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WISHES FROM INDIAN CANE POWER LTD,DAVANGERE. For “Accelerating Biofuel Programmes in India” , at Bangalore.

Organized by Karnataka State Bio Fuel Development Board, Bangalore. Topic for the Session – III “ Innovative Approaches on second generation bioethanol”


INTRODUCTION ¢

The limited availability of fossil fuels, rise in the demand of energy, the rise in price of crude oil, global warming and its influence on the environment are the main factors which provide an impetus for the search for alternative energy sources.

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‘Alternative fuel’, also known as non-conventional fuel, is any material or substance that can be used as a fuel, other than fossil fuels, or conventional fuels of petroleum, coal, propane, hydrogen and natural gas. The term ‘alternative fuels’ usually refers to a source of which energy is renewable


OIL PRODUCTION CURVE


TOTAL ENERGY USE


Biofuel Vs. Food security ¢

Many biofuel feedstocks like corn, sugarcane, and soyabeans are also key sources of food for millions of people. Production of crops for bioenergy uses will also displace other food related crops, and thereby the prices of food related crops increase. This will also decrease the availability of foodstuffs, including plant and animal based foods. Food Vs. Fuel is the dilemma which is related to the risking of the farmland diversion to produce crops for biofuels production, there by creating a scarcity of food supply on a global scale.


In view of this serious debate of food Vs. fuel, certain actions are proposed by the international community l l

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Freeze on first generation bio-fuel production. Non-food crops for bio-fuel. Promote second generation bio-fuels production. These biofuels use lignocellulosic raw materials like forest residue, agriwaste etc., Also promote third generation biofuels like biofuel from algae, use of non-edible raw materials for production of biodiesel and bio ethanol. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and bio-diesel from non food crops like camelina, Jatropha Seashore Mallow and mustard. Bio-fuel from food by products and co-products. Sustainable production of biofuels.


Cellulose ethanol has many merits over the exisiting corn ethanol or molasses ethanol. The basic benefit of cellulose ethanol is that it reduces the green house gas emissions by 85% over the petroleum fuels. In contrast, starch ethanol (from corn) which uses other form of energy for the process may not reduce the GHG emissions at all. This also depends on the method of production of starch feed stock.

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Cellulose ethanol forms one of the best solutions for the food vs. fuel debate. Availability of abundant cellulose feedstocks In comparision between the land area of grasses and corn, there is no doubt that an acre of grasses could make twice the number of liters of ethanol that can be generated with an acre of corn. This is because in cellulose ethanol, the entire plant can be utilized instead of just the grain as in corn ethanol. Overall, cellulosic ethanol is energy efficient (contains 6 times the energy that is used to produce it), pollutes less (as much as 80% less than petroleum fuels) and does not compete with the food supply.


Biomass Energy Alternatives Biomass

Burn for heat and electricity

Mature

Biodiesel; Thermochemical conversion to syngas products

Biochemical conversion to ethanol and other fuels

Semi-mature

Sugar, starch now; Lignocellulose? Coming soon‌


Major lignocellulosics for bioethanol production Lignocellulosics

Herbaceous grass Forest biomass

Wood: Hard wood, Soft-Wood

Residue : Bark, Thinning, Sawdust, Pruning

Agricultural residues

Food Crops: Corn stover, cob, kernel, fibers; wheat straw; Rice straw, hull; Oat hull

Non-food Crops: cotton stalk; cotton gin; sugar bagasse

Municipal waste

Grass : switch grass; Bermuda: grass; Alfalfa fiber; Reed canary grass; Rye straw

Residential source: Waste paper; Waste food

Non residential: waste paper & board; other cellulosic paper mill sludge


Indian Cane Power Ltd ¢

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Indian Cane Power Ltd., a Sugar Co-generation plant was commissioned in the year 2008 with a plant capacity of 5000 TCD Sugar plant and 28 MW power plant. Plant was designed to work at steam of 36% on cane and power of 24 units/MT Cane. The above corporation was set up under the capable leadership of Mr. S S Mallikarjun, Managing Director, ICPL. Indian Cane Power Limited is backed up by Shamanur group of Industries, who have already a list of proven performance since four decades in the Indian Sugar Sector, having two sugar industries and two Distilleries.


