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Harshiv Sharma

Price : Rs. 150/- (US $ 15, Euro 12)

Head, Department of Painting Rajasthan School of Art Jaipur, Rajasthan (India) Eminent Artist

Life today is full of trials and tribulations. One has to wade through the cut throat competition to carve his niche. The impact of this era can be easily seen on the contemporary art. Art has evolved enough to gain immunity so that it can co-exist in this era. Today the art in not only painting but it covers sculptures, interiors, crafts, land art, computer art, architecture etc. the most amazing development is the amalgam of all these various arts that too without any conflict within. What can be a better example of amicable acceptance of welcomed trespassing by various arts to create a congenial co-existence of existing amalgam art.

Volume 3 • Issue 6 • Jan-June, 2010

Dr. Archana Joshi

This is an era of speed, information, concept, coexistence and innovation. To sum it up, it is a contemporary era. High- tech media has blessed and empowered this new era to blossom in its all vigor.

An Intercontinental Journal of Interdisciplinary Art

Co-Editor

The biggest virtue of art is that it is Universal. The imagination of world as a boundary less village may not have been realized yet, but the expression and realization of an artist has become global. The reason behind this change is that the world we are living in has become global by nature. You call it the need of the hour or the by- product of economic imperialism. Today the world can't survive without its global nature, i.e. today a newspaper collects the news of a whole day in America or Britain and by the late evening all those news are processed and edited in India. Next morning that newspaper is published in US and goes to all its subscribers worldwide.

Head, Department of Drawing & Painting Vedic Girls' PG College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Commonwealth Fellow

The 11th century Mahanaleshvara temple is a perfect example of the western Indian style of stone temple architecture. The entrance is embellished with a seated stone lion, and there are number of guardian deities carved on portruding panels in the walls. The inner sanctum is dominated by projecting balconies while the roof is a pyramidical array of ribbed and finely carved stone.

INTERNATIONAL Press

In this issue the first article is an in-depth research by the famous writer Mr. Ranbir Singh. In the essay under the title “INDRA SABHA - The First Play of Hindustani Theatre, A Critical Appraisal”, Mr. Singh describes Agha Hasan Amanat's first play 'INDRA SABHA' which he considers the first play of Hindutani theatre.

Chief Editor

elephants of special mention are the images of Shiva and Parvati which form the chief subject of the engravings. Shiva and Parvati are depicted in various postures and surrounded by dancers, musicians, lesser gods and animals. Halfway up the pagoda is a large stone lion, perhaps depicting victory. A number of smaller ruined temples lie around the Shiva temple.

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editorial

Under the heading 'Aesthetic Aspect of Calligraphy in Indian context', Dr. Archana Joshi and Suresh tells about the significance of calligraphy.

Editorial Board

At its best, calligraphy may equal other forms of aesthetic expression, and at certain times it has been regarded as an art not inferior to painting.

Dr. John

'Mohd. Salim : paintings of Pulsating Mountain-Musing' is a review of Mohd. Salim's painting by Avadhesh Mishra from Lucknow, India.

Shin Phoebe

Sonika writes about the 'Preventive conservation of paintings' in her essay and Dr. Archana Srivastava in her article emphasis on the idea that art is definitely a necessity in human society. It is more than decoration or entertainment. The essay 'Outside World Labyrinth…' tells about the Hungarian Artist Antal's internal architectural expression.

University of Bristan, U.K.

Vice-President, Korean Association of Media & Arts

Vashishtha Kumar Sharma Senior Journalist, Jaipur, India

Ranbir Sinh Vice President of Indian People's Theatre Association Fellow of Royal Asiatic Society of Gt. Britain

Thanks for your responses to the times 5th issue. I hope you enjoy this issue as well. Your support and appreciation have been vital to all of us at times International Press.

Dr. V. S. Upadhyay

We promise to continue to being more in-depth research, reviews with greater variety and range of themes.

Visual Artist Faculty, Madrid University, Madrid, Spain

Renowned Visual Artist, Academician, India

Gloria Caballos Dr. Eross Istvan Head, Department of Fine Arts, Egar College of Fine Arts, Hungary

Views expressed by the writers in the articles published in The Times International Press are their own and it is not necessary that the Editor agrees with them. Reproduction of the printed material in any form is prohibited. Published by Mr. Vashishtha Kumar Sharma, 778, Choti Chaupar, Jaipur and Printed at Popular Printers, Jaipur


INDRA SABHA

Press

An International Journal of Interdisciplinary Art

THE FIRST PLAY OF HINDUSTANI THEATRE

A Critical Appraisal Ranbir Sinh

3 Inder Sabha The First Play of Hindustani Thatre Ranbir Sinh, Jaipur, India

18 Aesthetic Aspect of Calligraphy in Indian Context Dr. Archana Joshi & Suresh Chandra Jangid, Jaipur, India

ISBN 978-93-81005-01-9

26 Mohd. Salim Paintings of Pulsating Mountain-Musing Dr. Awadhesh Misra , Lucknow, India

32 Preventive Conservation of Paintings Sonika Sharma, Jaipur, India

38 Theatre in Society

Distributer : Raj Publication House

Address for Correspondence Editor, Times International Press A-98, IInd Floor, Near Gol Market, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur - 302 004 Rajasthan (INDIA) Phone : +91-141-4002302 Mobile : 9413600006, 9414072300 E-mail : archanajoshi2002@rediffmail.com

Wajid Ali Shah

Dr. Archana Srivastava, Jaipur, India

43 Outside World-Labyrinth : Foreword to Antal Vásárhelyi's works

Front Cover Artwork : Archana Joshi Back Cover ‘Water Fall of Menal’, Photo : Archana Joshi

Zoltán Somhegyi, Hungary

Designing Concept Harshiv Sharma

47 Heritage : Menal Temples Dr. Archana Joshi, Jaipur, India

Special Hands Mr. Mukul Mishra, Jaipur Ritesh Dixit, Popular Printers, Jaipur

Ranbir Sinh is the Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain. Vice President of National Council of Indian Peoples Theatre Association (IPTA). His previous books include, Mauritius : the key to Indian Ocean, History of Shekhawats, Theatre Quotes, Parsi Theatre, Inder Sabha and has written several plays in Hindi. Hai Mera Dil, Hesiyat, Mukhoton-ki-Zindgi, Sarai-ki-Malkin, Kal Isi Waqt, Gulfam, Amrit Jal and several short plays.

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n the world literature of dramatics there are very rare occasions that a playwright has become famous by writing only one play. Agha Hasan Amanat is one of those, whose play Indra Sabha has made him immortal. Even after more than a century Indra Sabha is today as famous as it was then, and enjoys an unique position in the dramatic literature of India.One can not talk about the development of Indian theatre wihout mentioning Indra Sabha.

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Full view of the performance of Rahas at Kaiser Bagh - Lucknow

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Birth of Amanat. The ancestors of Amanat had migrated from Iran.Quoting from the book “Tazkira Khushmarka Zeba”,Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi Adib, says,that Agha Hasan was the son of Meer Ali alias Meer Agha, and was he nephew of Meer Talib Ali Achootewala.1 Amanat was born in the year A.H.1231;A.D.1815 at Lucknow. When he was twenty years old, because of his illness he lost his speech and could no speak for ten years. He has mentioned in his poetry many a times about his sad, helplessness and tragic life. No one lent his ears yo my tragic woes. I am that unfortunate who does not have a tongue.2 Suni kisi ne nahin gham ki dasan meri Woh kum sukhan hoon ki goya nahin zuban meri. He further says in sheer desperation that my pen is my voice. Amanat is well known by his poetry It is not mere writing but it is my voice. Jahan mein nazm se roshan hai hal Amanat ka Qalam rawan nahin goya yah hai zuban meri.3 For ten long years Amanat suffered the agony. He constantly wished that every hair in his body may become his tongue. He expressed his agony in these words. Ho baharyab nutaq se yan tak yah khastan jaan Har rongta bhi jism pe goya bane zuban.4 In 1844 A.D. Amanat went to Iran.One day while he was offering his prayers in the mosque of Hazrat Aulia, his wish was granted and he got his speech.But unfortunately all his life he stammered. His stammerimg in years to come became the reason for writing of Indra Sabha. The reason of writing Indra Sabha. One does not know how, when and why his rumour was floated that Indra Sabha was written by the royal orders of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Lucknow. That Wajid Ali Shah himself used to play the role of Indra and it was staged a Qaisar Bagh. Rumours do not float wihout any reasons. Behind them there is always some motive and purpose. Governor General Dalhousie was bent upon maligning Wajid Ali Shah to create a vicious atmosphere against him so that he could depose him and annexe the kingdom of Awadh under the scheme of Doctrine of Lapse. The report of William Sleeman, “The Journey Through The Kingdon of Awadh” was written specifically for this

purpose, and was made the base to malign and tarnish the image of Wajid Ali Shah, depose him and annexe the kingdom of Awadh. Many allegations were directed towards Wajid Ali Shah. He was painted too badly by the East India Company from which he suffers even today. It was often said that he was such a lecherous and plesure seeker that when the soldiers of the Company came to arrest him, he could not run away as there was no one present to make him wear his slippers. The British successfuly painted him as pleasure seeker, drunkard and a lecherous man. It was so skillfully done that although it is more than a century but the picture remains even today. It is more than possible that either the British themselves or the other gossip mongers connected Wajid Ali Shah with staging of Inder Sabha and himself playing the role of Indra. This may have been just to paint that like Indra he was also surrounded by the fairies .Sleeman has written in his repoprt'that the king is surrounded by musicians, enuchs and women all day and night. He has no interest in the working of the Government.5 The real fact is that Wajid Ali Shah had nothing to do with Inder Sabha. Neither it was written by his orders, nor it was staged at Qaisar Bagh. In the introduction of the first edition of Inder Sabha Amanat while praising Wajid Ali Shah writes. “It is necessary to write a few words in praise of the king in whose reign Inder Sabha was written”. This proves the point that if at all Inder Sabha was written by the orders of Wajid Ali Shah then Amanat would not have written “ that in whose reign Inder Sabha was written,but with full pride he would have taken the credit and said that it was written by the order of the King.” If Indra Sabha would have been written by the orders of the royal decree then there would have been no need for Amanat to have assumued a pseudo pen name. On the contarary it would have been a matter of pride for him and like many other writers of that age he would have boastfully dedicated his literary work to the King. But he did not do so. In his introduction he writes, “for many writing this jalsa [play] was a prestigious issue, but I was not too happy and therefore I changed my pen- name and kept “Ustad” instead”6. Another point is that if at all Indra Sabha was written by a special order of Wajid Ali Shah, and himself would have played the role of Indra and if it was staged a Qaisar Bagh then its production would have been magnificent one like the Rahas produced there. But Amanat clearly mentions that “ two persons volunteered to produce it .Many persons joined hands and with great difficulty and many problems

the production got ready after two and a half years”7.. According to the description by Amanat of the first production of Indra Sabha it becomes very clear that it was not staged in the manner in which the Rahas were in Qaisar Bagh. The production lasted for the whole night.the locales did not change. The actors used to make the entry and having acted their bit he used to sit on the stage iself in full view of the audience. If Indra Sabha would have been staged like other royal Rahas at Qaisar Bagh then the actors would not have made thier entry behind the red curtain. For the royal Rahas there was not one stage made, but the entire Qaisar Bagh was the stage. The different scenes were enacted in different places situated at Qaisar Bagh. All pavilions, fountains, gardens, were used. So much so that even elephants, horses, bands and the royal paraphernalia were used. No curtains or wings were used .The entry and exit of the characters was in full view of the audience, which used to move from one place to the other as the different scenes used to move. It is very clear that if Indra Sabha was staged at Qaisar Bagh by the royal orders of Wajid Ali Shah, then elaborate settings would have been made. There would have been the glamorous court of Indra who would have been surrounded by many beautiful paris [fairies] dressed in most gorgeous costumes and valuable jewelery. For the prince Gulfam of Akhtar Nagar the entire township would have been made. There would have been numerous locales where action would have moved from one place to another and only one episode would have been performed in one evening. Today if there is anything left of the style of rahas of Wajid Ali Shah then it is the Ramlila of Ramnagar, Varanasi. It was fashioned thus by Maharaj Ishwari Naraan Singh of Varanasi who was a close friend of Wajid Ali Shah. Amanat himself admits that he wrote Indra Sabha at the instance of his desciple Haji Mirza Abid Ali “Ibadat”.He writes,”one day my favourite desciple Mirza Abid Ali

“Ibadat” with love and affecion told me that it is of no use just sitting at home and brooding,why not write a jalsa [play] on the lines of rahas so that you can fruitfully engage your time and at the same time achieve literary fame.Thus it was at his request that I wrote Indra Sabha.”8 Maulana Abdul Halim Sharar in his famous book “Guzashta Lucknow” has made a mention of Amanat's Indra Sabha in these words.. “At the time of the staging of the mela at Qaisar Bagh where the people were invited then the Rahas became so popular among the masses that many poets of the day started writing plays like that of Rahas. Following the foot steps of Wajid Ali Shah Amanat wrote his Indra Sabha, which formed the part of the repertoir of present day theatre companies who staged it in different cities. In these productions sometimes the girls and sometimes the boys acted. Special importance was given to the musical score and the tunes became very popular and Indra Sabha became a box office hit. The success of Indra Sabha inspired many other writers who wrote plays which also came to be known as Sabha.For example Sabha of Madari Lal and others were writen but they had different plots.9 Taking all these points into consideration I do not think that there is any scope of doubt that Amanat wrote Indra Sabha at the request of his desciple Abid Ali and not by the orders of Wajid Ali Shah. He date of writing Indra Sabha. Amanat himself has writen in the introduction of Indra Sabha that, it was on the 14h day of the month of shawwal in the year 1268 A.H.that I began writing this jalsa under the title of Indra Sabha.The news reached the locality and I came to be known in every home. Two persons volunteered to produce it..Many obstacles and problems came in the way of its production which took one and a half years to complete.”10 This comment of Amanat has evoked several comments from many writers. The question is whether he started writing the play or the work on the production

