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Hydromet 2019

A FR I C A 19-22 Februar y / Cairo, Eg y pt

ExpoGuide R E CO WMO RA-I Regional Conference

R A - I -17 17th Session of Regional Association I

A M CO M E T- 4 4th Session of the African Ministerial Conference on Meteorology

A Varysian exhibition In association with:

Egyptian Meteorological Authority

Connecting The Hydromet Community


Platinum Sponsor

Gold Sponsors

Silver Sponsors

19th Lunch Sponsor 20th-22nd Lunch Sponsors - including AMCOMET

Exhibitors

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CONTENTS 6 DAOUDA KONATE

WMO RA-I President on public-private partnerships

10 BARON WEATHER

Fully-integrated automated meteorological networks

16 GILL INSTRUMENTS

Improving measurement quality

19 CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC

Reliable climate networks and warning systems

23 L3 ESSCO

High-performance radomes

24 DELTA OHM

43 BARANI DESIGN

IoT-enabled weather networks

46 METEO FRANCE INTERNATIONAL Modernising Angola

48 WX RISK GLOBAL

Financial weather protection

51 UCAR/COMET

3D-printed automated weather stations

54 PULSONIC

Automated synoptic observation

56 AYYEKA

Smart monitoring networks

Next generation measuring equipment

58 QINETIQ NORTH AMERICA

27 ARABIA WEATHER

60 METEOBLUE

Weather forecasting solutions

Global weather data exchange

28 RAYMETRICS

62 SKYMET WEATHER

State-of-the-art Lidar

30 KILOLIMA

Installation and maintenance

34 OTT HYDROMET

Monitoring network solutions

36 MBW CALIBRATION

Humidity measurement

39 NOWCAST

Best-in-class met sensors

Automatic weather stations and forecasting

65 COMPTUS

A guide to sourcing solutions

67 DIRECTORY

Exhibitor listings

70 FLOORPLAN

Navigate Hydromet Africa 2019

Lightning detection networks

Hydromet Africa 2019 Expo Guide Published by Varysian Editor Antony Ireland (antony.ireland@varysian.com) Managing Director & Founder Tom Copping Director & Co-Founder Luke Pierce Production Manager Rachel Bow Commercial Manager Liam Smith

Commercial Account Manager Andy Cheung Designed by James Bowie Layout sub-editor Mark Baker Our address The Old Sunday School, Chapel Street, Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire, CB25 9HR, United Kingdom

Printed by Mixam, Kings House, Station Road, Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, WD4 8LZ, United Kingdom The views expressed in these articles are those of the authors and not necessarily endorsed by the publisher. While every care has been taken during production, the publisher does not accept any liability for any errors that may have occurred. © 2019

www.varysian.com

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W EL C O M E

Win-win partnerships

 Daouda Konate

Collaboration between NHMSs and private sector partners is central to the success of initiatives to build hydro-met capacity in Africa. By Daouda Konate, President, WMO RA-I

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his week, leaders from the worlds of policy, science and business convene at the joint African Ministerial Conference on Meteorology (AMCOMET) and WMO RA-I Regional Conference (RECO), organised by the WMO and African Union Commission (AUC). The main objective of these meetings is to enhance the capacity of leadership and management of NMHSs for the efficient and effective delivery of weather, climate and water services in RA-I (Africa), and to develop actionable

recommendations on strategic policies for Ministers to consider. Africa faces many challenges as it strives to build the capacity needed to respond to climate change and develop resilience against extreme weather and climate events. We remain a low capacity region when it comes to hydro-met capabilities, and that must change. There is increased demand for NHMSs to provide more accurate and timely weather, water and climate services to safeguard lives and livelihoods. Modernising the infrastructure of

 Mt. Kenya GAW Global Station

 Tamanrasset GAW Global Station

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Modernising the infrastructure of NHMSs is a top priority for the leaders gathered here in Cairo NHMSs to enable them to provide a more efficient and effective service for our populations is a top priority for the leaders gathered here in Cairo. Data quality and quantity must be improved if African NHMSs are to more accurately forecast weather, model the impact of climate change and warn populations of extreme weather events. But installing new weather stations and improving IT networks is expensive. Some smaller African countries may not have the budget to modernise their services without assistance. Africa’s hydro-met capacity must therefore be developed in partnership with the regional and global community. This week we aim to enhance the understanding of decision-makers in the region to encourage sciencebased decisions on policy relating to weather, climate and socioeconomic


WE MEASURE THE WEATHER We supply, install, operat and maintain hydrometeorological equipment. Anywhere ..

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W EL C O M E

development, as well as the funding of NHMSs. Initiatives are already underway at the global, continental and regional levels to help Africa strengthen its weather and climate services and disaster risk reduction (DRR) capabilities. The Integrated Strategy on Weather and Climate Services and its complementary Implementation Plan, for example - developed as a joint initiative of the AUC and WMO provides a roadmap for us to follow. Through these meetings we will continue to build on initiatives like this, check that we are meeting targets and make sure we take the right next steps to ensure we meet our objectives. We will also discuss how Africa’s weather and climate services can benefit from greater engagement with the private sector in our activities. Private sector engagement Collaboration between governments and private sector solution providers is very important if we are to increase the capacity of African NHMSs. The private sector can never replace a NHMS, but private companies have an important role to play in helping NHMSs improve their infrastructure, knowledge and capabilities. Enhancing the understanding of

Data quality and exchange A key focus of the RECO meeting will be to further develop weather and disaster risk reduction (DRR) services in the region. Central to this mission is improved collaboration between nations and organisations to create a seamless Global Processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS) to enhance capacities for impact forecasting and effective multi-hazard warning systems in Africa. Improving data quality and sharing, from surface-based weather monitoring to satellite data networks, will be central to improving the provision of timely, accurate information to populations, businesses and communities. Collaboration is already healthy between most African nations, though

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 Interior of the Mt. Kenya GAW Global station in Kenya

the value of engaging in public-private partnerships (PPPs) in support of NMHSs to collect and process data and deliver services is therefore key. The link between private sector service providers and local users and communities should form an increasingly important part of the discussion when developing national climate service frameworks. Public-private partnerships are already commonplace in other sectors throughout the continent, such as agriculture, and we can take lessons from successful cases. Africa presents many opportunities for private companies willing to engage on this diverse continent, national politics and individual approaches to climate services will always be a factor. Data exchange is, however, absolutely essential going forward, not just between NHMSs in Africa, but also with those in other WMO regions and with private companies and organisations from around the globe. So is improving the consistency and overall standard of NHMS data capabilities, including quality control of climate data management system architecture at national level. Facilitating NHMS’s access to relevant information on new tools for collecting, processing and disseminating information is vital; increasing the knowledge of NMHSs enhances their capacity to perform their mandates.

as partners with NHMSs – though it is vital that partnerships offer a win-win scenario for all involved. The ideal partnership benefits both the private company and the NHMS, allowing the private company to expand its reach into a new territory, while helping the local NHMS build capacity to better serve the country’s people, businesses and communities. If a partnership truly benefits both parties, it may be easier than some private companies think to develop new relationships and grow their businesses on the African continent. The PPP model is a new approach for the climate services sector. We therefore move one step at a time as we continue to learn how to get the best results from these partnerships. Many companies in the hydro-met industry may be entering Africa for the first time. Similarly, African NHMSs are still new to working in partnership with the private sector. This is where events like Hydromet Africa play a role by allowing NHMSs to meet personally with solutions providers from around the world to exchange information, build relationships and discover what kinds of products and solutions can help them build capacity efficiently and cost-effectively. I wish delegates and vendors the best of luck in their discussions in the week ahead.


BARON

Protection

on all fronts

Implementing fully integrated automated meteorological networks in Africa will save property and lives. By Michael Richardson, Marketing Communications Manager

 Figure 1: The countries of Africa often deal with drought and flood concerns, sometimes in an alternating fashion, where a region hard hit by drought one month could be dramatically affected by flooding the next

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n October 2018, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a report ranking January to September of that year as the fourth-warmest on record for the same nine-month period. As part of the continuing trend of above-average temperatures globally, Africa had its fifth-warmest year-to-date on record.

As the planet warms, extreme weather increases globally, and the world’s second most-populated continent is unfortunately no exception. During a 2018 interview with DW Akademie, Dr. Joseph Mukabana, WMO Director of the Office for Africa and Least Developed Countries, said that, “because of poverty, some parts of Africa cannot cope with hazardous

weather that causes a lot of loss and damage”. East Africa has experienced a lot of droughts — for example, there was a recent drought in Ethiopia, and the government had to step in and mobilise resources to save lives. Last year, Sierra Leone and Liberia were also hit by flash floods and mudslides in which hundreds of people died.

 Figure 2: A complete weather network utilises all of an organisation’s available data inputs, applies integration and processing techniques, and distributes the resulting information to mobile and fixed assets and on any device. Data and alerts can also be provided to the public using the web and mobile devices 1 0 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9


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To meet these kinds of challenges, hydro met organisations in Africa are looking to increasingly leverage weather detection and communications technologies not only for more accurate forecasting and nowcasting operations, but also to more effectively alert and inform the public. Weather radar is a fundamental component. A typical complete solution from Baron incorporates data inputs from a host of other sources as well, such as satellite observations, forecast models and other types of sensors. Each of these solutions can be provided as a standalone system or integrated into the customer’s legacy network using a unique level of integration capability. The result, as depicted in the example left, is network-wide distribution of radar imagery, specialised data products, forecast models, display and alerting — all with the purpose of increasing lead times for official weather advisories, mitigating crop loss, and reducing fatalities during significant weather events. Rainfall analysis for farming/flooding African countries often deal with drought and flood concerns, sometimes in an alternating fashion, where a region hard hit by drought one month could be dramatically affected by flooding the next. This occurred in central Somalia, where devastating flash floods displaced almost 175,000 people in some of the worst flooding the region has ever seen. This event occurred following a major drought the previous year.

 Figure 3: Dual-polarisation weather radar is employed for the most accurate radar-derived rainfall accumulation estimates In addition to the tolls on human life during such events, the loss of crops in impacted areas has a major impact on yields, affecting both the financial and physical health of a community. Landslides resulting from these events are also a major threat to life too. In many cases, educational programmes can help reduce the loss of life and property by encouraging proper land use and educating the public on precautionary activities following a severe weather warning. Regardless of these efforts, however, timely detection and accurate analysis of flood-causing heavy rainfall enables weather advisories to be issued more effectively from the beginning. While numerical weather prediction is essential for the effective prediction of an approaching hydrologic event, when heavy rainfall actually begins affecting the landscape and population, real-time radar analysis becomes critical. Using the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) network in the US, Baron data scientists have developed a suite

of single-site and composite radar data products for more accurate monitoring of precipitation rates and accumulations. Dual-polarisation weather radar is employed for the most accurate raw measurements. The most recently developed dataset provides meteorologists with accurate radar-derived rain accumulations for the past one, three, six, 12 and 24 hours. Updated every four minutes and delivered in 1km resolution, these products deliver a comprehensive network-wide rainfall composite, using every radar site available in the network. For locations where topography or budget do not permit the installation of a weather radar, Baron Satellite-Derived Reflectivity can be employed to depict simulated reflectivity patterns globally at very high resolution. Enhanced with forecast model data for accuracy, this product is also very useful for realtime analysis of approaching weather patterns over surrounding ocean or in nearby countries from which shared observation data is not available.

 Figure 5: A one-hour hail swath composite allows forecasters to easily track the path of potential hail within range of the radar

 Figure 4: Satellite-Derived Reflectivity enables viewing of simulated radar imagery in areas where no radar sensors exist, such as the ocean

Hail forecasting 2018 proved an active year for hail in Africa. The province of Gauteng, South Africa bore the brunt of an especially powerful hailstorm in October, along with strong winds and severe flooding. The hail turned the roadways in Laudium, Pretoria a snow-like icy white several millimetres deep, though fortunately no major damage was reported. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 1 1


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BARON

 Figure 6: Wind shear leading to tornadic development is automatically identified and highlighted on the map Radar-based hail detection has traditionally been performed by monitoring for reflectivity spikes within a convective thunderstorm. In the past decade, dual-polarisation radar technology has enabled significant detection improvements through raw measurements alone, but particularly when value-added processing is applied. In the US, Baron has engineered specialised data products for hail detection and tracking, generated by sampling a storm with dual-polarisation radar — in this case a NEXRAD station — at multiple volumetric elevations. The resulting data package is autonomously evaluated to accurately identify hail’s distinctive non-uniform shape, moderate correlation coefficient values, and near-zero specific differential phase. Detected hail patterns are then depicted on the display workstation, graphically isolated from surrounding rainfall. Additionally, processing can be applied to create a one-hour composite

of dual-pol hail data, allowing meteorologists to track the path of hail, providing enhanced situational awareness and aiding in post-storm response. Damaging winds While tornadoes most commonly occur in the US, other parts of the world are not impervious; tornadoes can form anywhere a thunderstorm can occur. Several are known to have formed in Africa during the past few years, and fortunately most are not that powerful, similar to an EF-0 or EF-1 Enhanced Fujita scale ranking in the US, and incurring only light damage. Radar-derived wind shear detection such as the techniques developed by Baron automatically identify rotating winds that can lead to tornadoes, depicting the location of these signatures through a circular icon, and giving the meteorologist instant awareness of an area warranting further manual inspection.

 Figure 7: The damage path of potential tornadoes is automatically plotted on the map, providing forecasters with enhanced situational awareness, while helping emergency responders pinpoint areas where damage is most likely

Another radar-derived product, Baron Shear Rate, displays the rate of speed change in wind patterns, helping meteorologists locate areas where tornadic and downburst development may be occurring. Additionally, dual-pol radar information is also used in an automated manner to search for suspected tornado debris and to indicate the position of any concerning signatures on the map. For both the Shear Rate and Tornado Debris Signature (TDS) products, a one-hour composite is also generated, allowing forecasters to track the movement of potential tornado touchdowns through the region, allowing damage paths to be more accurately determined, and making post-event disaster response more efficient.

 Figure 8: Real-time RHI analysis allows meteorologists to view the storm in slices, analysing previously unseen details Display and distribution Distributed display workstations provide staff throughout the decision chain with continuous access to the same information, helping ensure the effectiveness of decisions, and improving lead times for any issued weather alerts or advisories. With Baron-provided installations, visualisation is achieved through Baron Lynx display workstations. Meteorologists throughout the network can view radar information, and perform pathcasting and advanced analysis using value-added data products, volumetric imagery and RHI (Range Height Indicator) analysis, which allows the meteorologist to dissect slices of radar data for closer VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 1 3


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BARON

 Figure 9: Flexible presentation allows audiences on any platform to receive vital information on any kind of significant weather examination of previously unrevealed details, such as the high reflectivity values of flooding rains and hail cores. The Lynx system may also be used for internal and public-facing weather briefings. The public communication aspect is especially helpful, as it allows organisations to present television, and web audiences with life-saving information using eye-pleasing, easy-to -understand visuals. Examples might include a drought monitor graphic, daily forecasts, or detailed information about an approaching storm. Beyond these landbased applications, Lynx can also be used to visualise data from offshore and coastal data inputs, including forecast models, buoy sensors and sea state data.

This collection of diverse data imagery provides organisations with a comprehensive view of conditions affecting military operations and shipping routes, allowing them to issue coastal and marine warnings more effectively, focus resources on areas of greatest concern, or advise marine personnel to avoid those areas altogether. Alerting and distribution applications Meteorological organisations globally are challenged to reach the largest possible number of people during critical weather events. Often, this must be achieved using very limited budgets and resources. Networks can help with this challenge by streamlining operations and facilitating outreach both within the

 Figure 10: Through both automated and manually generated weather alerts delivered to mobile phones as push notifications, the public’s situational awareness is increased, as is safety during a significant weather event

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network, and outside it to the public. Personnel may opt to use their network to not only predict and detect a dangerous approaching storm or flood situation, for example, but leverage the same tools to instantly distribute automated or manual alerts to the affected population. Residents will receive these notifications typically via SMS text message and app-based push notifications. Weather information and visuals can also be efficiently posted to social media channels directly from a Lynx workstation, allowing more residents in affected locations to receive life-saving information. Automated processes continuously scan for dangerous weather conditions as detected by radar, such as rain, lightning, winter precipitation, hail cores and wind shear; the latter two alert types use volumetric radar scanning to create storm attribute tables and tracks from which these notifications are issued. Once any of these conditions are detected, alerts are automatically generated and distributed to residents in harm’s way. Custom push notifications manually entered by authorised officials can also be distributed to weather app users, such as user-generated text for a heat wave alert, or a vital notification about incoming severe weather. Power of integration From weather prediction and detection to value-added analysis and the timely notification of affected populations, the advantages provided by fully integrated hydrometeorological networks allow organisations to be more efficient and effective in their operations. Using radar and other sensors to drive models and value-added data products are an important piece of the bigger picture, but that picture extends to display, distribution and alerting, as well. For example, with developing situations described in the sections above, all authorised personnel have continuous, immediate access to the same information, vital to the preservation of life and property throughout the organisation. When accurate information is widely dispersed to the greatest number of people, more informed decisions can be made, and in turn, more lives are saved.


