis in order to adapt to area’s steep topography. These micro-spaces usually do not attract attention and remain with garbage, while in some cases they host domestic uses. They are a significant spatial resource, which can play an important role in reforming and revitalizing the local cityscape.

Houses’ rooftops

Houses’ foundations

Fig. 13 Houses’ hidden spatial capacities

Rooftop in the area

Rooftop in the area

Pilotis in the area

Pilotis in the area

14


WEAKNESSES Environmental issues: landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas Steep hills close to the city core as Fonte Grande, Alagoas or São Benedito have been informally settled since 1920 and experienced a great population growth in the 1970s. Substandard excavation and landfill for residential construction and pathways as well as forest felling cause a precarious soil stability. As a result, districts located on these hills have a high risk of rock and landslides related to high water loads (Goulart, 2005). These phenomena usually occur during heavy storms, whilst the danger is significantly higher in case factors as limited drainage, e.g. because of garbage in watercourses, embankment excavations for houses or bad constructions as undersized retaining walls, coincide. In São Benedito, all the factors that can potentially cause a landslide are present. According to Valmir Rodrigues Dantas, one of the community leaders we met during the field trip, dumpsites are one of the major local problems. Apart from their association with landslides, dumpsites are dangerous pollution cores and signs of abandonement. The biggest dumpsites are marked on the map. Furthermore, the urban fabric is very dense and informal, resulting in many unplanned, blocked gaps in block interiors. These usually become green clusters, which could be a useful resource for a more open urban structure, but because of their form, position and accessibility they are not used as green areas.

3. Heavy rainfall 4. Self-constructions – inadequate foundations 5. Big slope (>30%) 1. Tree felling for new plots creation

6. Wastes blocking water exits

2. Inadequate or inexistent drainage

Low Medium High Very high Arte/ Defesa Civil (2013)

Fig. 14. Landslide accident reasons

Fig.15. Map of landslide risk

Landslide accidents in the area 1. Rua Tenente Setúbal 1, 19.03.2013

2. Rua Tenente Setúbal,

3. Stair Vigílio Martins, 22.12.2013

Heavy rains washed out Vitória and caused several damages in high-risk areas such as floods, landslides and rolling of rocks. Here is a landslide next to Rua Tenente Setúbal, the main street of the area.

Lourdes Silvério’s house, 05.01.2012 Lourdes Silvério’s house collapsed as a result of heavy rain and followed landslide.

A heavy rain caused chaos at various points in São Benedito. Among them was the stair Vigílio Martins, where occurred a landslide.

Folha Vitória (2012)

Neuzinha de Oliveira (2013)

Prefecture of Vitória (2013)

15


WEAKNESSES Environmental issues: landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas Dumpsites in the area

Ateliê de Idéias, Forum Bem Maior (2010)

Fig. 16. Map of dumpsites

16


WEAKNESSES Environmental issues: landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas

2

3 0

40

120

Low landslide risk

Dumpsite

Medium landslide risk

Landslide accident

High landslide risk

1

80

Green area

Fig 17. Landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas in S達o Benedito

17


WEAKNESSES Limited mobility and accessibility São Benedito is located on the top of the hill. Its topography is characterized by a big slope, which restricts accessibility and mobility within the area. The area’s main street Rua Tenente Setubal is one of the few streets accessible by car. The rest of the circulation is realized through narrow, curved alleys and stairways typical for São Benedito’s peculiar morphology. This leads to many undesirable results, such as the inability of infrastructure implementation, mobility difficulties especially for the elderly, health problems due to bad ventilation and deaths because of the inaccessibility of many areas for ambulances or the impossibility to escape in case of emergency. However, the issue of accessibility has also a further dimension: Easily accessible areas are more ‘open’ in the sense that they provide a subjective feeling of security related to the direct overview of space and the possibility to run away. In São Benedito, this feeling is present only along some main streets. The rest of the area could be described as veiled, as no hints are provided about anything happening in the blocks’ interior. The map shows a 3-level openness scale: between open and completely closed areas there are zones outsiders may find access to, without any ability to read the space though. 67% hill slope São Benedito - Vitória bus connection +125m

+40m

Rua Professor Rua Vitor Herminio Finamore Blackman

Rua Tenente Setubal

Planned water reservoire and fooball field

+80m

Fig. 18. Section A-A’ The section shows the slope from São Benedito’s lowest part to the top of the hill.

Bus stop on the central square The connection to city center through public means of transport is limited to one bus line, Line 031, which connects Rua Tenente Setubal to Via Morro do Pinto (proximal to center).

Stairways in the area

Alleys in the area

18


WEAKNESSES Limited mobility and accessibility

R Fin ua V am ito or r e

São Benedito - Vitória

A’

r so es f o Pr inio n a a Ru erm ckm H la B

A

e nt ne e aT Ru

l ba tu e S

‘Open’ areas

Street or alley

Medium ‘open’ areas

Stair

‘Closed’ areas

0

40

80

120

Fig. 19. Mobility and accessibility map of São Benedito

19


WEAKNESSES Limited public space There are only a few public spaces in São Benedito, and they are in a condition that makes them difficult to use. The lack of public space restricts social networking, impoverishes public realm and diminishes the inhabitants’ community feeling. This may also be correlated to their reluctance to get involved in community projects. Furthermore, this lack of communal areas is opposed to the residents’ tendency to live outside their homes and to treat public space as an extension of their private sphere. Thus, an important aspect of everyday life is not expressed in urban space. Former dumpsite converted into a little open-air stage Small sized plot, revitalized within the framework of the ‘Ecos do Bem’ program by the ‘Bem Maior’ Forum and converted into an open-air stage. However, its dimensions make unsuitable for the designated use.

Central Square of São Benedito The central square is tiny space that is permanently congested because of the adjacent terminal bus stop. However, a handful of built benches and tables as well as the shadow of three huge trees make it a welcoming shelter during hot daytimes.

Former dumpsite converted into a square A very steep area, revitalized within the framework of the ‘Ecos do Bem’ program by the ‘Bem Maior’ Forum and converted into a square. Its topography restricts its use, as moving and staying there is very difficult.

20


WEAKNESSES Limited public space

Ex-dumpsite converted into an arena

Central square

Ex-dumpsite converted into a square

0

40

80

120

Fig. 20. Map of São Benedito’ public spaces

21


WEAKNESSES Marginality: crime, low education level and poverty Apart from the area’s peculiar topography and challenging urban form, São Benedito’s inhabitants face many social problems and a consequent lack of opportunities. Thus, poverty, criminality and inadequate education institutions weave a cruel landscape, in which residents live stigmatized as collectively dangerous. Thus, they are excluded from many concepts and institutions of formal city life. Poverty Low salary levels and unemployment mark the economic situation in São Benedito. Approximately 56% of the households live with less than 2 minimum salaries (R$ 510.00 or € 160.00 each) and 8% without any income. 43.28% of the people of working age (i.e. from the age of 10!) are unemployed and 47.95% are paid with less than 2 minimum salaries (Prefeitura Municipal de Vitoria 2013, p. 354-355).

Income per household 0 min salary 7.99%

1 -2 min salaries 28.26%

< 1 min salary 19.77%

3 - 5 min salaries 34.47%

5 - 10 min salaries 9.5%

Fig. 21. Income per household Income per person without income : 43.28%

1/2-1 m.s.: 26.49%

1-2 m. s.: 21.46%

2-5 m.s.: 7.61%

Fig. 22. Income per person

Low education level The only educational institutions are a primary school, a church center and a wood workshop, whilst there is no secondary school. According to Vitória’s Prefecture, 11.87% of the residents of São Benedito’s are not alphabetized and 49% have incomplete primary education (Prefeitura Municipal de Vitoria 2013, p. 351). Thus, the people’s professional training is limited, which often excludes them from employment in the formal sector. Furthermore, there is serious lack of education in environmental and sanitary issues, which is an obstacle for the implementation of community projects and their maintenance.

Wood workshop in the area not alphabetized : 11.87% incomplete primary education : 49%

Fig. 23. Education-related percentages

22


WEAKNESSES Marginality: crime, low education level and poverty Crime Crime, in particular drug trafficking, seems to be a direct reaction to poverty, low education levels and unemployment. In this context, youngsters are recruited by rival criminal gangs due to a lack of other employment alternatives. Furthermore, according to information provided by residents, the rivalry between gangs is also reflected in conflicts between different local communities, while frequent media coverage is usually limited to criminal activities and brutal police interventions on Vitória’s hills.

