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The official journal of the Vibrations Association of New Zealand The official journal of the

of New Zealand Vibrations Association

spectrum 90 Summer 2018 | Issue

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION

of NEW ZEALAND

Spectrum #90 ISSN 1173-793X

July 2019 | Issue 93

Editor Angie Hurricks Ph 021 239 4572 Email: spectrumeditor@vanz.org,nz

Give ‘em some Publisher Frans Taris Email: franstaris@gmail.com

FLAC! Design Flashpoint Design and Marketing info@flashpoint.design www.flashpoint.design

A case study in long term cultural change

CONTENTS

New Zealand Spectrum is published quarterly by the Vibrations Association of New Zealand Inc. The journal is designed to cover all aspects of the vibration field, and is received by all VANZ members including corporate members. Contributions to Spectrum are welcome. Please address material to: Angie Hurricks Spectrum Editor c/o 358 Waerenga Road, R.D.1, Te Kauwhata, 3781 Waikato, New Zealand

October 2018

Analysis on a

Francis hydro turbine or email: spectrumeditor@vanz.org.nz

Statements made or opinions expressed in Spectrum are not necessarily the views of VANZ or its Officers and Committee. President Glenn Pepper Email: Glen.Pepper@genesisenergy.co.nz

Features

Conference 2019

How to kill a bearing! An introduction to infrared Technology

Regulars

Vice President Tim Murdoch Email: tmurdoch@methanex.com

photo gallery Treasurer Graeme Finch Email: g.finch@xtra.co.nz

with details revealedSecretary for our 2020 event! Rhiannon Swift Email: Rhiannon.Swift@vector.co.nz

From the president

and more inside...

Please address all VANZ correspondence to: VANZ PO Box 2122 Shortland Street Auckland

Editor’s report Test your knowledge

Web Site www.vanz.org.nz

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION of NEW ZEALAND

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION of NEW ZEALAND

3


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The official journal of

the Vibrations Associat

ion of New Zealand journal of the

Vibrations Association

of New Zealand

spectrum

The official

Summer 2018

VIBRATIONS

ASSOCIATION

| Issue 90

of NEW ZEALAND

Spectrum #90

July 2019 | Issue 93

ISSN 1173-793X

Editor Angie Hurricks Ph 021 239 4572 nz.org,nz Email: spectrumeditor@va

Give ‘em some Publisher Frans Taris m Email: franstaris@gmail.co

FLAC!

Design Marketing Flashpoint Design and info@flashpoint.design www.flashpoint.design

A case study in long term cultural change

CONTENTS

is published New Zealand Spectrum Association of quarterly by the Vibrations journal is designed to New Zealand Inc. The vibration field, and cover all aspects of the members including is received by all VANZ to corporate members. Contributions Spectrum are welcome. to: Please address material Angie Hurricks Spectrum Editor c/o 358 Waerenga Road, R.D.1, Te Kauwhata, 3781 Waikato, New Zealand

Analysis on a

October 2018

Francis hydro turbine nz.org.nz

or email: spectrumeditor@va

expressed in Statements made or opinions the views of Spectrum are not necessarily Committee. VANZ or its Officers and President Glenn Pepper sisenergy.co.nz Email: Glen.Pepper@gene

Features

How to kill a bearing! Technology An introduction to infrared

Regulars

Conference 2019 Vice President Tim Murdoch x.com Email: tmurdoch@methane

photo gallery Treasurer Graeme Finch Email: g.finch@xtra.co.nz

for our 2020 event! with details revealedSecretary Swift Rhiannon tor.co.nz Email: Rhiannon.Swift@vec

inside... to: and morecorrespondence

From the president

Please address all VANZ VANZ PO Box 2122 Shortland Street Auckland

Editor’s report Test your knowledge

Web Site www.vanz.org.nz

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION

of NEW ZEALAND

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION

of NEW ZEALAND

3

Spectrum #93 ISSN 1173-793X Editor Angie Hurricks Ph 021 239 4572 Email: spectrumeditor@vanz.org,nz

18

7

CONTENTS

14

July 2019

Give ‘em some FLAC! - A case study in long term cultural change Vortex analysis on a Francis hydro turbine Conference Queenstown 2019 photo gallery Fundamentals of vibration analysis (Pt.1) - The importance of sine waves

Regulars

From the president Editor’s report Puzzle corner Test your knowledge

Spectrum is published quarterly in a digital medium and printed twice yearly by the Vibration Association of New Zealand (VANZ). The magazine is designed to cover all aspects of the Vibration, Condition Monitoring, Reliability and the wider Predictive Asset Management field and distributed to all VANZ members, including corporate members. Contributions to Spectrum are welcome. Please address material to: Angie Hurricks Spectrum Editor c/o 358 Waerenga Road, R.D.1, Te Kauwhata, 3781 Waikato, New Zealand or email: spectrumeditor@vanz.org.nz Statements made or opinions expressed in Spectrum are not necessarily the views of VANZ or its Officers and Committee.