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GILL I N ST R U M E N T S

Quality really is better than quantity Good quality meteorological measurement is important not only to ensure weather is forecasted accurately but also to understand the impacts extreme events may have on a regional, continental or even global scale. By Richard McKay, Meteorologist, Gill Instruments

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n the past, many national weather service organisations approached the challenge of understanding and forecasting the weather with a strategy of gathering as much data as possible, by monitoring the weather with as many data points as possible. However, many of the stations deployed had a lower standard of quality and additionally, the data was only provided at certain times during the day due to limitations such as power and cost. Whilst this allowed users to find some basic, large scale patterns in the data and weather, which were then analysed to produce models which the national weather services used to forecast the weather

with some degree of accuracy, trying to improve the quality of the forecasts, especially in smaller regional scales has proved much more difficult than anticipated. This was largely down to a higher density of stations, resulting in lower quality forecasts after a certain critical threshold had been reached. Today, a tiered approach to data quality and coverage, with the data available as needed (and not simply collected all the time) has proven to help not only improve the quality of the forecasts, but also to better understand the nature of any extreme weather event that can have a major impact on life quality and a progressively finite natural resource pool. Organisations

ďƒŚ Instrumentation at the Cape Point GAW Global station, South Africa

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Gill: 30 years of quality Gill celebrates 30 years of meteorological instrument design and manufacturing this year and looks forward to the future and the challenge of providing excellent quality measurements with reduced costs and power while capitalising on the gains that have been driven by smartphone technology to bring together products that are more than the sum of their parts. Please visit the Gill stand to discuss the challenges you face and how we can work together to provide accurate, reliable, defensible data and measurements when and where you need them.

are also increasingly moving away from trying to determine the percentage chance of an extreme event occuring, instead focusing on underlining the impact that this extreme event may have should it come to pass. This means that measures can be taken to mitigate the impact based on a combination of factors, rather than simply trying to determine the percentage chance it will occur. This intelligent approach to the overall data collection, network size and distribution as well as risk mitigation strategy provides a much better


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utilisation of resource, time and money for all involved. The reason why this change in strategy is critical to our modern world and increasing population is the global shift of people moving to urban centres away from rural landscapes. This means that any extreme event will have a significantly higher impact on both those densely populated centres, as well as the remaining rural landscape used for agriculture or other infrastructure to sustain the increasing population. A few examples to illustrate how important it is to not only be able to measure and forecast the weather accurately but also to understand the impacts extreme events may have on the regional, continental or even global scale follow: Supporting the new approach With the increasing agreement to utilise a conditions based decision management system based on forecasted weather conditions, or potential extreme events, it is essential to have infrastructure to support this concept. This includes using and analysing appropriate quality data only when needed and where needed, from an always ready pool of tiered, quality vetted meteorological stations. As all users of meteorological data now seem to move towards this goal, it is absolutely vital to have an appropriate level of confidence in the quality of the stations being used in this tiered approach and for this information to be available to anyone using that data. This has led to a move towards better documentation and metadata for such stations and for increasingly intelligent reference quality or multi-parameter, adaptive weather instrumentation with on-board quality control monitoring as a second tier quality approach to their

 MaxiMet GMX531

 Flooding in Uganda in 2018

Extreme weather in Africa Nine out of 10 disasters in Africa are related to extreme weather and/or climate change such as floods, drought, landslides, not to mention the increasing severity of storms. A sad example is that 36 people died and several hundred people went missing in Uganda alone in October 2018 from torrential rain which caused landslides and destroyed infrastructure such as schools, having a lasting effect on the population. Another example in South Africa as recently as January 2019 saw severe drought along with unfavourable wind conditions cause a life-threaten ing wildfire on the landmark Lion’s Head mountain, forcing residents to evacuate. network that is now also getting World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) backing with guidelines for users now being produced. As the market shifts to this new approach, some meteorological instrument manufacturers are also evolving and following the trend to an as needed tiered-quality approach, while others have helped to shape and lead the way together with the scientific community. Originally, there were many different quality levels of products and value was seen in all of them as long as there was ‘a’ measurement and it was seen as helping to contribute towards the quality of the forecast. Just as the approach to forecasting has changed, the same is true of the approach to the instrumentation used in such networks, whether large or small, the approach now being that it is the quality of the data, not the amount of the data that is important to getting better regional or large scale weather prediction correct. In this changing landscape,

both in terms of forecasting and instrumentation, it is important to have a defensible position when using a measurement from the internet or secondary network. When these networks or stations are not owned and managed by the user in question, the cost of a wrong decision is increasingly dramatic for all involved parties. Instrument manufacturers that work with the scientific community and understand the nature of the changing strategy are better placed and have better knowledge from past experience to adapt products where necessary to meet the new requirements and reduced infrastructure strategy. The end users of the measurements and the manufacturers of the products are increasingly working together to adapt and produce the right measurement at the right time with the right coverage to allow the best decisions to be made regarding changing conditions and risk mitigation as extreme events happen. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 1 7


OTT HydroMet provides valuable insights for experts in water and weather applications to help protect lives, the environment, and infrastructure

www.otthydromet.com


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CAMPBELL S C I E N T I FI C

Trusted globally Campbell Scientific gear is being used in high-accuracy stations to detect climate change as well as playing a key role in storm monitoring and emergency warning. By Alan Hinckley, Senior Application Scientist-Meteorologist, and Ken Conner, Technical Product Manager, Hydromet, Campbell Scientific

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s concern about changing  US Climate Reference Network station and USCRN station map climate conditions in the world was growing in the late 1990s, the US had thousands of weather measurement stations collecting data. However, it was determined that many of the stations were inconsistently sited and managed, were aging, and were in danger of losing credibility. The best of those stations, called the Historical Climate Network, collected good data as far back as the 1930s. To provide reliable information to Micrologger® as the core of each those evaluating the potential effects of the more than 114 stations in of climate change, the network of the network. Communication temperature-measurement stations is via Campbell Scientific’s SAT needed to be improved. Huge amounts HDR GOES transmitter, and the of historical climate-observation data datalogger power supply and needed to be verified, and a programme enclosure are also from Campbell was required that would provide Scientific. continuous, homogenous weather The two primary variables for measurement far into the future. the USCRN, air temperature and The National Oceanic and precipitation, are both measured with Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) triple-sensor configurations. Each established the US Climate Reference station features three aspirated, 1,000 Network (USCRN) with the intention of ohm, resistance temperature detector it being the nation’s premier climate(RTD) probes and a rain-and-snow monitoring network. To be sure the gauge with three sensors. network would collect highSecondary variables quality data for decades include wind, solar to come, ATDD tested radiation, infrared many components to radiation, soil moisture, determine the best soil temperature, equipment for relative humidity, and long-term, high-quality snow depth. measurements in USCRN stations remote sites.  US Climate Reference Network station are installed in pristine They chose Campbell locations that are not Scientific’s CR3000

US CLIMATE REFERENCE NETWORK Application: High-reliability weather station network Location: US, nationwide Contracting Agencies: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Atmospheric Turbulence & Diffusion Division (ATDD) Products Used: CR3000, TX320, NL115 Measured Parameters: Precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, soil water

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C A M P B EL L SCIENTIFIC

expected to be developed for at least 50 years so that measurements will not be affected by buildings or roads. This means they are hard to reach for maintenance and repair, so the proven ruggedness and reliability of the Campbell Scientific gear makes it ideal for this application. In addition to this critical climate monitoring role, Campbell Scientific instruments are also active in emergency warning systems and have been proven reliable in the harshest conditions. When Hurricane Harvey hit Texas in 2017, for example, Campbell Scientific monitoring stations survived the storm and provided continuous, up-to-the-minute data for the government and the public. Storm monitoring In February of 2015, Campbell Scientific was awarded a bid to supply the Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD) with ALERT2 systems to upgrade its aging, legacy ALERT flood-warning system (FWS). By December of 2015, HCFCD had completely upgraded the more than 150 stations in its floodwarning network with Campbell equipment. The systems were special, prewired systems that included a CR800 (later replaced by the CR300), AL200 and VHF radio. These panels were designed in conjunction with HCFCD and were built up by Campbell’s Production group in the short span of a couple of weeks. Campbell Scientific worked with Telos Services and Distinctive AFWS Designs to provide a custom-tailored programme and user interface. Since the system was upgraded, it has been tested by multiple 100-plus a year rain and flood events. In August 2 0 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

 From left to right: High water monitoring from Hurricane Harvey; channel status during peak rainfall (www.harriscountyfws.org); sediment-filled rain gauge

2017, Hurricane Harvey provided the largest, most thorough test of the HCFCD ALERT2 FWS to date. Every watershed in the HCFCD’s jurisdiction experienced at least a 100-year rain event, and some areas exceeded the 20,000-year rainfall frequency. An average of 33.7 inches fell across the entirety of Harris County, inundating the region with more than one trillion gallons of water – enough to keep Niagara Falls flowing for more than a week. Flooding was catastrophic and Hurricane Harvey became the flood of record for many channels, with nearly 70,000 structures damaged by flooding. Throughout the storm, the Campbell Scientific systems worked accurately and reliably. The four-day event generated more than 250,000 data transmissions, with 99.2% of this data successfully received and 99.4% of the

HURRICANE HARVEY, TEXAS Application: Upgrading system that monitors flood conditions and provides warnings Location: Harris County, Texas, US Sponsoring Organisation: Harris County Flood Control District Products Used: CR800, AL200, ALERT210 Measured Parameters: Rainfall, stage, wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity

Providing clear and concise information undoubtedly prevented further loss of life during this recordbreaking storm data being validated and deemed good by the system. The performance of the FWS was impressive, given the size of the FWS network and the magnitude of Hurricane Harvey, both in size and intensity. The data generated by the FWS was then distributed to emergencymanagement organisations, first responders, media outlets and the general public. Being able to supply reliable and timely data meant that the HCFCD, National Weather Service, US Geological Survey, US Army Corps of Engineers, and US Coast Guard were working with good information as they managed the crisis. The HCFCD website, harriscountyfws.org, which allows the general public to view rainfall totals and water levels in near real time, was viewed 6.3 million times by more than one million unique users, or about one out of four Harris County residents. Social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, and Reddit) were used to convey information to a broader audience. Providing clear and concise information that was easily digestible by the public undoubtedly prevented further loss of life during this recordbreaking storm.


Global precision weather data

G oba Coverage: Weather data for any p ace on Earth • Land and Sea • Ground and A r • H gh reso ut on (3-10 km)

Un que T me Range: Comp ete hour y data repos tory from 1984 to forecasts for 7-14 days and seasona • 7-14 day + season forecast • >35 years of h story • Hour y, Gap ess, cons stent

Precision simulations

dataXchange

Model verification results

Barter offer for Cooperations

weather - dataXchange - free

Introduction • •

Weather simulation (NWP) data are available globally. NWP models offer from >30 years of hourly historic data to 14-day high precision forecast. Verification of simulations show expected accuracy. Knowledge of accuracy enables decisions on proper use.

• •

Offer 1: trading short-term measurements for long-term simulations

Methods

• • •

Comparison of models to station measurements at >10’000 meteorological stations worldwide in 2017 for 4 meteorological variables (air temperature, wind speed, precipitation, dewpoint temperature) for a 24h forecast (day-ahead, ~12 hours after initialisation) from historical model reanalysis (ERA5), or raw weather models (NEMS, GFS), and forecast model output statistics (MOS) and meteoblue learning multi-model (mLMM)

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Advantages for meteoblue

Ø Access to 1-3 years of measurements data Ø Reliable basis for further verification results Ø Access to key variables for verification: temperature, precipitation, wind speed & direction, radiation

Precipitation

Results Table 1: Mean absolute error (MAE) of 4 meteorological variables and different models at more than 10‘000 stations worldwide for year 2017. Time range

Model approach

Forecast

Air temperature

Annual precipitation

Dewpoint temperature

170 mm -

1.7 K

1.2 m s-1

1.7- 2.2 K 1.5 - 1.7 m s-1 220 – 230 mm 1.9 - 2.4 K

History NEMS Reanalysis ERA5

Model

HSS

POD

FAR

HSS

0.49

0.47

0.48

0.64

0.36

0.60

0.50

0.42

0.39

0.65

0.30

GFS

0.69

0.54

0.42

0.40

0.69

0.30

1.7 m s-1

220 mm

2.2 K

CHIRPS2

0.41

0.55

0.30

0.42

0.69

0.31

1.5 m s-1

120 – 180 mm

1.6 K

ERA5

0.69

0.51

0.45

0.43

0.64

0.35

MOS

Fig. 3: Mean Percentage error [MPE, mm] of annual precipitation sums for simulation history and forecast. ~6000 stations, 2017

raw models

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

MLM

0.5 0.0 0

50

100 forecast hours

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latitude [°]

lat30[MAE30[, 1] < 0.5]

lat30[MAE30[, 3] < 0.5]

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lon30[MAE30[,lon30[MAE30[, 3] < 0.5] 1] < 0.5]

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● ● ●●● ●●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

latitude [°]

● ●

● ●

● ●●

forecast

meteoblue Multi-Model reaches precision of ERA5 MAE of annual precipitation is around 130 mm (history) and between 220 - 230 mm (forecast); HSS for daily precipitation events between 0.4 and 0.5. Satellite observations (e.g. CHIRPS2) have higher skill than models, for heavy precipitation and close to the equator.

Advantages for partner

ü Access to 10-30 years of gapless simulation data ü Reliable and consistent source of simulation ü 4 variable packages: temperature, precipitation, windspeed, radiation) expandable to 3 additional variables per package ü Supply in easy-to-use format ü Use of global quality standards ü Transparent process based on publicly available info ü Offer is free-of-charge

SIM

MEAS

10 x 1 for

1 year measurement

Table 1: meteoblue weather dataXchange offer trading options for 1 location: Simulation and measurement quality levels, and required partner input offers (years of measurement) for obtainment of simulation packages. Trading will always made on location basis (1x1, 2x2, etc.)

Wind speed •

Fig. 2: Model accuracy with reanalysis ERA5 (top left), raw model GFS (top right) and mLMM (bottom panel), 24h forecast, September - October 2018. ●● ●

Easy exchange Use of global quality standards Faster process Easier acceptance

10 years simulation History reanalysis w/ update

150

Ø Ø Ø Ø

Daily precipitation >10 mm

FAR

0.70

NEMS

6- day forecast o f m L M M as good as 1- day forecast of global weather forecast models (Fig. 1) >90 % (85 %, 50 %, 36 %) of all stations have less than 2 K error by using the mLMM (ERA5, NEMS, GFS). mLMM significantly better than reanalysis model ERA5 or ‘stand-alone’ NWP models (e.g. GFS, NEMS) Lower model accuracy in Brazil, Australia, continental regions (Russia) and mountainous regions (Fig. 2)

Daily precipitation >1 mm POD

mMM

2.1 K

1.0

MAE [K]

Table 3: Probability of detection (POD), False alarm rate (FAR), Heidke skill score (HSS) for satellite observations, reanalysis and forecast models.

1.5 K

3.5

Temperature Fig. 1: mLMM temperature MAE [K] for forecast hours 1168; single day (lines) and average (black). 24h forecast MAE for MOS (blue) and raw models (red) •

Wind speed

1.2 K 1.5 K

mLMM MOS Raw models

• Free-of-charge exchange of simulations for measurements

• Trade by location of measurement station

• •

meteoblue mMM performs in same range as re-analysis (ERA5) and significantly better than raw NWP models Lower model accuracy in regions close to the equator -1 87/80/80% of stations error < 2 m s with ERA5/GFS/NEMS

Table 2: Wind speed Mean absolute error (MAE), mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and Pearson correlation for 4 model approaches. Model approach meteoblue multi-model (mMM) ERA5

MAE [m s -1] 1.48

MBE [m s -1] 0.13

RMSE [m s -1] 1.94

Pearson correlation

1.49

0.03

1.93

0.66

Table 2: meteoblue weather dataXchange offer simulation data package classification. Each package available for air temperature, precipitation, radiation and wind speed.

0.67

lon30[MAE30[, lon30[MAE30[, 7] < 0.5] 7] < 0.5]

● ●●

GFS NEMS

1.69

0.24

2.20

0.58

1.67

-0.05

2.20

0.60

Summary and conclusion • • • •

© 2019 meteoblue AG Basel, Switzerland

Reanalysis provides best historic accuracy. Forecast multi-model and MOS are more precise than raw models, as they benefit from an error cancellation of raw models. Artificial intelligence mLMM further increases accuracy by weighting different raw models for region, season, weather conditions. Further improvement of meteorological forecasts are planned (e.g. wind speed, precipitation, dewpoint temperature, cloud types).

info@meteoblue.com

More info: https://content.meteoblue.com/en/verifie d-quality/verification

Offer 2: measurements for better forecasts 1 year forecast © 2019 meteoblue AG Basel, Switzerland

Step 1 Step 2

info@meteoblue.com

Real-time measurement

Un que Data Range: Hundreds, nc ud ng un que var ab es • >100 Var ab es • Pred ctab ty + other nd ces • Custom sat on

Top prec s on S mu at ons w th max mum proven accuracy • Record MAE of 1.2°C wor dw de for temperature • Qua ty contro • Pub c documentat on Mu t p e sources Easy cho ce of best data source • S mu at on, Observat on, Measurement • L ve updates • Se ect on «of the best»

www.meteoblue.com

Easy Access : H gh-speed de very of data, mages, etc. • Webs te, App, E-Ma , API, others • Data, Images, Mov es, others • Instant resu ts: ghtn ng fast © meteob ue AG 2019

www.meteob ue.com


M O RE I N FO: W W W. L 3T. C O M /ESS C O L 3 E SS C O

High-performance shields for radar systems A ground-based radome is a critical technology in weather tracking and forecasting. By Daran Eastridge, Vice President, Business Development & Marketing, and Joe Alvite, Director, International Business Development, L3 ESSCO

F

or centuries, the shield has protected mission resources, providing a high level of safety and security. Today, ‘radomes’ have a similar role in protecting your radar and communication antennas from extreme weather conditions and external dangers. Radomes are also engineered, integrated solutions that provide highperformance electromagnetic (EM) properties and low life-cycle costs for weather radar systems. Weather radars are vital to the safety of human populations, crops, and infrastructure. The long-term reliability and high availability of these radars can be greatly enhanced with a properly selected radome. The primary function of radomes, of course, is to shield the radar antennas from destructive and extreme weather events, while providing low RF transmit and receive signal loss with absolutely no artifacts. They also reduce the lifecycle costs of both the radar antenna and the radome system. Weather radomes are not just for extreme weather environments. There are many locations with moderate

Benefits of highperformance radomes     

Accurate contact resolution in extreme winds, rain and temperatures Low life-cycle costs of the radar Shields radar against windblown hazards High reliability and availability of radar systems Provides high level of physical security

Advanced materials. The perfect radome employs the latest advancements in composite materials that are widely used in the aerospace and Formula 1 industries. These important engineering factors contribute to a 20-year design life, maintaining the EM properties and the structural integrity to perform in all weather conditions.

 FAA Tower weather conditions where radars experience multiple radome benefits (see box), resulting in high performance at low life-cycle costs. The perfect radome for weather radars The ultra-critical mission of radars is helping to ensure safety of flight. In order to do this, the perfect radome has to be a highly engineered solution. The most widely produced radome type for the weather market is the ‘sandwich composite core’. Tuned to specific radar frequencies. The best-performing radomes are tuned at the panel seams to reduce the scattering effects. Quasi-random panels. An engineered design, quasi-random panels significantly improve the performance for both single- and dual-band radars.