FOTOMUSINOTICIAS (2013)

Image from São Benedito presented in local news

Negative stereotypes

Criminal Low-educated

São B Criminal Low-educated

Criminal Low-educated

?

ent sid

dito re e n e

Low education levels and high crime rates are correlated on this way, forming negative stereotypes against favela inhabitants, which contributes to their exclusion from many activities of the formal city. Thus, formal working and social networking outside their district boundaries prove to be difficult. It is a vicious circle: Criminality and the lack of education segregates favela dwellers form the rest of the city and this segregation does not allow for many opportunities of personal development, which in turn can lead to criminal activities. ‘Until recently, a woman had to lie about where she lived to get a job as a housekeeper’. ‘I had to lie to my parents, in order to participate in projects in São Benedito’. Denise Barbieri Biscotto, NGO’s coordinator

Low-educated Criminal

A Student at the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES)

Fig. 24. Negative stereotypes against favela inhabitants

23


WEAKNESSES Marginality: crime, low education level and poverty

Assassination, 28.01.2013 A 25-year old man was assassinated a few meters from the police station. (TV Vitória 2013) Shooting, 15.02.2013 A shooting between one the area’s most well known drug-dealers and the police took place on the Rua Tenente Setúbal, São Benedito’s central street. There were no victims (ESHOJE Jornal 2013). Collateral homicide, 08.03.2013 A 21-year old woman going to work was killed, when she found between rival gangs’ shootings. (G1 2013)

Drug related activities Church Educational Centre

Collateral homicide Wood studio Police station Primary school

Shooting

Assassination 0

40

80

120

Fig. 25. Map of education facilities and crime incidents in São Benedito

24


WEAKNESSES Self-constructions and poor-quality dwellings In 2010, São Benedito comprised 789 housing units, each hosting an average of 3.5 people (Prefeitura Municipal de Vitoria 2013, p. 352). The great majority of them are self-constructed out of brick, wood, or a combination of these materials. Building is rather a successive process than a moment, responding to the residents’ housing needs. For this reason, quite often a family initially builds one floor, and when the need emerges, e.g. when children make their own family, the house is extended vertically. This process can be easily seen in the houses’ patchwork facades that often reveal different building phases. Poor building quality often manifests itself in unfinished, unplastered walls and bad materials, construction techniques, isolation and ventilation. Usually, houses are based on concrete or wooden pillars that found them in the ground, forming a small pilotis. This technique aims to compensate the big elevation differences that often exist within plots, due to the hill’s steep slope. Such constructions are very vulnerable, given the ground instability and the permanent threat of landslides.

Patchwork facades and unplastered walls

Patchwork facades and unplastered walls

Patchwork facades and unplastered walls

Self-construction made out of wood

House’s foundations forming a pilotis

25


OPPORTUNITIES Urban Master Plan Brazilian cities with a population of more than 200,000 inhabitants elaborate an Urban Master Plan (Plano Diretor Urbano – PDU), which is a municipal legislative act that the City Council approves, defining urban extension and land uses. In 2001, new planning policies to control city growth in Vitória were established and incorporated into the actual PDU, defining areas of social interest as well as protected areas. This is an opportunity for better urban organization, strategic design of solutions responding to social problems and preservation of good qualities, which otherwise would be absorbed by city’s expansion. In each city’s Urban Master Plan, there are defined Zones of Social Interest (ZEIS), that are classified on a scale of 1 to 3. For each ZEIS, a Local Development Plan (Plano de Desenvolvimento Local - PDL) is elaborated in cooperation with the local government and area’s residents. The aim of PDLs is the holistic development of the area through integrated actions that cover physical and socio-economic aspects, such as land tenure, infrastructure, environmental issues, urban mobility and accessibility (PDU 2001). São Benedito is classified as ZEIS 1. In this social interest class, residential and mixed uses of land are allowed. The latter includes commercial, cultural, educational, gastronomy and industrial uses with low noise emissions on an area of up to 300 m2 (PDU 2001). PDUs also define Zones of Environmental Protection (Zonas de Proteção Ambiental – ZPA), which are classified on a scale of 1 to 3. ZPAs are areas of environmental interest and limited use and occupation in order to protect or restore landscape and archaeological sites in the area. In Vitória, all areas with an altitude of more than 50m are protected. A part of São Benedito is classified as ZPA 2 and 3 (PDU 2001). ZPA 2 refers to natural ecosystems preserved for the sustainable use of natural resources through environmentally friendly activities as scientific research, monitoring, environmental education, tourism (limited), sports and recreation. ZPA 3 refers to areas protected in order to preserve and recover natural resources and landscapes. Their use and occupation is controlled with the aim to ensure good environmental quality. Uses as scientific research, monitoring, environmental education, tourism (limited), sports and recreation are allowed, as they are considered harmless for the natural environment.

ZPA 2 ZPA 3 ZEIS 1

Vitória Urban Master Source: Vitória Urban MasterPlan Plan

Fig. 26. Urban Master Plan of Vitória with detail of São Benedito

26


OPPORTUNITIES Terra Mais Igual

Terra Mais Igual is a public program encompassing policies for integrated social, urban and environmental development in areas occupied by low-income population in the city of Vitória that was introduced in 2005. Its ultimate goal is social and territorial inclusion of the most vulnerable population segments with equal opportunities for everyone. For the project’s accomplishment, the Zones of Social Interest according to the urban master plan are subdivided into 15 polygonal areas. The site of interest São Benedito belongs to is the Polygon 1. Within the framework of Terra Mais Igual, investments in the provison of adequate housing, infrastructure (e.g. sewage), transportation and public facilities have been carried out. Furthermore, occupation limits in areas of environmental interest and risk have been established and implemented through evacuation and resettlement. Other actions of the Terra Mais Igual program consist in the promotion of land regularization and titling, the establishment of social work management and the involvement of residents in project development. Terra Mais Igual interventions in São Benedito encompass basic infrastructure projects such as the construction of roads and stairways, the improvement of the drainage system, the creation of public spaces and the installation of street lights. Additional interventions are planned for the future. In concrete terms, 121 households are to be resettled,181 dwellings are to be improved and 362 houses are to be rebuilt. An existing trail will be transformed into a paved road (Road 1), the main street will be extended until the top of the hill (Road 2) and an existing road will be widened (Road 3). Furthermore, a water reservoir with a football field on its roof will be constructed on the top of the hill. LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Road 1 C

C C

Environmental

Social

Urban

C

Regulatory

C

F

C

F

C C C

Environmental and sanitation education

Landscaping Reforestation

Generation of employment

community

development and promotion of citizenship

Public services (education, health, assistance, etc)

C

Accessibility Land uses and permitted Housing occupation Infrastructure Land titling Regulariza-

F

Water reservoir and F

C

C

C

C

F

Road 2

tion of urbanization process

Road 3

F

C

C

Resettlement Area Houses to be resettled

Fig. 27. Local development plan of São Benedito

Fig. 28. Terra Mais Igual interventions in São Benedito

Polygons

Source: Prefecture of Vitória

Fig. 29. Polygons of Terra Mais Igual

27


THREATS Crime as informal employment

Espírito Santo faced intense industrialization during the 1970s, which was followed by migration, unplanned urbanization and inequalities in wealth distribution. As a result, Vitória grew to a city with strong social and economical divisions that result in the vulnerability and marginalization of great part of its population. Precarious health, education, public safety and overall social conditions as well as the lack of opportunities or revenge motives often lead these population segments to crime, which they tend to consider as the most convenient employment alternative. With a homicides rate 67.82 per 1,000 inhabitants Vitória was listed in 2011 among the 20 most dangerous cities in the world (Berlinger 2012). The rapid increase in youth violence can be regarded within this general context, although it is being further complicated by the influence of transnational criminal networks and the easy access to small firearms, while affecting mainly the urban poor (Fernando de Moraes Manzano 2007). Apart from indicating a democracy failure, youth violence has a detrimental effect on the growth potential of many countries, as it puts a strain on government budgets, deters investment and contributes to the deterioration of social norms and morals traditionally used to hold the social fabric together and guide young people to adulthood (Center for International Conflict Resolution 2013). Extremely worrying is the fact that youth homicides increased in Brazil by 376% in the years from 1980 to 2010 (Benites 2012). Espírito Santo listed in the second position after Alagoas with 729 youth homicides in 2010 (Waiselfisz 2011) and a youth homicide rate 33.8 per 1,000 inhabitants. This devastating primacy cannot but threaten any potential social development that leaves the youth out of its focus. It is of critical importance to provide alternatives to youngsters through education and employment opportunities in order to break this circle of crime often representing the only possible option for them. Moreover, through developing conflict resolution skills young people can contribute to the appeasement of their societies.

Less than 3 minimum salaries 3-5 minimum salaries More than 5 minimum salaries Source: Seguridad, Justicia y Paz 2011

Table 2. Ranking the 50 most violent cities of the world in 2011

Source: IBGE Censo Demografico 2010

Fig. 29. Wealth distribution in Vitória

Table 3. YOUTH HOMICIDES (15 to 24 years) IN BRAZIL, 2000-2010

Source: Mapa da Violência 2012

28


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES The Research The SWOT analysis made it possible to view São Benedito’s urban life through different perspectives, allowing a safe diagnosis of local weaknesses and the identification of potential contributions to solutions. Poverty, marginality, limited public space of bad quality, inadequate circulation, dwellings in bad conditions, landslides, pollution and social isolation shape a challenging urban landscape. The Aims This project aims to provide a sustainable future for the area, which can be reached through achieving the following goals: eradication of extreme poverty, increase of human development and community

feeling, improvement of the physical environment and provision of better living conditions.