Cover Page of the Ist edition of Indra Sabha

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began on that day. Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi is of the opinion that it was not possible for Indra Sabha to become popular while it was being written. According to him Indra Sabha had already been written in the year 1268 A.H.1853, and that very year on the 14h day of the month of shawwal it was read to the selected audience.”Seeing the prospects of its being popular two person volunteered to produce and it took one and a half year that, is the first production was read in 1270 A.H. 1855 A.D”.11 By this one does not get the satisfactory answer to the question as to “what was started”, according to Masood Hasan Rizvi Indra Sabha was already writen on 14 th shawwal of 1268 and a reading took place. This means that the rehearsal of the play must have begun after this date. Let us now take up the question as to what was started, the writing of the play or its rehearsal. When we examine the statement of Amanat in which he says that on the 14th day of the month of Shawwal in the year 1268 A.H.after giving the title of Indra Sabha to the jalsa and instead of having four chapters I began with only four pari, clearly means that he started writing the play and not the rehearsal. Because when the rehearsal begins the text of the play is already writen, the title is also given.With this one thing is definite that on the given date the 14th of Shawwal 1268 A.H.the rehearsal of the play did not begin, because if the first reading of the play took place on that day then Amanat would have mentioned that it was red in a gathering and not began writing. It is difficult for any literary work whether a play or a novel to become famous and popular among the people while it is being written. But it could have been possible that some of the disciples of Amanat may have recited the poems of Indra Sabha and talked about its plot to the people and having heard the two person about whom Amant speaks may have voluntereed to produce the play. It is rather unforunate that Amanat does not give the names of these two persons. Thus the contention of Masood Hasan Rizvi that Indra Sabha became popular while it was being written is not acceptable. The author of Natak Sagar has said that when challenged Amanat took it up and wrote Indra Sabha in 1270 A.H. Rambabu Saksena is also of the same opinion that Amanat wrote Indra Sabha in 1270 A.H.12 Badshah Hussain is of the opinion that Amanat got the idea of writing Indra Sabha in 1268 A.H.and completed it in 1270 A,H. This means that it took two years to write it.13

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When we examine the statements of different authors we find that the author of Natak Sagar has not mentioned as to who challenged Amanat to write the play. The contention of all these three authors that Indra Sabha was completed in 1270 A.H. does not prove whether its text was completed or the production. According to them it also means that Indra Sabha was written in 1270 A.H. and it was staged after one and half year in 1272 A.H., while Masood Hasan Rizvi says that the first edition of Indra Sabha was published in 1271 A.H.14 It was an old tradition that the author himself or some of the contemporary authors used to compose a couplet by which he used to give the date of the literary work. Mirza Abid Ali “Ibadat” the favourte desciple of Amanat and on whose request he wrote Indra Sabha,wrote this couplet giving the date of Indra Sabha. Kahi khoob tarikh tune Ibadat Mauqa Amanat ka Indra Sabha hai.15 And Mirza Altaf Hussain “Fasahat” son of Amanat wrote' Pari roohain sadqa is Indra Sabha par. By calculation from both coupletts the date which comes is 1270 A.H. but it is important to know whether the date is of completion of the text or it is of the producion of the play. Personally I am of the opnion that it is the date of the production because Ibadat in his couplet has mentioned “mauqa Amanat ka Indra Sabha hai”,which means the occasion of Amanats Indra Sabha,that is the production. In the same way “Fasahat” has said that”pari roohain sadqa is Indra Sabha par”,which means that the fairies appreciated or blessed his Indra Sabha. It must be in the praise of the production of Indra Sabha and not for its writing. From the statement of Masood Hasan Rizvi, that, Amanat in the introduction of Indra Sabha his own and by many of his desciples included the couplet “Qata-I-Tarikh” and in the year 1270 A.H. 1855 A.D. had it published, it becomes absolutely clear that these Qata-I-Tarikh were written about the production of Indra Sabha and not for its writing. Mohammad Shahid Hussain is correct when he says that it is not proper to establish the date of Indra Sabha by this one couplet of Amanat,which says that Indra Sabha has become famous. Zardai wajd bol uthe pari jaad Khalaik Mein hai dhoom Indra Sabha ki. Because this is not an independent couplet composed for a special occasion. It is the 6th couplet of the Qata-I- Tarikh and therefore it is necessary to read the whole of it.

Hui Indra Sabha jis dam murrtab Jahan ne sun ke tuseef wa shana ki Buton ne di sadaein allah allah Har ik misra hai a qudrat khuda ki Hua jo yaad jis ko le uda woh Zuban kis kis ne gaane par na wah ki Kisi ne justaju laintaha ki Udi shuharat jab us ki lucknow mein Amanat sab ne khwahish jabjan ki Zardai wajd bol uthe pari jaad Khalak mein hai dhoom Indra Sabha ki.16 Afer reading the complet Qata one comes to know that this was written after Inder Sabha became famous. It was only when it was staged that its poetry and its music became popular and the people started singing the songs. It was only after its success at Lucknow that the people from other cities expressed their desire to have it staged at their places. The Qata-I-Tarikh that Amanat wrote in the inroduction of Indra Sabha is as follows; Indra Sabha ki meine likhi jo shrah fauran sukhan ke joharion ki padi nigah bahar jahan mein haq ke karam se hui wahi misl aziz usuf mazmoon ki sab who chah doorezian ah karne lage badh ke qadradan ka aabdar nasra likhi hai khuda gawah kahne lage zardaa tarab khush gauhar tamam moti bhare hain koot ke kya wah wah. This Qata establishes the date of the wrting of the introduction as 1270 A.H. The introduction was written after the production and Amanat has already admitted that it took one and a half year to complete the production .From this it is established that Indra Sabha was written in 1268 A.H./1853 A.D.17 The old editions of Indra Sabha. After the premier performance at Lucknow Indra Sabha became very popular and many other persons in different cities became interested in staging it. More copies of it were needed and thus the need arose of its being published. The first edition was published in 1271 A.H.1856 A.d and the introduction was written by Amanat. Amanat”s desciple Sheikh walayat Ali “walayat” wrote a Qata-I-Tarikh about its publication. Hui taba jab nzam wa nasra Amanat Walayat pukara ki tahareer kya hai.18 When the poetry and prose of Amanat was published

Walayat praised its beautiful style. That very year many editions were published. Masood Hasan Rizvi writes, “I possess three editions printed at different presses. The first edition is the one which was published at the intance of Sheikh Rajab Ali Tajir qutub and was printed at press Mohammadi in Lucknow.The second was published at Kanpur at Mahihai press in the month of Rajab. Its publisher was Sheikh Mohammad Hussain Tajir, and the third edition was once again published by Sheikh Rajab Ali Tajir in the month of Jeejata at the Jafri press a Lucknow. All these three editions are identical page by page.”19 When Indra Sabha was staged at different cities by different theatrical companies then lot of changes were made in the text. This compelled Amanat to have the corrected version of Indra Sabha published once again. It was published in 1272 A.H. 1857 A.D. and Amanat put his seal and signature testifing that it was the correct edition as originally written by him. Guzar kar dahar mein apani nazar se Sahi Indra Sabha bas ahi chapi hai Galat is mein nahin hai ek nuqta Barai sehat is par muhar ki hai.20 The edition which was published in 1275 A.H. 1860 A.D. was most probably the last edition which was published in the life time of Amanat,as he died on 28 Jamawali Ilawal 1275 A.H. 1860A.D. he was buried at the musafirkhana [travellers inn] near Imam Bakir's Imambara at Lucknow21. He was 44 years old. In the later years many editions of it were published. According to Masood Hasan Rizvi at the India offce library at London there are 48 editions out of which 11 are in hindi, 5 in Gujrati and one in Gurmukhi.22 The plot of Indra Sabha. Raja Indra makes the apprearance at the court and expresses the wish to see the dance of the paries [fairies] Pukhraj Pari, Neelam Pari and Lal Pari makes the entrance and after having performed the dance sits beside Indra. Raja Indra then demands the performance of Sabaz Pari,and he falls off to sleep.Sabaz Pari on her way to the court of Indra sees a very handsome prince sleeping in a garden and falls in love with him.As Indra is already asleep and there is nothing to do at the court she requests Kala Dev to go to the Sinhal Dwip and bring the prince.Kala Dev obeys and brings the prince. When the prince Gulfam comes to know that Sabaz Pari is one of the fairies of the

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court of Indra he says to Sabaz Pari that he has never seen the court of Indra and he would like to see the glamour and splendour of the court and she must arrange that for him.Sabaz Pari explains the dangers but when realizing that Gulfam is very adamant takes a promise from him that he will not meet any one and he should not be seen by any one.She takes him to the court and hides him in a tree. Here by chance Kala Dev who was taking a walk in the garden happens to see him and reports it to Indra. Indra is very angry and orders that Gulfam should be imprisoned and put into a well and gives orders that Sabaz Pari should be banished from he court. Sabaz Pari then becomes a jogan. It is then reported to Indra that a very beautiful jogan who sings very well has come to the heaven who sings very beautifully. Indra orders that she should be brought to the court. She is asked to sing and dance. Indra is bewitched by her beauty and offers her several presents but each one of them is refused y Sabaz Pari. Indra then asks her to demand any thing that she wishes. Sabaz Pari demands the release of Gulfam. Indra then recognizes Sabaz Pari, orders the release of Gulfam. Sabaz Pari and Gulfam embrace each other and the play comes to an end. In his book “Indra Sabha ki Rawayat” Shahid Hussain, by taking into consideration the opinions of other writers reaches to the conclusion, that,'influenced by the tradition of the sanskrit theatre the plot of Indra Sabha is a simple tale. It does not have any conflict , inter action ,doubt or surprise.By taking mere unimportant conflict beween Sabaz Pari and Raja Indra certain episodes have been created and then adoring them by songs effort has been made to make them popular.' He also agrees with the opinion of Waqar Azeem who says 'the story is basically meant to creat situatsion for music and dance so that emotions could be created by which the masses could be pleased”23. Mohammad Shahid Hussain has also put forward the argument of Safdar Aah, that,'in Sanskrit dramas there is less of plot and more of bhava and rasa. For example in Kalidas' play Shakuntala,the plot of the play could easily be written only in ten or fifteen lines.But it is the poetic genius of Kalidas that has made the plot beautiful, interesing, pleasing and thus the play becomes a masterpiece.'Safdar Aah further says that if an European playwrights would have written Shakunala then the plot of the play would have been much better than that of Kalidas.he says,' if an European plawright would have written the plot of Shakunala than at first he would have created a conflict of the love of Dushyant and a girl from the ashram, and then

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the marriage of the king after the exit of Dushyant he would have created the conflict with Shakuntala and his father, in which the father would have doubted the promises made by the king and Shakunala would have believed them so much so that Shakunala would have honestly believed that she has been wronged.Then would have introduced many twists and turns and conflict when Shakunala leaves the ashram and arrives at the court of the king and she is finally accepted by him.'24 Le us now examine one by one the points raised by these writers. One can not determine the literary value and the importance of any play by the number of lines in which the plot can be written.Take any play from the dramaic literature of the world and its plot can be written just in ten lines or fifteen lines. The contention of Waqar Azeem, Safdar Aah , and Mohammad Shahid Hussain, that the plot of Inder Sabha is weak as that of the Sanskrit plays is baseless. Let us now see as how far it is true, that, in Sanskrit drama less emphasis or importance was given to the plot and events but more emphasis to emotions bhava and sentiments [rasa] Bhara Muni in Natya Shastra says ;

à»`mVdñVw{df`§ à»`mVmoXmÎmZm`H$íM¡dŸ& amO{d©d§í`M[aV§ VW¡d {Xì`ml`monoV_²Ÿ&& ZmZm {d^y{V`wŠV_² G${Õ{dbmgm {X{^Jw©U¡íMdŸ& A§H$ àdoeH$mR>`m§ ^d{V {h VÝZmQ>H$ Zm_Ÿ&& {A play of the following type is styled Nataka the theme is well known story. The hero is a celebrated person of exalted nature.The conduct of a saintly king is to be elaborated.He must have the support and sccour from celestral beings.The exploits detailed should be many.There shall be prosperity, grace, elegance,and other good points.Adequate number of acts and introductory scenes {praveska}must enrich it}25. Plot is an important part of the play and it adds to the dramatic element of it.Bharat Muni in Natya Shastra has elaborately dealt with the plot and he says that the plot of a play has five junctures or Sandhis.26

àmaå^l` à`ËZl` VWm àmßVol` gå^d:Ÿ& {Z`Vm M \$bàmpßV: \$b`moJl` n§M_:Ÿ&&7Ÿ&& They are 1.Prarambha {beginning},2. Prayatna {effort},3. Praptisambhava {possibility of attainment},4, Niyati Phalaprapti {certainty of attainment}

5. Phalayoga {ultimate attainment}. 1. Prarambha {beginning}

Am¡ËgwŠ`_mÌ~ÝYñVw `X² ~rOñ` {Z~Ü`VoŸ& _hV: \$b`moJñ` g g Iëdmaå^ Bî`VoŸ&&8Ÿ&& {Prarambha or beginning is that part of the composition where the eagerness of the hero for the attainment of the great fruit wih reference to the bija {seed}is merely recorded .27 2. Prayatna {effort}.

Aní`V: \$bàmpßV ì`mnmamo `: \$b§ à{VŸ& níMm¡VogwŠ`J_Z§ à`ËZ: n[aH$s{V©V:Ÿ&&9Ÿ&& {Although unable to see the attainment of the fruit the hero is eager for the same and strives towards it. This is called Prayatna or effort.}28 3. Praptisambhava {possibility of attainment}.

B©fV²àmpßV`©Xm H$m{MV² \$bñ` n[aH$ën`VoŸ& ^md_mÌoU V§ àmhþ{d©{Yjm: àmpßV gå^d_²Ÿ&&10Ÿ&& {If the attainment of the desired fruit is slightly suggested it is to be known as Praptiambhava or the possibility of attainment.}29 4. Niyati Phalaprapti {certain of attainment.}

{Z`VmÝVw \$bàmpßV¨ `Xm ^mdoZ ní`{VŸ& {Z`Vm§ Vm§ \$bàmpßV¨ gJwUm: n[aMjVoŸ&&11Ÿ&& {If the hero {or others}mutually visualizes that the attainment of the fruit is assured it is called Niyati Phalaorapti or the certainty of attainment}30 5. Phalayoga ultimate attainment.

A{^àoV§ g_J«M à{Vê$n§ {H«$`m\$b_²Ÿ& B{Vd¥Vo ^doÚpñ_Z² \$b`moJ: àH$s{V©VŸ&&2Ÿ&& {At the end of the story or plot of the fruit desired fruit appears in full and that too befittingly it is called Phalayoga.}31 Besides these five junctures Natya Shastra also mentions five Artha Prakrtis or essential elements bringing about the results.