Your partner in meteorology There are many suppliers of radomes. But only a few have been successful over decades and can be counted upon for support for decades to come. L3 ESSCO is the global leader for sandwich composite radome shields for weather applications. Our field service network is second to none in supporting complex installations and providing preventive and corrective maintenance, in addition to technical support. L3 ESSCO is a division of L3 Technologies, an agile innovator and leading provider of global ISR, communications and networked systems, and electronic systems for military, homeland security and commercial aviation customers. Through our strategic research and development investments, we have employed the most current technological innovations to deliver your perfect radome. For example, our new Durashed® membrane material for metal space frame radomes is inherently hydrophobic (water beading and shedding) and never needs painting. This ensures high-performance electromagnetic properties during hard, wind-driven rains, as well as low lifecycle costs. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 2 3


DE LTA O HM

Winds of change With extreme weather a growing concern, national weather services demand measuring devices that are more robust and possess greater recording ranges than ever before. By Heerco Walinga, Business Development Manager, Delta OHM

“T

he only way forward, if we are going to improve the quality of the environment, is to get everybody involved.” So said the great British architect Richard Rogers. We like to imagine that these words were in our founder Pietro Masut’s mind as he made his contribution by forming Delta OHM 40 years ago in Padua, near Venice, Italy. Over those past four decades, the environmental challenges facing the world have become increasingly complex. Phrases such as climate change, global warming, natural resource depletion, ocean acidification pollution, hurricanes or melting of the ice are being mentioned daily by almost everyone. And we do not need to look far. Among the headlines in our newspapers in Italy today we find: ‘Nearly threequarters of Venice was flooded because of a storm system that brought strong winds, driving up water levels more than five feet in the lagoon city’; and ‘Water level are forecast to reach 63 inches in the next hour. Last time in 1979’. Is there anything we can do? There is only one way of being sure: we need to measure, we need to gather the data, we need to document and to analyse

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what is happening now. Only those able to grasp the changes can play a role in building sustainability and tackling the most important environmental challenges of our time. In no other area does data collection take on such grave importance as in the field of environmental measuring technology. This is why, our meteorological institutes need accurate and reliable equipment. They need to be sure that what they measure is the truth. Delta OHM is the partner for these institutes.

 Photo-radiometry laboratory - calibration pyranometer

Our equipment is designed to measure exactly and requires low maintenance, year after year. And it is reliable and traceable to the highest standards according to WMO recommendations for technical construction. Since the start, Delta OHM has dedicated itself to building a top-quality portfolio with the appropriate scientific expertise to drive the development of sustainable meteorological components forward every day. In four decades Delta OHM – part of the GHM GROUP since 2015 – has become one of the leading innovators in the field of meteorology and, through our worldwide network, we supply and service our solutions everywhere on the globe. Are we unique in what we do? No, not unique, just better. We control the complete production cycle of all our products, starting from research and development to final packing for delivery. Everything is conducted from one centralised location – our production facilities and HQ in Padua, Italy. Our own calibration center, which is accredited to ISO17025 standard, allows us to research, test and produce all our products in-house, and this gives us a distinctive advantage over our competitors. The recommendations of the WMO are important guidelines in this process.


M O RE I N FO: W W W. DELTA O HM . C O M

 Field tests at Delta OHM

Meeting demand In the field of meteorology, Delta OHM’s most important customer base is national weather services and their offshoots. Our in-house research and development facilities mean Delta OHM is able to respond swiftly to the needs of this customer base, which is becoming more demanding in response to the effects of climate change. The biggest demand is for devices that can record greater extremes, especially when it comes to wind and precipitation measurements. In these fields, the requested range is creeping higher and higher. The new HD51 2-axes ultrasonic anemometer series is an example of this trend. Delta OHM already had a wide range of wind measurement solutions but the need was to create a more complete and robust solution, capable of reaching very high performance. Like earlier anemometer models, the HD51 uses ultrasound to measure wind speed. Ultrasound eliminates the use of moving parts which means that the anemometers can be installed without the need for future maintenance. This is an important development given

the fact that they are often located in remote locations such as offshore wind turbines. Where the new anemometer departs from its predecessors, however, is in its range and robustness. Delta OHM has introduced two new models in this series, capable of withstanding wind speeds up to 100 meters per second (m/s). One is a version made from a durable anodised aluminum alloy with integrated heating system that allows it to be used in a broad temperature range. Very rugged, very stable, it is designed to be used in very harsh situations. It measures accurately up to 80m/sec and is MIL-STD810G compliant. Another version introduced in this series has a measuring range up

to 85m/sec. It is designed for use in all applications where a high wind range combined with high accuracy is necessary, but where a wide temperature range is of less importance. Delta OHM keeps on innovating. It is our drive. Serial communication Next to the standard analog outputs, practically all our measuring devises have the possibility for serial communication. The whole range of 2D and 3D ultrasonic anemometers, including the new HD51 series, communicate as ‘plug & play’ with the Delta OHM range of IoT-capable data logging devices. This range of loggers is the logical result of all other developments that we have introduced. Measuring data is one thing; gathering the data, transferring it and keeping it at a secured location is the other part of it. Delta OHM supplies a wide range of loggers. Specifically for the meteorological market, we provide compact solutions in all-weather housing designed to operate on solar power, in combination with our anemometers and/or rain gauges as complete stand-alone and independent automatic weather stations. Using our Delta OHM cloud solution, real-time data can be viewed on any device. When an application needs to be local, we can supply the software to store all your measurements in a secured database on your own server.

 Production of anemometers Both the loggers and the new anemometer are examples of Delta OHM’s direct response to the demands of the market and the company's scrupulousness in paying close attention to the needs of its customers. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 2 5


Real-Time. Real Tactics. Real Missions.

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Learn more about our best-in-class meteorological sensors. MetSense@QinetiQ-NA.com 1-800-527-8276 or 1-703-637-6057 www.QinetiQ-NA.com/products/metsense


M O RE I N FO: W W W. A R A B I AW E AT HER. C O M

ARA BIAWEATHER

Enhanced foresight ArabiaWeather’s diverse suite of weather forecasting technology and solutions equips national weather services with the tools to keep citizens and businesses prepared. By Bader Qutteineh, Business Development Specialist, ArabiaWeather

A

rabiaWeather Inc. is the largest private weather company in the Arab world and a pioneer in weather technology. Through its media products, enterprise solutions and consumer platforms, ArabiaWeather delivers forecasts to 70 million people on a daily basis. The organisation’s Enterprise division provides decision support solutions to businesses across the region, operating in sectors that are significantly affected by weather conditions such as media, airlines, renewable energy, oil and gas, agriculture, insurance, retail and governments, among others. ArabiaWeather collaborates with national weather services across the region in two ways – enhanced forecasting technology and ready-made go-to-market products and service.

 Enhanced forecasting technology

science-driven graphics. Enabling meteorologists to generate and save post process weather equations that can mix, weigh and merge data as well as provide newly derived parameters. Cronos. Displays real-time observational data (Global MET and ArabiaWeather data) in a map format. Cronos can display individual parameters or full observation in WMO format as well as display data from a specific source. PinPoint. Pinpoint is a flexible and powerful weather and geographical data API provider that uses model data and observations to provide the most accurate, and precise forecast by considering and evaluating any models’ strong and weak points. 3D Earth View. A global view of the weather, impressively displaying data as an animation. This enables easy identification of global weather patterns and variations in time and space of individual weather parameters. Go-to-market products and services SkyWatch. An airport and airline briefing and alerting tool designed to help monitor and plan your network operations. An aviation weather forecasting package designed to help you make smarter and more confident operational decisions that are weather sensitive resulting in saved time and money.

Enhanced forecasting technology Crystal. A cloud web-based visualisation tool for NWP model data using beautiful, customisable and

our experts provide services to alert of severe weather. The service includes 24/7 support before, during and after severe weather events.

LandWatch. Allows you to make informed business decisions when confronted with adverse weather. With access to advanced meteorological data,

 Go-to-market products and services SeaWatch. A comprehensive marine weather forecasting solution for oil and gas and other offshore activities. It provides continuous decision support and monitoring to ensure safety, increase efficiency and minimise environmental impacts relevant to any offshore project. Media. ArabiaWeather provides you with a complete set of weather information and graphics tools. The compelling and realistic 3D animations to show the next 10 days of weather to engage viewers. Consumer. ArabiaWeather’s consumer products are leading the way in the MENA region, combining world-class forecasting technology with beautiful in-house graphics, fully customised and localised for the region. Consumer products receive millions of users on a monthly basis. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 2 7


M O RE I N FO: W W W. R AY M E T RI C S. C O M R AY M E T RI C S

Harnessing Lidar’s potential

 Images from PulseRad (left) and Dangerous Thunderstorm Alerts (right)

Innovative Lidar technology has moved from the lab to the real world, offering a multitude of atmospheric detection applications for national weather and meteorological services. By Konstantina Efstathiou, Head of Sales, Raymetrics

R

characteristics of the backscattered radiation allow the estimation of various atmospheric properties, while the time difference between the emission of the laser pulse and its detection gives information about the altitude that is being probed. Advanced Lidars have been used in a combination of emission and detection wavelengths, for example, for measuring the concentration and properties of atmospheric aerosols, the concentration of atmospheric gases, and the retrieval of temperature and relative humidity profiles. Based on their own light source, Lidars can operate both day and night. Measurements during daytime are naturally more challenging as solar radiation can interfere with the measurements. However, this challenge can be overcome through a high-power system, spectrally narrow detection channels and optimised optomechanical design. For many years, such Lidars have been confined to labs or advanced research facilities, but thanks to recent  Laser pulse detection equipment

aymetrics is a technologydriven, globally renowned atmospheric Lidar (light detection and ranging) manufacturer. The company is developing innovative products to expand its market reach and strengthen its competitive market position. Raymetrics products are offered to a stable and diverse customer base including national weather services, renowned research and educational institutions, airports and meteorological services. Based in Athens with a global reach and ambition, Raymetrics is a company founded by scientists and engineers, using innovative Lidar technology to sense the atmosphere remotely.

How Lidar works The Lidar technique is based on the emission of short laser pulses in the atmosphere and the detection of the radiation scattered back towards the sensor. The spectral

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technological advancements, such systems have reached the maturity necessary for the long-term unattended measurements required by operational and research agencies. Products and applications Raymetrics is the global leader and the world’s most-experienced atmospheric Lidar manufacturer, with more than 17 years in the industry and sales all over the world. The company is always at the forefront of technological development; designing new products that address major meteorological parameters. Our products can be used for many applications such as dust detection and monitoring, temperature and humidity monitoring, incoming fog detection, visibility studies, volcanic ash detection, atmospheric profiling, early fire detection, PBL studies, cloud detection and dust monitoring for mining applications. The instruments integrate stateof-the-art technology developed in research laboratories in Europe with Raymetrics experienced in building robust, stand-alone systems, 3D scanning or vertical mode systems, able to operate 24/7 in all environmental conditions.


Full range supplier of environmental sensing technologies to commercial and industrial markets around the world. Cairo HydrometAFRICA 2019 Exhibition. Showcase of our new meteorological and environmental products. Our product line includes.... Ultrasonic wind speed/ direction. Rainfall. Temperature. Humidity. Barometric Pressure. Solar radiation. PM 2.5, PM10, H2S, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO. Submersible & Radar Ultrasonic Liquid Level. EC and Salinity. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing. Stop by booth #29 to learn more about the wide range of products we have available.

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FINANCIAL PROTECTION IN ANY WEATHER

Financial Protection in Any Weather Creating a world where bad weather cannot deplete your finances Weather is not exclusively an environmental issue, it is a major economic factor. Nearly 90% of S&P Global 100 Index identify weather as a current or future business risk. Experts project extreme weather events to reach an annual cost of $700 billion by 2030. Our purpose at Wx Risk Global is to provide knowledge of and access to the Weather Risk industry so that everyone, larger and small, affluent or in-need, can apply their weather and financial data to construct the most effective weather solutions. Today we provide the most actionable analysis, consultation, and solution mechanisms in the industry. We want to make weather risk solutions are available to everyone.

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M O RE I N FO: W W W. KI L O L IM A . O RG

KI L O L IM A

Assuring performance A weather station is only as good as its installation and maintenance. By KiloLima staff

W

eather stations are designed to operate outdoors in harsh conditions. Having an appropriately functioning meteorological station starts with selecting the appropriate equipment. Yet even the best stations require maintenance, particularly in extreme climates with tropical rains and humidity, extreme variations between wet and dry seasons, extreme heat or cold. Instruments collect dust, are attacked or chewed by animals, or are shielded by soiling. Power supplies fail. Communications modules may require adjustment from time to time, or network coverage may shift in remote areas. All of the variations that occur in the field may cause instruments to become unreliable, not perform as expected, or fail. A good-quality, reliable weather station starts with the right equipment, and good-quality installation. Many times, equipment manufactured for installation in moderate climates, or far from the equator where the sun can be presumed to be always south or north of the station, are not suitable for installation in many African countries where climates may be extreme or near the equator. Initial installations may have errors or omissions that make it more likely to encounter reliability problems later

 Pyranometer mounted with factorysupplied mounting kit was too close to the tower near the equator and experienced shading half the year. Pyranometer was also not level.

on, or to unknowingly read biased data. These may include a lack of proper lightning protection or incorrect mounting or orientation of sensors, particularly for sensors such as solar radiation near the equator. Cost of ownership Often, when purchasing hydro-met equipment, buyers budget for the cost of purchase but do not consider the total cost of ownership over the life of the equipment. As a result, the budget for purchase is made available but often not the budget for successful operation and upkeep. Many industries have moved towards a ‘total cost of ownership’ model, where the cost of owning an asset, such as a meteorological station, is considered over its lifetime of useful operation. In this view, the initial purchase cost is often only a fraction of the total cost of ownership, while the

cost of ensuring the station operates properly over its lifetime is considered from the very beginning. By taking this into account, buyers can help assure that the resources are available to obtain the necessary performance of their hydro-met station

The successful operation of hydro-met stations requires continuous monitoring and upkeep by specialised staff VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 3 1


M O RE I N FO: W W W. KI L O L IM A . O RG

KI L O L IM A

over its useful lifetime – and to make sure that it serves its useful lifetime, instead of failing early due to lack of maintenance or parts. Such total cost of ownership analysis allows buyers to see the real cost of owning a station, and effectively compare available alternatives for purchase, rent or servicing. Continuous monitoring of data Almost all stations today have communication facilities to report data. The good operation of these stations requires continuous monitoring and evaluation of data to detect and treat potential errors or deviations, analyse the source and take appropriate corrective action. The successful operation of hydromet stations requires continuous monitoring and upkeep by specialised staff. The data monitored is usually not just the hydrometeorological parameters recorded by the station, but also the diagnostic parameters, such as battery voltage, charging intervals and temperature within the datalogger units, for example. Many hydro-met departments lack the resources needed for this and as a result, the integrity of the data provided by their stations may suffer.

Long-term service agreements Many buyers and owners of assets are relying increasingly on long-term service agreements for the operation and maintenance of their assets.Such models have long been prevalent in other fields, such as power generation, where it is common for a long-term service agreement to exist with the main contractor to operate and maintain an asset. These agreements usually include providing all the necessary monitoring, diagnostics, maintenance, calibration and spare parts and can hold the operator responsible for the performance of the asset under certain conditions.

 A monkey in a tower by cables with disintegrating isolation sheaths

Data as a service As a further extension of the principle of long-term service agreements, many public utilities now are being purchased purely on a service model, where private entities finance, own, and operate assets and provide a service to the buyer, whether that service is power, water, telecommunications, transport, or data. Meteorological services may evolve in much the same way with public meteorological departments entering into long-term agreements for the supply, installation, operation and provision of meteorological data.

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 Humidity, dust, and insects entered datalogger box as a result of failure in the seal, designed for use in more moderate climates

This removes from government the burden of owning and financing the generation asset and instead enables public utilities to pay only for the service they receive. Meteorological services are likely to evolve in much the same way with public meteorological departments entering into long-term agreements for the installation and operation of their meteorological assets. This removes the burden of operating remote equipment and helps ensure higher availability and quality of data by providing a responsible entity. It also helps define the total cost of ownership of the meteorological stations. Whether by continuous monitoring of data, long-term service agreements, or provision of hydrometeorological data as a service, these models all help define and control the total cost of ownership of hydrometeorological measurements and information. They help owners obtain higher quality data and focus their resources on providing services to the public through such data. To learn more about how we can help you monitor your stations and ensure your remote stations are properly installed and operating, visit us at stand 6.