Dr. Shamanur Shivashankarappa Chairman ICPL •Dr.Shamanur Shivashankarappa, is the Chairman of the SHAMANUR GROUP of industries. •Dr. S. Shivashankarappa besides being a great visionary and industrialist is a Seasoned Politician. •He is a former Member of the Indian Parliament and is currently the Member of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly from Davangere South Constituency for the fourth time, representing the Indian National Congress. •Presently he is the minister for APMC and Horticulture,Government of Karnataka. •Under the able guidance of Dr. S. Shivashankarappa, the group as a whole has flourished well in all the sectors in the central part of Karnataka


Shri S. S. Mallikarjun Managing Director ICPL ¢

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Mr. S. S. Mallikarjun, Managing Director of ICPL and the youngest son of Shri Dr. Shamanur Shivashankarappa, has led the development of Samson Distilleries, the first manufacturing venture of the Shamanur Group and has led all the Group of companies and businesses as Director or Chairman or Managing Director or Partner. He has extensive experience in running and managing flour mill, sugar mill, distillery, import / export business, etc. Mr. Mallikarjun at an age of 20, has started the trading activities along with his father. By seeing the enthusiasm, he was entertained to develop and promote the Distillery unit. Being graduated in the commerce learnt the techno commercial dealing in to the grass root level. The immense development and progress of business led to diversify his businesses to other sectors like Sugar, Power and Ethanol production.


Present scenario of bio-fuel blending in the Country: ¢

The ethanol blending programe in India started from 2003. The Government passed a mandatory rule to blend 5% of ethanol for petrol in nearly 9 States, where the sugarcane molasses availability was more. Presently the 5% blending programe is being followed in almost 19 States of India. The below given table shows fuel ethanol requirement in India. The total requirement of Fuel ethanol at 5% blending for 19 States of India is 1016616 Kl per annum.


Fuel Ethanol requirement in India 2012-13 Ethanol Requirement in kl.

State IOC

BPC

HPC

State Total

Punjab

24870

15296

11427

51593

Haryana

30215

10478

14391

55084

Delhi

28170

19176

15958

63304

Rajasthan

19316

15202

17806

52324

Uttar Pradesh

51200

28708

22158

102066

Uttarakhand

6162

0

1825

7987

Bihar

11884

4637

2619

19140

Jharkhand

9352

3800

3496

16648

Odisha

11049

6161

4904

22114

West Bengal

14619

9200

7405

31224

Gujrat

35988

15162

16899

68049

Chhattisgarh

6928

5266

5621

17815

Madhya Pradesh

19066

14288

12051

45405

Goa

1507

3487

2673

7667

Maharashtra

45415

44367

57964

147746

Andhra Pradesh

33849

22426

24556

80831

Karnataka

34293

17528

17050

68871

Kerala

26733

13380

15557

55670

Tamil Nadu

44623

35220

23235

103078

G.Total

455239

283782

277595

1016616


Availability of sugarcane molasses and ethanol production capacity: ¢

As per the statistics, Karnataka has around 4 lakh hectares of land under sugarcane cultivation and has around 68 sugar industries. All sugar industries put together have produced around 16 lakh tones of molasses per annum (season 2011-12). The State has an installed ethanol production capacity of 1215 KLPD. Comparing to the requirement of ethanol at 5% blending, the availability of ethanol in the state can very well meet upto 30 -35% blending for all the automobiles in the State.


R&D at Indian Cane Power Ltd, Davangere. ¢

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At our ICPL R&D Centre, two projects have taken more importance and lot of research work is being carried out on the following two aspects. 1. Use of 100% Ethanol in the existing automobiles. 2. Lignocellulosic Ethanol – a microbial Hydrolysis approach.


The complete technology adopted ¢ ¢ ¢

Engine control technology Engine cold start technology Alcohol resistant technology on the rubber parts and petrol filters l

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Electronic fuel pump alcohol resistant technology Oil level sensor alcohol resistant technology Alcohol resistant technology on the rubber parts and petrol filters


Maruthi Omni Model: 2002 Cubic Capacity: 796 Petrol Mileage: 13 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 08 km/Lts


Maruthi Zen Model: 2001 Cubic Capacity: 993 Petrol Mileage: 10 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 07 km/Lts


BMW Model: 1999

Cubic Capacity: 2000 Petrol Mileage: 4 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 02 km/Lts