B{Vd¥Vo `Wmdñ`m: n§Maå^m{XH$m: ñ_¥Vm:Ÿ& AW©àH¥$V`: n§M VWm ~rOm{XH$m A{nŸ&&9Ÿ&& {Just as five stages in the plot have been enumerated there are also five Arha Prakrtis {essential elements bringing

about the results}beginning with bija {seed.}32 And it is emphatically said that they must be properly understood and employed suitably.33

~rO§ {~ÝXw: nVmH$m M àH$ar H$m`©_od MŸ& AW©àH¥$V`: n§MjmËdm `moÁ`m `Wm{d{YŸ&&20Ÿ&& These five Arha Prakrtis are as follows. 1,Bija 2.Bindu, 3.Pataka, 4.Prahari and 5. karya. We thus come to know from Natya Sashra that due importance was given to the plot of the play.The emotions {bhava}and sentiments {rasa}were used judiciously to enhance the theatricalty of the play.34

`WmgpÝY Vw H$V©ì`mÝ`§JmÝ`oVm{Z ZQ>Ho$Ÿ& H${d{^: H$mì`Hw$eb¡: ag ^md_noú` VwŸ&&105&& This misundersanding that the main aim of the Sanskri dramatists was to avoid all kind of conflict and by the use of emotions. {Bhava}, and sentiments {rasa}make the play which may give transcendenal pleasure to the audience, most probably arises from what A.B.Keith has written in his book “The Sanskrit Drama”. He says,;'It follows from this principle that the plot is a secondary element in the drama in its highest form, the heroic plays or nataka. To complicate it would divert the mind from emotion to intellectual interest and affect injuriously the production of sentiments. The dramatists therefore, will normaly choose a well known theme which in itself is apt to place the spectator in the appropriate frame of mind to be affected by the appropriate emotion”.35 That is is rue that the Sanskrit plays were based on the stories which were very well known to the people.Yet we have seen that Natya Shstra gives full importance to the plot.As a matter of fact plot is the foundtion on which the play is build.Rasa and Bhava are used to make the play more theatrical and interesting as that it captures the attention of the audience. Dr,Chandra Bhan Gupta says that according to the Natya Shastra a drama must have 64 khand which are helped by rasa.36

d¥Îmm{Z M MVw:fpîQ>: Jm`V²`m§ H$s{V©Vm{Z VwŸ& eV§ {de{VaîQ>m¡ M d¥ÎmmÝ`wpîUJ² Ü``moM`VoŸ&&52Ÿ&& Rasa is worthy of being released. Just like the seasoned food cooked with various kinds of spices and other ingredients,the gourmand relishes it.In the same way different kind of Rasa with their judicious mixure and helped with Bhava,makes the play enjoyable and the audience relishes its performance.But the Rasa and Bhava

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can never displace and usurp the important place of the plot. In the 6th Chapter of Natya Shastra it is clearly mentioned that Rasa, Bhava, Abhinaya {gesticulatory representaion}, Bharmi {rehearsed practice},Vrttis {style},Pravarti {usage in local vogue},Siddhi {achievement}Svaras {musical notes},Antodya {musical instruments},Gana {Song}and Rang {stage}all together lends to the complete form of dramatic art.37

agm ^mdm Ú²`{^Z`m: Y{_©d¥{Îmàd¥Ë`:Ÿ& {g{Õ: ñdmañV`mVmoÚ§ JmZ§ a§JíM g§J«hŸ&&10Ÿ&& It is therefore clear that none of these have an independent importance of their own. Thus Rasa and Bhava are the limbs of the play but not its body. Plot on the other hand has an individual importance of its own. It is agreed fact that all playwrights writting for the Sankrit theatre wrote their plays according to the norms as laid down in Natya Shastra. We have seen that Natya Shastra gives full importance to the plot. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that the Sanskrit playwrights gave full importance to the plot and it is wrong to say that less emphasis or importance was given to the plot and events and more to Bhava and Rasa or that the plot played a 'secondary role' Let us now see whether the plot of Indra Sabha fulfills the demand as laid by Natya Shastra. It is important to know that the hero of Indra Sabha is not Indra but Gulfam.Most probably Amanat gave the title of Indra Sabha because the play takes part in the court of Indra and also keeping the audience and the box office in view. It is therefore in the beginning of the play Amanat has shown the court of Indra where different Paris dance and sing.The story of the Indra Sabha in fact begins when Sabaz Pari makes her entry.At the time of her entry Indra falls off to sleep and thus Sabaz Pari gets the chance to disclose to the audience that she has fallen in love with Gulfam.She pines for his love and requests Kala Dev to bring Gulfam to her.Kala Dev brings him. Here ends the first stage of Indra Sabha. Gulfam is adamant to witness the lavish court of Indra. Sabaz Pari warns him of the dangers but Gulfam does not listen to them. Sabaz Pari takes him alongwih her to the court. The secret of Gulfam being in heavan is disclosed. Sabaz Pari is punished. This is the end of the second stage. The third stage begins with Sabaz Pari becoming a jogan and pleaes Indra with her singing and dancing..The fourth stage Sabaz Pari succeeds in pleasing Indra who then ask her to ask what ever she wishes. She

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asks the release of her lover Gulfam. In the fifth stage Sabaz Pari is happy to get Gulfam and the play ends. Accorning to Aristotle a well consrutced plot of a play must have a beginning, a middle, and an end. He says,”a beginning is that which does not iself follow anything by casuyal necessity,but after which something naurally is or comes to be.An end, on the contarary,is that which itself naurally follows some other thing either by necessity or as a rule,but nothing follows it. A middle is that which follows something as some other thing follows it.A well constructed plot therefore must neither begin nor end at haphazard, but confirm to these principles'38 J.R.Lowell is of the opinion that,'in a play we not only expect a succession of scenes, but that such scenes should lead, by a logic more or less stringent, if not to the text,at any rate to something that is to follow,and that all should contribute their fraction of impulse towards the inevitable catastrophe. That is to say, the structure should be organic, with a necessary and harmonious connexion and relation of parts,and not merely mechanical,with an arbitarary or haphazard joining of one part o another.It is in the former sense alone that any production can be called a work of art.'39 Taking all these points into consideration, when we judge the plot of Indra Sabha,we reach to the definite conclusion it fulfills all the rules as laid down by Bharat Muni and Aristotle. The language of Indra Sabha; The language of Indra Sabha is neither pure Hindi or chaste Udru.It is the colloquil language which was spoken by the people in their daily life. Wajid Ali Shah had made use of such a language in his play “Radha Kanhaiya Ka Qissa” written in 1843 A.D. It is very probable that he might have used the same language in his Rahas which were performed a Qaisar Bagh. Amanat admits that he got the inspiration of writing Indra Sabha from Rahas,and it may be so that he borrowed the style of language also.Tradition of this spoken language remained in Indian theatre right from Indra Sabha to Parsi Theatre and later to Indian films.Narayan Prasad “Betab” has beutifully described when he says that the theatrical language should be such that it should not be Persianised Urdu or Sankritised Hindi.It should be a judicious mixure of both in the same way as sugur is dissolved in milk. Na nikhalis urdu na theth hindi ho Zuban kuch aisi mili juli ho, Jaise dudh mein mishri ki dali ghuli ho.

Wajid Ali Shah had made use of Urdu. Hindi, and Awadhi in his play “Radha Kanhaia Ka Qissa”.For example when ordinary people like Ghurbat and Jogan speak to each other then they do so in Awadhi.But when Radha and Kanhaia express their love they use chaste poetry both in Hindi and Urdu. Beside this own poetry, he made use of poems written by famous poets like Bihari and others. Similarly Amanat made a judicious use of Urdu and Hindi in Indra Sabha.Pukhraj Pari, Neelam Pari and Sabaz Pari they sing ghazals in Urdu and songs in Hindi alternatively. Even in the dialogues there is a beautiful mixure of Urdu and Hindi,where words from both lanuages are used to convey the meaning and emotions. In many of the songs such as Holi sung by Pukhraj Pari, Thumri by Neelam Pari and Sawan by Lal Pari, Amanat has made use of Awadhi.It was because of this simple communicative language that Indra Sabha became very popular among the mases. The ghazals and the songs became so popular that they were sung by masses in the villages and the cities. The Dances in Indra Sabha. Having read Indra Sabha it becomes clear that all the characers used to make their entry accompanied by dance and music. The characters used to introduce themselves to the audience through a song. Even Raja Indra made is apprearance on the stage while dancing exactly like the characters in Kathakali. Amanat has mentioned that which particuler song will be sung in which Raga but he has not indicated about the style of dancing. Therefore the question arises as to what style of dance was ued in the performance of Indra Sabha. Was it calassical, Bharat Natayam, Kathakali or it was folk. It is possible that the Pari who were supposed to be from heavan may be dancing classical Bharat Natyam. But one should not forget that the court of Wajid Ali Shah was compared with that of Indra's and in his times Kathak had become the court dance..Even in the Rahas Kathak was dancesd. On examining closely the songs and thumries of Indra Sabha one finds that they have been written on the style of Kathak.Therefore it will not be wrong to reach the conclusion that the dances in Indra Sabha must have been Kathak which had achieved the distinction of being the court dance and had become popular. Indra Sabha and its Performance This is a recognized fact that the performance of Indra Sabha did not take place inside a theatre. Infact at that time

there was no theare in Lucknow. Masood Hasan Rizvi has mentioned that Wajid Ali Shah had made a theatre but unfortunately there is no trace of it left today. Massod Hasan Rizavi has not produced an concrete evidence, neither Wajid Ali Shah or any other contemporary writer has mentioned about it.This is also true that Indra Sabha was not staged at the court of Wajid Ali Shah and it was not performed as Rahas in Qaisar Bagh. Where and how was it staged then. In the introduction of Indra Sabha Amanat writes; “at about midnight when audience came in large number,some persons were removed at the back and the chairs were placed,platform was made ready, instrumentalists came and won the hearts of the audience when they tuned the respective instrumens and started playing. Embroidered red curtain was raised, behind which Raja Indra playing the ghoongaroos by his setps made his appearance.Sarangi was tuned to Chikara and the Amad {entry}of Indra was announced” .40 Unfortunately Amanat in the introduction has not made any reference as to where was the first performance of Indra Sabha staged. In which locality of Lucknow, and how was it staged. From the above mentioned statement one only comes to know that there was a large audience present, the chairs were placed, platform was erected,but does not menion where did the performance took place. The mention of the red curtain behind which Indra used to make his entry has created a lot of controversies, as Amanat has specifically not mentioned as how and why it was used. Dr.Masi uz zaman who had the practical experience of theatre was of the opinion that a shamiana {marquee}was erected.41 But Amanat has not mentioned about the shamiana.He only mentions that the chairs were placed and a stage was made,but makes no mention as to how large was the stage. Mohammad Shahid Hussain says,that,”from the statement of Amanat one gets the picture of the stage which was made under the supervision of Amanat.It is also clear that no high platform was erected,but the throne of Indra and the chairs for the Paries were placed on the very ground where the audience was seated,by just removing them back a little. According to Amanat the stage was made when the audience had assembled, and it was at midnight. No stage was made before.”42

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Mohammad Shahid Hussain has not provided any evidence to substantiate that the stage was made under the supervision of Amanat. The statement of Amanat to which Shahid refers does not say anything atall that the stage was made under his personal supervision. Amanat has only said,”chairs were placed, and the stage was decorated. It is the general practice that for every kind of performance a proper stage is made, all props etc are placed, before the audience arrives. By Amanat's saying, that, every person was moved back a little, does not prove the point that the stage was made after removing the members of the audience. Even today in the villages where there are no theatres stage are made and often the members of the audience in order to have a better look sit close to the stage and it then becomes necessary to remove them back. Exactly it must have happened with the performace of Indra Sabha. If we see from the theatre's point of view then the stage must have been made sufficiently high so that the people sitting far back might have a clear view. The makeshift stages which are made in the villages are made of takhat {platforms} which are placed in the front of the houses and the shops for people to sit. These Takhats are about 4ft high and about six feet in length. How large was the stage for Indra Sabha can be judged from the fact that it should have enough space to accomodate five or six instrumentalists, one or two singers,Indra and the three Paris sitting on the chairs, Kala Dev, Gulfam.Sabaz Pari. This means that the stage should be large enough to accomodate about fifteen persons and should have enough space for the actors to move and dance. The use of red curtain. One of the most imporant aspect of Indra Sabha is the use of this red embroidered curtain. Some scholars are of the opinion that it was like the curtains in Operas and it was raised and dropped as required. This could not have happened with Indra Sabha as it was not staged in a proper theatre equipped with adaquate machineries as Operas are. Many scholars have called it as the Drop curtain. Drop curtain is a part of proscenium theatre and at that time there was no proscenium theatre in India.43 The question remains as to what purpose did the red curtian served. Amanat has very clearly mentioned in the introduction that Indra,Gulfam,and the each paries made their enrtry from behind the red curtain.He writes,”red embroidered curtian is streched, Raja Indra makes his

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entry from behind it, making sounds of ghoogharoos tied to his feet .Sarangi was tuned to chikara the Amad {entry}was sung by which Indra introduces himself to the audience. Sabha mein doston Indra ki amad amad hai Pari jamalon ke afsar ki amad amad hai. This clearly means that Indra when he made his first entry he did it from behind the red curtain, he sang his amad accompanied by small dancing steps. After the amad was completed and Indra had established his character, the red curtain was removed and further action of the play continued. When Amanat says that the red curtain was streched he does not make it clear whether it was streched with help of strings or it was held by two men. In the mannar the stage was made it woud not have been possible to strech it from one side of the stage to the other. Therefore it was more probable that it was held by two men exacly in the same manner as Avanika is held in Yakshgana where the characters make their entry behind it and once they have established their character the Avanika is broken and removed. The entry of Indra and other characters must have been somewhat like Yakshgana.Amanat has of course not mentioned about this innovating use of the red curtain which might have been inspired by Yakshgana rather than an European theatre,. In later years when Indra Sabha was staged by the Parsi theatre companies in the proscenium theatre the use of wings was made for the entry of the characters. Amad was sung in the same way that it was done before and the characters used to sing themselves. The plays of Parsi Theatre used to have several coloured curtains which usd to depict different locales and of course there was the drop curtain which used to come down at the end of the play.Not having the practical knowledge the scholars were misled by this drop curtain. The locales of Indra Sabha. In Indra Sabha Amanat has not given the detailed stage direction or the locales. This tradition of stage directions and detailed discription of locales etc came to the theatre much later. In those days these were communicated to the audience through dialogues. To know about the locales of Indra Sabha it is necessary to read the text carefully. In the beginning when Indra makes his entry, he introduces himself, when he says; Raja hoon mein quam ka aur Indra mera naam Bin parion ke deed ke nahi mujhe araam.