ENGAGE WITH MFI IN A GLOBAL HYDROMET MODERNIZATION PROJECT Objectives : national security & economic development Proven methodology for visible results over short-period of time Turnkey approach to Design, Build & Operate a global met ecosystem Full compliance with WMO recommendations References in 113 countries with major modernization projects : Angola, Indonesia, Egypt, India, Cambodia, Qatar, Libya

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O T T H Y DR O M E T

United

competencies

How OTT HydroMet harnesses 500 years of experience across seven brands to offer met services, governments and businesses a comprehensive suite of water and weather monitoring network solutions. By Helmut Hohenstein, Regional MarCom Manager, EMEA/APAC, OTT HydroMet

O

TT HydroMet provides valuable insights for experts in water and weather applications to help protect lives, the environment and infrastructure. We go beyond simply providing solutions by partnering with our customers in designing effective answers to the challenges they face in their vital role of monitoring the world’s water and surface weather. When you choose to work with OTT HydroMet, you’re also working with more than 500 years of combined expertise across seven strong brands that have come together to provide reliability and sustainability for monitoring networks. Our global team leverages decades of expertise from each market to shape modern technologies, engineering and applications. They combine globalised innovation

OTT HydroMet solutions Including, but not limited to:  Sensors & sondes;  Dataloggers & controllers;  Datalogger peripherals & I/O modules;  Communications & telemetry;  Web hosting & visualisation; and  Software & data management

with tailored expert service and break local barriers by listening to your unique needs, so you can have better trust and confidence in your data for both water and weather applications. OTT HydroMet offers one-stopshopping and integrated solutions to make it as easy as possible for you – no matter if you are from a meteorological service, federal environmental organisation or industry. OTT HydroMet brands at a glance The product portfolio of OTT and Sutron ranges from single sensor solutions to country-wide measuring networks, incorporating measurements of precipitation, discharge, water quality and water levels, as well as remote communications. We provide customised monitoring and control solutions for applications involving weather, floods, coastal monitoring and tides, water level, water quality, dams, irrigation, rainfall and extreme and remote environments. WMO/NOAA-compliant monitoring stations include advanced data handling and telemetry, Wi-Fi & multiple simultaneous communications via iridium & geostationary satellites, IP, radio & cellular. ADCON focuses on telemetry solutions, based on its own ultra low-power radio technology and GSM/

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GPRS/UMTS modems, both being integrated into the range of loggers. What makes the ADCON solution unique is a range of unrivalled product features: Extremely low-power consumption, using the smallest solar panels in the industry. Extremely high receiver sensitivity, resulting in very high transmission distances.  The networking capability of each long-range station, which can at the same time function as relay for others.  The integration of all of these devices into one Telemetry Gateway, that can manage all of them.  A powerful SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) software, collecting, distributing, storing, processing and visualising all of this data. HYDROLAB water quality instruments and software help environmental scientists and managers monitor the increasingly important changes in our water resources by providing continuous water quality data, reliability, and usability. Lufft develops and supplies professional components and systems for climate and environment measurement. Their smart meteorological and traffic weather sensors are used in networks along roads, rails, at airports and solar


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Our global team leverages decades of expertise from each market to shape modern technologies, engineering and applications systems all over the world for measuring atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and other environmental factors. Kipp & Zonen provides class-leading instruments for measuring solar radiation and atmospheric properties in meteorology, climatology, hydrology,

industry, renewable energy, agriculture and public health. Outstanding expertise and close links with the scientific community have led to high-end solutions for the measurement of atmospheric properties such as stratospheric Ozone, UV Spectra, aerosols, temperature profiles, evapo-transpiration, cloud properties and the ground-truthing of satellite data. All-in-one weather sensors from Lufft combined with pyranometers from Kipp & Zonen are the perfect match to have a professional solar monitoring system. MeteoStar is a global leader in the environmental analysis, display and integration/distribution systems market. In 2013, Total Lightning Network, the largest lightning network providing long-range detection of both in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, teamed with MeteoStar to provide global

lightning information into MeteoStarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s LEADS product, to enhance visibility into dangerous lightning and severe storm events for improved situational awareness. Together as OTT HydroMet, we combine highly innovative companies with measuring systems for hydrology, meteorology and environmental monitoring. Each global team provides sustainable solutions that go beyond the expectations of hydrology and meteorology professionals. Get local and technical expertise across your data value chain and move across brands with ease as we build your entire system together. We work to create an end-toend global network so you are able to fully focus on making informed decisions for the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water resources and forecasting surface weather conditions, to protect both the environment and lives.

VA R Y S I A N M H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 â&#x20AC;˘ 3 5


M BW C A L I B R AT I O N

Reducing uncertainty in humidity measurement The demand for better humidity data is challenging both manufacturers’ and users’ measurement and calibration capability. By Robin Farley, Business Development Manager, MBW Calibration

H

umidity measurement and calibration systems have become something of a hot topic. Increasing focus on atmospheric water vapour concentrations and its implication in climatic research and meteorology has led to increasing scrutiny of the precision and reliability of humidity measurement data. Yet climatic water vapour remains one of the more challenging aspects of meteorology, with unreliable results, variability of units and non-traceable calibration perhaps the most pertinent issues. It is common that humidity measurements are considered unreliable or specified with quite large ‘tolerances’. Often this position is based on an underestimation of the measurement challenges, a lack of fundamental knowledge of humidity and poor calibration. It is not unusual for humidity to be incorrectly described; a recently observed single TV weather bulletin included the description of water vapour content as ‘moisture’, ‘humidity’, ‘dew point’ and ‘relative humidity’ (RH).

 Overall uncertainty in RH chamber

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 2500 System

Even metrologists and humidity specialists at the highest level display similar inconsistency. The latest humidity technology continues to improve measurement and calibration capability, but its application lacks co-ordination, uniformity and structure. Many organisations are not able to provide even the most basic calibration services and documented traceability that other well-regulated

industries take for granted. Calibration at working temperature is one such example. Definition of calibration uncertainty is another. Is humidity so difficult to measure? Unlike other key measurements such as temperature and pressure, humidity sensors cannot be protected from the measured conditions by membranes, sheaths or other protective barriers. Some mechanical filtration can be applied to limit particulate contamination, but these do not protect humidity sensors from contaminants such as sulphur and nitrogen oxides that will cause degradation and instability in the measurement sensor. Consequently, RH probes drift at varying rates depending on their type, installation specific contamination, variation in humidity and temperature conditions and maintenance, so their calibration must be verified on a routine basis. Every measurement could be proven to be traceable and its uncertainty defined through the calibration process, provided it is correctly documented. Surface observation systems, typically weather stations or screen assemblies, are widely used. Stated measurement performance will be typically based on manufacturer specifications rather than calculated uncertainties. Typical uncertainty contributions are shown in the calibration example left, but recent studies have shown significant effects attributable to wind speed during measurements and mounting shield design.


M O RE I N FO: W W W. M BW. C H

Radiosondes are required to measure over a substantial temperature and humidity range within the same flight. To determine full system performance the sensors should be tested over a wide range of humidity and temperature conditions which more accurately simulates their use. While possible, this is often considered to be too expensive. Sensors are often calibrated at only a limited number of temperature and humidity points, resulting in inconsistency and unproven traceability when used outside of the calibrated range. The better manufacturers invest more substantially in calibration, and it is no coincidence that their products are more widely trusted and perform consistently in inter-comparisons. Calibration uncertainty It is not the whole solution, but better standardisation could go a long way to resolving many of the uncertainties. The ideal method of defining the precision of any measurement or generated condition is an assignment of uncertainty. The Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement (GUM) is the reference for calibration metrologists, and the application of its structures can at least provide a means of validation or a more dependable comparison of data. An uncertainty budget combines the individual components of uncertainty to resolve an expanded uncertainty of measurement or a generated value. In a typical weather station relative humidity measurement application, calibration of the humidity probe is the most significant uncertainty component but additional components such as shield temperature, airflow, filter and contamination effects would also need to be included.

 HydroGen 473

CALIBRATION SOLUTIONS

performance is adequate for climatic testing,

Listed in order of their capability to provide

but for calibration tasks, optimised versions

the best calibration uncertainty and their

are increasingly available. However, these

practicality:

do depend on the application of careful

Two pressure generators

temperature measurement and a calibrated

Most national metrology institutes (NMIs)

humidity transfer standard. The

operate a primary humidity generator

non-uniformity of the chamber temperature

based on this fundamental principle using

must be evaluated for best results.

pressure and temperature control and

Salt Solutions

measurement to provide direct traceability

Saturated and non-saturated salt solutions

to SI units. These are usually customised

remain a practical and low-cost method for

and characterised by the NMI, so require

humidity calibration, but their performance

significant operational expertise and

depends on stable temperature and a

fundamental knowledge to achieve the best

pre-calibration of the salt or validation of its

results. But there are commercially available

generated value using a transfer standard.

automated generators that provide practical

Uncertainties tend to be higher and their

and cost effective solutions, and some

use is probably best suited for temperature-

include temperature-controlled chambers

controlled laboratories. With expert

so that calibration at temperature can be

handling, salts may be useful for humidity

performed. (Picture 1)

calibration at varying temperatures, but

Mixed flow generators

careful validation is necessary to prove

By mixing flows of wet and dry gas it is

traceability.

possible to generate varying humidity

Transfer Standards

conditions across a wide range. In the

Within a calibration system it is usual

relative humidity range, the process can

for a transfer standard to be applied to

be automatically controlled. Commercially

verify generated conditions and to provide

available solutions are capable of good

traceability. These should be of a standard

control over a wide temperature range

higher than the systems being calibrated.

(-10°C to 70°C). Compact RH generators

For example, an RH probe shouldn’t

require good temperature control to achieve

really be used as a transfer standard

best calibration capability and with the

for another RH probe as both may have

application of a transfer standard, meaning

similar characteristics that will combine

RH and temperature calibration can be

to influence the overall uncertainty of

performed by the same system. (Picture 2)

measurement or calibration. Again, an

Climatic Chambers

evaluation of specifications and calibration

Temperature- and humidity-controlled

performance within an uncertainty budget

chambers are in widespread use for testing

will support the correct specification of the

products over varying conditions. Typical

type of transfer standard to use or specify.

There are many methods of generating the stable humidity conditions needed to calibrate humidity instrumentation. Any chosen method should be assessed in terms of its expanded uncertainty and based on a true evaluation, not just what the manufacturer claims. It is also worth considering the need for the calibration of temperature measurement, and the calibration of humidity at the instrumentation’s working condition within any evaluation. Humidity measurement performance varies with temperature, so it is not really effective to calibrate only at one temperature, especially

when field measurements are at low temperatures. The national metrology institute (NMI) in every country provides the best source of advice and transfer standard calibration, so we recommend making this a key element of an evaluation of the options for improved calibration systems, as well as a mechanism for traceability to national and international standards once any system was implemented. If humidity calibration or uncertainty is a cause for concern, contact a reputable supplier, your local NMI or an accredited calibration laboratory for guidance. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 3 7


Solar Irradiation

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HELIX GUARANTEES LONG-TERM PRECISION Helical MeteoShield with a standard precision sensor maintains WMO accuracy requirements over 99% of the time. °C 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.5 0.1 0 WMO LIMITS -0.1 -0.5 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0

Multi-plate solar shields with expensive high precision sensors cannot maintain WMO accuracy requirements over 95% of the time.

SENSOR ERROR = YELLOW SHIELD ERROR = RED/GREEN

2 m/s 1 m/s 0 1 m/s 2 m/s wind speed m/s


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N O WC A ST

All clear? Combining the LINET lightning detection system with electrostatic field mills makes it quicker and safer than ever before to reopen areas of interest after a thunderstorm. By Richard Fellner, CEO, nowcast

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ightning specialist nowcast develops and operates its own high-precision lightningdetection network. The system stems from prolonged research in Munich, Germany, and is now operational across the globe as ‘LINET’. LINET is demonstrably one of the most precise lightning detection systems in the world. There has yet to be a study in which another commercial network reaches the levels of accuracy and reliability offered by LINET. In the pursuit of developing the most efficient, reliable and effective lightning safety system ever created, nowcast conducted cutting-edge research into combining LINET with locally installed electrostatic field mills.

What are field mills? Electrostatic field mills are used to detect local thunderstorm cells above an area of interest such as an airport, mine or sports venue. The risk of lightning can also be estimated through the measurement of electric field strength/variation.

When a field mill detects voltage less than 100 volt per meter (V/m) in a fair field weather situation, we can safely assume that there is no chance of a lightning flash. As voltage increases, so does the chance of a lightning flash occurring. However, it is not a simple case of setting a defined voltage limit or threshold and activating an action sequence according to this. Multiple variables from numerous data sources plus a robust algorithm are required to properly forecast a thunderstorm. With a standalone field mill system, it’s only possible to predict

the probability of a lightning flash occurring in the next few minutes. This is vital information for keeping areas of interest safe, but does not offer sufficient efficiency gains. The greatest such gains are realised when a field mill system is used as a basis for an ‘all clear – area safe’ process. To maximise these gains, the field mill system needs to work alongside a lightning detection network. The combined data from the two systems needs to be processed in real time, with an appropriate algorithm and actionable data made available via an online solution.

The greatest gains are realised when a field mill system is used as a basis for an ‘all clear – area safe’ process

In practice Using a standalone field mill warning system with no other data inputs offers minimal efficiency gains, as only thunderstorms developing over the immediate vicinity can be taken into consideration. However, an opportunity does exist to gain a few operational minutes. This is because a lightning detection network activates a warning when a flash has been recorded within a VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 3 9


M O RE I N FO: W W W. N O WC A ST. DE

designated boundary. This warning does not represent the most accurate actual risk calculation of the area. The lightning flash might be on the edge of the boundary and the voltage below dangerous levels. A more accurate calculation would include an algorithm that factors in the voltage and changes thereof. Such a warning system would provide maximum safety levels and increase efficacy. However, this system still cannot be completely certain that a lightning flash will happen or not, even if the optimal conditions are recorded. When it comes to maximising efficacy, determining when it is safe to resume operations presents the greatest opportunity. The best practice thus far has been the countdown method, involving a lightning detection network to record every lightning flash within a designated boundary. A countdown timer is activated and reset each time a flash is detected. Once the timer reaches zero, the area is deemed safe and outdoor activities can resume. A field mill can minimise the amount of unnecessary waiting time by determining when voltage has reduced to a safe level. The voltage monitoringbased system poses a significant advantage over the countdown-based system in that when there is no voltage recorded there is no threat of a lightning flash.

N O WC A ST

 Data is immediately available in a secure online platform

4 0 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

Richard Fellner, CEO, nowcast

Technical requirements There are a number of prerequisites for installing and operating an effective field mill thunderstorm warning system: A number of field mills must be installed locally. The absolute minimum is two, but one at every boundary extremity is considered best practice; A local nowcast LINET field mill processor is required for on-site data processing, formatting and transfer to a database in real time for further off-site analysis; The thunderstorm warning system can only be combined with the LINET network, therefore the combined system is only available to LINET customers; A unique algorithm combining many combinations of parameters, not just absolute limits, is required to transform the recorded data into actionable insights; An online platform such as LINET view or the UBIMET Weather Cockpit is required to set buffer areas/boundaries, alarms and to review the real-time data to assess the meteorological situation.

• • • However, residual voltage might still exist in the vicinity, even when a thunderstorm has passed. For this reason, a combination system is considered the safest and the most efficient method available. If residual voltage exists then a time-out safety buffer based on the lightning detection network will be activated. This combined approach was the basis of nowcast’s research into a number of thunderstorm events at an international airport during 2017. The airport employed the LINET countdown system to optimise its thunderstorm stoppages procedures. The system was considered successful and helped to keep interruptions to a known minimum. However, could stoppages be reduced even further by combining a field mill with LINET? Upon reviewing the data, it was discovered that during those select events a conservative total of 96 minutes could have been saved.

• •

Benefits of the nowcast system The process developed by nowcast offers several unique advantages: Data is immediately available in a secure online platform; The unique algorithm triggers a traffic light warning system with no room for false interpretation; The algorithm is based on a transparent use of data, creating a decision base void of any inherent bias. The nowcast method provides a very accurate, technology-based decision support system for multiple industries. The combination of the LINET lightning detection system with electrostatic field mills provides a superior decision basis and the highest safety level for thunderstorm management. As all parameters are considered, the system ultimately offers the maximum efficiency and best management of a thunderstorm situation.

• • •


PULSONIC Automatic Weather Stations

www.pulsonic.com      

Air temperature Dewpoint temperature Relative humidity Precipitations Precipitation intensity Wind speed and direction (2 m and 10 m)

    

Atmospheric pressure Soil temperature Global radiation Sunshine duration Potential Evapo-Transpiration (PET)


KEY

INSTRUMENTATION

SERVICES WEATHER SERVICES PRECISION AGRICULTURE & CROP RISK MANAGEMENT Skymet offers the following hydro-meteorological instruments –

Deep Learning for Image based

Ÿ Smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis based

Ÿ Using a public dataset of thousands of image

collected under controlled conditions, we train identify crop species and their diseases (or ab

Ÿ Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) Ÿ Lightning and Thunderstorm Detection Sensors

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Ÿ Ceilometer (measuring Cloud Heights) & REMOTE WeatherSYSTEM Forecasting (GIS) and Monitoring Ÿ Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor (for Snow Depth calculation) SENSING (RS) APPLICATION Weather forecasting is in our DNA, the central Ÿ UV Sensor (for measuring Ultraviolet Index)skill around which Skymet has grown. Ÿ Barometer (measuring Atmospheric Pressure)

Ÿ The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99

the feasibility of this approach Ÿ Similar techniques are used to evaluate crop

INSTRUMENTATIO

plant height, inundation, area classification, p

Our team is pioneer when it comes to Monsoon and weather forecast. Ÿ Leaf Wetness Sensor Ÿ Capable of issuing short term (up to 7 days), medium term (up to 30 days) and long term Ÿ Soil Moisture Temperatureforecast Sensor etc. (up to 3 months) Climate risk and overweather population are the two biggest threats to Indian agriculture. In order to Ÿ In-house capability of installation, operation and maintenance AWS combat India needs anotherthrough green revolution. Strategies toofimprove India’s food security Ÿ 24X7these, weather data generation Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) andto weather needs be datainstruments centric and Skymet can fill the gap with its expertise in weather data collection, Ÿ Seasonal and Monsoon forecast capability quality control and visualization. CORPORATE OFFICE Ÿ 3 techniques of weather forecasting: Synoptic | Satellite Inputs based | Numerical Weather models

INSTRUMENTATION

BANKING FINANCIAL Skymet Weather Services Pvt. Ltd. Crop Risk Management&Solutions Weather Mine Plot No. 10 & 11 Prius Heights Crop Acreage Estimation using remote sensing (95% accuracy level) application Ÿ INSTITUTIONS Ÿ Largest historical weather data warehouse Sector 125, Noida 201303 INDIA Ÿ Crop Health Validation Survey (field based) Loss Ÿ High Assessment resolution weather data since 1971 that includes temperature, Tel: +91 120 4094500 (Board) Skymet provides financial risk coverage solutions to Experiments Ÿ Yield Estimation basedwind onand yield models Crop Cutting (CCE) humidity, wind speed, direction andand rainfall In-house capability crop loss assessment through RS-GIS based tools Ÿ clients in banks and of financial Institutions. Ÿ Risk Mitigation Solutions forgets agro-based companies Ÿ Data from over 6000 AWSs added every day based on weather derivatives Ÿ Data management and sharing through web and app based technology Ÿ Agri - Credit Risk Assessment Service

DISASTER RISK REGISTERED OFFICE Drone (UAV) based Multi & Hyper-Spectral Solutions Weather and Climate Modelling MANAGEMENT (DRM) Ÿ Rural Lending Risk Management Solutions Skymet offers the following instruments – Yield Assessment &hydro-meteorological Forecasting 109, Kusal Bazar,

Ÿ Preciseonly crop type and acreage extraction India's private entity that(AWS) runs ‘Numerical Weather Prediction Model’ Ÿ Automatic Weather Stations Ÿ Crop and Field Ownership Ÿ In-house capability of carryingValidation out yield Tool forecasting Ÿ Crop growth estimation We run WRF Research & Forecast) model in collaboration with Ÿ Lightning and(Weather Thunderstorm Detection Sensors Ÿ Assessment of crop yield, production and at various stages Ÿ Crop Loans and Repayment Monitoring Tool NCEP (National for Environmentalhealth Prediction), USAgrowth that helps in Ÿ Soil nutrient levelCenter detection Ÿ Barometer (measuring Atmospheric Pressure)

32-33, Nehru Place,

New Delhi 110019 Crop Monitoring & GPS-based Crop Distribution Mapping issuing 7-day forecast for Asia on daily basis.