In these context, concrete actions can be proposed, such as the creation of employment opportunities, the provision of means of food production, the education of the local population, the elaboration of communal projects or concepts aiming to make people share a common vision and feel proud of their area, the generation of adequate public and recreational space, the improvement of dwellings, the facilitation of circulation and the elimination of the collapse risk for houses because of landslides. The vision In this framework, we have the vision to design a new way of communal living in a new multifunctional landscape. We are looking for a physical and conceptual space, where community members can share hopes, fears, responsibilities, jokes, ideas, knowledge, experiences, and which at the same time responds to practical problems of everyday life. Our vision takes the material form of neighborhood farms, circulation above ground level and tiny public spaces.

Fig. 30. The vision

29


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES The Strategy The chosen strategy is ‘Communal farming on houses’ rooftops and steep areas, with integrated circulation components and public spaces’. It includes some large-scale interventions and many small-scale DIY practices, conducted by the inhabitants themselves. Thus, it can be easily process-implemented, with large-scale projects being realized first by the project initiator and the others by the inhabitants. The proposal can be realized in 4 steps: development of a communal concept, creation of farming space, addition of circulation elements and integration of public space. Due to its structure, our strategy could remain an open-end process and, after São Benedito, be implemented in the whole ‘Território do Bem’. Process-implemented strategy

Create basis infrastructure

(street, houses for relocations, central storage, block storages, permanent circulation elements)

L a r g e s c a l e I n t e r v e n t i o n s

Apply on a block

(table-shaped structures, green roofs, modular circulation elements)

Apply successively to the other blocks Complete the project in São Benedito

S m a l l s c a l e

Block storages - local centers Central storage

New street

Permanent circulation elements

Table-shaped structures: Intensive green roofs’ basis

Permanent circulation elements

Relocations

Step-be-step-constructed retaining walls

Fig. 31. Large-scale interventions

I n t e r v e n t i o n s

Expand the strategy to adjacent communities

Modular circulation elements

DIY green roofs

Small terraces on green roofs

Tiny squares around trees

Open market on São Benedito’s central square

Fig. 32. Small-scale interventions

Strategy realized in four steps Development of a communal concept

Creation of farming space

Addition of circulation elements

Integration of public space

30


Development of a communal concept In order to better utilize the existing resources and to strengthen the social connections between neighbors, we developed a communal concept, which will be the basis for the organization of the whole project. This part of our strategy consists of the following actions: division of the area into blocks, collection and distribution of communal land, creation of district and block centers. The latter finds spatial expression in the form of central storage facilities and an open market that will constitute the centers of the area and small decentralized storage facilities that will play the role of block centers. For organizational purposes, the area is divided into 12 blocks, being our project’s basic units. Within a block, residents will offer their unused land and rooftops for conversion into communal farmland, a share of which will be given back to them. Furthermore, they will actively participate in the decision-making process, selforganize, develop leadership skills and obtain a strong feeling of pride and belonging. Thus, implementation and maintenance of the project will be more efficient with the users being personally involved. To support this type of organization, we introduce a new stakeholder: the block-keeper. He/She is going to be a local leader chosen from the block, who will be trained to organize and be consulted on matters concerning the project, as well as in conflict resolution. In addition to this, a space is conceived to form the heart of the block: its storage facilities. There, the residents will have the opportunity to sell their products for resale in Vitória’s markets. Responsible for these spots are the block-keepers. With regard to their construction, 8 of them will be recycled shipping containers, while 4 will be integrated into the area’s new proposed buildings. Concerning the former, we propose the engagement of the regional port company (CODESA) to provide the project with old 20 ft. shipping containers in relatively good condition. With internal dimensions of 5.90x2.35 m, they will provide sufficient space to be used as the storage facilities of the blocks. The containers will be placed on a platform constructed by the contractor, who will be responsible for the district’s new buildings and permanent circulation elements. Important for the location of the containers is proximity to a street, so that both the containers and construction materials of the platform can be easily transported. In the blocks 3, 4, 6 and 9, the storage facilities will be integrated in new buildings. The first will be constructed beneath a complex of permanent circulation components, next to a bus stop and a pocket park. In block 4, the central storage facilities will be partly used for block storage, as the area is very dense and no suitable place next to a street could be found to place a shipping container. In blocks 6 and 9, storage facilities will be situated on the ground floor of new housing complexes constructed for relocations within the area.m Apart from facilitating the project’s functionality, the central storage facility and the open market will form the area’s new centers. On the market, residents will be able to sell their products to other community members. For this purpose, payments will very possibly be carried out in the local currency. The construction of the market is very simple. It consists of 2 basic elements, metal tubes and tents. A grid is designed with possible market places on the ground and the supporting tubes will be fixed on the intersections of the grid lines. The tents will be held by the connecting horizontal tubes. The market is removable and expandable according to the vendors’ needs and the plot’s capacity. All the products from the storage facilities of the blocks will be concentrated in the central storage facility, before they leave for Vitória’s markets. Apart from this, the central storage facility will also form headquarters of the project.

31


Development of a communal concept

Create small block centers: block storages Divide in blocks

Create an open market (Center 2)

12

Create a projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s central building: central storage (Center 1)

4

3

Collect and distribute communal land

5

9

12

10

67

8 11

Fig. 33. Development of a communal concept

32


Development of a communal concept

Block storage -facilities - local centers Block storages local centers

+ Platform made of concrete

+ Shipping containers from Vitória’s port

= Adjacent to street

Open market on São Benedito’s central square

São Benedito’s central square

Bar

M O D U Tents L A R C O N S T Metal tubes R U 5 C 5 T I O N Grid on the ground

Central storage Central storage facility Products are collected Plot: adjacent from block storages to street, empty, big

Vitória

Fig. 34. Block storage facilities, Open market on São Benedito’s central square and Central storage facility

33


Development of a communal concept The community will own the greater part of the farmland and the inhabitants will receive parcels to cultivate. The first way to convert private land into communal is to obtain the residents’ permission to convert their rooftops into communal green space. This is the condition to participate at the project. The second way is by expropriation of un-built steep areas and compensation of the owners according to legal provisions. We estimate that these actions will meet the agreement of the owners, as the expropriated sites are very difficult to build on. The third group of spaces that we employ in our project consists in the pilotis under houses. These spaces will remain private, and their use for activities in support of urban farming will be promoted through a series of small interventions. Owners will receive technical assistance for this and, in some cases, also materials. For every material not provided, mass purchases for the whole district are planned, which will bring about price reductions. The communal land will be divided into parcels and distributed to the households. Each family will receive 7m2 of farming land for each member (e.g. a 4-member family will receive a 28 m2 parcel). Agricultural products not consumed by the family can be sold either on the local market or in the central storage facility in order to be resold outside the area. The remaining farmland after distributing the parcels will be cultivated by the community. For this reason, a Local Enterprise will be established, which will take all necessary action for the cultivation of the remaining communal farmland, the sale of products, the support of the participants, the extension, maintenance and good function of project in general. In a first phase, it will consist of the 12 block-keepers and professionals, who, in a second phase, will be replaced by community members that will have developed the required skills by working together with the professionals. Apart from the Local Enterprise, the stakeholders involved in the realization of the concept are: the residents, the block-keepers, the ‘Bem Maior’ Forum, the NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias’, professionals consulting and educating the local population, sponsors, and a network of partners providing clients for the agricultural products. The Forum will found the enterprise. The NGO will mediate for fundraising and consult both the Forum and the Local Enterprise on administrative issues. The first actions to be taken will be educative. A general workshop will be organized, where all inhabitants will achieve basic knowledge on farming, construction, communal organization and water management. In this workshop, block representatives will be chosen. They will get further education and specialized know-how on the same issues in order to be hired as block-keepers. During the first year, 4 professionals will be hired to provide consulting on farming, engineering, management and financial issues (one for each field) and who will educate their successors. In addition to this, workers will be hired to cultivate the communal land. When the crops are mature, the Forum and the NGO will use their partners for the creation of a client network. Money gained through the sale of products will be invested in paying the employees of the Local Enterprise and in the project’s maintenance.

34


Development of a communal concept

THE COMMUNAL CONCEPT Residents

Green roofs

Each home receives: members x 7 m 2

Communal

Consume

Sell at the local enterprise

Payments in local currency

Local Enterprise

Unbuilt steep areas

Sell at markets and shops in Vitória Payments in R$ +

4 community members

Technical support and par t of the materials

P iloti s

Products Sell at the open market

Block

Private

12 x

(

12 Block-keepers

Storehouse

+

Block-keeper

+

)

THE STAKEHOLDERS Forum Bem Maior

Local Enterprise

Residents

They construct extensive green roofs, which along with the unbuilt steep areas are given for communal farming land. They cultivate the land. Some of them are employed by the community.