I am the king, my name is Indra Till I donot have the company of fairis, I am not at ease. And at the same time he informs the audience about the occasion and about the peformance which is to follow. Suno re Dev re dil ko nain qarar Jaldi mere waste sabha karo taiyaar Takhat bichao jagmaga jaldi se is aan Mujh koo shab bhar baithna mahafil ke darmian. Listen oh Dev my heart is not at peace Make haste and organize the gathering Place the throne {takhat}and decorate the place I have to sit in the performance throughout the night. From this the audience comes to know that the scene that they are going to see is the court of Indra, where the throne of Indra will be placed, Raja Indra will be seated, the court of Indra will last for the whole night and the Paris will dance in the court by turns. Withthe entry of Sabaz Pari the story of Indra Sabha really begins.Raja Indra while listening to the songs goes off to sleep,Sabaz Pari says; Rajaji to so gae diyaa nahin kuch inaam Jati hoon bagh mein yahan mera kya kaam Raja has gone off to sleep and has not given any reward I am going to the garden as I have no work here. The action then shifts to the garden where Sabaz Pari and Kala Dev meet. But no separate garden is made, by taking few steps they reach the garden, and the audience accepts it as such. In the same way Kala Dev goes to Hindustan and brings the Shazada {prince}at the request of Sabaz Pari. Laya Shazade ko mein jakar Hindustan Tu apne mashooq ko Sabaz Pari pehachan. I have brought the prince from Hindustan sabaz pari now you recognize your lover. No Singhal Dwaeep {island} or the Akhtar Nagar were shown, no scenes were changed he action continued scene by scene without any break.Through the dialogues and by taking a few steps the locales were established.Similarly at the request of the prince when Sabaz Pari brings him to the court from heaven she warns the prince to hold on to the legs of the throne by which he were to fly and reach the court. Tham lo paya mere takhat ka ab haath se tum Chut jana ne kahin raah mein par saath se tum

Hold on tightly to one of the legs of the throne So that you may not part from me on the way. From these dialogues one comes to know that Sabaz Pari and the prince flew to the court. At that time there were no stage effets, only gestures and action established that they came flying from the heaven and reached the court. Another interesting thing was that each character after having made his entry and having esablished his character he did not exit from the stage but sat on the chair provided for him on the stage itself. Having performed he withdrew, alineated and behaved as he had nothing to do with what ever was happening on the stage. The absence of any settings, scenery, and props the change of locales and the actors sitting on the stage were all accepted by the audience. This even happens today in the performances of folk theatre Khyal or Ramlila. To Declare Indra Sabha as an Opera. The dialogues in Opera are tuned to classical music and are sung by the actors. It is true that the dialogues of Indra Sabha were also sung,but it is certainly not true to say,that,what took 150 years for the European Operas to reach the heights of development it is praisworthy that Amanat showed the glimpses in his very first effort.44 The Opera “la favola d'orfes” written by Claudio Monteverdi {1567-1643}, was performed in Mantua in the year 1607 A.D. it was Monteverdi who for the first time gave importance to music in Opera.In 1613 A.D. Monteverdi migrated from mantua to Venice.The first Opera Theatre Teatro an Cassiano was made in 1637 A.D. in Venice.Monteverdi played an important role in the construction of this theatre and also taking the Opera out of the royal courts to the public.This theatre became so popular that from 1640 to 1700 four more opera theatres were made in Venice. With the consruction of special theatres it became possible to have the stage effects such as, characterse descending from the sky, to show clouds,lightning effects,ect.The Operas by now has reached the heights of development and had become very popular among the people. The date of some of the well known Operas are;”Dafne” written bb Rianuccini was performed in 1627 A.D.,Le Triomphe Me de La Guerra” was performed in 1655 A.D., “Pastarale” in 1659 A.D.,”Pamone” in 1671 A.D. both written by R.Cambert. The three famous Operas of mozart were “Le Nozzi De Figaro {1786}, Don Giovanni {1787}Cosi Fan Tuttle {1790}. This clearly proves that

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Amanat's Indra Sabha was not written 150 years before the Operas in Europe but much after. One thing should also be noted that Operas are written by the composers and not by regular playwrights. This is true that Amanat was contemporary of Handle and Gluck at that time the Operas had reached the new heights of developments and popularity, but it is difficult to say that there was an influence of operas on Amanat. Because Amanat had not visited Europe, and at a time no Opera had reached India. Some critics are of the opinion that there was a French man at the court of Wajid Ali Shah and the Rahas at the Qaisar Bagh were produced under his directions. Of this there is no evidence available whatsoever. Wajid Ali Shah or other contemporary writers have not mentioned about it either. Amanat himself also has not mentioned about this in his introduction to Indra Sabha. It becomes clear that Amanat had no influence of French Operas. It is possible that Amanat wrote Indra Sabha on the style of the Rahas of Wajid Ali Shah , and he must have nourished the great desire that Indra Sabha be produced on the same lavish style of the Rahas. He must have visualisd the gorgeous court of Indra, beautiful girls gorgeously dressed as pari, the real garden with flowers and trees, different locales where the scenes would have shifted and alongwith them the audience. but alas this could not happen.Indra Sabha was staged on a platform without an elaborate settings, this must have been one of the main reasons for him to write that “every body was pleased with the writing of Indra Sabha but personally he was himself no happy. And this must have compelled him to use the pseudo pen-name of “Usaad” instead of his own Amanat.. The Costumes of Indra Sabha. As said before no deatiled direction were given separately but they were a part of the dialogue. The Paries described their own costumes in the song which they rendered on their entry. Sabha mein Lal Pari ki sawari aati hai Zamane rang ab Indra ki pari aati hai Shafaq main ayega jhurmut nazar sitaron ka Pahan ke surkh who poshak bhari aati hai Dupatta dekh ke bijli giregi bijli par Kinaron par who laga kar kinari aati hai. Insaan ka kaam husn pe mere amam hai Joda hai surkh lal pari mera tamaam hai Poshak meri surkh hai mukhda hai chand sa

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Dekho shafaq mein raat ko maah tamam hai. {She announces her entry on the stage, and gives her name as Lal Pari.She also informs that she is a favourite of Indra.. She tells that one will see the cluster of the stars in the sky as she is dressed in a heavily embroidered costume. Her dupata is so flashy that lightening will fall on it as dupata has the edging of golden threads.She also declares that every man is in love with her beauty as her face is as beautiful as the moon}..In the same manner every character describes their costumes. Although the description is very detailed giving the name of colour of the costume, embroidary etc, but he has not given details as to what type of costume they were. Amanat has given a very poetic description of the costume of Sabaz Pari as follows. 'Sabaz pari who is better than emerald, enters the sage dancing in such a manner that everything from jealous turns green.She is wearing a green colour necklace,and her costume is better than the rest of the Paris. The enameled jewelary is so beautiful that even the sky turns his face from the stars. Her green costume is so gorgeous that when she dances it appears that there is lightening.Her beauty is surpassed, her beautiful fair body so reflects through her costume as if the light shines through green lotus' But from his poetic description we come to know about the colour and the gorgeousness of the costume but not the style. To know about the style one has to know about the costume of the people of that time, from the contemporary sources. Maulana Abdul Halim Sharar who was contemporary of Amanat in his book “Guzashta Lucknow” has mentioned about the costumes of the Begums of Lucknow of that time.He says,”The muslim ladies of Lucknow used to wear tight fitting pyjamas.An angia wih tight sleeves and on top of it a kurti to hide the stomach and the back.It was cut in the front in such a way that the angia was visible.It did not have any sleeves and it did not cover the front.Two long strings coming over the shoulders.On top of this a dupatta of three meters which used to cover the head,but later was just dropped on the shoulders.45 Mrs.Meer Hasan Ali an English woman who lived in Lucknow for twelve years wrote her observations of the society of her times.It is an eyewitness account and is most interesting to read.She has mentioned about the costumes, rituals, manners, festivals, religious ceremonies etc.She has given a vivid account of the costumes in these words.

“Ladies pyjamas are formed of rich satin, or gold cloth, gorebudden,or mussheroo {striped washing silks manufactured at Benaras, fine chintz,english manufactured, having the preference,silk or cotton ginghams, in short all such materials are used for this aricle of female dress as are of sufficiently firm texture,down to the white calico of the country,suited to the means of the wearer. By the most fashionable females they are worn very full below the knee,and reach to the feet,which are partially covered by he fulness,the extremily finished,and the seams are bound with silver riband; a very broad silver riband binds the top of the pyjama;this being double has a zorbunda a silk net cord],run through,by which this part of the dress is with rich tassels of gold and silver,curiously and expressly made for this purpose,which extend below the knees,for full dress,these tassels are rendered magnificent with pearls and jewels. One universal shape is adopted in the form of the ungeeah bodice, which is, however,much varied in the material and ornamental part,some are of gauze or net,muslin etc,.the more transsparent in texture the more agreeable to taste,and all are more or less ornamented with spangles and silver trimmings.It is mde to fit the bust with great exactness.and to fasten behind with strong cotton cords; the sleeves are very short and tight, and finished with some fanciful embroidery or silver riband,'46 From this description of the costumes given by Maulana Abdul Halim Sharar and Mrs Meer Hasan Ali, we come to the conclusion that the costumes of the Paries may have been of the same style which was prevalent in the society at that time. Indra Sabha the first play of the peoples theatre, Indra Sabha does have the privelege of being the first play of the Hindustani theatre which was staged wihout the royal patronage, by the people and for the people. It also inspired several playwrights to write different sabhas, and it became a very popular play with the Parsi Theatre. Death of Amanat. After having written Indra Sabha Amanat did not live for long. He died in 1859 .A.D The age of 44 years at Lucknow.He was buried in the inn [musafirkhana}near the Imambara of Agha Baqir.The cruel death at a very young age snatched a playwright from whom much was expected.but Amanat by his only one play has becomee immortal in the annals of the dramatic literature.

References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi; Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p. 9 ibid p.9 ibid p.9 ibid.p.10 William Sleeman; Journey Through The kingdom of Oudh p.178 Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizivi; Lucknow Ka Awami stage p.165 ibid p.166 ibid p.44 ibid p.44 (Ed.This is the Jogia Mela staged in 1853 when Wajid Ali Shah had ordered every citizen to attend the Mela dressed as a jogi.This was the first time when the people were invited to the Qaisar Bagh.) Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi:Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p.166 Sayyad Massood Hasan Rizvi : Lucknow Ka Awami stage p.51 Mohammad Shahid Hussain Indra sabha Ki Rawayat.p.84 ibid p.87 SayyadMasoodHasan Rizvi Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p.51 Mohammad Shahid Hussain; Indra Sabha Ki Rawayat p.87 ibid p.86-87 ibid p.88 Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi; Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p.52 Mohammad Shahid Hussain; Indra Sabha Ki Rawayat.p.87-88 Ed. Qata-I-Tarikh is a special couplet by which the exact date is given of the publication,or of any occasion Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi ; Lucknow Ka Awami stage p.53 ibid p.56-57 ibid p.15 ibid p. 119 Mohammad shahid Hussain Indra Sabha Ki Rawayat p.136 Sayyad Waqar Azeem; Agha Hashra Amanat aur unke Drame p.53 Mohammad shaded hussain Indra sabha Ki rawayat p.135 Safdar Aah: Hindustani Drama p.238 Natya Shastra ed Babulal Sharma Vol.3 p.51 Ibid p.51 Ibid.p.51 Ibid p.52 Ibid p.53 Ibid p.53 Ibid.p.53 Ibid p.54 Ibid p.55 Ibid.p.Vol.1.215 A.B.Keith. The Sankrit Theatre p.277 Dr.Chandra Bhan Gupta. The Indian Theatre.p.14 Natya Shahstra ed Babulal Shastri Vol.II p.215 Aristotle;Theory of Poetics and Fine Arts.p.21 J.R.Lowell: the Old English Dramatists.p.55 Sayyad Masood Hasan Rizvi.Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p.166 Dr. Massiuzaman.;Amanat Ki Indra Sabha;Muqadama.p.26-29 Mohammad Shahid Hussain;Indra Sabha Ki Rawayat p.155 Ranbir Sinh:Parsi Theatre p.2-3 Sayyad Masood Hasan Raizvi; Lucknow Ka Awami Stage p.108 Maulana Halim Sharar; Guzashta Lucknow p.328 Mrs.Meer Hasan Ali:Observation on the Musaalmans of India description of their manners,customs,habits and religious opinions.p.60

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Aesthetic Aspect of Calligraphy in Indian Context

A Seal from Mohanjo-Daro, 3rd Millennium B.C

Dr. Archana Joshi & Suresh Chandra Jangid, India

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he term `Calligraphy' means `beautiful writing' or `elegant penmanship'. This word derived from the Latin `Calligrphia'; in term derived from the two different Greek words, meaning beautiful and writing. Today, calligraphy generally refers to the art of beautiful writing as a profession or field of study that is the aesthetic considerations of the writing. Dr. Archana Joshi is Head, Department of Drawing & Painting and Suresh Chandra Jangid is her Research Scholar at Vedic Girls College, (University of Rajasthan) Jaipur, India

An Example of Palm leaf Manuscript

iconographic script (ancient Egypt, pre Columbian America), ideographic or synthetic script (China and Japan), and alphabetic scripts (Kufic, Carolingian, Gothic, Renaissance, etc.). Writing has always been of primary importance as a means of ornamental enhancement of painting, sculpture, and architecture. At its best, calligraphy may equal other forms of aesthetic expression, and at certain times it has been regarded as an art not inferior to painting. A study of writing as art can, and to some extent must proceed from the history of writing and the alphabet, with consideration of outstanding cases of creative originality and interrelationship with other art forms. In this sense writing may merge with painting (as in pictographs, especially in pre-Columbian America, or in Chinese and Japanese ideograms, as well as in some contemporary art). It interpenetrates symbol and emblem, which are perennial and ubiquitous and monumental decoration (Roman and Humanist dedicatory epigraphs, sacred texts inscribed on the walls of Islamic mosques and, occasionally of Protestant Churches). In all these cases an unquestioned aesthetic intention exists along with both the mnemonic and phonetic functions of writing. The written form acquires an importance beyond that of merely rendering meaning, whether the meaning could not be fully conveyed by the characters or ideographic idiom of religious, commemorative, and other texts, in which the writing is as a rule closely related to the dominating element of the composition. All civilizations have left some kind of record of the importance attributed to the aesthetic aspect of writing. From the earliest time the Egyptians and the Indus valley people had the great veneration for writing; their respect reflects from the findings of that time (about 2000 B.C.) in the pyramids and other archeological sites. Similarly, in Assyria the great king Ashurabanipal (669-626 B.C.) left his thought's impressions in his inscriptions. Accordingly to Philostratus (3rd Century),

Seal from Mohanjo-Daro, 2500-2300 B.C

there were two scribes in the entourage of Apollonius of Tyana, one for daily needs and the other for ornate writing purpose. This preoccupation with the beauty of writing is amply confirmed by the exceptional quality of many of the written documents that have survived from ancient times in China, Japan, India and the Islamic countries, the profession of calligrapher was and still is held in high esteem; and in Europe and America the design of painting fonts that continue the stylistic evolution of calligraphy is the object of intense study. A pictograph and a page of alphabetic script, presents different aesthetic problems. Picture writings may be considered as an art either individually (as imitations of nature and dependent on their power of evocation) or in stylized form (as a coordinated series which unfolds a consecutive discourse). Both in the primitive pictographic stage and in the synthetic or ideographic stage we find clear affinities with the prevailing art styles, as in Egypt and presumably in prehistoric times. The need for a

Although writing serves a primarily utilitarian purpose but the style of other art media have placed their imprints upon the development of its various forms, as in pictographic or An Example of Palm leaf Manuscript

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comprehensible arrangement of the pictured tale, whether vertical or horizontal, accompanies a concern with order, balance, and clarity, which in turn look forward to problems of the ideographic or calligraphic composition. Writing, however, remained in these cases a kind of monumental picture. When the naturalistic image passes to a schematic, ideographic, or alphabetic symbol then the mimetic or representational preoccupations disappear and the quality of writing (as in modern non-objective painting) depends on the independent structural value of harmony, fluency, elegance, and interrelation. This is true not only for Chinese and Japanese ideograms but also for

all the alphabetic scripts (Which today are thought to have derive from a single northwestern Semitic prototype; that is from the region of Phoenicia and Palestine, 1800-1700 B.C.) Both the systems derived from the intentional stylization of natural forms, but soon they became divorced semantically from these forms through a process facilitated by a slow and continuous adoption to the tools and materials used in writing. The first was lapidary writing, inscribed or incised with a chisel on stone, thus acquired a geometric quality, without curves or ligatures; another was rapid writing permitted either by the reed pen (a stick of common reed with its end split, for use on papyrus) or by the writing brush, made of elastic hair and used on silk.