Maruthi Ecco Model: 2011

Cubic Capacity: 1200 Petrol Mileage: 13 km/Lts Bio Gas: 10 km/kg Ethanol Mileage: 08 km/Lts


Bajaj Auto 2 Stroke Model: 2002

Cubic Capacity: 150 Petrol Mileage: 20 km/Lts Bio Gas: 25 km/kg Ethanol Mileage: 17 km/Lts


Bajaj Auto 4 Stroke Model: 2012

Cubic Capacity: 198.75 Petrol Mileage: 20 km/Lts Bio Gas: 25 km/kg Ethanol Mileage: 18 km/Lts


Bajaj Caliber Bike Model: 2000

Cubic Capacity: 111 Petrol Mileage: 25 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 06 km/Lts


Bajaj Kawasaki Bike Model: 2002

Cubic Capacity: 100 Petrol Mileage: 60 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 19 km/Lts


Honda Activa Model: 2005

Cubic Capacity: 98 Petrol Mileage: 35 km/Lts Ethanol Mileage: 18 km/Lts


Research work on cellulosic ethanol ¢

Carried out at S. S. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Davangere


In particular, many energy production and utilization cycles based on cellulosic biomass have near zero green house gas emission on a life cycle basis


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Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however,


Obstacles ¢

The primary obstacle impeding the more widespread production of energy form biomass feedstocks is the

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General absence of low cost technology for overcoming the recalcitrance of the complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass


Components of plant cell walls

Cellulose (6 carbon sugars)

Lignin (phenols) Hemicellulose (both 5 and 6 carbon sugars) (need modified microbe to convert to ethanol)

Extractives Ash

Chapple, 2006; Ladisch, 1979, 2006


Composition of Lignocellulosic feed stock. Cellulose 30-50%

Hemicellulose 20-40%

Lignin 15-25%

Others 5-35%


Structure of lignocellulosic biomass ¢

Lignocellulosic biomass contains carbohydrate fractions that can be converted into ethanol.

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In order to convert these fractions, the cellulose and hemicelluloses must ultimately be converted or hydrolysed into monosaccharides;


1. Lignin fills the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin and is covalently linked to hemicellulose. 2.Lignin acts like glue to hold the lignocellulose matrix together. 3.Very difficult to deligninfy


General Flow Diagram followed Lignocellulose

Fermentation

Single Cell Protein

Pretreatment

No Pretreatment

Lignocellulolyti c Enzymes

Human or animal nutrition

Glucose

SACCHRIFICATION Phenolic Compounds Mannose

Xylose Benzene Xylitol

Food & Chemical Manufacturing

SCP

Animal Feed

Alcohols

Petrochemicals

Furfural

Fermentation

Methan e

Enzymes

Microbial Polysaccharide

Fuel 35

Food & feeds

Fine Chemicals

Antibiotics


Available trends Ethanol Production Today BRAZIL

sugarcane (sucrose)

Sugars extract

ethanol ferment

USA

(starch)

Sugars Hydrolyze (enzymes)

ethanol ferment

Brazil and the US are the leaders in ethanol fuel production They use the “easy way� to make ethanol. Cosgrove, 2006


Evolution of Biomass Processing Featuring Enzymatic Hydrolysis BiologicallyMediated Event Cellulase production

Processing Strategy (each box represents a bioreactor - not to scale)

SSF

SHF O2

O2

SSCF

CBP

O2

Cellulose hydrolysis Hexose fermentation Pentose fermentation

_____________ SHF: Separate hydrolysis & fermentation SSF: Simultaneous saccharification & fermentation

CBP: Consolidated bioprocessing

SSCF: Simultaneous saccharification & co-fermentation Lee Lynd, 2006


Plant cell wall

Cell walls

fuel

Cellulose, Hemicellulose, + lignin

Slow & expensive step “recalcitrance” enzyme sugars

Cellulose microfibril

chemical

digestion pretreatments

Fermentation

ethanol Parallel strands of glucose polymers

Cosgrove, 2006

1. breaking down plant cell walls into sugars is called “recalcitrance 2. Current method of recalcitrance is by using expensive enzyme and pretreatment with alkali or acid 3. Pretreatment costs account for about 1/3 of the conversion process, while enzymes might add another 20% to the ethanol cost.