The Local Enterprise

Forum ‘Bem Maior’

arrangements, contacts the partners and decides about any action to be taken. It is consisted of the block keepers and 4 permanent members. It accounts to Forum Bem Maior.

It founds, supervises and consults the Local Enterprise. Together they design project’s development strategy and it for strategy’s realization.

NGO ‘Ateliê de Idéias’

It consults Forum Bem Maior and the Local Enterprise concerning adminislinking chain between them and the sponsors.

R$ Block-keepers

He/she is responsible for the block storage, selling of goods from block to the Local Enterprise, and transferring of demands and problems. He is trained and consults residents on a

Professionals

Specialists that consult and educate the Local Enterprise related farming, engineering, management and

Sponsors

Partners

Private or public institutions and

They are Forum and Ateliê de Idéias’s

project.

clients to buy the produced goods or act as a platform of connections for new clients to link with the Local Enterprise.

their role is limited and they are replaced from skilled residents.

R$ EDUCATE

7 C O M M U N I T I E S

1 year: 4 community members learning next to the professionals

CONSULTS

CONSULTS

Farming, engineering, management and economics consulting Forum Bem Maior

FOUNDS accounts to

MARKET

R$

4 community members are hired

Local Enterprise

12 Block-keepers are hired

EDUCATES

Community-workers are hired: 1/ 250 m2 General workshop for all residents on farming, construction, communal organization and water management

Block-keepers special training on farming, construction, communal organization and water management

Fig. 35. The communal concept

35


Creation of farming space Urban farming is associated with a series of benefits, such as better quality of air and water, lower temperatures and a pleasant urban landscape. Furthermore, as a result of better nutrition, people involved to urban farming are more likely to enjoy better health than others. Apart from this, food production not only diminishes household expenses, but it can also contribute to an extra income achieved by selling these products. If we consider the average income of São Benedito’s inhabitants, this is a very valuable outcome. Last but not least, urban farming will help local people to develop additional employment skills and, because of the demanding and time-consuming practice of this creative activity, they are likely to stay away from crime and crime-related activities. Altogether, urban farming is going to beneficiate the area environmentally, economically and socially, as well as the health of its residents. A prerequisite for implementing such a strategy consists in overcoming the area’s lack of open spaces, which seems challenging in such a dense urban fabric. However, a look on our SWOT maps reveals three types of space that may prove very useful: rooftops, pilotis and steep un-built areas. In this context, each house may be seen as a potential production unit and involved houses would compose a farming area of a size that should not be underestimated. In addition to this, the ground of steep un-built sites can be leveled with retaining walls, permitting so their use for agriculture purposes. Thus, spatial capacities for the implementation of urban farming are on a satisfactory degree present in the area. On the houses, there will be green roofs of two types: extensive and intensive. The former are lighter and cost-efficient, and they will be constructed directly on existing roofs, whereas the latter, heavier and costly constructions, will be applied in selected cases as table-shaped structures over existing houses. Houses’ pilotis will be used for container farming and supplementary uses, such as composting, rainwater storing, grey water treatment and poultry farming. Both types of green roofs have a similar structure consisting of a waterproof membrane, protective layers, an egg-boxshaped drainage system and, finally, the growing medium. Due to their special drainage system, they have reduced irrigation needs. The basic element of this system, the egg-box-shaped layer, retains water that is made available to the plants by drip irrigation, which they absorb slowly and according to their needs. The excessive water flows through pipes into barrels placed in the houses’ pilotis and can be re-used untreated for irrigation purposes within a limited period of time (max. 2 days). The difference of the two roof types consists in their thickness and, consequently, in the amount and type of vegetation they can support, as well as in the water they can retain. Extensive roofs with a growing medium layer of 10 to 15cm are suitable for herbs and perennials and can retain up to 40% of the water they receive during a moderate local rainfall, while the rest flows into the storing barrels. Intensive green roofs on the other hand are 20 to 50 cm thick, can support shrubs, perennials, grasses and small trees. During a comparable rainfall, they retain up to 70% of the water. Both roof types are, thus, a mean against the floods and landslides plaguing the area. Most green roofs will be of the extensive type and DIY-constructed. For this reason, after each house’s static and waterproofing control by an engineer, inhabitants will be given a manual guide and all required materials. The guide provides 10 simple steps to implement an extensive green roof and a final step to connect the system with the barrels for the storage of rainwater. Roofs of this type are not permanent; in order to cover the initials costs, they have to be used for a minimum of 5 years though. Intensive green roofs, on the contrary, are permanent constructions realized by contractors. The houses in the worst condition and of limited load bearing capacity will be chosen for these interventions, as implementation of an extensive green roof on them would be impossible. For their realization, two preconditions have to be fulfilled: proximity to a road for the transport of the building materials and sufficient surrounding free area for the construction of their foundations. A table-shaped concrete structure will be raised over the existing building, on top of which the green roof will be placed. These roof-supporting structures may additionally serve as the house’s new structure in case of extension or rebuilding. The planned infrastructure stations are an important tool for the good function of the green-roof concept. They are retired 10 ft. shipping containers provided by the local port company, one placed every 200-250 m2 of farming land and containing tools and a WC, apart from providing water and electricity on the spot. They are placed on a separate basis located on the roofs. For this reason, intensive green roofs are preferable for their installation, as these will be designed with a higher load bearing capacity. The concept of container farming consists in reusing everything conceivable (e.g. old bathtubs, tires, sacks, barrels) as a plant pot. As this type of farming is planned for the houses’ pilotis, the plants, apart from edible, have also to be shadowtolerant. Plants as carrots, onions, garlic, beets, ginger, lettuce, celery, spinach, mushrooms, etc. are suitable. Fresh or stored rainwater (or treated grey water in the case of shrubs) will be used for their irrigation.

36


Creation of farming space

Build retaining walls Install green roofs (every roof = a potential green roof)

Add grey-water treatment system

Add rainwater storage system

Fig. 36. Creation Of Farming Space

37


Stored storm water (1st option) Fresh water (2nd option)

Creation of farming space

ke to ta oots r t n r pla ter fo s wa e r o t e: S posit e com g a Drain

els hann tion c a ig r Ir 1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

40% retained

1m

1m

Storm water retention depends on various parameters. 70% is the maximum retention that we can manage with dense vegetation over a mineral based soil mixture 500 mm and 40% is the average rainwater retention of extensive roofs (max 150mm growing medium) , on top of a flat slab for the local storm patterns and during a dry period. Other parameters to be considered: Storm intention, duration and frequency :1.5m eight h n o tati vege max

stem ge sy draina Main

70% retained

n atio cul Cir

Permanent elements

60% runs off

Optional beekeeping

Combination of several roofs for easier and more economical construction

O H2C W

T NKK TA TAN TANK

Electricity Tool storage

Modular elements

s eriod fall p in a r low up in

Treated grey water TANK

Wetland: grey water treatment system Compost: kitchen and garden wastes are recycled into high quality soil fertilizer

Due to minimum available space, smaller garbage bins are proposed, instead of typical compost containers.

Poultry farming Container farming

Fig. 37. Each house as a potential production unit

38


Creation of farming space EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOFS

m 15c 10m m c u edi site* 5 o ane gm win comp br o r em G e g m a oof n i Draterpr oof Wa â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s r use o H

ma nu al ma nu al

+

Scale 1:20

m

at er ial s m at er ial s

file pro l on i e t v a ar Gra Sep

Materials

* Drainage composite : Filter layer + Eggbox-shaped dimpled plastic sheet + Separation and protection layer

Manual cm 32

Each house

Detail of extensive green roof

DIY construction

5 years

OR

Not permanent

Minimum of 5 years

INTENSIVE GREEN ROOFS CRITERIA 1. Bad dwelling condition 2. Roofs with restricted loading capacity 3. With enough space on the ground for structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s construction 4. Roof surface > 50 m2 (when not combined with other roofs)

yer n la ctio e t Pro * le vel 0cm rofi 0-5 Gra np 2 o i t m ra diu cm pa *5 me Se ite* ing s o w p e Gro om bran ec ag f mem n i Dra rproo te Wa b sla ete ncr o C

m 15c

Scale 1:20 cm 30

cm 32 Detail

*Growing medium: 55% mineral soil + 45% organic soil * *Drainage composite : Filter layer + Eggboxshaped dimpled plastic sheet + Separation and protection layer

of intensive green roof

private constructed

Fig. 38. Extensive and intensive green roofs

39


Creation of farming space CONTAINER FARMING CONTAINERS

IRRIGATION: hand watering Rainwater Fresh water

Barrels

Car tires

Feed sacks

Partially grey water (when plants are suitable, e.g. berry shrubs)