Grantha Script, 9th Century, National Museum of India, New Delhi

Thus, two opposing principles developed; on the one hand, a monumental or official style (in the west, generally in classicizing terms) tending toward a rigidly formal organization, a symmetry and proportion of the individual signs and lines of the whole written surface with careful alignment and spacing; and on the other hand, a more flexible cursive and intuitive style, which often served to reveal the personality of the writer (it was the observation of difference in calligraphy that gave birth to the concept of personal style in Renaissance artistic treatise.) Illumination of manuscripts is the best-known example of embellishment, but other important instances of embellishment also exist. The Egyptian hieroglyphic script, when coloured, was admirably suitable for painting on walls, tombstones, sarcophagi, etc., and also common in architectural ornamentation, where it was engraved or embossed. We can cite the famous Chinese inscriptions of the Confucian classics on the stone drums and those on pottery vessels and jade; also the beautiful Mayan steles and alters with their elaborate cartouches containing several picture signs gathered into a single frame. The Arabic lapidary or Kufic style was employed mainly on walls of mosques and on coins. With the development of Arabic calligraphy, Kufic became more and more consistent in height, thickness, and form of the single characters. In fact it became such an exceptionally beautiful script that it was often used in the West for purely decorative purposes. The cartouches on medieval frescoes and panels are often also very effective, as are the legends which accompany the paintings, serving not merely as expiations but for the clearly decorative purpose of creating a pleasing frame. The artist's signature constitutes a special case of insertion of writing into painting and sculpture. Its

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An Example of Ancient `Egyptian Hieroglyphics', 2000 B.C.

placement is often skillfully calculated; sometimes the name is changed into a monogram. Especially in more recent works, exercises on the alphabetic themes also pondered over that are fundamentally pictorial, as was done earlier in the surrealist and cubistic paintings ,where the introduction of letters serves as a symbolic suggestion or even as a structural base of the entire work. The certain works of Paul Klee are the best examples of this device. In the fields of graphic arts and cinematography the frequent use of a typically calligraphic arrangement of the lettering reflects the current tendency to a return to a unity of calligraphic style, probably stimulate by the achievements of non-objective art and neoplasticism. The Indian graphic system underwent innumerable changes during its course. It spread with great vitality over the central and up to farther eastern parts of Asia and resulted in a number of diverse calligraphic types. The oldest writings are the inscriptions of King Asoka (3rd Cent. B.C.), distributed from the territory of his ancient kingdom of Magadha (with its capital in modern Patna) in the east to modern Mysore in the south; they were carved with geometric simplicity on rocks and stone columns with two different hands, the Brahmi and the Kharoshthi. The former is lapidary in character, with absolutely rigid and vertical characters. When the latter appears on stone pillars, it was generally composed with less perfection. Kharoshthi script is a cursive hand, without special attempt at calligraphy, but generally is fairly regular and uniform without the angularity of the Brahmi. In the manuscripts on parchment and wooden tablets of central Asia the Kharoshthi seems more calligraphic. This refinement is probably due to the use of ink and the infusion of Iranian decorative taste that was so widely spread in Central Asia. TIMES

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In India true calligraphy was first attempted in the early centauries of our era and had a development parallel to the expansion and the differentiation of scripts which took different forms in the north and south of India. In the north, writing was more refined. The vertical strokes became equalized and terminated more broadly in a curl, thus describing an upper line, called “matra” below which, as a result, each character was to be traced. Alignment was more regular and ligatures appeared. The early distinguishable scripts are the Ksatrapa (around 14 A.D.) and Kushan (Late 1st Cent.) types. In later centauries, the different calligraphic schools became more clearly differentiated: the northern schools preferred linear and angular elements with a harmonious regularity; the southern scripts, on the other hand, leaned toward rounded forms and curving lines, whose decorative effect was greater. This curvilinear quality was the result of the widespread practice of incising on palm leaves as a writing method. Although palm leaves lend themselves to the engraving of globular characters, they do not permit the tracing of the thick strokes with ornamental serifs favored by the use of ink in the north, so that southern calligraphers were forced to get their aesthetic effects only from the inflection of line. In the north part of the country, during the Gupta period (4th 5th Cent.) various scripts underwent a final differentiation

and expansion. In the numerous manuscripts found in Central Asia, Mr. Hoernle has identified two types of writing: the straight Gupta and the slanted Gupta. The Buddhist manuscripts in Sanskrit found at Bamian (Afghanistan) and Gilgit (Kashmir) show two more elaborated calligraphic types, with thick lines and very fine serifs. In type A the character are rather low and wide and the matra above has become larger, but the balance is reestablished by an oblique weighting of the lower part of the characters. Type B has more slanted but straighter letters, with curves inclined slightly to the right and downward. Related scripts were in use in the basin of the Tarim River (Sinkiang) for Sanskrit and the local languages of the mid 7th century to the 10th century. Type B, widespread in the epigraphy of northern India with the name of Kutila, was transported to Japan, China, Korea, and Central Asia and was also used for magical formulas and for Sanskrit texts until after the 10th century. In Kambodia and in Kashmir (where it called Sarada) it is in use to the present day. In Nepal scripts have followed the evolution of the Gupta alphabet since the 5th century. In Tibet from the 7th century on writing was formed after a post- Gupta model and had an erudite elaboration when used for Sanskrit. From these ornamental types, there also developed a type known as the “box-head type”, in which the matras are transformed into small squares and the curves are replaced as often as possible by right angles. After the 10th century the distinction between the common hands and the sophisticated hands became clearer. Many samples of the latter have been preserved in manuscripts, especially in western Bengal and Nepal. The major type which is today more widespread is the Nagri (urban) or Devanagari alphabet, which originally was the local script of Benares. Because of the importance subsequently assumed by that city, Devanagari became increasingly widespread and was used to transcribe, besides the local languages, both Sanskrit and Hindi. In the early 19th century it was adopted for the printing of Sanskrit and Prakrit (Vernacular Sanskrit) texts in Bengal and in Europe. Nagari appears to be remotely derived from Brahmi, as it has the same system of transcription and the same direction from left to right. Its most original calligraphic element lies in the horizontal development of matra so that

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Inscriptions on Asoka Shila, Junagadh, Gujarat, 250 B.C

when the characters are juxtaposed, they appear to have been written below a horizontal line. The effect of these linear elements is geometrizing; calligraphic embellishment and accentuated curves have been omitted. The Jain Nagari, used in books on Jain doctrine and therefore most widely distrubeted in the west, differs somewhat from the ordinary Nagari. The Nepalese writings tended toward a form similar to the Nagari but were markedly calligraphic and varied. The two principal types are the Ranja (elegant) and the Vartul (round). The Bengal scripts and those from near Mithila were similar in the middle Ages to the Nepalese, but later they became more undulant, with bends and acute angles, curly bars, and slightly curved and straight matras which do not generally link one character with the other. In Orrisa, north of the Bengal Gulf, Oriya script is characterized by rounded forms. Often the matra, developed in a convex curve, is larger than the rest of the character. The Gurumukhi, used to transcribe the Punjabi tongue, is similar to the Nagari but is more cursive and rounded. The vernacular Gujarati alphabet is also cursive and simplified and is without matras. In the north and northwest various cursive hands exist. In the south, the two groups of inscriptions which have given birth to the two great groups of modern southern scripts are those of the Pallava (6th 7th Cent.) and Chalukya dynasties (7th 8th Cent.). The inscriptions of the Pallava (who dominated the eastern coast, with Kanchipuram as their capital), from the lower basin of the Krishna River in the 4th to the 9th Century, are ornamental by comparison with contemporary northern forms. Letters are slanted, strongly bent to the left and rising again toward the top of the foot, which becomes smaller and rounder. The Pallava forms for writing Sanskrit prepare the literary alphabet later called Grantha (“free”). Another hand for inscriptions developed into Tamil after the 7th century. This was the first Indian script to be printed (by the Portuguese mission in Malabar, 1577), although wood engravings of Sanskrit were being printed in Central Asia and China as early as the 10th century. The Tamil hand, at first in straight lines, became after the 19th century progressively more slanted. In the Tamil area, the Grantha alphabet was also used for printing Sanskrit texts from the 19th century The Topra Ashoka Pillar

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onwards. Both Grantha and Tamil are elegant in themselves and are calligraphic in their regularity and the purity of their curves. They are accompanied by various cursives. The Tamil is also in use in northern Ceylon. The calligraphic writing of Ceylon was in use not only for its own language (Singhalese) but also for Pali (the canonical language of Buddhism) and Sanskrit (the language of poetry and science). The scripts of Chalukya dynasty (both eastern and western), who ruled over the valleys of the Krishna and the Godavari, are less slanted than the pallava script .They gave rise to the Dravidian writings of the Telugu and Kannada regions in the north and west of the Tamil areas. The Telugu or Telinga script (east of Deccan) and the Kannada script (west of Deccan) are different, as to calligraphic qualities especially. Both are typified by letters forms of circles and arcs and topped by a matra forming in V-shape; but this assumes a quite different form in each of the two structures. Besides, in the earliest Kannada, forms tended to curls and curving verticals, which turned progressively upward where the circle first lengthened and then closed into circles. This ornamental hand inherited the calligraphic peculiarities of the Hoysala inscriptions (12th century); it appeared in temple architecture with a particularly lively and complex ornamentation that suggests work in ivory. Kannada epigraphs have survived from the Katumba, Chalukya, Rastrakuta, and other reigns. Thus, it can be said that India has a great history in scripts and these have been enriched the calligraphic tradition from the time immemorial.

Details of Asoka Pillar with Brahmi Inscription. References: 1. Archer, W.G., India and Modern Art, Ruskin House, George Allin & unwin ltd., London, 1959. 2. Basham, A. L., The Wonder that was India, Evergreen Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Grove Press Inc., New York, 1954. 3. Ghose, D.C., Bibliography of Modern Indian Art, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi, 1978. 4. Goetz, Hermann, Art of the World, Halle and Co., Germany, 1959. 5. Kramrisch, Stella, The Art of India through Ages, The Phaidon Press, London, 1954. 6. Oslay, A.S., Scribes and Sources, Faber and Faber, London, 1980. 7. Sankalier, H.P., Prehistoric Art in India, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1978.

The distinction between mimetic writing (pictograms) and totally schematic writing (alphabetical letters) seems to diminish in certain periods. There are noteworthy examples of illuminated schematic writing in which individual alphabetical letter are formed from pictorial representations, or the pictorial decoration of individual letters emphasizes the meaning of the written material; however, the intent of such alphabets is generally decorative rather than explanatory. In the process of formalization of writing, the abandonment of colours as a determinant of meaning for the symbol is typical. But even when formalized and abstract, the written symbol or phrase does not lose its decorative function.

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Mirath Ashoka Pillar, 3rd Century B.C.

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Mohd. Salim Paintings of Pulsating Mountain-Musing Dr. Awadhesh Misra

nature, then you will inevitably lose relationship with another. Nature is not just the flowers, the lovely green lawn or the flowing waters in your little garden, but the whole earth with all the things on it. We consider that nature exists for our use, for our convenience, and so lose communion with the earth. This sensitivity to the fallen leaf and to the tall tree on a hill is far more important than all the passing of examinations and having a bright career. Those are not the whole of life. Life is like a vast river with a great volume of water without a beginning or an ending. We take out of that fast running current, a bucket of water and that confined water becomes our life. This is our conditioning and our everlasting sorrows.� It is this very core of our being; this very note of existence and this very perception of nature, in its totality, if we have,

that gives us a basic insight of creation. Creator and creation are not separate entities, they are one. Creator is manifested in creation fully. An awakening to this fact, only, makes one silent. Because it is this state of intense silence the words and all expressive unease rest. Though this process of awakening and of conceiving and expressing is painful and arduous but it's the only way. So when we confront with the subjects, treatment and colour of Salim which indicates that pain and ethos, which he beers for his deep concern that is the nature encased in Kumaun region-its vastness, its trance, its rustling music in the leaves and ultimately the heartless ignorance and exploit of man. This is vibrant over his canvas that enthralls us. It also prove that he does possess a light tint of that understanding to which J. Krishnamurti is indicating.