Disadvantages ¢

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Since enzymes are used, the cost of production of alcohol is very high Separate enzymes for both C5 & C6 sugars Separate fermentation for both C5 & C6 Less efficient Feedstock pre-treatment costs CBP yet to be established


Brief summary of companies producing cellulosic ethanol Company

Location

Feedback

Production capacity (in million gallons/yr)

Coproducts 2

Abengoa Bioenergy New Technologies

Spain Nebrasks

Agricultural residues and switchgrass

1.3 80 gal/day 15(in 2012)

Lignin, protien

Claifornis Ethanol + Poer, LLC

California

Sugarcane

60 (by 2012)

Industrial Grade co., fertilizer

Ecofin, LLC

Kentucky

Corncobs; later corn stover and switchgrass

1.3 (by 2010)

Animal feed

Flambeau river biofuels LLC

Wisconsin

Wood and forest residues

6 (in 2010)

Pulp, waxes

Inbicon2

Denmark

Wheat straw

1.4

Molasses for animal feed, CO足足足2

Saskatchewan

Agricultural residues

24 (in 2011)

Acetic acid, fertilizer

Colorado

Wood and Agricultural residues

2.5 (by 2012)

Highly-pure lignin furfural

SunOpta Bioprocesses, Inc.

Ontario

Wood chips

0.5(2010) 10 (by 2012)

Xylitol

Univ.of florida/ Myriant Tech.

Florida

Sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, wood

400 gal/day (late 2010)

Succinic acid lactic acid, others

Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LCC Lignol Innovations, LTD/ Suncor

1.Companies stating their production of coproducts (other than lignin for combustion). A more complete list of current cellulosic ethanol projects in the U.S (as of Sept.2009). 2. Other than lignin for combustion. 3. In November of 2009, Inbicon signed a Memo of understanding with Great River Energy to develop and construct a 20 million gal/yr. biorefinery adjacent to the spiritwood station near Jamestown, North Dakota.(44)


Hypothesis

Biologically mediated processes are promising for energy conversion, in particular for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels.


Rumen Digestive System


Rumen Metabolic pathway

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Embden-MeyerhofParnas (EMP) pathway


Existing ethanol production pathway (Industries) Entner-Doudoroff pathway (ED pathway)


Lignocellulosic feed stock yard

Microbes: Bacteria or Fungi

Chopping, separation

Pre-treatment with hot water for sterilization

Anaerobic reactor

Fermentation

Distillation & Dehydration

Fuel Ethanol


VETERANARY DOCTOR DRAWING RUMEN SAMPLE FROM SHEEP (BANNUR BREED)


VETERANARY DOCTOR DRAWING RUMEN SAMPLE FROM SHEEP (BANNUR BREED)


Anaerobic culture of rumen fluid


Depolymized feed stock subjected for glucose estimation by using G6


Depolymerized and fermented liquids were analyzed for glucose and ethanol by using HPLC equipment


Results of laboratory experiments ¢

When the culture conditions (Like pH, Temp, Time Inoculums size )were optimized, the ethanol yield of 1.87g/100ml.


Results of Mini – Pilot Plant – Experiments : Based on the lab scale experiments, a small 55 liter capacity reactor was fabricated and all the experiments were carried out similar to the lab scale experiments. For pilot scale, the microbes from sheep are only considered and the feedstock used was Maize stover and trash. Quantity of feedstock (Maize stover & trash) = 2.5 Kg. Quantity of water used for dilution = 25 liters. Microbe concentration added =500 ml. The results obtained were similar to the lab experiments.


Sl. No.

Parameters

Before Microbial Degradation

First phase degradation (R)

1 2

Moisture (%) Ash (%)

7.61 7.35

69.19 14.88

3

Alpha Cellulose (%)

39.24

24.19

4 5 6 7

Holocellulose (%) Pentosans (%) Other sugars (%) Lignin (%)

71.01 20.25 11.52 16.52

52.65 18.19 10.27 14.66

8

Ethanol (%)

Hydrometer

1.87

HPLC

1.42


Results of the repetitive hydrolysis

Rumen Microbe : RUMINOCOCCUS

Animal: SHEEP

Substrate : MAIZE TRASH & STOVER Sl. No.