Ÿ Farm Correlation: Long Cloud term farm monitoring Ÿ Ceilometer (measuring Heights) Ÿ Possess proprietary technology for accurate 15-day forecast Ÿ Precise data for precision yield forecasting Ÿ Ultrasonic Depth using Sensor (forresolution Snow Depth calculation) Ÿ Crop healthSnow monitoring high Normalized Difference Vegetation

REGIONAL OFFICES Index (NDVI) images and crop signatures Live Weather Data Ÿ UV Sensor (for measuring Ultraviolet Index) Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data and Machine Learning for Ÿ App based extensive geo-coded field data gathering system Live availability from the dedicated network of AWS Ÿ Leaf weather Wetnessdata Sensor Auto Image Analysis and Advisory Mumbai Ÿ Weather data Temperature generated onSensor hourly etc. basis Soil Moisture One of the prime impacts of climate is the extreme weather event that may create huge Microwave Image-based Studies Ÿ Machine learning algorithms pool change the continuous data arriving from different sources 1403, PlotSkymet’s no. 4 and & 6, Cyber One Tower Ÿ Data repository, forofvarious professional applications In-house capability installation, operation and of AWS devastations and disasters if overlooked. DRM a maintenance new and ambitious area of forecast range of diseases affecting crops asiswell as indentifying specific disease Ÿ Microwave images help in paddy crop estimation and flood inundation area and weather instruments intervention, wherein wedata are capable System for hydroSector 30(DSS)’ A, Vashi, Ÿ Accuracy in weather productsof developing ‘Decision Support Ÿ Weather send Some temperature, humidity, wind extractionsensors very accurately meteorological disasters. of our specialities are speed and rainfall data to our cloud Navi Mumbai 400703 INDIA Ÿ It can also work out where the pest is likely to breed. When a potentially devastating infestation isand predicted, it automatically sends a text message to government cell Tel: +91 22officials’ 27813003 (Board) Lightning Thunderstorm Detection System Crop Intelligence BANKING & FINANCIAL

CLIENTS Crop Monitoring

Skymet offers the following hydro-meteorologica Ÿ Automatic Weather Stations (AWS)

Skymet's client list boasts leading names acro UAV based crop health of monitoring Ÿ Lightning and Thunderstorm Detection Senso

industries. The list is a reflection of our proficienc association with them and being a part of their a Forecasting(measuring for pest infestation Ÿ Ceilometer Cloud Heights)

Agro advisory models on real time basis Ÿ Barometer (measuring Atmospheric Pressure)

Central State Goverments | Ban Ÿ Farmersand usage based distribution models Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor (for Snow Dep

FMCG & Consumer Durables | NGO NGO INGO | Agriculture Insurance Crop&Cutting Experiments (CCE

Ÿ UV Sensor (for measuring Ultraviolet Index) Ÿ Leaf Wetness Sensor

Ÿ Pan Moisture India teamTemperature of experts for CCE etc. Ÿ Soil Sensor

Ÿ Proven expertise CCE Monitoring (CCEM) Ÿ In-house capabilityinof installation, operation a

and weather instruments Ÿ Proven expertise in Hailstorm Loss Assessme

Ÿ In-house capability to develop Mobile App for

CCEM (Sky Green)

Skymet is India's first and largest climate and agriculture risk Pune 2 floor, Department of Agrometerology, management company. Behind Department of Entomology,

phones, providing the time, location and severity of the potential outbreak. The warning allows authorities to pre-empt the outbreak by putting down insecticide. Tested on historical detection and early warning actual sown crop deviations data, the AI system was accurate in predicting and outbreak 88 per cent of the time Ÿ With the help of sophisticated sensors, the probability of lightning nd and thunderstorm can be Skymet provides financial and risk coverage solutions to generated oneParcel hour in advance Farm Ownership clientsLand in banks and financial Institutions.

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Validation AgriRisk -120 Credit Risk Assessment Flood Mapping and Service Modelling TŸ +91 4094500 College Of Agriculture, Shivajinagar, Ÿ Geo-tagging of farmers crop field using Ÿ In-house capability of undertaking flood inundation and damage assessment using software EŸ info@skymetweather.com Rural Lending Risk Management Solutions cadastral maps Pune 411005 INDIA

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Skymet provides financial and risk coverage so clients in banks and financial Institutions. Ÿ Agri - Credit Risk Assessment Service Ÿ Rural Lending Risk Management Solutions Ÿ Crop and Field Ownership Validation Tool

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Our vision is to become a pioneer in providing and crop validation Training & Capacity Building Crop Loans and Repayment Monitoring Tool weather forecast, climate risk management, SkymetWeatherServices Training and capacity building on major themes like climate change adaptation, weather Jaipur forecasting and early warning as well as disaster risk management can be undertaken for risk solutions and energy risk agriculture SkymetWeather K-12, 606 Malviya Marg, Panch Batti, various levels of stakeholders management to the world. C Scheme, Ashok Nagar, and modelling techniques

Ÿ Crop farmers and Fieldownership Ownership Validation Ÿ Linking data to crop Tool fields

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Ÿ

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Jaipur, Rajasthan 302001 INDIA Tel: +91 141 2379248


M O RE I N FO: W W W. B A R A N IDES IG N . C O M

B A R A N I DES IG N

Join the IoT revolution Many meteorological networks in Africa are not recording accurate data. However, accuracy can be improved and maintenance costs reduced with the application of new IoT technologies. By Jan Barani, CTO, BARANI DESIGN Technologies

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ost people don’t know that as many as 54% of Africa’s surface weather stations do not report accurate data (according to the World Bank), costing millions in maintenance each year. It is unacceptable that Africa, the second-most populous continent, has the world’s least developed water, and climate observation network, with less than 300 of its weather stations meeting the WMO’s observation standards. What we do know is that simple solutions work. A simple river gauge,

warning of rising water levels, can save lives, livestock, and help cities and farmers prepare for impending threats. Foreign investment in weather networks such as the The Trans-African HydroMeteorological Observatory (TAHMO) is proof of the value of meteorological data in Africa. Yet the benefits mostly remain in the hands of foreigners; most weather networks based on all-in-one weather stations do not benefit Africans, but instead the foreign corporations who build them. Developing Africa’s own meteorological network is an opportunity to

Future trends: Understanding meteorological data Near surface meteorological parameters such as air temperature and humidity are affected by many factors like vegetation, soil, sun exposure, clouds, atmospheric humidity, dust, air pollution, wind, and are highly variable and localised. Quality data demands traceability to precision standards – not in the laboratory, but in real outdoor conditions. EURAMET is studying and preparing a European guide on calibration of thermometers in air including radiation shields, and the International Surface Temperature Initiative (IST I) is promoting a joint action between metrologists and climatologists to identify all of the components of measurement uncertainty in near surface atmospheric air temperature records, according to Andrea Merlone, chair of the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Working Group Environment and co-ordinator of the MeteoMet project.

generate income – and profits – from a self-sustainable enterprise while saving lives, crops and livestock. The idea of Africa’s own weather network has been around for years, but never before have the technologies been in place to make it possible. The prohibitive cost of professional WMOconforming weather stations and sensors with complex maintenance is partly to blame. However, the Internet of Things (IoT) has changed the professional automated weather observing systems (AWOS) forever. Historically, the cost of wireless infrastructure kept wide area wireless data coverage expensive everywhere but in large population centres. However, new IoT wireless technologies like Sigfox and LoRaWAN are giving mobile phone network operators a run for their money. The cost savings are so significant that Sigfox and LoRaWAN enable private operators or governments to create high-quality wireless data coverage at an investment cost of less than 0.5 US$/ km2 and recurring costs reaching down VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 4 3


M O RE I N FO: W W W. B A R A N IDES IG N . C O M

B A R A N I DES IGN

Vandalism-tolerant meteorological network

 MetroHelix IT Pro

A high-density meteorological network based on affordable micro weather stations is inherently vandalism-proof. Larger data density allows the network to absorb a large number of end-point weather station vandalism failures while maintaining sufficient data density. Redundancy of wireless data coverage based on IoT technologies affords the network even more reliability. Combined with a micro weather station designed to prevent data access to thieves and with minimal resale or recyclable material value, this will de-incentivise serial thieves and vandals.

to 0.05 US$/km2. Private IoT networks can be built independently of the current GSM and LTE wireless networks, with redundancy, and can even operate costeffectively on satellite data. The reaction of mobile phone operators has been the rollout of NB-IoT and other technologies which cut the cost of data coverage significantly compared to today’s GSM/ GPRS meteorological data solutions. While high cost is still the status quo, companies like BARANI DESIGN Technologies are looking to break the cost chains of the past by leveraging the IoT revolution and Industry 4.0 to bring not only WMO precision, but complete data solutions at a never before possible combination of quality and affordability. Combining knowledge of meteorological data alongside IoT technologies, BARANI DESIGN Technologies has created a novel MeteoHelix micro weather station which meets most WMO meteorological measurement standards. IoT benefits for AWOS design Not all sensor trends in professional meteorology are sensible. The phrase ‘all-in-one‘ often means the sensor not particularly good at anything and claimed cost savings are often just imaginary. Can IoT technologies transform WMO-compliant weather networks to make them more, precise, affordable, secure and vandalism-tolerant? The benefits of IoT technologies 4 4 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

A solar radiation shield is the single most important component for accurate longterm temperature and humidity measurement translate well into AWOS design. Wireless hardware costs are directly proportional to weather station power consumption, which is minimised using Sigfox, aWAN and NB-IoT technologies. This translates into smaller batteries and solar panels, which directly affect weather station cost. Low-power with a realisable 10+km wireless range allows dataloggers and modem electronics to be located closer to sensors without the detrimental effects of self-heating, thus minimising weather station size and costs. Addressing maintenance problems Due to the localisation of weather phenomenon and micro climates, gradual soiling of sensors cannot be statistically removed from data by referencing to a well-maintained sensor network. All sensors must be recalibrated at regular intervals. The effects of solar heating, sensor

The ideal IoT weather station and network What would an ideal low-cost WMOcompliant weather station look like?  A combined weather station featuring integrated ultra-low power wireless IoT technologies to minimise battery and solar panel size and make self-heating effects negligible.  Measures air temperature, humidity, pressure, solar irradiation at a standard WMO two metre height, with the best possible solar shielding for high quality data.  Keep sensors clean and accurate to allow long maintenance intervals.  Featuring a rain gauge situated near the ground for easy maintenance and cleaning.  Wireless wind sensor five to 10 metres high, independent of other hardware with standalone wireless transmitter for high data throughput since wind is highly variable. To minimise field time, service of these micro weather stations should not be performed in the field. Each micro weather station should be replaced with a recalibrated one at predefined intervals. After recalibration, each micro weather station can replace a different one during field service. In-house recalibration of each weather station will determine sensor drift and offset over time. Such methodology will determine quickly which weather station locations require shorter or longer service intervals to maintain accuracy within the required WMO standards. This will lead to optimised network maintenance costs.

dirt buildup, moisture saturation and rain cooling of temperature and humidity sensors are solar shielddependent. Near the equator, sun shielding has the dominant effect on sensor accuracy. Thus, the solar radiation shield is the single most important component for accurate long-term temperature and humidity measurement. One new technology which promises to change that is the helical solar radiation shield. A recent WMO study has shown the helical MeteoShield to provide the best combination of sensor protection and accuracy in all weather conditions for significantly improved data quality over even fan-aspirated solar radiation shields and Stevenson screens.


M E T EO FR A N C E

Theory made into reality H

All international authorities are calling for the necessary strengthening of NHMSs. Angola is up to the challenge. Find out about INAMET’s modernisation project. By Amanda Normand, Communications Manager, MeteoFrance

igh-impact weather, climate and hydrological events have devastating effects throughout the world, causing loss of life, massive destruction of goods and property, and stunting economic development. In its latest Strategic Plan for 2016-2019, the WMO has reaffirmed the crucial role of NHMSs and the need to strengthen their capacities it order for them to better achieve their fundamental goals: to protect people and goods, and provide efficient support to the economy. Since its foundation in 2002, Meteo France International (MFI) has developed a unique and efficient methodology to assist NHMSs in their strengthening process, taking into consideration every step of the meteorological value chain. The key to success: a turnkey approach including technical infrastructure and solutions, as well as essential support for

 Actionable data

 Bay of Luanda, Angola

organisational issues, capacity building and change management. This global and integrated approach guarantees the sustainability of the investments made, as well as visible socio-economic benefits over a short period of time. Track record Over the past 15 years, MFI has successfully achieved several global modernisation projects in Indonesia, India, Egypt, Qatar, Cambodia and Libya. Today, MFI is engaged in the most ambitious hydromet project taking place in Africa: the strengthening of INAMET, the Angolan national met service, for a budget amounting to €60m. The objective: to design and implement a modern hydromet ecosystem that will allow the Angolan NHMS to provide better service in terms of forecasting and warning, but also high-quality support and decision-aid tools to the country’s major economic sectors, such as agriculture and the oil and gas industry.

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The project is of course compliant with all WMO recommendations and will allow Angola to fully participate in the global meteorological scene, including international exchange of data and products. Developing and turning into reality such a complex project has required, in the early stages, the co-ordination of different stakeholders – INAMET, of course, but also the Angolan Government (mainly through its Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technology), and finally a financing partner, the French bank Société Générale. Over the years, MFI has developed a real expertise in terms of high-level institutional negotiations and financing engineering. As turnkey project integrator, MFI then intervenes at each step of the project, starting with basic infrastructures, the first link of the meteorological value chain. The objective: ensure the necessary civil works are done in order to properly host all new equipment provided by the project, whether they be observation system or IT-related. For example, in the case of the Angolan project, MFI’s teams are in charge of the rehabilitation of a building meant to become INAMET’s new headquarters. They will also be supervising the erection of a radar tower and the preparation of all observation


M O RE I N FO: W W W. M E T EO FR A N C E . C O M

 Angola project timeline

sites. It is important to underline that MFI will be managing all infrastructure networks and running costs, including telecom fees. Observation systems Concerning observation systems (the second link of the meteorological value chain), the challenge is to implement new equipment while integrating existing ones, overcoming the inevitable heterogeneity of the final network. It is also to select the best installation sites to ensure the safety and the sustainability of all the systems implemented. The objective pursued is to offer a comprehensive coverage of the country, in full compliance with WMO requirements regarding implementation of WIS and WIGOS. In Angola, MFI will be modernising or creating 70 observation sites, covering the full range of systems, namely automatic weather stations (synoptic, meso, agro and hydrological), upper air, AWOS, lightning network and radar. The data collected by the

Cross-industry applications The Angola project includes four application sub-projects in the following fields: agriculture, hydrology, seismology and oil and gas. Regarding oil & gas, MFI will provide adequate systems and services in order for INAMET to be able to serve efficiently the Angolan national company SONANGOL and ensure the safety of all offshore activities. This subproject includes tailored metocean data flow and daily meteorological briefing provided by Météo France. It also includes the ability to run oil spill drift prediction model and the development of a dedicated extranet for the operators of the Angolan oil & gas industry.

strengthened Angolan national observation network leads to the third link of the met value chain: information systems. They are the cornerstone of INAMET’s global meteorological ecosystem, meeting all the needs of a modern NHMS: Data collection (OBSMET universal DCS) Telecommunications (TRANSMET AMSS) Data management & modelling (CLISYS CDMS and CIPS data center) Forecasting (SYNERGIE-WEB) Early Warning and Public Weather Services (METEOFACTORY®) MFI’s systems are co-developed with the experts of our mother company Météo-France for maximum relevance and efficiency. Météo-France will also provide customised data flow for optimised forecasting activities. All systems will be configured in France before shipment and implementation in Angola. Each system will be the subject of a full training programme, complemented by an Assistance to

Operational Start (AOS) phase: the guarantee that INAMET’s staff will have full mastery of the new technical solutions provided by MFI. The Angolan project includes not less than 6,000 training days, demonstrating the strong emphasis put on transfer of know-how and capacity building. Real world benefits The global information system implemented and administrated during the project by MFI has mainly two purposes, which constitute the fourth and last link of the meteorological value chain: to produce early warning to protect populations and goods (mainly against flash floods leading to dramatic landslides, as well as severe epidemic outbreaks), and to generate relevant weather and climate services for main economic sectors. In line with the objectives of the Global Weather Enterprise concerning co-operation between the private and public sectors, the Angolan project has been designed in the spirit of partnership and efficiency. MFI has committed itself to walk hand and hand with INAMET for an integrated project that will bring visible benefits to the country in three years. Beyond technical solutions and equipment, human resources are at the centre of the project as we believe they are the key to sustainability. MFI’s methodology and approach is suitable for all countries seeking to better address critical societal needs in terms of weather and climate information. The effects of climate change and the multiplication of severe weather events do not have to be fatal: NHMSs have a crucial role to play and MFI is the best partner to assist them taking up this ambitious challenge.