Landscape : Mohd. Salim

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Dr. Awadhesh Misra is painter, writer & editor of Kala Dirgha, a famous art journal of India

want to quote a great seer of our time, J. Krishnamurti in order to create a supportive ease for visualizing the paintings of Salim. He professes that “When you wander through the woods with heavy shadows and dappled light and suddenly come upon an open space, a green meadow surrounded by stately trees, or a sparkling stream, you wonder why man has lost his relationship to nature and the beauty of the earth, the fallen leaf and the broken branch. If you have lost touch with Landscape : Mohd. Salim

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Landscape : Mohd. Salim

It is a pleasant experience to see the whole art journey of Salim together. It is just like an interview of different halts (encampments) of such an artist, in whose every stroke on one side we can enjoy the peculiar tradition of an art style and technique of Lucknow and on the other, his colour composition attracts our hearts which is filled with the fragrance of primitive hilly musing of the valleys of Almora. If we study different phases or subject related dimensions, especially one point appears as a translucent dazzle and that is “Deep concern for the common man”1 . “Common Man” who always finds himself standing after harmonizing his tone with natural music, beautiful valleys, and problems and struggling life of mountains. This “Common Man” is present in different roles in the paintings of Salim. The deep sympathy for the hilly life which is implied especially in the pictures of Salim, differentiates him with all his contemporary artists. Actually Salim is quite different with his contemporaries in the respect of present time of show business and he does not get lured by the all type of stunts and gimmicks and wants to be immersed in his devotion. After gaining the expertise from “Lucknow Arts and Crafts College” he wants to carry that expertise to its ultimate elevation. He feels to make a deep longing to make the whole world feel the nature and music of Almora, colour and sweet smell of valleys, smoothness and transparency of public life with the foggy atmosphere, depth and vastness of valleys and simple and fearless life which is the example of living freely in the privation and limited resources.2 These are the elegances/specialties which attract the tourists also. This is

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the centre of attraction for which people from all over the world come to see and feel the beauty and bounty of nature. It is this intricacy that weaves a texture in creative urge of man. We can see and feel all these pulsating musings in the art of Salim. In getting introduced with Salim, one comes to accept that he has made a special place among those landscape artists who have given a dimensional twist to this art field through lots of refinements in their creativity. Though trained at Lucknow, Salim has created a world of hilly life by painting the musing of mountain in all its connotations, shades and life and this musing is pulsating beneath the colour and texture of Salim. He painted a world which is a sea of different colours, conversing the vast nature and human life in changing background and perspective and also the core of society and nature. In number of his paintings there are inundating scenes of hilly terrain. Salim creates all these scenes after inhaling them just like breathing that is vital for a life. In all these coloured forms, different effects are emerging. The spectator peeps into the layers after layers of the paintings and becomes overwhelmed and completely drenched with joy. Salim gives more importance to the colours in his compositions because the effect of colours is related with the temperament, mental condition and sensitivity. Despite of using shining colours, Salim finishes his paintings in medium tones. He uses acrylic colours with water also and in this treatment there is a slight transparency. There is also a primal tint which is associated with hilly atmosphere, that appears

Landscape : Mohd. Salim

just like blue mist or fog on the mountains. It's effect creates depth in the paintings of Salim so with spirit of light white colour he creates magnificent images of submerged villages, floating figures and some hazy figures. Texture is very appealing in Salim's work. Salim has done paintings in water, oil and acrylic colours. Besides this, he does pencil drawings. He has done this on different big and small size and visiting card size paper. As a maestro artist his water colour work is very much interesting. In the process of giving special effects he soaks paper in water before using his palette and often effectuates it with spreading colours on the wet surface on his canvas. He creates an effect from brush strokes by using thick colours in such compositions. Salim uses texture-white sometimes for creating texture in paintings. These compositions are made in acrylic colours or mixed mediums. In Salim's typical hazy paintings suddenly we see a big spread of thick colours which create some degree of dreadfulness, it can be seen there as we see after thunder and floods. Salim's paintings are typically abstract which create the feelings of forms and sometimes these forms appear as collage and hazy but the creation of the forms by spreading salt on wet paper and different types of created textures can also be seen in Salim's paintings. As Salim's art training is from Lucknow and at that time there was great importance of wash technique, rather it was emblematically emphatic and he, too, continued in wash paintings for a long time. So we can see a deep impact of wash in Salim's work, such as his colour, technique,

selection of dull colours and creation of an effect of such special atmosphere. Though lot of artists, associated with Lucknow, use scenes in their figurative compositions, but Salim has entwined figurativeness and village life in his landscapes. Besides this the life of Kumaun is also especially present in his paintings. The motives of Kumaunan people, peculiar hilly faces, facial curves as well as special dresses and jewelleries, stairs type fields, hillocks, men-women enjoying a gala of music and dance and jungles full of pine trees with sky kissing heights and melting snow and high rise of peaks and the sun rays dancing and dazzling over the working ladies, load laden girls and much more that is akin to the special mention of that terrain, find its deserving due in the colour treatment of Salim. Salim's paintings,

Landscape : Mohd. Salim

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Landscape : Mohd. Salim

portray the symphony of folk art and traditions. In the same way images of market, hats, fairs/processions, festive occasions, inquisitiveness and noises, heavy downpour, thunders and storms, dreadfulness, turmoil and tumult and a trance of intense meditations are present in Salim's paintings. Salim has selected temples-mosques or any other religious places as a subject in his paintings. In some paintings the form of “Shiv-Linga” (Phullus) got shaped. Some paintings are showing photographic effect and at some times such scenes are created as if a person is looking towards the valley from some high point this (bird's eye perspective) is well equibalanced in colour, size and context. But these spirituo-religious reflections have a very thin presence. Salim uses religious and spiritual subjects in titulary sense in his compositions but generally the paintings are based on nature, daily life chores or social subjects. Salim thinks so that 'an artist is a part of this society and he gathers his encouragement and inspirations from here. This society is also a source of material things necessary for the creation as well as providing resources and atmosphere for living. So naturally an artist has a social concern.' Salim has a deep concern with the medium and poor class of the society, The observer comes through the ample proof of these manifestations. The presence of human life or animals in his paintings is a favourite way of expressing himself of Salim. After observing such paintings in “A Glance” Exhibition in the Nehru Centre, London 15-20th April, 2002 (the writer of this article was the curator of this exhibition) some has suggested that it would have been good if the artist might not use human forms. Human forms with country life may be a subject in itself but landscape is another subject. Salim's art bears a great impact of the art of Bireshwar Sen of Lucknow L.M. Sen as well as Kshitindra Nath Majumdar of Allahabad and Rabindra Nath Tagore of Bengal. Salim has learned a lot with the water colours of western artist Sir

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William Russell Flint and till now he accepts him as the best water colour artist as well as his great pioneering inspirator. At one time he has also been impressed by the work of Abnindra Nath Tagore and Abdur-Rahman Chugtai.3 In respect of impression of old master artists on the new artists, Salim upholds that, if the promising artists have creativity, sensitivity and an artist's inner eye, not only they can find out the new ways by getting out of all these impressions and effects but they also will be able to niche their own corner in the art world and surely have their own art language too.4 Salim has always been on introvert artist, even to this extent that he has no attraction towards the hustle-bustle and academic achievements of art world. It may be observed by a mere retrospection of his life that he was born in a very small village Duggal Khola of Almora in 1939. He got his diploma from Art and Crafts College, Lucknow in fine arts in 1959 and post diploma in 1960.5 He got well exhibited in the solo shows of his paintings organized in many cities. He participated not only in the art exhibitions of Dehradoon. Pant Nagar, Almora, Kanpur, Moradabad, Bareilly, Lucknow, IFACS New Delhi, but also in All India level exhibitions. Salim received the award of Regional Lalit Kala Academy, U.P. (State level) in 1995 and “Kala Sewa Samman” in 1998. (Art Service Honour) with the participation in an art camp in Bhimtaal organized by Regional Lalit Kala Academy. He was also honoured by “Uttaranchal Kala Puraskaar (Art Award) in 2000 by Uttaranchal Artists Welfare Association Almora in this series. Along with this he get honoured in 2007 by Mohan Upreti Folk Culture and Scientific Research Association. These achievements did not leave any negative effect on Salim's art. This means that he never been detached of his art-devotion due to any temptation, allurement or egoism. As he was involved in his creativity, earlier, in the same way he is doing his work till now. The craving for getting an honour or award or participating in art camps can't attract him from his self made geographical boundaries. As he was born in Almora and he was totally attached to it till getting his basic education as well as art education, he continued this fling from his service period to retirement. After retirement he settled himself here. Salim says, 'I always feel these glacier, stones, bushes, snowy winds and gold radiant sunshine peeping behind the clouds, and thousands of changing colours and the tones of rays of sun casting on the snow

from dawn to dusk, as a part of me. We can enjoy the colour and figures according to the place, angle of vision and mental state, I have a great affection with Almora and its nature. But whatever impact of urbanization and industrialization is seen on the mountains, is very sad. The visitors who come to see the beauty of hills, are dumping these slopes and hills with the garbage and polluting the heavenly breeze of hills by there vehicular emission. People from outside are making homes here and establishing themselves. All these things are affecting the natural glaciers that are reducing day by day, and the rivulets are going dry. Many species of vegetations, flowers and medicines are vanishing. The birds are migrating to other places and they will never flew back. Being an artist all these things cast a heavy headedness to me. I wish that this purity and originality of nature may endure everlastingly. I want to paint this hollowing and aching concern on the space of my canvas.'6 Salim's creations are landscape paintings a visual translation initially of that atmosphere in which he has passed his childhood, the problems he has faced in his life.7 He created that world through his paintings after leaving Almora and it's atmosphere of ignorance, hypocrisy and convictions. He was not able to drag himself out from those reflections so he painted such subjects in vibrant and expressive colours. These paintings may be treated as semi-abstract because these are not totally abstract. Details get reduced gradually as expertise matured and simplicity and ease got likewise, increased in the compositions, only a slight blush of form is focused. But if we want to understand 'abstraction in the renderings of Salim, it is that to which we cant see, cant touch but only fee just like inner sense of emotive reflections of face.' He doesn't want to attach any verbal explanation to his paintings, he says that, 'every word portrays a certain form and if be accept that word as to the depiction of a painting then we never be able to feel the hidden expression of that painting which lies behind the layers of colours, figures, texture and composition. One should put his heart to understand the psychology of a painting in order to find out not only the sense of artist but also in the process he becomes a part of the painting. Its only brief mention of his fabulous creation not the enlisting as “Shok Geet” (1978), Kumaun Ki Pahariyon Ka Aanthrik Roop (2000), A Landscape of Mystics (2005) The Mystic (2005) Rural Habitation (1990), Himalayan Routes (2002) Ropai Karti Mahilayen (2004) The Past Holding Itself

(2006), Self Learning (1998) Pahaari se Ghar ko Lautate Pashu (2009) Uttar Pradesh ka Aantric Drishya (1959) A Wondering Monk (2005), Adhyatm Darshan (2004), A Coarsing on Grass Routes (2001), Devotion (2009), Gahri Jal Yatra (1979) Pilgrimage on High Attitudes in Himalaya (1990) Shyah Chhidra (1987) Relax (1990), Hookah (1995) etc. which brought him fame and is related to his whole art journey mixed with his personality, views and perceptions. Nights fell to the days, dawning sun - emblazoning the world - goes to the dusk, seasons come and go but humming this very note of nature Salim has countered seventy years of his life. This melody is the Song Saracen of his soul that never tires, never fades and never dies. This is that 'Akshar' that has no death. It is only tones and compositions that get changed, the same as soul wears this changeable taffeta of body. Salim again and again paints a new face of hills, of nature, of that tumultuous mass life, the routine to survive and of those fetters of insensitivity and unfriendly exploitation of resources just to feel and relate. Salim gives an intimate invitation through his paintings and treatment of subjects in the words of Adam Gondavi that Come forward! and feel the intense heat of this furnace i.e. life.

References : 1- Mohd Salim Ke Kaam Me Taralta Aur Gahraaee Anil Sinha, Kala Dirgha, No 04, April 2002, Utkarsh Pratishtan, 1/95 Vineet Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, Page-25 2- Chitrakala Jagat Me Lucknow: Ek Alok, Kala Traimasik, April- June 2000, Published by State Lalit Kala Akademi, UP, Page-36 3- Mohd Salim Ke Kaam Me Taralta Aur Gahraaee Anil Sinha, Kala Dirgha, No 04, April 2002, Utkarsh Pratishtan, 1/95 Vineet Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, Page-28 4- Uttar Pradesh Me Bhu-Drishy Chitrakari Awadhesh Misra, Uttar Pradesh, March 2002, Published by Department of Information, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Page-41 5- Kala Sanskriti Ke Sopanon Me Bhu-Drishya Chitrakari, The Journal of Philosophy and Fine Arts, Published by- The Institute of Philosophy and Fine Arts, Indore, India, Page 34 6- On the basis of an interview with Mohd Salim on 30 March 2010 7- Uttarakhand Ke Kala Shikhar: RSY- Dr Shekhar Chandra Joshi, Kala Dirgha-No 20, Vol 10 [Lucknow: Basic Trends of Contemporary Art], Utkarsh Pratishtan, !/95, Vineet Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow-226010, Page-96

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Preventive

Conservation of Paintings Sonika Sharma

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Sonika Sharma is a Documentation In charge at The City Palace Museum, Jaipur

museum was considered as a temple of the musesmouseion (Greek) up to 15th Century A.D. In the 15th Century museum was considered as a building used for the storage and exhibition of historic and natural objects. According to the International Council of Museums, “Museum is a non-profit making permanent institution in the services of the society and of its development and open to the public, which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits for purposes of material evidence of man and his environment�. In Venice, for the

first time museum was made available for visitors in 1523 AD. In India the first museum was started at Kolkata in the beginning of 20th century. The museum movement took a shape in the 1950s and now in India over 750 museums is present, which are various categories like National Museums, Regional Museums, State Museums, District Museums, University Museums, Local Authority Museums, College and School Museums, Private Museums: depending upon the agencies which run the museum. Depending upon the activities of the museums, they are classified as Multidisciplinary Museums, Archaeological Museums, Science Museums, Transport Museums, Personal Museums etc. Now a days, museums are considered to be Institutions, which preserve the hoary and glorious past through the original materials for posterity besides making the visitors to understand them and enjoy. Most of the earlier day museums were established because of the bequest of rare objects by individuals. Nowadays, State Governments are taking keen interest to establish museums. The Department of Museums, Government of Tamil Nadu is keen in opening museums in the district headquarters in order to make the people of the district to know about their past and the materials of the state besides giving information and enjoyment to the visitors. At present there are 20 museums under the control of department of museums and 16 museums under the department of archaeology. Besides these, there are central government and private museums. Museums are actively involved in increasing their collections through field collections, gifts and exchanges, purchases, treasure-trove finds, confiscation of objects etc. The Antiquities (Export Control) Act 1947 help the museums to preserve the precious antiquities for posterity. The important roles of a museum are collection, preservation, documentation, display, research, publication, outreach, public relation, training etc. Among the various activities of the museums conservation is the most important one. Museum objects varied both material-wise and subject-wise. Objects of daily use, utensils and tools, paintings and decorative art, folk art, ethnographic, tribal, cultural and contemporary art, natural history, etc., are not having similar properties, many of us think that once an

object enters the museum, the responsibility of the Curator is over. These objects before their entry to museum attained equilibrium with the surroundings. But, most of the objects try to deteriorate as soon as they reach the museum as the new environmental factors start to interact with the objects. In fact conservation of cultural property means remedial measures to be taken to eradicate the defects already present in the objects and protecting them from further damage by maintaining certain conditions for their better preservation. To remedy the defects present in an object and to remove the unwanted materials, one has to examine the object, diagnose the defect, documenting its condition and the type of treatment needed and then treat it. The custodians should know therefore the characteristics of the objects, their chemical behaviour and the effects in environment and other causes of deterioration. The essential difference between preventive and remedial conservation is that good preventive conservation should avoid the need for remedial conservation. Preventive conservation is about ensuring that the museum's collections are stored, displayed, handled and maintained in ways which do not lead to deterioration. Remedial conservation is about repairing damage or decay to collections, using techniques which are reversible. Atmospheric Factors Affecting Museum Objects Conservation refers to the whole subject of the care and treatment of museum objects both movable and immovable. The two aspects of conservation are the