Wading pools

Retired tubs

PLANTS: shade tolerant edible

Mint

Onion

Garlic

Ginger

Lettuce

Celery

Arugula

Spinach

Carrots

Beets

Radishes

Broccoli

Peas

Sweet potatoes

Blackberries

Raspberries

Coriander Watercress

Mushrooms

INFRASTRUCTURE STATIONS: RECYCLED SHIPPING 10 ft. CONTAINERS TAKEN FROM THE PORT SPATIAL CONFIGURATION

INSTALLATION AN INTENSIVE GREEN INSTALLATION ONON AN EXTENSIVE GREENROOF ROOF

WC

Fresh water Stored storm water 240cm

Electricity

Tool storage 260cm

300cm

Scale 1:100

20cm

WC

Stored Fresh Electricity rainwater water

Scale 1:50

Fig. 39. Container farming and Infrastructure stations

40


Creation of farming space

EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOF MANUAL GUIDE

BERLIN 2014

41


Creation of farming space

Provided:

127-mm-diameter gutter

Retaining edge

Manual

Root barrier Gravel

Soil

Seeds

Drainage access box

Protection mat

Separation fabric

Hose

76-mm-diameter downspouts

Drainage plate 25mm

Recycled, plastic barrels

1. Lay Root Barrier Overlap adjacent sheets at least 150 mm Continue at least 100mm on the parapet wall

Start from roofâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s low end

E X T E N S I V E G R E E N R O O F M A N U A L G U I D E 42


Creation of farming space

2. Lay Protection Mat Overlap adjacent sheets at least 150 mm

Cut openings for roof drains

3. Install Drain Access Boxes

Add sidewall elements as needed to match the system thickness

E X T E N S I V E G R E E N R O O F M A N U A L G U I D E 43


Creation of farming space

4. Install Retaining Edge

E X T E N S I V E

450mm from edges

750mm from roof edges with roof drains

G R E E N R O O F

5. Lay drain plates

M A N U A L

Lay in a staggered pattern

G U I D E 44


Creation of farming space

6. Install gutter

E X T E N S I V E

130-mm-diameter plastic gutter

7. Lay Separation Fabric Overlap adjacent sheets at least 150 mm

G R E E N R O O F M A N U A L G U I D E 45


Creation of farming space

8. Spread gravel perimeter

E X T E N S I V E

450mm Gravel, 10mm minimum particle size

750mm from roof edges with roof drains

9. Spread soil Soil height 100 - 200 mm

G R E E N R O O F M A N U A L G U I D E 46


Creation of farming space

10. Plant

E X T E N S I V E G R E E N R O O F

11. Connect drainage to barrels

75-mm-diameter plastic downspout Connecting hose Cinder blocks

Recycled, plastic barrels for rainwater storage Gravel foundation

M A N U A L G U I D E 47


Creation of farming space The other category of spaces employed for farming purposes is un-built steep areas that will be leveled with the help of retaining walls made of gabions. Gabions are mesh baskets filled with a variety of common materials ranging from hard quarried angular rocks, round river rocks, flat slate, small stones, crushed concrete, etc. In our project, the baskets are made of galvanized 4mm mesh forming a 80x80mm grid. They are filled with local industry (granite) and building waste, sized from 100 to 200mm, which makes the construction cost-efficient. The baskets are assembled on site in three sizes: 70x200x70 cm, 100x200x70 cm and 140x 200x70 cm. Gabions are placed in rows to form the retaining wall, with the biggest elements placed on the lowest row and medium and small particles following consequently. The configuration of the whole slope is realized gradually; starting from the slope foot, existing vegetation is removed from an area which is flattened in order to form a terrace. When the first terrace is complete, it becomes the new starting point. Once again vegetation is removed, a retaining wall is constructed and the area behind it is flattened. The procedure is repeated hereafter until completion of the terraces. For stability reasons, the walls have an inclination of 6% and are raised to a maximum height of 2m (three layers of gabions), while the created terraces have to be at least 3m wide. These restrictions are not technical though, but need to be complied to for such a construction to make sense, i.e. for the investment to pay back in adequate farming land. There are some more criteria to be met for the realization of these interventions: The area needs to be adjacent to a road and have a slope of 25 to 60%. Moreover, the soil must permit farming, which means that this terracing intervention is not suitable for rocky steep areas. The created farmland will be used for the cultivation of medium dwarf variations of fruit trees, such as mango, guava, papaya, etc. Watering will be realized through drip irrigation systems and treated grey water. The latter is domestic wastewater, excluding sewage, treated in the housesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; pilotis and transferred on site with hoses. It is estimated that a local four-member family produces approximately 200 lt. grey water per day (plus 225 lt. per week by use of a washing machine), which permits the daily irrigation of 5-6 trees (and, additionally, the weekly irrigation of other 5-6). The irrigation process is roughly realized in the following steps: First, the water is collected in a (conceivably underground) buffer tank. From there, it flows into a constructed wetland, a specially developed swallow pool for storm or waste water treatment that creates growing conditions suitable for wetland plants. Buffer tanks regulate the grey water flux from the house to the wetland and ensure that there will always be enough water for the plants and that excessive water is directed to the sewer. Grey water can be stored in the tank for a maximum of 24 hours. Wetlands absorb nutrients and filter particles from the grey water, enabling it to be stored or sent through a properly designed drip irrigation system. The water remains in the wetland for four days. In the case of a four-member family, it is estimated that the buffer tank needs a capacity of 200lt. and the wetland a surface of 4,8m2. Finally, the treated water leaves the wetland and either flows directly to trees or is stored for later use. If stored, it must be submitted to an additional mild chemical treatment.

48


Creation of farming space GABION-WALLS AND CREATED FARMLAND CRITERIA 1. Slope 25-60% 2. Proximity to road â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Access to materials 3. Ground suitable for farming

min 3m

Original soil profile

Max slope 70%

Mulch

Waterlines with treated grey water

0.7 m

max 2m

0.4 m

6%

1m

GABIONS

Wastes from local stone industry (granite) or building wastes (concrete)

0.7 m 1m 1.4 m Drip irrigation Woven geotextile fabric to prevent soil washout

Scale 1:50 Mesh dimensions

Galvanized mesh 4mm Constructed on site

0.7m x 0.7m x 2m

0.7m x 1m x 2m

1.4m x 1m x 2m

Fig. 40. Retaining walls made of gabions

49


Creation of farming space STEP-BY-STEP MANUAL CONSTRUCTION

Step 4

Step 3

Tree planting of the previous level

Step 2 Manual ground configuration (remove or add soil)

Manual removal of plants Manual gabion wall construction

Step 1

Materials

Step 0

Fig. 41. Retaining walls construction

50


Creation of farming space

Grey water Position A

1 House: 4 Inhabitants To buffer tank

To sewer

Pipe 12 mm

Position B

75 l/ load 3 loads/ week

50 l/ inhabitant per day

Mulch basin

3 - way valve

10 cm

Water storage barrel (optional) 225 l/ week

200 l/ day

3 - 5 trees /week

3 - 5 trees /day

Outlet min 2min under the surface Valve box

Drip line of being watered

GREY WATER TREATMENT AND DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM

10 cm

Drip irrigation

Irrigation lines Washed stones 40-60 mm Washed gravel 10-20 mm

Sewage

Wetland plants: Cattails, Bulrushes, Reed Grasses Watertight membrane

Buffer tank

Constructed wetland Wetlands

house to wetland and ensure that there will be always enough water for the plants and that excessive water is directed to the sewer. Grey water can be stored in the tank for a maximum of 24 hours. Size: 200lt

absorb

particles from greywater, enabling it to be stored or sent through a properly designed drip irrigation system. Water stays in wetland for four days. Size: 4,8m2 (to treat 200lt greywater, produced daily from a 4-member family)

50 mm

Scale 1:50 Fig. 42. Grey water treatment system

51


Addition of circulation elements Following actions are proposed with regard to the area’s diagnosed mobility deficit: construction of a new street and accompanying interventions (as expropriations) and addition of circulation elements above the ground, i.e. on roof level. The street project actually consists in the widening of an existing alley, in order to make it accessible by car. This intervention is required for the further implementation of our strategy, as it ensures car accessibility for every block. Thus, it will initially facilitate the transfer of building materials to the site and eventually the transport of produced goods from the blocks to the central storage facility. Its realization demands the complete resettlement of two houses and short-term relocations of some households until the street construction works are completed. Then, these houses will be repaired and given back to their owners. For permanent and short-term resettlements, the construction of two similar 4-storey housing buildings is proposed. Each floor will have a surface of 100 m2, while a block-storage and a shop will be located on the ground floor. Both buildings will be covered with intensive green roofs. The first building will contain six 50m2 apartments for short-term resettlements, which will be converted into four 75m2 apartments for the permanent settlement of four local families after the project’s completion. The second building will host the two families that will have to be permanently resettled for the construction of the street. Thus, it will have two 75m2 and three 50m2 apartments; the latter will be converted into two more 75m2 apartments after the project’s completion. This will be the case after the implementation of the whole strategy in all blocks, as these buildings will also be used during the construction of the table-shaped structures as a temporary home for the residents affected. With regard to circulation on roof level, two types of circulation components are planned: permanent concrete and modular elements. The permanent elements are more sophisticated and costly structures that will be constructed by contractors. Their implementation will be punctual and take place in areas where also other factors coincide that could trigger urban life, e.g. a public space. Thus, two interventions of this type are designed. The structures provide for circulation on their upper side, while they create a shadowed space underneath, which can be used as a pop-up open market in the first case and as a bus station, the entrance to a pocket park and a block storage in the second. The modular circulation elements will be industrially produced and assembled on site by residents’ groups. They consist of only 5 pieces: a carrying tube, a tread, a riser, a landing and a handrail element. Thus, they can be quickly and easily assembled into bridges or stairs between the roofs. Their industrial production by simple materials makes them a low-cost solution. Moreover, they need a minimum of foundation points, which lets them adapt to the topography and further facilitates their installation.