VA R Y S I A N M H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 4 7


WX RISK GLOBAL

Weather

protection Tools are available that can protect farmers, businesses and governments against the financial risks of extreme weather conditions. By Rebecca Leonardi, Partner, Wx Risk Global

Wx

Risk Global is a global weather risk solutions company that provides weather and natural peril protection products and services to individuals, organisations, cities and nations world-wide, who have the greatest potential of falling victim to climate-related financial loss. Our company also functions to educate relative to the advantages of using weather protection products for income security, natural peril preparedness, and alternative relief and recovery financing. Furthermore, the goal of Wx Risk Global is to assist organisations to raise and receive funds for the support and enhancement of disaster relief and recovery efforts on a global scale. Wx Risk Global’s Purpose is to use financial tools to design viable weather risk protection solutions for entities that

have significant exposure to volatile weather conditions. These tools include:  Comprehensive analysis & consultation. Performing a comprehensive budget analysis of each financial transaction to establish customised protection programmes.  Price discovery. Discovering the best prices available for protection within its network of trusted suppliers.  24/7 monitoring. Monitoring the customised weather protection programme to track its effectiveness for further improvement as well as the occurrence of the event. Why use weather protection? Weather protection eases the burden of financial losses due to bad weather. If weather conditions are good, the buyer enjoys the benefits of a successful business period. If weather conditions are bad, the buyer can be assured that losses will be compensated with money that can be used for anything needed.

What is weather protection? Weather protection (also known as ‘weather derivatives’ or ‘certificates’) are financial contracts that provide payment for bad or unexpected weather conditions. Weather protection is typically valued, priced, and paid based on specified observed weather conditions from official government weather stations. Weather conditions could include, for example, total rainfall over a relevant period or the number of days in which the minimum temperature falls below zero degrees Celsius (‘frost days’). Who uses them? Met services, governments, nongovernment organisations, and many industries can benefit from weather protection. Agriculture is a great example, as farmers are exposed to many types of weather risks. More specifically, temperature and rainfall are two important factors in growing any crop.

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M O RE I N FO: W W W.W X RI S KGL O B A L . C O M

Our mission is to alleviate the financial burdens of weather uncertainty for all who are exposed

Farmers can use weather protection to recover losses from poor harvests caused by:  Lack of rains during the growing period;  Excessive rain during harvesting;  High winds in the case of plantations and sensitive fruits and vegetables;  Temperature variabilities in case of greenhouse crops. Mission, values and vision Wx Risk Global cannot exist without functioning in accordance with its mission, values and vision. The spirit of our values provides our team with the realisation that every day we are

in pursuit of something much larger than personal successes. As such, all strategic decisions of the company are made in order to do our part in making the world a better place. We understand that what we do is important. The impact that we are capable of providing to the world brings progress to both social action and environmental protection. Therefore, our company is focusing its efforts on these aspects. We constantly introduce the newest innovations within the realm of weather risk protection and pursue the best course of action to protect all from the negative effects of weather on finances.

How weather protection works With the asssistance of Wx Risk Global, the weather conditions that cause financial losses are identified. Example: During the growing season (1 August – 30 October), farmers begin to see crop degradation as rainfall totals fall short of 10mm, with coverage up to a limit of $1,000. Based on the identified weather conditions, Wx Risk Global designs a weather protection contract that provides “emergency cash” when the weather conditions are present. Example: For a one-time upfront cost of $100, farmers will be paid $100 for each mm less than 10mm, up to a limit of $1,000 at the end of the growing season (1 August – 30 October). The weather protection contract is secured by paying the upfront cost of $100 (known as the ‘premium’). The weather protection contract period occurs. Final settlement is calculated, reported and paid based on the weather conditions observed by the weather station specified in the contract. Example: During the growing season, it rained a total of 5mm. Therefore, the farmer will be paid $500.

Our mission is to alleviate the financial burdens of weather uncertainty for all who are exposed. Our company recognises the intricate connection between quality of life and the environment. Accordingly, we believe that as more cost-effective and less resourcedepleting solutions to protecting finances from adverse weather become more accessible, so too comes the decrease of our global carbon footprint. Furthermore, as a result of this environmental relief, the weather will also normalise, making its impact less of a detriment to human well-being. Humanity and environment are our values. We defend these values as we protect you from adverse weather. An unwavering commitment to our mission, values and vision is based on the understanding that what we provide is not meant to be a luxury for a select few, but rather a necessity for all and the environment. Wx Risk Global is by its very nature a company that devotes all available resources to creating and initialising the implementation of weather risk mitigating solutions, no matter the unique needs of the client. Our vision is a world in which weather protection is a human right and not a privilege. While providing Weather Risk Solutions to for-profit corporations is an important aspect of our business, Wx Risk Global primarily dedicates its efforts towards partnering with organisations to develop programmes that promote social and environmental impact. These programme-related investments provide philanthropists the ability to finance weather protection solutions for those who are incapable of protecting themselves. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 4 9


AYYEKA REMOTE MONITORING SIMPLIFIED Ayyeka provides a scalable platform to simply connect your remote assets to your decision makers. Know what’s really happening at the click of a button.

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Data can be stored on any server, and integrated into any SCADA, software, or business intelligence (BI) platform.

With Ayyeka, users can collect any type of data using any sensor and transmit over any communication network.

Configurable

Fleet Management

Ayyeka Data Hub

Network Communication

Users can configure any feature remotely to meet changing applications and operational requirements.

Wavelet Device

Any Sensor

With Ayyeka, managing one system is just as easy as managing an entire scaled smart infrastructure network.

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Ayyeka’s systems operate autonomously in the field for long periods of time.

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M O RE I N FO: W W W. C O M E T.U C A R. ED U

U C A R /C O M E T

A new

dimension

The 3D-Printed Automatic Weather Station can be assembled locally at low cost, putting control in the hands of local NHMSs. By Dr. Paul A. Kucera and Martin Steinson, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/COMET Program

M

any surface weather stations across the globe suffer from incorrect siting, poor maintenance and limited communications for real-time monitoring. To expand observation networks in sparsely observed regions, the 3D-PAWS (3D-Printed Automatic Weather Station) initiative has been launched by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and the US National Weather Service International Activities Office (NWS IAO), with support from the USAID Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). The objectives of the initiative are to: Build capacity to reduce hydrometeorology-related risk in developing countries; Observe and communicate weather and climate information to rural communities; Develop observation networks and applications to reduce weather-related risk.

System overview A very high-quality 3D-PAWS surface weather station can be manufactured in about a week, at a cost of only $200400, using locally sourced materials, microsensor technology, low-cost single board computers, and a 3D printer. Systems can be assembled locally in country incorporating ‘print and replace’ components for when systems

fail, enabling local agencies to take ownership in building and maintaining observation networks. Sensor evaluation 3D-PAWS sensors were evaluated at the UCAR Marshall Research Facility in Boulder, Colorado and the NOAA Testbed facility in Sterling, Virginia. The Boulder site provides sampling conditions in a high-altitude semiarid environment with subfreezing temperatures and frozen precipitation. The NOAA site provides sampling for a more temperate and humid climate near sea-level. Sensor observations were compared with calibrated commercial reference sensors. Overall, the sensors compared well with calibrated reference sensors and are comparable to WMO standards. The sensors are currently being independently tested and certified by the NOAA Testbed facility to meet WMO standards.

Benefits of 3D-PAWS  Use 3D printers – inexpensive technology  Use low-cost, reliable micro-sensors  Design a system that that can be assembled locally in country  ‘Print and replace’ components when systems fail  Enable local agencies to take ownership in building and maintaining observation networks

 3D-PAWS station located at the Caribbean Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), Barbados

Data access 3D-PAWS real-time data are available on the CHORDS (Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for Geosciences) project data server: http://3d.chortsrt.com. CHORDS is a US National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative to provide a platform for sharing geosciences datasets. It is supported and managed by the UCAR/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL). VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 5 1


M O RE I N FO: W W W. C O M E T.U C A R. ED U

U C A R /C O M E T

The COMET Program

 Martin Steinson (COMET) demonstrating the 3D-PAWS station at the Agence Nationale de l’Aviation Civile et de la Météorologie (ANACIM), Dakar, Senegal

The COMET ® Program is a worldwide leader in support of education and training for the environmental sciences, delivering scientifically relevant and instructionally progressive products and services. More recently, the program has expanded its international capacity development to improve rural and remote communication and collection of meteorological information in developing countries.

Station pilot networks 3D-PAWS systems have been deployed in the US (4), Kenya (20), Zambia (6), Barbados (2), Curacao (1), Senegal (1), Germany (1), and Austria (1), with new stations being installed in El Salvador, Guatemala and Costa Rica. The primary focus in the US is on testing and evaluation. The sites in Kenya are co-located with schools with a test site at the Kenya Met Department (KMD). The sites in Zambia are installed at radio stations, schools, and rural missions with a test site at the Zambia Met Department (ZMD). The sites in the Caribbean are located at the Curacao Met Department (CMD) and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) with the primary focus on testing and evaluation. Applications The 3D-PAWS systems can be used for a variety of applications that include:

Regional weather forecasting Observations from the 3D-PAWS network can be assimilated into regional numerical weather prediction systems such as the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF: http://www.wrf-

model.org) model to improve mesoscale weather forecasts. Regional decision support systems Real-time monitoring of precipitation in ungauged or minimally gauged river basins can provide input to flash flood guidance and early warning decision support systems to support delivery of flood alerts. Agricultural monitoring 3D-PAWS can support water resource management tools to improve reservoir operation for fresh water supplies and the generation of hydroelectric power. Other applications include operation of irrigation systems (e.g., centre pivots) and agricultural crop monitoring.

 Martin Steinson (COMET) and Paul Kucera (COMET) explaining 3D-PAWS sensors to students at the Naivasha All Girls School, Naivasha, Kenya

5 2 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

Health monitoring 3D-PAWS can also help monitor conditions leading to outbreaks of diseases such as meningitis and malaria.


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P U LS O N I C

Hybrid

observation Automating synoptic observation in Africa. By JeanYves Van Kempen, Commercial Director, PULSONIC

M

any African meteorological services want to automate meteorological observation in order to increase the frequency of observations and standardise the quality of measurement. These modernisation projects can often disrupt the organisation of human resources and significantly change the structure of services. This raises the following question: how can synoptic observation be modernised by integrating existing human resources? The use of a ‘hybrid’ observation solution that combines automatic and manual observation seems to be a good answer. Automatic and manual combined PULSONIC has developed a solution that allows a complete SYNOP (surface

synoptic observations) message to be encoded using a combination of manual and automatic observations. This solution makes it possible to limit the investment because it is no longer necessary to acquire a visbilimeter or a cloud telemeter, and enhances human capital by maintaining the presence of an observer. In the meteorological garden, the automatic weather station is equipped with the following sensors:  Measurement of wind direction and strength at 10m;  Measurement of precipitation;  Measurement of the temperature of the air under shelter;  Measurement of the humidity of the air under shelter;  Measurement of global radiation. Other sensors can be added to this

 How a hybrid synoptic station works 5 4 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

configuration. The automatic weather station automatically sends its data to the observer's office using a Wi-Fi connection. The data is displayed on the software interface which provides a pre-coded SYNOP message. The value of the cloud base height and visibility can be entered manually to complete the message. The SYNOP message is validated by the observer before being broadcast on the WMO GTS. A second communication channel sends meteorological data via GPRS to the meteorological service headquarters.

 PULSONIC automatic weather station in Togo


M O RE I N FO: W W W. P U LS O N I C . C O M

 Synoptic weather station installation in Burkina Faso

 Weather station installation in Benin To achieve this objective, we have chosen to protect all cables from the outside. Also, solar panels are integrated into the enclosures to prevent theft. Finally, the connectors are waterproof to resist the presence of moisture or sand.

Here, weather data is automatically integrated into the climatological database and maintenance teams have access to maintenance data in order to monitor the status of the network remotely. This solution combines automatic and manual observation so that an observer can easily generate the SYNOP message in time. Adapting to environmental conditions Choosing to introduce weather stations into your observation network is no easy task. Indeed, some new skills are needed to complete this transition and to manage the network of stations in a sustainable way. It is important to choose a robust and simple station model that will meet the environmental requirements of the African continent. The P4-100 datalogger designed by PULSONIC is delivered preprogrammed so that the end user does not need any specific skills to configure it. Once the network parameters have been entered, the datalogger can already communicate. In addition, the sensors are automatically detected.

The solutions developed by PULSONIC are simple and robust so that maintenance teams are quickly operational and the equipment can survive heat, humidity or sand conditions.

Long live the revolution! Automatic weather stations make it possible to increase the frequency of measurement and standardise observation across a country or region. The hybrid solution proposed by PULSONIC for synoptic observation makes it possible to limit the investment by designing a manual observation part. This revolution can only be positive if the teams are involved and if it is carried out in stages.

STAGED EXPANSION: GROWING THE SKILLSET Moving from a fully manual observation to a partially or fully automatic observation can be considered a revolution – a skills revolution that is taking place at every level of a meteorological service's organisation. Indeed, it is necessary not only to develop skills in the field of electronics or electricity but also to acquire know-how for data or computer management. This evolution can be carried out in several stages so that everyone can acquire the skills necessary for a successful transition. Why not start with a few automatic stations and gradually expand the network? Training allows teams to progress and associate them with this revolution. Even if new skills must be mobilised, it is often important to improve existing team skills in order to enhance know-how. Involving teams in this technological revolution makes it softer and achieves its objectives. When installing stations, PULSONIC prefers that the technical service be integrated into the installation mission. This field training complements the theoretical explanations. In addition, PULSONIC regularly offers remote support for two years to strengthen the technical capacities of technicians. This can take the form of telephone support or remote control of computer equipment.

VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 5 5


AY Y E K A

Optimised remote monitoring Smart networks enable efficient data collection. By Omar Thiam, Regional Sales Manager, Ayyeka

W

ith the Internet of Things (IoT) comes the ability to create smart networks that can optimise the management of everything from weather stations to offshore infrastructure like oil wells. Smart networks differ dramatically from existing telemetric solutions that have allowed for limited-scale remote monitoring to be carried out for decades. Modern IoT solutions leverage advanced low-power, low-bandwidth communication networks to relay information directly from the field to

 Ayyeka platform

network administrators at a greater scale than has been possible before. The information obtained from smart networks can be used in a multitude of ways, such as through internal analysis programmes or by direct integrations with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used to oversee critical infrastructure networks. Below is a step-by-step guide that will help NHMSs and utilities that want to deploy smart networks. Network planning Plan which elements of the infrastructure will be monitored and determine which parameters real-time knowledge is required to maximise network performance. Environmental protection agencies or utilities, for example, may be interested in monitoring rainfall and surface water levels as part of a flood warning system because of ever increasing flash floods related to climate change. After determining the parameters that will be monitored, source an IoT hardware provider that sells the appropriate sensors to monitor these parameters. For original equipment

5 6 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

Outdoor Air Quality

Surface Water

Optical Water Quality

 Ayyeka environmental monitoring applications

REMOTE MONITORING SIMPLIFIED WITH AYYEKA  Ayyeka offers what you need to effectively manage and protect your smart infrastructure.  Ayyeka’s kits are equipped with advanced cybersecurity and physical access protection which ensure that they cannot be used as reverse entry points to sensitive databases.  Ayyeka has developed patentpending low-power algorithms that adapt to communication network conditions and optimise the sensor power profiles. This extends battery life and eliminates the need for external power.  Autonomous decisions are made at the network edge, onboard the devices. This further reduces battery consumption and frees central resources for other processing tasks.


M O RE I N FO: W W W. AY Y E K A . C O M

Rain Noise Pollution

Agriculture

Groundwater Wind Soil Moisture

manufacturers, this may involve hardware that can integrate with their own solutions. Those undertaking the monitoring effort to comply with legislation, such as environmental protection agency ordinances, should ensure that all equipment used, especially the sensors, meet the legislation’s requirements. Answering questions will further guide the choice of vendor. Does the infrastructure network consist of widely dispersed assets, such as a tsunami warning system with sensors positioned many kilometres apart, or is it a within-the-perimeter system, such as an isolated all-in-one weather station or ground water level station? Will some of the assets live below the surface or far off the coast, beyond the reach of traditional cellular networks? LP-WAN networks, such as Sigfox and LoRaWAN, can penetrate intervening concrete structures with relative ease and, as an unlicensed network, base stations can be set up wherever the network needs to go. GSMbased networks, by comparison, are limited to the infrastructure deployed by the network operator but are usually widespread.

How will the GSM network operator phase out 2G and 3G networks in my area? Is the remote monitoring platform ready for 4G, Cat-M or NB-IoT networks? Choosing a durable solution is important knowing that the world of telecommunications networks is changing rapidly. What sample rate will be sufficient to obtain the needed information? Is it variable? If so, upon which conditions does it depend? More frequent sample rates and higher bandwidth transmissions incur greater power overheads. IoT gateways with external power supplies may be more suitable in cases with these requirements. Once a remote monitoring platform is chosen, deployment of the field sensors that will comprise the smart network can begin. The complexity of the installation project will depend on the extent of the network, and whether the sensing equipment being installed will be powered by on-board or external power sources. Data collection With installation complete, the process of collecting data from the smart network begins. Depending on the provider selected, the data may be traveling to a SCADA system, an online vendor’s user interface (UI), or another destination, such as a public or private cloud. While data collection is a passive process, system maintenance is not. Much of the upkeep, such as software upgrades, can be done remotely. Most installations will require field visits

Collect Data Reassess Analyze

Implement Solve

 Iterative data collection process

periodically, although the visits can be far less frequent when a remote monitoring solution is in place. Routine operations will include sensor calibration and maintenance tasks. Given the ‘smart’ nature of the network, proactive and predictive maintenance methodologies can be employed, reducing labour costs when compared with sending teams to the field. On-board power sources, for example, may have to be replaced on a fixed schedule. Smart networks are flexible and modular. Sensors may need to be added, or reconfigured, as the needs of the use-case — and monitoring programme — change over time. Data analysis A flood of field data risks can create a flood of confusion if network operators do not have some computer assistance to help separate network signal from noise. Data can be analysed in situ, on the network edge or through programmes running on a traditional server infrastructure. Standard, server-side data analytics programmes can run on a public or private cloud to parse information obtained from the network and assist operators by flagging potentially actionable cues for action. Edge analytics is a fast-growing, emerging discipline in which analyticscapable processing power is placed directly on the devices themselves on the network edge. This involves analysing data in situ, while offline, and making autonomous decisions about what information to transmit to the operations room for further analysis. System optimisation Once a network has been deployed and is generating real-time insights about important network parameters, it is time to leverage those insights to optimise the system’s health. With the sensor nodes installed, and the data continuously being transmitted to the selected server, the smart network information is viewable and the data is available for analysis on the network. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 5 7


QINETIQ

Optimal

efficiency

Q

QNA continues to offer best-in-class met sensors maximised for size, weight and power. By Quinn Smith, PADS & MET Sensors Product Manager, QinetiQ North America

inetiQ North America (QNA) provides bestin-class meteorological sensors maximised for size, weight, and power (SWaP) in response to demand from military and research customers worldwide. It was only a few years ago that the US Air Force (USAF) put out a call for industry to provide a small and lightweight sounding capability to enable the warfighter to measure the atmosphere from anywhere at any time. Because of QNA’s extensive background in dropsonde expendables, QNA rapidly prototyped and fielded the TASK (Tactical Atmospheric Sounding Kit) for test and evaluation with the USAF. Within a year, the TASK system was fielded into theatre to support weather missions and other needs. The TASK system was developed around a very specific tactical, meteorological requirement: A lowcost, highly mobile, one-man portable system capable of measuring the

 TASK™ Tactical Atmospheric Sounding Kit

5 8 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

atmosphere up to 40,000 feet above ground level using minimal amounts of helium or hydrogen. The 38 gram TASK radiosonde continuously measures and broadcasts wind speed, wind direction, pressure, temperature, and humidity. Measurements are made through the air column on a 30 gram weather balloon with seven cubic feet of helium (about 32 inch diameter).