Proper Storage of Painting

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Proper Storage of Painting, Red Cloth is Insect replant

control of the environment to minimize the decay of museum objects, and their treatment to arrest decay and to stabilize them where ever possible against further deterioration. Therefore one who is interested in the conservation of museum objects must know the damaging effects of the environment on them such as light, humidity, and air pollution, sound and vibration and what to do minimize their damage. Light Light causes chemical changes in many materials used in paintings. The most obvious are the yellowing and darkening of varnishes and the discolouration of certain pigments. Sustained exposure to ultra violet rays found in natural light is the most damaging. The colours of materials absorbs both the ultraviolet and the visible radiation and they deteriorate. Thus, light from incandescent lamps need not be filtered, as they do not emit UV radiation. The another option is the light shoild not directly fall on the paintings, but only reflected light from a surface painted with zinc oxide or titanium oxide should be allowed. These chemicals absorbs the ultraviolet radiation from the light Museums and galleries minimise natural daylight and use light which filters out UV to display works. Temperature and relative humidity Paintings are essentially layered objects, built up from canvas, ground layer, paint layers and varnish layers. The layers contain materials which have differing physical characteristics including the rate at which they expand and contract at varying temperatures and the rate at which they take up moisture from the surrounding air. A constant climate is therefore the ideal situation for keeping works of art stable. The museum standard temperature for keeping paintings safe is 20ºC ± 1ºC. The accepted museum standard for relative humidity is 50% ± 3%. Fluctuations in temperature and humidity set up cycles of expansion and contraction which will inexorably lead to the deterioration of paintings. Museums and galleries have sophisticated airconditioning systems in place to maintain constant

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environmental conditions. Dust, dirt, air pollutants, insects Dust is composed of minute particles including some hard substances that can scratch paint or varnish if rubbed against the surface of a painting. Some types of dirt, including insect debris, can contain acidic components which affect the paint surface. Similarly, industrial air pollutants can affect the paint or the finish on a frame Mishandling Human factors such as poor handling and lack of training to staff to tackle objects result in serious damages to the objects either in the storage, transportation or in museum galleries. Careless handling of the objects results in soiling, dents, scratches, abrasions, tears etc. Damage occurs when objects are dropped, objects tear or break when outsize or heavy objects are hand-carried instead of being transported on trolleys. Objects break when they are lifted from points of weakness. Surfaces of objects get damaged when surfaces of objects are dusted or cleaned with coarse or soiled clothes, brushes or vacuum cleaners carelessly. Neglect Neglect of museum objects results in various problems. Areas where any type of work and art objects is done must be kept absolutely clean. Very often it is noticed that perspiration and grease of hands stain art objects. The natural oils from hands, deposited on objects, attract dust, which is chemically harmful. It is advisable to wear clean cotton gloves when handling objects of art, or to use a clean cloth between hands and the object. Hands should not touch painted surface, as in the case of miniatures of manuscripts, photographs or slides and negatives. Vandalism Vandalism is a deliberate act by which damages are made on the museum objects. Acts of true vandalism are fortunately very few. The visiting public is generally respectful of the works of art on display. The motivation of the deranged individual to damage the objects take place in crowded galleries. The defacement of paintings or sculptures with graffiti by pencils, felt pen, etc., particularly or nudes and female figures have moral and behavioural connotations, which require study by psychoanalyses. Other instances of willful damage can be attributed to political, religious or racial fanaticism,

In the majority of situations the conservation and security precautions in museums are sufficient to prevent accidental damage, negligence and to inhibit the less determined vandal. These measures include physical or psychological barriers such as floor elevations, ropes and stanchions or the total encasement f the objects in show cases. These barriers will deter many visitors from approaching too close and touching, marking or accidentally scratching the objects. However, mischievous visitors will find ways to outwit the guard. Other means of security protection depends on the guard's perception of deviant behaviour in visitors. Close circuit TV scanning of queues of visitors can often pinpoint strange behavioural patterns and the guard on duty can be alerted to be more watchful of the individual spotted. Another method is to pass the visitors, through airport style security electronic barriers and remove potentially harmful devices. Whether, it is mishandling, neglect or vandalism, it can be reduced to the minimum by the close monitoring of the duties of all the staff and by imparting training to the concerned staff that preserve the museum objects for posterity. It is always advisable to keep the objects inside show cases to avoid graffiti on objects, walls etc. Traditional Conservation Methods in India There have been a number of traditional conservation methods in India from the ancient time. Parts of plants were used for preserving the cultural heritage, both as insecticides and fungicides. These methods were effective as well as safe for the objects. As Palmleaves were used for writing purposes, so In the preparation of the palm-leaf manuscripts itself, preservative methods were adopted. Turmeric powder was used to avoid insects and fungi. They were cleaned and bundled by red silk cloths keeping natural materials like dry neem leaves, vettiver, pepper, turmeric powder etc. the palm- leaf bundles were normally stored in the lofts of the kitchen. Annually they were cleaned and fumigated on certain festive occasions specially meant for this purpose. Fumigation Fumigation is in practice from time immemorial. In temples, fumigation is used to be done to eradicate insects and fungi. In villages, palm-leaf bundles were kept in lofts just above kitchen so that this could be fumigated every day to eradicate the insects and fungi. The bundles were used to be covered with red coloured silk to avoid insects.

On Vijayadasami Day, the bundles used to be taken out of its place, cleaned, dried under sunshade, applied with turmeric powder and kept again in the loft after bundling them with a red silk cloth. Even today we see the Moulvis fumigating every day in shops to eradicate insects from the cash counter etc. Environment Treatment The temple areas and even houses were fumigated with camphor which drove away insects, bacteria, fungi etc. Moistened cus-cus curtains were used to send cool air into rooms. Trees were grown around buildings to absorb dust. Trees are natural air-conditioners and dust absorbers. Brooming of court-yards was done only after wetting the ground to avoid flying of dust and resettling. Most of the traditional methods of conservation are practiced even today in temples and villages. They are considered to be the better methods even today, as they do not introduce and new problems. In temples lights are used to be burnt throughout the day and night in order to avoid insects. Temple deities are used to be clothed with red or yellow cloths to avoid insects. Preventive Measures in Contemporary Scenario The curator in consultation with the conservation scientist or the conservator must determine the degree to which a collection is to be handled and display area and storage arrangements must be tailored to the demands made upon it. 1. Correct levels of heat and humidity: full air conditioning, improvised micro climate. 2. Well planned storage areas, stacking, furniture etc. 3. Protection from light: correct levels of light; blinds and curtains 4. Use of conservation technique and materials for housing. 5. Full instructions to the users of collections: that is clean hands; correct handling, allowing no smoking, allowing no pens or inks into places where prints, paintings are preserved. 6. Good surface for viewing: secure light. 7. Cleanliness vacuum cleaning. 8. Using facsimiles, replicas, holograms instead of the originals. Preventative Conservation of Paintings on Canvas

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India is well known for the traditional paintings such as larger paintings on wall, leather, canvas, etc. there are paintings executed by artists of Persian and Indian schools and developed over the centuries. The canvas paintings were introduced by the Europeans in India. Especially British artists excelled in this form of art and we have thousands of British paintings on canvas in India. Deterioration of the Canvas Deterioration of the canvas is due to the oxidation of the cellulose fibers. There is always a danger of the growth of micro organisms like fungi, moulds etc., in humid conditions. Silver-fish, cockroaches, beetles, and termites are some of the insects that damage paintings. Climatic variations have profound effect on the condition of the paintings. Deterioration of Paint Paint slowly deteriorates, and may eventually be destroyed by the combined action of atmospheric oxygen and photo oxidation. Cleavage of paint layer from the ground due to climatic variations causes flaking of paint because the paint is unable to adapt to the change Atmospheric pollution like sulphurdioxide, hydrogen sulphide, dust particles are very harmful for paintings. For example, white lead becomes black, lead sulphide, by the action of hydrogen sulphide. In situation of high stress cracks develop in the paint layer. Verdigris eats away the canvas. Care of Paintings on Canvas When the paintings are affected by biological agents, they may be fumigated with a vapour type insecticide or fungicide, most commonly by thyme or paradichlorobenzene. Since prolonged fumigation softens the oil, fumigation should be limited for a shorter duration. Since light is very damaging to paintings, daylight should be avoided. Fluorescent tubes with filters can be used. Indirect lights will be better. Since incandescent bulbs give off heat powerful direct focus lights should be avoided. It should be seen that the light level is less than 100 lux, where paintings are exhibited. Fiber optic lighting and Dichroic halogen lighting are advisable. Since climate variations affect the paintings, airconditioning of the paintings gallery is ideal. Otherwise, the paintings may be displayed in a gallery where humidity is controlled.

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Atmospheric pollution like dust, sulphur-dioxide, hydrogen sulphide is harmful to paintings. In the absence of air-conditioning and air filtration, the only practical method of protecting paintings from atmospheric pollution is to exhibit them in glassed frames. While providing glass, there should be little space between the glass and the painted surface to avoid the condensed water, which may affect the painted surface. Oil paintings on canvas should be kept stretched and framed and the canvas should be tightened with wedges and keys. The paintings should be held in their frames by mural plates screwed to the frame with brass screws. Oil paintings on canvas if needed to be rolled, the painted surface should be kept outside while rolling. In storage, the painted surfaces should never be allowed to come in contact with one another or with anything hard. Storage binds with spacers that allow the paintings to be kept in a vertical position without touching one another are advisable. Paintings may be suspended with hooks on the parallel vertical grill frames. The frames are fairly near each other and are fitted with sliding frames that slide along the rails in the ceiling and the floor, so that each frame can be slid out for inspection of the picture suspended on the grill. If the paintings are unglassed, they should be covered when kept in storage. If the paintings are not glazed in the galleries, railings should be provided to avoid vandalism. The paintings should be suspended slightly inclined in order to avoid dust. A padded, rolling trolley should be used for the transport of very large or heavy paintings to avoid mishandling. When transported even to a short distance the painting should not face the sun. Too much flashlight should be avoided. Focus lamps for photographing, film shooting or video graphing should be avoided. In the galleries where paintings are displayed or in storage sweeping should never be done. Vacuum cleaning should be done. If dust is found on the surface of paintings, fine hairbrush should be used to dust them off. Stretching and framing Make sure that the painting is stretched and framed correctly and fitted with a safe hanging system which is appropriate for the weight of the work. Poor stretching can result in an inappropriate degree of tautness and deformation of the canvas support which can exert

pressure on the paint layers and lead to paint loss. If it is on a rigid support or unframed, ensure that the hanging system does not endanger the paint or the support. Frames generally protect works of art. It is important that a conservation standard backboard be fitted to the frame. This will reduce damage from changes in the environment, poor handling and airborne pollutants and dust. You may want to protect the surface with a sheet of acrylic or glass. Professional conservators and conservation framers can advise you on specific requirements for your work of art. Hanging After proper stretching and framing it is very necessary to hang the painting carefully , so it is best to take preventive action and hang your painting away from: Outside walls Direct sunlight or spotlighting Water pipes and splashing Wet or very dry areas High traffic areas such as hallways where contact with the painting may occur Open fires, gas fires and heating/cooling ducts Tobacco smoke Food preparation area Proper storage of collections A museum is supposed to keep their objects properly in a manner that objects are not damaged or are not deteriorated and they are easily retrievable for study. That is a fundamental duty of a museum, but in this sector also, most museums are not paying any attention. Most damage to museum objects in India can be ascribable to lack of proper and systematic storage system. Objects can be seen in many museums heaped one over the other, or simply dumped, sometimes over the cupboards, sometimes on the floor, or cramped in boxes, baskets, crates or even cloth bundles. In one museum a bathroom is converted into a storage area. Mixing of broken furniture and art objects is a common sight, so it is wise to avoid these conditions for the safety of the objects. Suggestions • Here are some points which can be helpful to prevent the deterioration of the paintings: • Ensuring that the relative humidity and temperature in storage and display areas are kept stable and at an appropriate level for paintings.

Ensuring that light levels are at an appropriate level for paintings on display. Keeping storage areas unlit when access is not required. Checking that materials used in storage and display- wood, fabrics, paints, adhesives, plastics and rubber- are not harmful to paintings Not storing paintings on top or inside one another. Raising stored/ storage containers off the floor of storage areas in case of flooding. Cleaning paintings only following expert advice. Storing items in secure areas. Checking collections on a regular basis against pest infestation. Avoiding handling wherever possible, and then only using cotton gloves. Not smoking, eating or drinking in the vicinity of collections. Ensuring all staff understand the principles and practice of preventive conservation.

• •

• • • • • • • •

Reference : 1.

Thompson John M.A., Manual of Curatorship, A guide to Museum Practice, Butterworths, The Museum Association

2.

Singh A.P., Conservation & Museum Techniques, Agam Kala Prakashan, 1987.

3.

Ambrose Timothy & Paine Crispin, ICOM

4.

The Organizations of Museums, Practical Advice, UNESCO, Museums & Monuments IX

5.

Dr. V. Jeyaraj, Handbook on Conservation in Museums, Commissioner of Museums, Government Museum, Chennai, 2002

Museum Basics,

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THEATRE IN SOCIETY Dr. Archana Srivastava Head, Department of dramatics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. India

P

eople need dreams, thoughts and ideas to make significance in life. Every one must know the necessities of survival and how to satisfy them in order to be alive. Life would be wobbly and empty without ideas to live by. Art is definitely a necessity in human society, not an ornament or decoration. It is more than decoration or entertainment. People would still form art, even if some regime made rules against the fine arts. They would hum, whistle and sing. If and when people would get together in groups, somebody would naturally start to hop or dance and others would merrily join in. By the same time some

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Play _ Andha Yug

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elderly would probably start telling tales, possibly even in rhyme. Sooner or later somebody would start to act the stories out. And each one would go round to watch. People cannot do without the arts, and this article offers a few reminders about the requirements or necessities of art and the essentials of theatre. Thought-Idea-Vision Thought-Idea-Vision in art refers to the life perceptions of artists as reflected in their work. Vision means how a person sees, both bodily and intellectually - how a person looks at the outer world and comprehends it. An artist's vision includes the entire multifaceted personal attitudes, beliefs and viewpoint about being. A playwright reveals vision in a drama in the actions and the speeches of the characters. Artistic vision is both conceptual and aesthetic and every artist has philosophic thoughts about the world and artistic ideas about how to make a work of art. Artists' aesthetic attitudes affect their work. Aesthetic attitudes are the ideas artists have about making an art object and as he work, his prior experience comes in to play. With every project, artist has to decide what and how to create it, thus, every work reveals the artist's aesthetic vision. Vision in a theatrical performance is more complicated than in a painting or a poem. Theatre being a social art, and in a live drama number of people join their visions, the intricacy arises. Since every spectator has his vision for life, a given play may conflict or complement with it, but in every case genuine art expands that individual's vision. In any literary work, the vision of a play can be viewed in a printed version. But a play is only to some extent realized until it is brought to life by actors, designers, technicians and a director. The visions of all these people are quantified with that of the playwright, and this makes a great difference in the nature of any drama. A viewer can disagree with fine points of the philosophic vision of the performance, but intellectual confrontation is an obvious necessity for art, in our time. Artists unquestionably need to be trained in their craft, but when art is merely crafted and project no vision, it fails to influence anyone's inner spirit. Genuine artists have specially developed ways to communicate their vision. In the art world, 'genius' begins with vision and extends to craftsmanship. Genius is one who perceives life in a unique

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and unusual approach. He is the one with exceptional power of vision that make work of art self-motivated and stimulating and ultimately projects it in such a way that it affects the experience of a viewer.

as the ability to devise new principles and new methods. No innovative genius can be fully novel until he/she knows what has gone earlier. Therefore best artists are to be well informed and have good approach into the art of earlier period.