52


Addition of circulation elements

Build two housing complexes for short-tterm and permanent relocations

Add permanent circulation elements

Connect roofs with modular circulation elements

Construct a street

Temporary relocate 6 families to contract the street and repair houses Remove 2 houses on the street Fig. 43. Addition of circulation elements

53


Addition of circulation elements THE NEW STREET (PART A)

THE NEW STREET (PART B)

B

A

Permanent relocated home Short-term relocated home

SCALE 1:1000

Fig. 44. Construction of a new street

54


Addition of circulation elements MODULAR CIRCULATION ELEMENTS 80cm

80cm

Handrail element 1m Landing

Carrying tube

80cm

Ă&#x2DC; 100mm

Tread Riser 40mm 10mm

200mm

10mm

PERMANENT CIRCULATION ELEMENTS

280mm

Stairs-entrance to Pocket Bus Block Table-shaped pocket park park stop storage structure

Pop-up market in the shadow of permanent circulation elements

Bus stop and block storage under permanent circulation elements

Fig. 45. Modular and permanent circulation elements

55


Addition of circulation elements HOUSES FOR SHORT-TERM AND PERMANENT RELOCATIONS 1st Phase Short-term relocations

E

F

2nd Phase 2nd Phase

Permanent relocations

E

F

50 m2 50 m2

50 m2 50 m2

3rd Floor

3rd Floor

c

A

B

25 m2

25 m2

Apartments

D

50 m2 50 m2

E

F

25 m2 25 m2

1 Block-kstorage + 1 Shop

2nd Floor

2nd Floor

A

B

A

B

50 m2

50 m2

50 m2

50 m2

1st Floor

1st Floor

Block- Shop storage

Block- Shop storage

Fig. 46. Houses for short-term and permanent relocations

56


Integration of public spaces Until now, we have already met three new public spaces: the open market on the central square, the popup market and the bus-stop under permanent circulation elements. Apart from them, several public microspaces (as the pocket park by the bus-stop) will be spread all over the area, enriching São Benedito’s public realm. The only amenities needed for the generation of such spaces are shadow and places to sit. Based on the concept of urban acupuncture, such minimal interventions on important spots can contribute to big changes on the whole area’s urban landscape. Here, only two categories of them are presented. However, their flexible, quick and easy construction, as well as their affordability, in combination with the inhabitants’ creativity and tendency to appropriate public spaces, will probably bring about more of them in the future. The first category are small terraces on green roofs that can be used as rest areas for farm workers and pedestrians using the roof-level circulation system. They basically consist of one single piece of metal tubes that is used as a vine arbour. The planted grapevines provide deep shadow and contribute to the local fruit production, while simple furniture completes these public spaces. The second category uses the shadow of existing trees, DIY urban furniture out of recycled palettes and water supply to convert them into tiny squares.

57


Integration of public spaces

Intergrade bus stop, pocket park and a storage to the permanent circulation elements

Add tiny public spaces

Create a market

Intergrade a pop-up market to the permanent circulation elements

Fig. 47. Integration of public spaces

58


Integration of public spaces SMALL TERRACES ON GREEN ROOFS

+

Metal tubes

+

Grapevines

=

Simple furniture

TINY SQUARES AROUND TREES

+ Big existing trees

+ Handmade palette benches

H2O

=

Water supply

VIEWS OF THE TWO OPEN MARKETS

Open market on central square

Pop-up market under circulation elements

Fig. 48. Small terraces on green roofs, Tiny squares around trees and views of the two open markets

59


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES

Circulation components and integrated, blockstorage, pocket park and bus stop

Open market on São Benedito’s central square

Storage building, communal-farming -project’s house

Green roofs Potential place for retaining walls

TERRA MAIS IGUAL:

Permanent relocated home

water reservoir and football court

Short-term relocated home Block storage

SCALE 1:1000 Fig. 49. Map of Interventions, Scale 1:1000

60


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES

Relocations and block storage

Relocations and block storage

Retaining walls Circulation components and pop-up open market underneath

Potential place for retaining walls Permanent relocated home

New street

Short-term relocated home Block storage

SCALE 1:1000 Fig. 50. Map of Interventions, Scale 1:1000

61


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSS AND COST ORGANIZATION The project will be realized in four phases. The first three (initiation, pilot performance on a block, and extension on the whole area), will take place in São Benedito and can be considered as its trial implementation. After successful completion in São Benedito, the project can be extended to Território do Bem’s other districts (fourth phase). The first phase will last 18 months and include the implementation of a series of actions and sub-projects with the aim to create a platform of social and urban infrastructure, on which our project will be based. In this phase, the project will be initiated with informative and educative workshops, and the area will be divided into blocks, representatives of which will be chosen and trained. Furthermore, infrastructure to facilitate the project’s realization will be constructed: 2 houses for short-term and permanent relocations will be built, a street will be widened in order to make all blocks accessible by car, and the Local Enterprise’s headquarters, the area’s central storehouse and, finally, concrete circulation elements will be constructed. The second phase will last 7 months and consist in the construction of a pilot block. Table-shaped structures and retaining walls will be constructed and infrastructure, circulation and grey-water treatment elements will be installed. These actions will be repeated for each block during the next phase. Furthermore, professionals will install the intensive green roofs and demonstrate the process to the residents. Further on, the residents will do this by themselves. The last step will be the assembling and installation of the modular circulation components. This is a crucial moment for the project, as its level of acceptance by the local community will be tested then. The feedback will be collected and improvement proposals will be integrated into the design. After completion of the 2nd phase, the inhabitants start installing extensive green roofs, marking the beginning of the 3rd phase, which is going to last 48 months. During this period, the project will be extended block by block on the whole area. Moreover, a central open market will be constructed. In the end of this phase, tiny public spaces -small terraces- will be integrated on the green roofs. It is estimated that the implementation of our strategy in São Benedito, if it would start right now (March 2013), would be completed in 2020. Thereafter, its extension to the other seven communities of Território do Bem is planned. The project’s realization depends on finding adequate resources and sponsors to support it. For this reason, a guideline for fundraising is proposed. All taken actions and, of course, the related costs, are categorized in five groups: housing, environment, farming, urban infrastructure and employment. As there are various funds, state bodies and organizations that promote improvements in these fields, each potential donor could be approached for the financing of a field-specific part of our project. For instance, our table-shaped structures could be partially financed by sponsors promoting housing, agriculture and employment. Thus, the funding asked from each donor becomes significantly lower, which brings about two advantages: It will be easier to find sponsors and the level of dependency on them will be decreased.

62


COMMUNAL FARMING ON HOUSES’ ROOFTOPS AND STEEP AREAS WITH INTEGRATED CIRCULATION ELEMENTS AND PUBLIC SPACES

4

I M P L E M E N TA T I O N PROCESS Extension to Teritorio do Bem

2020 2 Months Construction of integrated public spaces (tiny terraces) on green roofs 1Month Installation of designed infrastructure stations on new table-shaped structures 42 Months Block 2 ... 12 Construction of table-shaped structures Construction of retaining walls Installation of grey-water treatment system Installation of modular circulation components

3 2

3 Months Installation of block storages and designed infrastructure stations on the whole area

Extension to São Benedito 48 months

Residents start installing extensive green roofs 2 Months Construction of retaining walls 5 Months Table-shaped structures’ construction

Pilot block 7 months

4 Months Construction of concrete circulation components 6 Months Widening of a street (according to our strategy)

1

1 Week Construction of open market

6 Months

Initiation and basic infrastructure 18 months

2 Months Installation of modular circulation components 1 Month Installation of block storehouse and infrastructure stations

7 Months 7 Months Installation Installation by of professional of grey-water extensive green roofs treatment and demonstration system to the inhabitants 1 Week 6 Months General workshop, where all the Construction of central inhabitants familiarize w ith storehouse – project’s project’s main p rinciples and center learn the basics on t he r elated 6 Months Construction of s econd issues (farming, c omposting, water treatment, c onstructing, house for relocations participating and co-operate for the communal good).