TASK Radiosonde atmospheric data is relayed by the TASK UHF Transceiver to a standard laptop, or other computer, via USB where it can be used for a multitude of missions. The TASK system has been deployed worldwide in support of tactical mission sets. It has proven to be successful in these missions, validated by overwhelmingly positive testimonials from military personnel worldwide.

 New iQ-3 Synoptic Radiosonde can be raised with just 20 cubic feet of gas


M O RE I N FO W W W.Q I N E T I Q- N A . C O M

 WiPPR™ Wind Profiling Portable RADAR

The TASK radiosonde was the first of its kind to meet the specific SWaP limitations for the ultra-tactical market. Now the meteorological market requires more than an ultra-tactical radiosonde. The iQ-3 is a revolutionary synoptic radiosonde fully compatible with the TASK family of systems. Weighing less than 100 grams and highly mobile, the iQ-3 is within the specifications for the US National Weather Service. Now, for the first time, military and research customers can have one, highly mobile, single-man portable, USB receive station capable of accepting both ultra-tactical and synoptic soundings. Because iQ-3 was designed to the TASK receiver specifications, the entire system can be carried in a small, military standard (MIL-STD) case weighing less than seven kilograms. Like its smaller predecessor, the iQ-3 also uses significantly less helium or hydrogen when compared to other systems. It is launched with a balloon as small as 100 grams and filled with less than 20 cubic feet of helium/hydrogen. Users can now carry only a fraction of the gas required compared with other systems. The iQ-3 also features a small USB-driven receive station and sondes for both tactical and synoptic soundings – dramatically reducing the logistical footprint required by other systems in both space and manpower. QNA has positioned the TASK system to address the total cost of ownership via positive cost benefit

analysis due to its drastically low cost for the receive stations, no annual warranty fee, logistical footprint reduction, and the overarching benefits not found in any other sounding system. The TASK ultra-tactical radiosonde provides users with unmatched capability in SWaP, and the iQ-3 gives users a fully synoptic sounding while using the same TASK ground station software and USB receiver. QNA is demonstrating to the worldwide market that it is offering best-in-class sounding systems designed to satisfy the users’ needs. Wind measurement In addition to its tactical sounding systems and various other militaryfocused products, QNA has proven expertise in RADAR wind measurement. QNA’s WiPPR™ Wind Profiling Portable RADAR is the smallest and most capable vertical wind profiler on the market today. QNA has gone through extensive user testing, hardening, and SWaP reduction. Weighing less than 125 pounds, WiPPR nominally requires less than 500 watts of power and occupies less than a one square meter space. It can be set up in less than 15 minutes, is two-man portable, and is designed as an unattended ground sensor (UGS). In direct contrast to other wind profiling systems, WiPPR provides standard range-cells of three meters with the capability to provide rangecells down to 1.5 metres within the convective boundary layer. Because

WIPPR’s range-cells are very small in comparison to LIDAR, SODAR, and standard RADAR profilers, the system provides users with very high-resolution wind data in all three axes (x, y, z). Maximum ranges typically exceed 5,000 metres using three-meter range-cells. WiPPR uses RADAR technology to measure Clear Air Scatterers to detect winds in the same manner as LIDAR on standard days. One of WiPPR’s best features is that it can measure in inclement weather, which can cause LIDAR and SODAR to fail. While designed as a UGS, WiPPR can also be mounted on a vehicle for mobile applications such as tornado research, artillery support, and many other situations. WiPPR is a cost effective and highly efficient solution for vertical wind profiling needs across military, research and commercial applications.

 Riverine Drifter River data QinetiQ North America’s Riverine Drifter also provides unique sensor and measurement capabilities. The Riverine Drifter is a remote, freefloating buoy that collects data from unknown river conditions such as river current, depth and temperature. This information provides key data points that feed into the common operating picture, enhancing situational awareness that can be used to assist with mission planning, as well as flood plain analysis or channels in navigable waterways. The Riverine Drifter is designed to be launched in the waterway of interest and travel downstream gathering river current, depth and temperature data. The data collected is transmitted via satellite for immediate distribution. The operational applications require no additional support after deployment. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 5 9


M E T EO B LU E

Data exchange With meteoblue’s weather Data-Xchange, users can trade local measurement data for extensive historical simulations for the same location. By Karl Gutbrod, CEO, meteoblue

M

eteoblue hosts by now the largest global hourly historic simulation (SIM) weather dataset available online. Customers can access more than 30 years of data for more than 10 variables (pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation and others) at any place in the world via the history+ interface. Access for one location costs a one-time fee of US$110 (for web purchases) and produces images and complete data files downloadable within few seconds. Although this is a cheap and uniquely complete weather history service, it is still not accessible to many potential users, for several reasons. Some users do not know about it or are not certain about the quality of the data. Others do not have a budget for purchasing the data, do not have access to an electronic payment method for purchasing the data, or are not allowed to purchase data. Users also need to prove the usefulness of these data for their purposes. The meteoblue weather DataXchange SIMxMES offer addresses these issues. It offers access to a complete historic SIM for any location in the world, in exchange for at least one year of measurement (MES) data for the same location.

The weather Data-Xchange concept The basic trading principle is simple: Free-of-charge exchange of data; One year of historic measurement data is traded for 10 years of simulation data for one location; Trading can be done for as many 6 0 • VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9

PUBLIC

C Last

 Measurement validation chart, included in quality report

Figure 1 measur chart, in report.

locations as measurement data are available; Minimum trading volume is one year of quality-controlled measurement data; The exchange is governed by a simple protocol, ensuring completeness, accuracy, quality, and timeliness of supply for both simulation and

measurement data; The entire process from order to delivery can be completed within a week. The offer will be complemented with a quality control process for the measurement data. This will ensure classification of measurement data according to their suitability for further

Figure 1 multi-m data ch simulat precipit


M O RE I N FO: W W W. M E T EO B LU E . C O M

use, feedback to the partner and trading of proper datasets. A quality control report will be provided for any supplied measurement data set of ≥1 year (see example).

Both parties grant each other free rights of use of the data supplied. meteoblue uses the measurements to determine the accuracy of local simulation, improve the forecast

offer, and increase the availability of measurement data, as well as the estimation of measurement quality. Data-Xchange offer results The meteoblue weather Data-Xchange SIMxMES offer allows partners to get access to the full range of complete hourly historic simulation weather dataset for any location in the world, where measurement data are available, without payments and with little effort. Thereby, partners can substantially expand the scope of time (10-30 years) and variables (up to 16) of their weather data repository, and receive quality control of their measurements data, free of charge. The meteoblue weather DataXchange offer is based on a few simple principles of trading data: Long-term (10 year) simulation data traded for short-term (1 year) measurement data; Exchange of data for same location (to make them comparable); Exchange of data for same variable (to make them comparable); Exchange of data for same time interval (daily or hourly); Simple stepwise process to ensure quality control and best possible outcome for both parties; Mutual free use of data. Trading options vary with quality level and years of measurement data provided (see table). Data packages will always be traded by location. This means that measurements for one location gives access to the corresponding simulation package for one location, measurements for two locations gives access to the corresponding simulation package for two locations, and so forth.

 Weather Data-Xchange offer features and benefits Offer Feature

Application benefits

Access to 10-30 years of gapless 1. Fill gaps of measurement data weather simulation data for any loca- 2. Construct long-term time series tion with ≥1 year measurements 3. Adjust simulation long-term time series based on measurements Reliable and consistent source of verified simulation data

1. Accuracy known in advance 2. Can detect measurement errors 3. Can improve accuracy through statistics 4. Continuous future supply possible

Four variable packages: temperature, precipitation, wind speed & direction, radiation) expandable to three additional variables per package

1. Mirrors all major measurement variables. 2. Adds more related variables 3. Allows comparison of additional variables to basic measurements

Supplied in easy-to-use format

1. Processable with any desktop software 2. Ability to insert into existing systems

Use of global quality standards

1. Simulation data comparable with measurements 2. Easy exchange of data and information 3. Quality control process included in offer

Transparent process based on publicly available information

1. Partner obtains relevant information beforehand 2. Partner can share process with peers 3. Equal treatment of all partners

Offer is free-of-charge

1. No out-of-pocket expenses 2. No need of commercial structures 3. Easy to justify

 Weather Data-Xchange trading options Measurement quality

Package level

Simulation package offer (years)

1

5

10

20

30

>30

Top quality

Extended

Free

<1

1

2

3

>3

Suitable

Multimodel

Free

<1

1

2

3

>3

Partially suitable

Basic

Free

<1

1

2

3

>3

Not suitable

QC Report

Free

2 to 5

 Simulation data package types and variable components Package type

Variables: Temperature

Variables: Precipitation

Variables: Radiation

Variables: Wind

Basic

Temperature

Precipitation

Radiation (Shortwave)

Wind speed

Multimodel

Temperature

Precipitation

Radiation (Shortwave)

Wind speed (10m)

Extended

Temperature 2m Surface temperature Dew-point temperature Pressure

Precipitation Precipitation type Relative humidity Evapotranspiration

Radiation (Shortwave) Direct radiation Extra terrestrial Total cloud cover

Wind speed (10m) Wind direction (10m) Wind gusts (10m) Wind (80m)

Special

On request

On request

On request

On request

VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 6 1


SKYMET W E AT H ER

End-to-end

solutions

India’s leading weather specialists have much to offer in Africa, from automated weather stations to weather forecasts and crop monitoring. By Yogesh Patil, CEO, Skymet Weather

S

kymet is India’s first and largest climate and agricultural risk management company. Our vision is to become a pioneer in providing weather forecast, climate risk management, agriculture risk solutions and energy risk management to the world. We are a team of over 300 experts specialised in diverse subjects, such as weather forecasting, climatology, agriculture, oceanography, risk modelling, instrumentation, computer sciences, statistics, remote sensing and geographical information systems as well as drone technology. Skymet closely works with farmers, government organisations, agri-input companies, insurance companies, banks, international institutions and media.

Specialists in weather-based climate change adaptation practices, Skymet has a network of over 6,000 automatic weather stations (AWS) across India and extensive weather data and forecasting capabilities. The company specialises in disaster risk management (DRM), lightning detection and mitigation solutions, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and remote sensing applications and has the in-house capability of using geographical information systems (GIS) for risk mapping and modelling. Skymet also has expertise in measuring, predicting and limiting climate risks in the agricultural sector and allied disciplines, as well as crop insurance solutions, crop-cutting experiments and agriculture yield estimation.

 Data is accessible easily

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 Skymet has a network of over 6,000 automatic weather stations (AWS) across India

Below we focus on three core solutions that could have valuable applications in Africa – AWS, weather forecasting and crop warehouse monitoring. Automatic weather stations The AWS measures various aspects of hyper-localised weather data, which is used to generate real time granular weather and crop monitoring data. It can be termed as a low cost, state-of-theart IoT (Internet of Things) hub which can integrate various kinds of data. Scalability. We can deploy multiple sensors in the station, through which we can monitor various parameters. For instance, we can measure rainfall, temperatures, air quality, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, soil moisture and soil temperature all through one station. Connectivity. The AWS has a datalogger that can store data for more than month. Thereafter, whenever it is connected through GPRS, the AWS syncs the stored data with the cloud.


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 Data can be tracked through the SWIMS portal

Management. Through the AWS, we offer an end-to-end management solution where all the stakeholders, from the client to insurance companies and manufacturers, can see the data through our portal, SWIMS (Skymet Weather Information Monitoring System). Weather forecasts Weather forecasting is in our DNA. It is the central skill around which Skymet has grown. Short range. This includes weather forecasts for the next two to three days, showing rain intensity and probability, maximum and minimum temperatures, humidity, wind direction and speed. Medium range. This includes weather forecast for seven to 15 days, depicting maximum and minimum temperature range and rainfall pattern. Long or extended range. This includes weather forecasts for up to the next six months, featuring forecasts for monsoon, MJO (Madden–Julian

oscillation), IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole), ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone), and more. End-to-end warehouse solution We also offer a solution for the health of crops stored in warehouses as well.

Here we install several sensors in the warehouse, which track variability of in-house temperatures and raise alerts. Vigilant post-harvest grain management is as important to the survival of the crop as the management of conditions in the fields. In fact, it is the most cost-effective means of securing the yield as well as for increasing the shelf life of stored grain. Furthermore, spoiled or damaged stored grain leads to decreased nutritional value and also poses health hazards as spoiling increases the chances of volatile metabolites forming inside grain bins. Quality changes and increases in carbon dioxide can be monitored through the sensors installed in the warehouse. All the data retrieved can be tracked through our portal (SWIMS) or could be seen live on the map. Regular notifications are sent through SMS and emails which help stakeholders monitor the stored crop at regular intervals.

 Skymet uses drone technology

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Connecting The Hydromet Community


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COMPTUS

Sourcing solutions cost-effectively Navigating the hydromet marketplace for products can be a challenge. Here’s how to ensure you find the right solutions at the right price. By Andrew White, President of Comptus

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frica is home to the secondlargest population on the planet, yet the continent’s hydro-meteorological monitoring capabilities still fall short. One in ten of Africa’s vast population is at risk of flooding. Meanwhile, a recent UN Environment report described air pollution as “Africa’s silent killer”. Yet a look at the World Air Quality Index map (www.waqi.info) reveals that air monitoring in Africa is virtually non-existent compared with the developed world, and far inferior to most other developing regions. According to the World Bank, Africa’s infrastructure development needs exceed US$90bn per year – a third of which is required for maintenance. The challenge for African memberstates and their leaders is to find cost-effective methods to gather the necessary information to make informed decisions. This is not easy when resources are limited. Decision-making is further aggravated by the affects of climate change. High seasonal resource variability in many areas is becoming more pronounced because of more

extreme weather events. Much-needed rain events come too suddenly, for example, putting lives in danger and disrupting infrastructure projects. Economic backing is available, but then comes the challenge of accessing the right resources and equipment to put the necessary systems into place.

 Comptus A70F-AQUWS air quality and altrasonic weather monitor

You have a plan and access to some resources, but where to turn? How best to make the necessary decisions on the hydromet equipment and services needed to improve data collection and reporting? Hydromet Africa is about bringing together the best and brightest leaders and organisations to improve access to those solutions that will allow decisions to be made for the greater good. How to choose the right solutions To make the right choices, you must first understand your most critical infrastructure needs. Look for similar needs across your infrastructure (transportation, energy, agriculture, communication) and identify common power, signal/communication and data platforms. Determine what formats and technologies will work best for your needs, and consider the human resources needed for the deployment and ongoing operation and management of the system. Research is vital. Attending events like Hydromet Africa will help you gain knowledge and allow you to spend time with peers and vendors. VA R Y S I A N H Y D R O M E T A F R I C A 2 0 1 9 • 6 5


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COMPTUS

Talk with other agencies and departments that have similar needs, read industry publications and conduct online research to ensure you understand your own requirements before engaging potential suppliers. Create a checklist of key elements of systems that you need, and have your checklist available at trade shows and when talking to vendors. Ask the same questions of every vendor so that you can compare their services and products to your checklist at a later time. Take time between visits with vendors to make notes and review the information you have received. Vendors are at trade shows to sell. Probe to make sure you understand whether what they are offering fits your needs. Do not be distracted by features and benefits you do not need; this may lead to ‘scope creep’ and may add excessive cost to your system. All-in-one solutions are not always the best. If a vendor is not answering your questions clearly, or does not appear to understand what your needs are, step away and collect your thoughts. Take time to review your checklist and verify if you are getting the information you need. Then go back and try again.

Cross-agency efficiencies Collaborating with fellow government departments/agencies when buying equipment and solutions can bring significant cost savings. You may be able, for example, to consolidate data across departments/agencies to aggregate information and provide macro level information for analysis and action. There may also be cost benefits of cross-agency or department equipment utilisation. Purchasing equipment together leads to costeffective bidding due to the ability to bulk purchase equipment. If it makes sense, using a single source for parts and service will also extend the service life of the equipment, reduce technical training costs and allow for easier transfer of systems knowledge.

Do not be distracted by features and benefits you do not need; this may lead to ‘scope creep’ and add excessive cost If you continue to feel that there is a disconnect between what you need and what the vendor is offering, make a note and move on. Look for vendors that have support resources within your region, or that can readily respond with replacement parts and/or technical assistance. Place tenders through regional, international and industry groups, and work with funding agencies to identify bid placement channels. These independent organisations can help steer you towards trusted vendors that are right for you, saving you time and resources. Who will own the data? It is important to determine whether you want to manage and ‘own’ your data locally, or to share the data with your supplier. Knowing your agency or state policy on data management is vital, as is understanding the pros and cons of remote versus local storage of data. Are power or communication disruptions a concern, for example? Is online connectivity robust and secure? Many cloud-based systems are available through lease or subscription. Often data stored in the cloud becomes the property of the vendor and may become part of a larger dataset – meaning others benefit from your data and if a contract is terminated, your access to historical data may be lost. One benefit of using cloud-based systems is ongoing updates and fixes do not need to be managed by the user,

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as vendors should automatically push software updates and patches down to users. Cloud-based subscription services are, however, subject to price increases at each contract renewal, so make sure you are aware of all service fees and add-on charges and be prepared to negotiate for pricing guarantees or longer-term contracts. Make sure you know what reporting and output information you will need, and what will be available to you. Vendor systems may have proprietary software, and provide a limited number of standard reports. Requesting additional reports or data downloads may cost extra. Also be aware that subscribing with a vendor may make it difficult to integrate other products into the system as sometimes you may only be able to use components and equipment from that one vendor. If your state or agency policy dictates, and you have the resources to manage your system and data, you will have control over your data. System updates will be your responsibility, and you will have to manage your data infrastructure. In this instance, there will be less risk of subscription pricing increases, and you may also be able to integrate components from several different suppliers. This will allow you to create a system that is tailored to your specific requirements. Local control also provides employment opportunities.