Parameters

Before First phase Second phase Microbial degradatio degradation (R1) Degradation n (R)

1 2

Moisture (%) Ash (%)

7.61 7.35

69.19 14.88

3

Alpha Cellulose (%)

39.24

24.19

4 5 6 7

Holocellulose (%) Pentosans (%) Other sugars (%) Lignin (%) Hydromet Ethanol er (%) HPLC

71.01 20.25 11.52 16.52

52.65 18.19 10.27 14.66

8

1.21 1.87

Third phase degradation (R2)

70.26 15.25

71.39 15.86

15.67 43.45 17.68

7.56 32.98 16.16

10.10 13.28

9.26 12.85

1.60

1.71

1.14

1.20


Results of the repetitive hydrolysis

Rumen Microbe : RUMINOCCUS ALBUS

Animal: DEER

Substrate : PADDY GRASS (STRAW)

Sl. No.

Parameters

Before Microbial Degradatio n

First phase degradatio n (R)

Second phase degradatio n (R1)

Third phase degradatio n (R2)

1

Moisture (%)

10.50

65.25

66.72

68.65

2

Ash (%)

12.75

15.30

16.75

16.92

3

Alpha Cellulose (%)

33.28

11.20

8.25

4.34

4

Holocellulose (%)

64.13

35.40

27.78

19.09

5

Pentosans (%)

19.45

15.70

12.25

8.19

6

Other sugars (%)

11.40

8.50

7.28

6.56

7

Lignin (%)

17.85

15.20

14.66

14.12

8

Ethanol (%)

0.00

1.77

1.99

1.25

1.43

0.88

Hydrometer HPLC

1.30


Sample Results 1

Referenc e Feed Stock Microbe Animal Result

Table No. 55A Paddy Grass Ruminoccus Albus Deer 1.43


Sample Results 2

Reference

Table No. 55D

Feed Stock

Maize Trash

Microbe

Ruminoccus Albus

Animal

Sheep

Result

0.82


Sample Results 3

Reference

Table No. 55H

Feed Stock

Maize Trash

Microbe

Bacteriorides

Animal

Sheep

Result

1.25


Comparison of cost of production of ethanol from various feedstocks and processes Cellulose ethanol production through microbial hydrolysis

Corn based

Molasses based

Cellulosic ethanol today

Cellulosic ethanol DOE TARGET (2015)

$ 0.46 ($ 180/MT at 400 lits./MT.)

$ 0.44 ($ 100/ton at 230 lits./MT.)

$ 0.266 (@ $ 60/dt. 225 lit/dt.)

$ 0.090 (@ $ 30/dt. 330 lit/dt.)

$ 0.115 (@ $ 30/dt. 260 lit/dt.)

By product

$ -0.10

--

$ -0.026

$ -0.024

$ -0.024

Enzymes

$ 0.010

--

$ 0.106

$ 0.026

--

Other costs **

$ 0.165

$ 0.181

$ 0.213

$ 0.058

$ 0.181

Capital costs

$ 0.053

$ 0.051

$ 0.146

$ 0.144

$ 0.053

TOTAL :-

$ 0.588

$ 0.672

$ 0.705

$ 0.294

$ 0.325

Cost / Liter

$ 0.588

$ 0.672

$ 0.705

$ 0.294

$ 0.325

Cost / gal.

$ 2.205

$ 2.520

$ 2.644

$ 1.103

$ 1.219

Description

Cost of feedstock per liter

* dt = dry ton. ** = includes preprocessing, fermentation, process cost, labour etc.,


Summary Ă˜The results clearly indicate that rumen microbes can efficiently hydrolyse the complex sugars of the lignocellulosic feedstocks. Ă˜The main difference between the regular microbes and the rumen microbes is that these rumen microbes degrade lignin more effectively than the other naturally available microbes. Ă˜Maximum percentage of ethanol obtained from both the laboratory and mini pilot plant trials is around 2.24% v/v


Advantages of our Invention ¢

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No use of enzymes- hence less cost of production No pretreatment of feedstock-hence less cost of production Any type of cellulose and hemicellulose water can be used as the initial raw material. Even waste generated out of pulp and paper industries which contain high hemicellulose can be used as a raw material for the process


Advantages of our invention….. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

Environmental friendly Low cost of construction Single fermenter for both C5 and C6 sugars Use of naturally available microbes Efficient hydrolysis of the feedstock With little modification the existing distilleries operating on molasses as the feedstock can also be easily operated with lignocellulosic feedstocks.


THANK U

Natcon mr sampanna mutalik icpl ppt 22  
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