4 Months Block-keepers training in farming, water management, construction, mediation

house for relocations

1 Month The project is initiated and presented to the inhabitants. First organizational actions are taken: the area is divided in blocks, the Local Enterprise is founded and the block-keepers are chosen.

Phase Present

COSTS ORGANIZATION

HOUSING ENVIRON- FARMING MENT

URBAN INFRASTRUcTURE

Bus station

Extensive green roofs’ materials

Open market

Block storehouses

Grey-water treatment

Plants

Central storehouse

Houses for relocations

Retaining walls

Concrete circulation components

Infrastructure stations

Rainwater storage equipment

Expropriation compensations

Modular circulation components

Table-shaped structures

EMOLOYMENT

Fig. 51. Implementation process and Cost organization

63


BLOCK 10 On the example of block 10, we will demonstrate how the whole design idea will be implemented; the interventions in the other blocks will follow the same logic. In this block there are 58 houses, where 73 families or 250 inhabitants are estimated to live. The houses have one to three floors and a big part of them has a pilotis underneath, as most of them are located in the steepest area. Most of the buildings are in a good condition and have roofs made of concrete slabs. In such cases, only a static and water-tightness control is necessary before the implementation of an extensive green roof. Other houses are in a very bad condition or have eternit roofing. In these cases, a table structure will be constructed over them with an intensive green roof on the top, provided there is a route making them accessible to trucks. During the construction process, their inhabitants will be temporary relocated to houses provided within the area. On our SWOT analysis maps, we can see that block 10 is adjacent to the central spine. In the block, there are four bars and the SECRI community center, while the primary school and the police station are very close, though not in the block. No public spaces can be found and the circulation infrastructure is limited to three stairways and two curved alleys. These elements compose a confusing urban form that sometimes turns into a labyrinth, where orientation and space perception become difficult. For this reason, it can be categorized as a closed area in its biggest part. However, there are plenty of un-built spaces, which tend to be rocky, green clusters or dumpsites. Most of them can be found in the blockâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s steepest parts, where the danger of landslides is very high.

64


BLOCK 10

1f 2f 1f 2f

3f

2f 2f

1f

2f

1f 1f

1f

1f

1f

2f 3f

2f 3f

3f

2f

2f 3f

2f

1f

1f

1f 1f 2f 2f 2f 1f 1f

1f 1f 1f 2f 1f 1f

2f 1f 1f

2f

2f

3f

1f

3f 3f

House where an extensive green roof can be implemented House, where a table structure has to be constructed for the implementation of a green roof

3f

2f

1f

1f

2f

2f 3f 2f

2f 2f

2f 1:1000

House where the implementation of a green roof is not possible House with pilotis

Fig. 52. Houses of Block 10

65


BLOCK 10 Central Spine

Bar Police station

ne

pi ls tra n Ce

18. Gara

Bar Bar Planed extension of primary school SECRI

1:2000

Primary school

Bar

Un-built Space

1:2000

Limited mobility and accessibility

A’

Ru

e nt ne e aT

ba tu Se

l

A

Stairs Ru

S te en en aT

Street ‘Closed’ area ‘Open’ area

l ba etu

1:2000

Environmental issues: landslides, dumpsites and blocked green areas

Green cluster

2

Rock Area with high landslide risk

3

1

3

1:2000

Dumpsite

Fig. 53. Block 10 on the SWOT maps

66


BLOCK 10 INTERVENTION Our intervention is based on the following four pillars aiming to environmental, economic and social benefits, as well to the improvement of the urban form of the area: identification and integration of unused space, creation of farming land, addition of circulation elements and generation of public spaces. At first, the spatial potential of the existing pilotis is identified in the form of un-built space available for the installation of grey water treatment systems, rainwater storage, containers or poultry farming. In block 10, we have 22 of such spaces. In each case, their specific use will be defined by the owners. There are 7 pilotis though, where, because of their location, grey water systems for the irrigation of the farming land created by the retaining walls have to be installed. The installation of a grey water treatment system will be offered in combination with a reduction of sewage charges as an incentive. Thus, environmental and economic benefits will be achieved. The implementation of a green roof is not possible on tiny buildings, buildings in a very bad condition or buildings with eternit roofing. Therefore table-shaped structures will be constructed over them. These are broader than the existing houses, in order to allow the building’s future horizontal extension. In this block, we designed seven of them. They are located in areas accessible to trucks, in order to ensure transportation of construction materials. The second part of our intervention consists in the addition of circulation elements. With modular stairs and bridges, partly made of concrete, that connect the different roofs, we manage to improve mobility in the block. The possible ways that can be taken are significantly increased, as a pedestrian can walk over or through the block. Moreover, circulation becomes safer and remains unaffected from weather conditions in contrast to the current situation, where stairways are regularly flooded during heavy rains. As a result of the higher mobility within the block, the vague closed areas become defined. A sense of orientation is achieved and the feeling of moving within a labyrinth is remarkably reduced. As a third step, farming land will be created. 44 extensive and 7 intensive green roofs for farming purposes will transform the whole area into a green one. Moreover, with the construction of retaining walls and the creation of farming land, former spontaneous, steep and barely accessible green clusters will take a new form. These areas will be expropriated and turned into public space, while environmental benefits come along with economic benefits. It is estimated that the total farming area on the roofs will be of approximately 2000 m2 and on the area created by the gabion walls of 285 m2, which will give sufficient space for 25 to 30 trees. Furthermore, trees will be planted in strategic block points, in order to form tiny public spaces around them. The estimated 73 families or 255 inhabitants living in block 10 will receive 1785 m2 of the farming land. The rest 215m2 will remain property of the local enterprise. Thus, economic benefits for both inhabitants and the community will be achieved. Two block residents will be hired to cultivate the 500 m2 of the block’s communal land and one will be hired as a block-keeper. The residents will attend workshops about farming, water treatment and roof-construction, while the block-keeper will be further educated in order to become an expert in these issues. Thus, one more benefit is achieved in the form of personal development and skill acquisition. The last step of our intervention consists in the integration of public spaces in order to enrich social life in the block. Small terraces will be constructed on the roofs, which, along with the trees to be planted in strategic points forming squares around them, form the block’s new tiny public spaces. They are shadowed places, where the residents can relax, discuss and socialize - very simple and minimal interventions with the potential to reform the whole area. They are offered as public space to be reclaimed by the residents in the same way they already do with every available corner or their thresholds. Such points will also be implemented on the communal farming land formed by the retaining walls. For every 200-250 m2 of roof farming land an infrastructure station (i.e. 9 of them altogether) and, for the whole block, a storage facility will be installed. The storage facility as well as the infrastructure stations will consist of used shipping containers taken from the port. Both elements form an additional type of public space. Their purpose rather lies in facilitating communal uses than being reclaimed by the residents. Finally, another category of public space generated in the block is the small pop-up market underneath the concrete circulation components. It is a mixture of public and trade space that can be seen as an appendix of the central spine on the way to the area’s interior.

67


BLOCK 10 BLOCk 10 MASTERPLAN

Tiny square around a tree

Small terrace on a green roof +88 +86 +81

+86

+94 +75

+86

+86

+75

Block storage

+75

+83 +72

+86

+72 +72

+72 +75

+69 +66 +72

+83

+72

+78

+80

+78

+78

+66

+66

+69

+69

+79

+72

+69

+82 +79

+69 +78

+80 +83 +83

+75

+69

+72

+75 +75

+80

+75 +72

+69

+75

+78

+66

+66 +78

+75

Scale 1:500 +75

+72 +66

Fig. 54. Block 10 Masterplan, Scale 1:500

68


BLOCK 10 NEW UNBUILT AREAS AND TABLE-SHAPED STRUCTURES 7 table-e-

shaped structures are constructed

22 pilotis are used

for grey water treatment, rainwater storage, container and poultry farming

At least 7 grey water treatment systems are installed

Table-shaped structure Pilotis Grey water treatment system

1:1000

NEW MOBILITY MAP

Stairs on the roofs Stairs on the ground Street ‘Closed’ area ‘Open’ area

1:1000

Fig. 55. New un-built areas and Table-shaped structures map and Mobility map of Block 10

69


BLOCK 10 NEW GREEN AREAS: URBAN FARMING LAND 2000 m2

285 m2 farming

farming land on houses’ roofs: extra income and food

land created with retaining walls

for 73 families

All block residents obtain farming skills, through related workshops

3 persons are hired

Farming land on house’s roofs Farming land created with retaining walls

1:1000

Tree

NEW PUBLIC SPACES

SECRI Planed extension of primary school

Police station Primary school

ls tra n Ce

n pi

e

Public space Spaces to facilitate communal uses Mixture of public and trade space

1:1000

Fig. 56. Farming land map and Public spaces maps of Block 10

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ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD Here, we are zooming in on a block’s neighborhood to figure out what the new urban landscape is like, as well as how the community farms are going to be distributed. The chosen part consists of 13 plots with 18 houses and an estimated population of 24 families or 84 inhabitants on them. Our intervention generates 700 m2 of space, out of which 626 m2 are farming land and the 74 m2 are integrated public spaces and circulation elements. The roofs employed are the original roofs of the houses, except from one case, where, because of initial building’s bad condition, a new table-shaped structure was constructed on top of which an intensive green roof has been installed. Furthermore, a new circulation area was created over an existing stairway, which interconnects 5 roofs. It is made of concrete and in the emerged shadowed space beneath it, the creation of a small pop-up market with space for at least 8 stalls is planned. To continue our analysis, we adopt the scenario that twelve 3-member and twelve 4-member families live in the area. Parcels of respectively 21 and 28 m2 will be distributed to them. The remaining farming land will divided into parcels of 17, 14, 10, 7, 4 and 3 m2 that will be cultivated by the community. Workers will be hired for this purpose, while the products are sold. The income will be used for the workers’ wages and the project’s maintenance. Apart from this, 285 m2 of farming land will be created after soil configuration with retaining walls made of gabions and 24-30 trees will be planted. This land will also be communal and cultivated by São Benedito workers.