Key considerations  Understand and create a checklist of your key requirements  Plan human resources needs for delivery and operation  Decide who will own and manage your system data  Focus only on products and solutions you actually need  Consider placing tenders through independent industry groups


H Y DR O M E T A FRI C A 2019

EXHIBITORS STAND 1

www.arabiaweather.com, E: helpdesk@arabiaweather.com, T: +962 65860060 (Jordan) ArabiaWeather Inc. is the largest private weather company in the Arab World and a pioneer in weather technology. Through its media products, enterprise solutions and consumer platforms, ArabiaWeather delivers its forecasts to 70 million people on a daily basis. ArabiaWeather’s Enterprise division provides decision support solutions to businesses across the region operating in sectors that are enormously affected by weather conditions such as Media, Airlines, Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas, Agriculture, Insurance and Retail, among others. ArabiaWeather also works with various governments and National Weather Services across the region.

STAND 2 www.campbellsci.com, E: boyd@campbellsci.com, T: +1-435-227-9759 (US) Campbell Scientific is the leading designer of hydromet solutions, trusted for over 40 years for measurement systems in weather, flood warning, and climate monitoring applications. Our rugged, low-power systems meet your needs for long-term, stand-alone monitoring and control. Trust Campbell Scientific for the equipment, assembly, data-logger programming, communications, and field installation to give you t he most accurate data. Every digital sensor and system is designed and tested for use in the harshest environments, ready for decades of service. Campbell Scientific technical support is backed by a global network of offices and decades of experience. Trust us to help you succeed.

STAND 7

STAND 19 www.ayyeka.com, E: emea@ayyeka.com, T: +31 40 209 1001 (The Netherlands) Ayyeka works with sensor manufacturers to bring secure, plug-and-play, remote telemetry solutions to water, wastewater, environmental, oil & gas, and other industrial markets. Ayyeka’s remote monitoring device, Wavelet, transforms existing sensors into robust autonomous remote monitoring solutions. The Wavelet is a rugged device that autonomously operates third-party sensors, using battery, solar power, or permanent power source. The sampled sensor data is collected, transmitted securely, and then stored on Ayyeka’s cloud-server and/or a customer’s on-premises server. Data can be visualized and managed via Ayyeka’s webbased graphical data management system, and integrated into SCADA systems and third-party software.

STAND 22 www.ucar.edu, E: pkucera@ucar.edu, T: +1(303) 497-1000 (US) The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is a non-profit consortium of over 115 North American universities involved in Earth system science research, education, and policy programs. UCAR operates and manages the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), an atmospheric sciences research institution, and the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) Office, which provides a variety of support and training services to the academic, governmental, and private industry communities. The National Science Foundation serves as the UCAR/NCAR governmental audit and inspection agency.

STAND 29

STAND 8 www.baranidesign.com, E: sales@baranidesign.com, T: +42 1948067125 (Slovakia) Manufacturer of the MeteoHelix AWOS, professional meteorological sensors and weather stations designed to meet WMO requirements and be affordable. Its helical technology enables automatic weather stations equipped w ith the helical MeteoShield to easily reach and maintain WMO precision measurements in all environmental conditions with minimal sensor service and maintenance due to its protective properties. ISO certified and in business since 2003. Product portfolio includes ezMETAR AWOS, AWOS, Anemometers, Temperature & Humidity sensors, GSM / LTE Data logger, Internet of Things (IoT) weather stations and more.

STAND 12 www.baronweather.com, E: bbj@baronweather.com, T: +1 256 881-8811 (US) Baron is the leading provider of critical weather intelligence. Our Gen3 series of weather radar provides the highest available accuracy, enabled through groundbreaking clutter filtering and automated calibration technologies. Baron weather modeling solutions are extremely diverse, from numerical weather prediction and hydrology to air quality and agricultural modeling solutions. The Baron Lynx system serves as a visualization hub for all the data inputs within a meteorological organization, while web distribution and alerting solutions allow forecasters to protect the public by sending life-saving push notifications. With Baron, weather organisations are more successful in their operations, and the public is safer.”

network. With over 1,800 sensors in 90+ countries globally, Earth Networks offers high detection efficiency of both incloud and cloud-to-ground strikes which enables improved lead times for severe weather warning. It serves government agencies and industries, such as aviation, oil and gas, telecom and mining. Earth Networks also helps industry partners to deliver weather-based solutions to organisations of all sizes.

www.eecweathertech.com, E: sales@eecweathertech.com, T: +1 334 347 3478 (US) We’ve been defining an industry since 1971 – and we’re not done yet! EEC is your complete remote sensing provider, offering a full spectrum of weather radar and satellite solutions. With over 47 years of trusted service, and hundreds of customers that span the media, government, hydrology, defense & aviation industries, EEC is the recognized leader in the manufacturing and delivery of advanced remote sensing systems. EEC’s radar division offers 10 different variations of our legacy magnetron and klystron Defender weather radar systems. Additionally, EEC is also proud launch our nextgeneration Pulse weather radar analysis software this year. EEC also offers our 100% solid-state line of radars; Endurance (C-Band) and Ranger (X-Band). And don’t forget about our ultra-low-cost Maverick X-Band system! These radar systems, combined with EEC TeleSpace’s full spectrum of polar and geostationary orbiting weather satellite direct receive ground stations, allow our customers to be armed with the most advanced remote sensing systems in the world.

STAND 28 www.gillinstruments.com, E: contact@gillinstruments.com, T: +44 1590613500 (UK) Gill design and manufacture instrumentation for meteorological observations. We have the world’s largest range of ultrasonic anemometers and a wide variety of integrated and expandable weather stations. Gill has over 30 years’ experience in the field of ultrasonic flow measurement and our reputation is built on reliable, robust, reference quality products for even the most extreme environments.”

www.comptus.com, E: awhite@comptus.com, T: +1 603 726 7500 (US) Comptus is a full range supplier of environmental sensing technologies to commercial and industrial markets around the world. We are looking forward to the HydrometAFRICA exhibition in Cairo in 2019 where we will showcase our new line of meteorological and environmental products. Our product line includes ultrasonic wind speed and direction, rainfall, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, solar radiation, PM 2.5, PM10, H2S, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, submersible and radar ultrasonic liquid level, EC and salinity, and dissolved oxygen sensing. We are particularly excited to debut our new integrated environmental air quality sensors and stations.

STAND 13

STAND 3 www.deltaohm.com, E: info@deltaohm.com, T: +39 0498 977150 (Italy) High quality, high standard, high reliability. Key words that have allowed Delta OHM to earn an outstanding international reputation over the last 40 years. Our R&D department, production, calibration laboratories, sales and after sales departments are all under one roof. We provide a wide range of meteorological measuring equipment according to the WMO recommendations. We are able to develop specific solutions based on market requests giving the guarantee that all products and systems are field tested before being released to the market. Delta OHM is part of the German GHM GROUP.

www.kilolima.org, E: weather@kilolima.org, T: +20 (0)2 25 24 57 57 Egypt Kilolima provides installation, maintenance, operation and long-term service of meteorological sensors and systems. We work with leading manufacturers to provide turnkey solutions to clients. We also work with manufacturers to provide installation and maintenance services for their equipment in remote locations. We operate, maintain and remotely monitor stations to ensure that they are operating as expected. We can establish routine maintenance and calibration programmes to ensure equipment is properly maintained. We can also provide complete meteorological measurement campaigns where we own the equipment and charge for meteorological data.

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STAND 15 www.earthnetworks.com, E: aporteus@earthnetworks.com, T: +1-301-250-4156 (US) As a leading provider of global weather intelligence solutions, Earth Networks offers real-time weather observations, alerting and data services for automated decision-making and operational efficiency. Its Total Lightning Network™ is the most extensive and technologically-advanced global lightning

www.L3T.com/ESSCO, E: info.essco@L3T.com, T: +1-978-5685150 (US) Radome leader for over 50 years. Our acquisition by L3, a Fortune 250 company, provided ESSCO with the financial stability to fund our continued growth and product development and access to immense technical expertise and resources. This association has allowed us to continue to build on our philosophy of providing the best performing radomes in the world. Our commitment to excellence is what has separated ESSCO from its competition for over half a century and will continue to be our guiding principal as we move to the future

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H Y DR O M E T A FRI C A 2019

EXHIBITORS STAND 18

www.selex-es.de, E: info@selex-es-gmbh.com, T: +49 21377820 (Germany) LEONARDO Germany GmbH occupies a worldwide leading position in the design, manufacture, sales and service of weather radar systems, sensors and system solutions for meteorology, hydrology and aviation. With its METEOR product line, featuring state-of-the-art S-, C- and X-Band weather radar technology, LEONARDO Germany GmbH spearheads the weather radar industry, serving a wide base of international customers including aviation authorities, national weather services, military services, hydrological institutions and research agencies. The company focuses on providing customized system and turnkey solutions that reflect a deep concern for the individual customer.

STAND 16

www.mbw.ch, E: sales@mbw.ch, T: +41 56 437 28 30 (Switzerland) MBW Calibration is recognised internationally as a developer and supplier of high quality chilled mirror hygrometers used in a variety of humidity calibration, measurement and gas sensing applications. Most notably, these hygrometers provide the traceability for many laboratories such as humidity sensor manufacturers and for a variety of National Metrology Institutes. MBW dew point mirrors continue to be chosen by NMI’s as transfer standards for their interlaboratory comparisons both regionally and internationally. With recent requirements for higher performance humidity measurement in the meteorological industry, MBW are increasingly a preferred supplier for low uncertainty measurement and calibration systems.

STAND 24

www.mfi.fr, E: sales@mfi.fr, T: +33 5 61 43 29 40 (France) Meteo France International (MFI) is a subsidiary of MétéoFrance, the French National Meteorological Service. The company was created in 2002, in a context of growing concern related to climate change and better awareness of its socio-economic impact. MFI’s mission is to design and implement turnkey modernization projects for national hydrometeorological services, in order for them to better achieve their fundamental goals: protect people & goods, and support economic development. MFI’s offer relies on two main pillars: a full range of innovative information systems, and a comprehensive panel of support services such as training, integration and change management. Up to this day, MFI has implemented efficient met solutions in 113 countries throughout the world.

STAND 25

www.meteoblue.com, E: info@meteoblue.com, T: +41 615353301 (Switzerland) meteoblue is a Swiss specialist weather company producing, managing and supplying high precision weather data for the entire world, based on observation data, high-resolution Numerical Weather Models and artificial intelligence. meteoblue offers unique seamless hourly weather data for any place on Earth from 1984 until 14 days ahead, as well as seasonal forecasts and climate statistics, all available as text, data, images, maps and movies, and shows the highest published accuracy results on https://content.meteoblue. com/content/view/full/3519. meteoblue offers innovative weather services, including websites, apps, emails, digital signage and API to customers in more than 50 countries.

STAND 14

www.nowcast.de, E: info@nowcast.de, T: +49 89 5529 713 70 (Germany) In 1988, nowcast invented the high-precision lightning detection network LINET. Today, nowcast is operating LINET

globally, providing homogeneous data to national weather services, flight control, airports, energy sector, insurers, and all kinds of meteorological companies. Providing unparalleled precision, LINET determines strike impact points accurately to within 75 meters while detecting weak strokes from 2 kA upwards. With its patented 3D locating algorithm, allowing for the determination of the altitude of cloud strokes, LINET identifies severity, characteristics, and evolution of thunderstorms. As a new feature, ‘rTNT’ tracks and nowcasts the entire lightning activity in real-time providing for fastest possible thunderstorm warning.

STAND 5

www.otthydromet.com, E: euinfo@otthydromet.com, T: +49 831 5617-0 (Germany) OTT HydroMet provides valuable insights for experts in water and weather applications to help protect lives, the environment and infrastructure. We go beyond simply providing solutions by partnering with our customers in designing effective answers to the challenges they encounter in their vital role of monitoring the world’s water and surface weather. Proudly formed from 7 brands (OTT, Hydrolab, ADCON, Sutron, Lufft, Kipp & Zonen and Meteostar), OTT HydroMet offers the combined strength and expertise of leaders in the water quality, quantity, telemetry and meteorology fields and over 500 years of experience in environmental monitoring.

STAND 23

www.pulsonic.com, E: vk@pulsonic.net, T: +33 1 64 46 25 22 (France) For 35 years PULSONIC has designed and manufactured a wide range of weather stations adapted to the harsh African climate conditions. PULSONIC stations are very robust, autonomous and can be installed in the most remote areas of the continent. PULSONIC’s automatic weather stations can be used for synoptic, climatological, agrometeorological or rainfall observation. Synoptic stations can be supplemented by a workstation so that an observer can enter manual observations before coding the SYNOP message. PULSONIC’s software solutions allow automatic data integration into climate database systems (ClimSoft, CliData) and provide remote access to technical info for maintenance teams.

STAND 9

www.QinetiQ-NA.com, E: MetSense@QinetiQ-NA.com, T: +1 7036376057 (US) QinetiQ North America (QNA) provides best in-class meteorological sensors maximized for size, weight, and power in response to calls from customers worldwide. QNA’s meteorological products include the TASK™ Tactical Atmospheric Sounding Kit, iQ-3 Radiosonde, WiPPR® Wind Profiling Portable RADAR, and the Riverine Drifter. The TASK radiosonde was the first of its kind to meet the limitations for the ultra-tactical market and the iQ-3 is a revolutionary synoptic radiosonde compatible with TASK. WiPPR is the smallest and most capable, vertical wind profiler on the market today. The Riverine Drifter is a free-floating buoy that collects data from unknown river conditions.

STAND 1

www.raymetrics.com, E: kefstathiou@raymetrics.com, T: +30 210 6655860 (Greece) Raymetrics is a technology driven, globally renowned atmospheric LiDAR manufacturer. Raymetrics innovative products are offered to stable and diverse customer base including renowned research and educational institutions, airports, meteorological services. Raymetrics uses the innovative LIDAR technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. The instruments integrate state-of-the-art technology developed in research laboratories in Europe with Raymetrics experience in building robust, stand-alone systems, 3D scanning or vertical mode systems, able to operate 24/7 even in hard environmental conditions.

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STAND 17

www.seba-hydrometrie.com, E: info@seba.de, T: +49 (0)8341 96480 (Germany) For over 50 years, SEBA Hydrometrie GmbH & Co. KG offers state-of-the-art measurement and monitoring systems for a wide range of requirements in the meteorology, hydrology and hydrometry. Applications range from groundwater, surface water, water quality and wastewater to discharge measurement. From the measured value logging, storage and transmission to evaluation: Everything from a single source. The mission: Robust, reliable and high-quality measurement technology “Made in Germany”, technologically always one step ahead, comprehensive consulting service, professional installation and commissioning, as well as competent aftersales service. The goal: Completely satisfied customers.

STAND 20

www.siapmicros.com, E: sales@siapmicros.com, T: +39 0438491411 (Italy) Siap+Micros operates in the environmental and industrial monitoring fields, with special focus on Hydrology, Meteorology, Agrometeorology, Water Quality and Telemetry. Siap+Micros is ISO 9001:2015 and 14001:2015 Certified. Siap+Micros has made sensors and data acquisition systems since 1925. With this history, its products have reached almost every corner of the world. A network of local partners, taking care of after sales services and maintenance, keeps intact the reliability of Siap+Micros’ products.

STAND 6

www.skymetweather.com, E: info@skymetweather.com, T: +91 120 4094500 (India) Skymet is the champion in weather forecasting, monitoring, early warning and climate change. We are a team of over 300 experts specialised in diverse subjects, such as weather forecasting, climatology, agriculture, oceanography, risk modelling, instrumentation, computer sciences, statistics, remote sensing and geographical information system as well as drone technology. Skymet closely works with farmers, government organizations, agri-input companies, insurance companies, banks, international institutions and media.

STAND 4

www.vaisala.com, T: +358 989491 (Finland) Vaisala is a global leader in environmental and industrial measurement. Building on over 80 years of experience, Vaisala provides observations for a better world. We are a reliable partner for customers around the world, offering a comprehensive range of innovative observation and measurement products and services. Headquartered in Finland, Vaisala employs about 1,600 professionals worldwide and is listed on the Nasdaq Helsinki stock exchange.

STAND 27

www.wxriskglobal.com, E: rleonardi@wxriskglobal.com, T: +1 781-775-9107 (US) Wx Risk Global is a global weather risk solutions company that provides mitigation products and services to individuals, organizations, cities, and nations world-wide, that have the greatest potential of falling victim to climate-related disasters. Our company also educates individuals and organisations, world-wide, about the advantages of using weather and natural peril risk mitigation products for financial preparedness as well as alternative relief and recovery funding. Furthermore, the goal of Wx Risk Global is to raise and receive funds for the support and enhancement of natural peril relief and recovery efforts on a global scale.


FLOORPLAN

H Y DR O M E T A FRI C A 2019

WC CONFERENCE CENTRE

LUNCH AREA MARQUEE

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17 SEBA Hydrometrie

2 Campbell Scientific

18 Leonardo

3 Delta OHM

19 Ayekka

4 Vaisala

20 Siap+Micros

5 OTT HydroMet

21 WMO

6 Skymet Weather

22 UCAR/COMET

7 EEC

23 Pulsonic

8 Barani Design

24 Meteo France International

9 QinetiQ North America

25 Meteoblue

12 Baron

26 L3 Technologies ESSCO

13 KiloLima

27 Wx Risk Global

14 nowcast

28 Gill Instruments

15 Earth Networks

29 Comptus

16 MBW Calibration


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