Act/Action

Theatre of the earlier period is difficult to study because theatre is such a temporal art, it exists fully only during shows and there after it persists only as imagery of witnesses. Thus, the theatre of times gone by must be studied through written facts and beliefs. Even the best historians can only report informed hints about what some artist or presentation was like. Without the work of theatre

The core theory of all drama is human action and human experience is the major circumtance of theatre. Action in the theatre assist people understand the values of action in life. Playwrights draw the attention of a community to certain characters by dramatizing human experiences. Witnessing one person's experience, helps others to understand what they might experience. Although any character might be praiseworthy for a while, but for a play to hold the interest of intelligent audience for very long, something must happen, and that's where action comes in. Action is a pattern of human experience, a series of experiences wound together. Without action there is not much excitement in a play, and life is precisely the same.

scholars, today's theatre would not be so well formed, so ingenious, or so fresh. As actors of the past are hard to evaluate because the work of all stage actors is so temporal it does not last, the creative achievements of all theatre artists of the past are difficult to comprehend. However photographs and graphics etc. may provide a truthful record of the work of scenic designers and costumers of other times and script preserves the work of the playwright most thoroughly, but no one can fully comprehend or appreciate a play in its entirety until it comes to life on a stage. The work of a theatre director is perhaps the most transient

Most obvious sort of action occurs whenever someone tries to do something. Doing nothing but sitting around is inaction. Inert characters do not care, do not try and do not do anything. Such characters might be worth a look, but not worth an hour or two. Action lies at the heart of every great play. Drama explores the prospective of human action at its best. Some action in some plays may be hidden but drama reveals action or atleast hints at it. In plays that hold an audience it is always there which makes them compelling for a long time. Without it people would get up and leave. Past, Present, Future For any artist who has a high level of receptiveness, one of the demanding problems of creativity is the harmonizing of the old and the new. As in all art, and the theatre is no exception, value stick to both the old and the new. In common words, the best of the old has stood the trial of time and has become classic, and the best of the new is relevant, up to date and popularly admired. Each artist has got to make use of some of the principles of the past. To create art of high order, each artist must also bring in some factors of innovation. In one sense, genius in art is judged Play _ Toba Take Singh

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Outside World Labyrinth Foreword to Antal Vรกsรกrhelyi's works of all. How a director visualized a performance, induced particular interpretation from various artists is not apparent to spectators. Therefore the study of directors of the past is conceivably the most difficult of all. The theatre performances of the past are irretrievable as living events. Perhaps theatre is best studied alive. To know and understand the theatre of the present, one can start with the perspective of the past, but nothing can replace with direct experience. The more live and different kinds of theatres one attends, the broader is one's understanding. Theatre is not singular but inevitably plural. There is pleasure to see the work of a familiar playwright as he strikes new issue, or in the act of a favorite actor in a new play, or in the staging of an old play by an inventive wellknown director. The new may also produce a comprehensively diverse experience. Theatre often probes new psychosomatic states or emotional experiences and the sort of theatre available today are nearly as diverse as the experiences of human life. Attending many theatre productions, one need not admire, endure or even remember them all, but every production has the potential for providing insight into life. The thrill of life is always there somewhere in most theatre, just waiting to be discovered. It is not possible to accurately predict exactly what shape the theatre may take in the future or what styles it may show. Humans unsurprisingly seem to enjoy contemplating what the future holds and artists recurrently tend to pay the most attention to their present work, but they work toward the future, especially in self-development and in scheduling new works. Some playwrights, for example, wish to write only about their own time, and they are willing to inspect the sort of problems and use the kind of language that have little chance of lasting. Other writers carefully compose their works to insure the endurance of their work as much as possible. But most Playwrights produce the best work they can, hoping it may have an impact on people in their own time as well as in the future. Every artist, then, somehow faces the problem of the future. The Necessity of Theatre People occasionally question the very future of theatre itself or even predicting its slow demise. Theatre, like other fine arts such as music, dance and painting has existed in

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Zoltรกn Somhegyi Art Critic, Hungary

some guise in most human civilization, and more well developed the society, more developed their theatre has become. Fine art persists because people and artists want to occupy themselves with it. Whatever fascinating, astonishing worlds theatre people produce, others want to see. Some people realize how much richer life can be because of art, and others never find out. Theatre persists first because certain people want to write, act, design and direct. The most significant need art fulfills is to occupy the human potential for creativity. Theatre of a high level of artistry will no doubt persist as long as there are people capable of creating art at a high level. Financial profits or wide spread popularity matter far less than the satisfying creative experience itself. The most imaginative people in any society will continue in the future, as they have in the past, to produce fine art and the most sensitive people in every society will pay attention to that art just as music, poetry, and painting will flourish in the future, so will theatre. In every segment of human society so many people are involved in the process of creativity, people evidently need the activity of art and the beauty of it. Creativity is a significant civilizing process and drama probes human behavior and provides insights about human values. Drama as a fine art persists on the strength of the people committed to creating, enjoying or studying it. Drama is not an animal necessity but it is a human one. The amount of artistic efforts in most culture is indicative of the long history and perpetual persistence of the arts. The theatre art endures in the very lives of human beings. Theatre and the other fine arts grow ever more necessary in human society, ever more crucial to human endurance and the world would be difficult to imagine without some sort of arts. Reference : 1.

Ankur Devendra Raj, Rangmanch Ka Saundaryashastra, Rajkamal Prakashan, New Delhi, 2006.

2.

Bharucha Rustam, Rehearsals of Revolution, University of Hawaii Press, 1983.

3.

Boal Augusto, Theatre of the oppressed. New York: Urizen Books, 1979.

4.

Brown John Russell [Ed.] The Oxford Illustrated History of Theatre, Oxford University Press, New York, 1997

5.

Esslin Martin, The Field of Drama: How The Signs Of Drama Create Meaning on Stage And Screen, By Methuen Drama, Great Britain, 1987

1. Internal Architecture II : Acrylic and pencil on paper

12. Interior Architecture : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

hat are these pictures like? We can get to several directions with this seemingly simple question. What are the features which characterize not only the world within the pictures but also their creator? Namely, what kind of creative fantasy develops at the moment of their birth? The most important thing, we must mention, is the pleasure of paradoxes. We may also name Antal Vรกsรกrhelyi as the artists of opposites. Certainly, it is not about the contrast of good and bad solutions or about quantitative fluctuation, for all the works shown in the present catalogue represent excellent quality. We can observe rather the extreme diversity of ways of expression, compositions, the

found replies in his works. However, the opposites and their handling, to be analysed below, show at once another important basic character: the permanent operation of creative fantasy, the continuous usage of the means without which there would not be any chance to create the pictures, not to talk about the regulation of opposites which organize the works. Creative fantasy has got a very important role in our case. Even if such motives rule seemingly over the pictures which could be determined traditionally not as the character of fantasy, but rather that of the strict, exact, objective, engineering work. There are strictly, millimetre-

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11. Internal Architecture : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

precisely constructed architectonical spaces set into perspective, superstructures based on massive ground, elegant colonnades, vaults, inner spaces. Motives which require mathematical sense, science of perspective, compasses and ruler during the process of creation. Consequently, means and abilities which traditionally never appear as the manifestation of instinctively organized, fantasy-ruled creation, but rather in case of the over-rationalized visual worlds. This is the moment when fantasy comes to the front, which is able to practise magic from the basic motives. How does this paradox work? The architectonical elements in themselves, picked out from their context, one by one could work normally, but jointly they immediately undress their logic and create spaces and relations which never existed before. They invert the directions and dimensions, the questions of base and superstructure, outside and inside, below and above, front and back. They create structures closed into themselves, which hide their secrets, too. Newer and newer fields open up, roads take shape. In the sheets the worlds are built by the side of various lines of force, sometimes in the relation of horizontal and vertical, another time in the direction of the diagonal. Sometimes the superstructures are based on wide grounds, another time we must worry about their survival. We start walking in the spaces, watching the marked ways, then soon we realize that we got lost; where we think we found a new way, we only went back to the previous place, we walked accross some space the way we were not inside, we reached up to the peak the way we were going downward, we went round the way we did not move from the centre.

thousands of years before were born in order to take shape the most concrete, most direct space situations. The Greek-Roman temples, Egyptian pyramids, Reneissance colonnades once became know by their regular, harmonious devices, and this is the reason why posterity pays admiration to them. However, Antal Vásárhelyi's fantasy spaces absolves just this way the question of their own existence: they build up the most complex, opaque and dazzling relations from the most classical, most primary segments. What is more, their building up and complexity is strengthened by the game of surfaces penetrating into each other: sometimes a starting line of force is able to permeate and cross over the whole growth. However, in this case it is jumping many times into and out of the spaces, bearing itself or the game of the surface of the ground in its own stripe.

Consequently, whenever we examine Antal Vásárhelyi's works we must transform our view. It is not allowed that their seemingly rigid structure make us deceive, rather we can enjoy the new way of seeing things, what we make our own when we look at them. For example, just in that way we move away from the feelings caused by the rigid structures, and let us relax in the midst of more eased relations. However, it is not only the peculiar pairing of elements by which he intends to create the unified, organic visual world. The very diversified working out of the surfaces also belongs to it. We could see that there are closed areas calculated with ruler and compasses, drawn by a single definite line. There are also variants when refined marks with lines fill in other fields, or impenetrably dense, dark units appear, another time motives, similar to tiny grains of sand, fill up the given surfaces. We can take notice of new layers of meaning if we add the origin of motives and this way naturally the direction of references. The architectural elements mainly refer to the masterpieces of European and Egyptian architecture, to our common cultural treasures, and according to it the spaces, coming to life by them, raise the question of recycling of tradition and its effects. Namely, what can a contemporary artist do with that treasure of form which had become our own, and we can neither treat it in isolation nor can we forget? Certainly, oblivion or denial cannot be its aim, however, it is characteristic of its period, which means it absolutely bears the formation of contemporary solutions. Antal Vásárhelyi's approach is also a good example for it. He puts into shape enigmatical, mysterious illusions of the space from those forms which originally,

21. Internal Architecture I : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

One more question have to be cleared up at the worked up surfaces: I speak about those cases when we meet calligraphical motives as elements to fill up the space. The Hebrew letters, which seems to be a section of a text, are fictitious. This way they loose that sort of sacrality which is their own in case of their real, meaningful version. The sacral signs, leading out of the labyrinth, which are devalued to perfunctory ornaments, cannot help anymore. All these have a strict judgement: the means opening up a way to sacrality, the saint writing became decoration of the surface, the decoration of those labyrinths from which the way out could be just the overview. Getting lost. A new concept which seemingly is absolutely contrary to the creation of the rigid, perspectival architecture based on optical regularities. However, it is important to mention an important feature in order to explain the situation, and it is in connection with the birth of the pictures. The Vásárhelyi works are executed directly, their is not any sort of preceding planning, sketch, test of the structure. They are taking shape during their birth. They have the opportunity to transform themselves at any moment. A corridor may be closed, a space may open up, stairs may knock against the wall, the ceiling may open up, a column may be broken into pieces. Namely, the artist does not create (let it exist only in his fantasy) a structure, but builds up the world on the sheets themselves, which is 10. Internal ArchitectureXXVIII : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

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HeritageMenal Temples Dr. Archana Joshi

M

enal is 76km from Bhilwara, Rajasthan (India) Around Bundi are deep gorges surrounded by forests, and within these lay the ruins of a 12th century palace. The name Menal is derived from Maha Nal (great gorge), and that is what Menal really is. Prithviraj Chauhana, who also ruled Delhi for a while, had set his heart on Menal, and it became his favourite mountain retreat when the scorching Rajasthan summer would set in. For this he built a palace on the banks of the

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16. Internal Architecture XIII : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

2. Internal Architecture VIII : Acrylic, ink and pencil on paper

comparable to that one surrounding him, too. We cannot think that he simply recreates his environment, or building up his pictures in the sign of a shallow-sentimental soullandsape allegory. Rather we can rightly speak about a kind of judgement, which is motivated by the despair he feels toward the perfunctory application of getting lost, swindle, relations of appearance, pseudo solutions, basic symbols. We can explain with the same tension the frequently appearing scribblings executed with powerful gestures. Certainly, first we shoud think that the instinctive, passionate drawings formally serves the cancellation of the rigidity of architectonical structures. However, it is another form of the outbreak of his judgement, which, in spite of all its chance and uncontrollable character, harmoniously completes the appearance of the regular superstructures obedient to mathematical laws. The unity of the final result is just due to the above opposites. For the final unity and completeness of the picture cannot reached only with the elements of form. The artwork does not work, if only the coordination of the

structural relations happen. However, Antal Vรกsรกrhelyi's works are attractive from the point of view that the artist primarily keeps the final, inner unity of the artwork in view. Though the beauty of technique may let our eyes dwell on the finenesses of details, but he knows well that we would get fed up with it sooner or later. The varied formations of the surface, the particular, irreal diagrams, strange relations of the spaces, the filling up of the space in many ways, the careful handling of the line, minute, granular surfaces are all in vain, we are fascinated mainly by the unity, the way it is built up from the details. Cubes from the squares, floors from the stairs, spaces from walls. The picture itself form the elements of the picture. Nevertheless, the line transforms itself and, in spite of its beautiful formation, it does not demonstrate its own beauty. Rather with the fact that it truely shows us what it surrounds. Let it be either in an architectonical environment or in the formation of an uncontrollable breaking out gesture. Anyhow, the artist achieves his purpose, the picture starts moving, working. Just like our glance which cannot stop when we watch Vรกsรกrhelyi's works.

Menal river which runs over granite slabs before finally plunging into a gorge over 122 meters deep. The entrance to the mansion is via a two storeyed gateway carved with images of the gods Ganesha and Bhairava. The square courtyard beyond the entrance houses a huge Shiva temple of stone, built in the ancient Hindu style with a carved pagoda and pillars. The walls of the temple are carved with motifs of Hindu dieties and various other themes, interspersed with images of

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A Times International Press-ben megjelent Outside World Labyrinth,Somhegyi Zoltán írása

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