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ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD

+94

+70 +79

+82 +79 +78

2f 2f

+65

3f 3f +60

3f 3f

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84 Inhabitants

24 Families

18 Houses

13 Plots

Fig. 57. Zoom in on a neighborhood

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+70

MASTERPLAN

INTERVENTION

ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD

+65 +75

NEIGHBORHOOD MASTERPLAN 28m2 28m2 7m2 +78

21m2 +75

+60

28m2

21m2

Generated Space: 700 m2 Farming Land: 626 m2 Integrated Public Spaces, Infrastructure Stations and Circulation Area on roofs: 74 m2 INTERVENTION New concrete-constructed circulation area adjacent to roofs: 63 m2 Generated Space: 700 min2 new circulation area’s shadow: 63 m2 (at Mini Open Market Farming Land: 626 m2 least 8 selling stalls)

Integrated Public Spaces, Infrastructure Stations and circulation Area on roofs: 74 m2 SCENARIO New concrete-constructed circulation area adjacent to roofs: 63 m2 Mini Open Market in new circulation area’s shadow: 63 m2 (at 12 x 3-member families, 12 x 4-member families least 8 selling stalls)

ScENARIO +70

21m2

14 m2

+69

+78

12 x 3-member families, 12 x 4-member families 7 m2 Farming Land

+80

A

17 m2

28m2

721m m2 Farming 2 21m2 Land

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4m2

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2 2 21m2 21m 21m 2 2 21m 21m2 21m2 21m221m2 21m

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2 2 2 for 2 2 721m parcels 21 m 3-member 21m 21meach 21m2 21mfamily 21m2

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2

2 Farming 2121m m2 Farming 2 2 21m2 28 m21m 21m2 Land Land

21m2

B

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15m2 28m2

28 m2 Farming Land

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7 parcels 21 m2 for each 3-member family

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28m2

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28m2

28m2

28m2

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7 parcels 28m2 for each 3-member family 7 parcels 28m2 for each 3-member family 10m2

2

21m

10m2

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17 m2 14 m2 14 m2

28m2

7m2

2 7m2 4m 2 3m 2 4m 3m2

17 m2 14 m2 14 m2

28m2 +75

Remained to the community: 55 m2

2

21m

Remained to the community: 55 m2by São Benedito community. Remained Farming Land is cultivated

21m2

Remained Farming Land is cultivated by São Benedito community. For this reason workers are hired and the products are sold. Gains For this reason workers are hired and the products are sold. Gains are used for workers’ wages and project’s maintenance. are used for workers’ wages and project’s maintenance.

21m2

24families families produce and get extra 24 produce theirtheir food food and get extra income through selling products income through selling their their products

+66

Scale 1:200

A’

73

Fig. 58. Neighborhood’s Masterplan, Scale1:200

A’

88families extra income through sellingselling goods goods familiesget get extra income through onon thethe minimini openopen market market


ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD FLOORPLAN +78.00 FLOORPLAN +78.00

Interior

Interior Interior

Scale 1:200 Scale 1:200 Table-shaped structure

Interior +78

POP-UP MARKET PLAN A

+78 +75

Concrete circulation component’s structure

Yard

+75

l tal w o ad Fr sh dow n i a ce sh tall ran e i n ee s t t w en nc do w ntra ee & e ha N e s w Co g in +72 Ne tin sit e l l op tal Pe ss k ac Sn ow ad h ns gi n i t sit le p o Pe s uit

Yard

+69

Yard

ss nt

Yard

l tal

h nc all ow hm Be s st d e fr ee sha t ll Re n & i s ta s ee nce k ac Co ntra Sn e w Ne

Scale 1:200

e

Yard +65

Fr

s uit

l tal Be

h nc Fr

s uit

sta

ll +60

A’

Scale 1:200

Fig. 59. +78.00 Floorplan and Pop-up market plan, Scale1:200

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ZOOM IN ON A NEIGHBORHOOD

++

FLOORPLAN+67.00 +67.00 FLOORPLAN Interior

+65

+63

+61

Mulch B Irrigation lines

15m2 15m2

Scale 1:200

20m2 20m2

Grey water 20m2 20m2 treatment system

Container farming Poultry farming

+65

B’

+63

A Rainwater storage

+61

Interior +59

Scale 1:200

A’

+67

Fig. 60. +69.00 Floorplan

+65

75 +60

A’


CONCLUDING THOUGHTS In this thesis, we wanted to explore the potentials of communal urban farming to have a positive impact on unprivileged urban environments as favelas, and concretely in SĂŁo Benedito. Our analysis shows that such an intervention could bring about positive outcomes on environmental, social, economic, housing and personal level. On the environmental level, apart from better air quality and lower average temperatures, we expect a significant decrease of landslides and a growth of water resources due to water recycling. Moreover, the landscape will become more pleasant and attractive. On the social level, people will obtain a new relationship with their community. Sharing a common vision and responsibilities will have the side effect of nurturing a new culture of co-operation and communal participation. At the same time, leadership and decision making skills will be developed, which are important citizenship features that can play an important role for the area to overcome its reputation of being marginal. On the economic level, people will reduce their expenses through their own food production and achieve an extra income through the selling of goods. With regard to the positive impact on housing, the intensive green roofs will offer an opportunity to extend houses. In addition to this, the implementation of extensive green roofs, will in many cases be accompanied by improvements in the watertightness of the roofs and better interior temperatures. Finally, on the personal level, people will develop employment skills through workshops and practice, as well as self-esteem and a feeling of pride. At the same time, nutrition of a better quality and involvement in a creative activity as farming will provide benefits for the health of the residents. We are aware of the existence of hidden risks in most steps of the project and that the implementation of such a strategy demands the co-ordination of all involved stakeholders. Thus, a lot of effort and persuading skills is needed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; directed towards the State and donors to sponsor the project, towards the local community to accept it and participate, and towards partners to support it with know-how and networking. These limitations are, though, rather motivating to be creative while seeking for specific and adequate mobilization mechanisms directed to all members of the community, than prohibitive for the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s realization.

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LIST OF REFERENCES 20. Neuza de Oliveira. (2013) ‘Em ato de Solidariedade, Neuzinha visita locais de risco em Vitória’, Neuzinha de Oliveira, 22 Dec 2013, available: http://neuzadeoliveira.com.br/interna.php?referencia=noticia_ detalhada&id=628 [accessed 26 Feb 2013]. 21. Plano Diretor Urbano do Município de Vitória e dá outras providências 2001, S.I. No 6.705, Vitória: Institui o Plano Diretor Urbano do Município de Vitória e dá outras providências, p.40, 203, 218 22. TV Vitória (2013) ‘Jovem de 25 anos é morto a tiros em morro de Vitória’, Folha Vitória, 29 Jan, available: http:// http://www.folhavitoria.com.br/policia/noticia/2013/01/jovem-de-25-anos-e-morto-a-tiros-emmorro-de-vitoria.html [accessed 18 Dec 2013]. 23. TV Vitória. (2012) ‘Parte de casa desaba após temporal no Morro de São Benedito, em Vitória’, Folha Vitória, 06 Jan 2012, available: http://www.folhavitoria.com.br/geral/noticia/2012/01/parte-de-casa-desabaapos-temporal-no-morro-de-sao-benedito-em-vitoria.html [accessed 16 Dec 2013]. 24. Vitória Urban Master Plan (2001) Delimitação do zoneamento urbanístico, annex 2, scale 1:17500, Vitória: Municipal Prefecture of Vitória, map 25. Waiselfisz, J. (2011) ‘Tabela 2.5.2. Número de homicídios jovens (15 a 24 anos) por UF e Região. Brasil, 2000/2010’, Mapa da Violência 2012. Os Novos Padrões da Violência Homicida no Brasil, São Paulo: 2011, p. 118, table

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URBAN FARMS. PLANNING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR SÃO BENEDITO, VITÓRIA, BRAZIL