Features

Design Eddie van den Broek Flashpoint Design and Marketing info@flashpoint.design

President Rodney Bell Email: rodney@mbs.net.nz

7 14 18 26

4 4 28 30

Treasurer Graeme Finch Email: G.Finch@auckland.ac.nz Secretary Bill Sinclair Email: bill.sinclair@valas.co.nz Please address all VANZ correspondence to: VANZ PO Box 2122 Shortland Street Auckland Web Site www.vanz.org.nz

Missed an issue of Spectrum magazine? Simply scan the QR code here to link your device directly to the VANZ website. There you will find Specturm issues available to view or download*. A QR code reading app will need to be installed on your device first.

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION of NEW ZEALAND

April 2019 | Issue 92

3


PRESIDENTS’ REPORT By Rodney Bell, VANZ President

W

elcome all to the Winter addition of VANZ Spectrum, I’m Rodney Bell from Timaru and am the newly elected president of VANZ. Everyone involved with this organisation I’m sure would like to join me in thanking Glen Pepper for his last 2 years’ service as President which has been very successful, undoubtably. “The 30th Anniversary VANZ Conference held in Queenstown was a resounding success with good support numbers and positive feedback received from many. “

A huge thanks to CSE-W. Arthur Fisher and B & K Vibro as the 2019 Conference Platinum sponsor. Of course, a very big thanks needs to go to all the exhibitor’s which without them this just wouldn’t be possible.

The feedback from them so far has been good with many new contacts made during the networking events. Thanks also to the paper presenters with good feedback on the variety of topics and of course without the many hours of support from Committee members this would not be such a successful event either so well done all. Our 31st conference for 2020 has been confirmed and we are very pleased to announce Tauranga as the location for the event with Trinity Wharf Hotel being the venue. The dates will be the 12th -14th of May 2020. Make sure you lock that into your calendar for next year. Given the highly positive response and success of our recent Queenstown conference, we are very much looking forward to the next one! I do hope you all enjoy this edition; make the quiz an office exercise and let’s get talking reliability. While I’m mentioning this if any of you have some interesting work stories, successful or not and you think the topic could make a good paper for the 2020 conference please start preparing now. Now that Winter has begun, I hope you all stay safe with the additional hazards this presents during work and play.

EDITORS’ CORNER

A

Our Peter Burgess Memorial Award for Best Paper this year went to Peter Smith from Mercury, congratulations and thank you for your presentation.

We’d like to thank our major sponsors CSE-W. Arthur Fisher and B&K Vibro for the continued support, it is much appreciated and we hope all the attendees enjoyed their time with VANZ over the conference week, it was so good to see some new faces and also catch up with our regular supporters. Many thanks go to the organising team that helped push everything into place and to the various sponsors, many of which had a trade stand at the conference and have also placed an ad with us for this issue.

As we continue on with the year our newly elected committee members are already ploughing into organising the conference for next year so we can continue to make it better and better for all involved.

s we recover from the hustle and bustle of the conference, we take stock of how everything has come together this year, the new ideas that worked well, the things we can improve on and the good old standard ideas that come thru each year.

4

Be sure to check out our new Presidents report, squeeze a bit of the old grey matter with Carls quiz and see what sort of deals our post-conference advertisers have to offer.

Stay warm during these winter months and happy reading!


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Give ‘em some FLAC! Introduction

It is important to understand how/why Defect Elimination is a truly proactive strategy. Rather than allowing defects to enter our assets/systems only to address them after symptoms start to show, Defect Elimination requires a deep understanding of the failure mode(s) and how to prevent them from ever manifesting in the first place. No matter how adept we become at detecting failure modes with ever increasing sensitivity, and thus closer to the left hand side of the P-F curve, we are still technically in a reactive maintenance mode as we only act once the defect has started to degrade the performance of the function or the asset itself.

A case study in long term cultural change Article by: Daré Petreski, Technical Director – Reliability & Asset Management

The figure below is a simple P-F Curve denoting the typical degradation of a function and/or condition of equipment.

I

Introduction t is important to understand how/why Defect Elimination is a truly proactive strategy. Rather than allowing defects to enter our assets/ systems only to address them after symptoms start to show, Defect Elimination requires a deep understanding of the failure mode(s) and how to D – Defect enters the system P – Potential failure initially detectable prevent them from ever manifesting in the first place. FF – Functional Failure TF – Total or Catastrophic Failure No matter how adept we become at detecting failure We can define a Defect as: “An imperfection that exists (that may not be immediately apparent), rendering modes with ever increasing sensitivity, and thus the asset/system in a less thanasset/system ideal state, that if left toin its own devicesthan will leadideal to loss/failure”. rendering the a less state, closer to the left hand side of the P-F curve, we are that if left to its own devices will lead to loss/failure”. FLAC is a commonly used acronym for Fuels, Lubricants, Air & Coolants. In this paper I will be mainly discussing still technically in a reactive maintenance mode as our efforts with Fuels & Lubricants. That’s not saying Air & Coolants are any less important, but it made sense FLAC is a commonly used acronym for Fuels, we only act once the defect has started to degrade to focus our efforts on a manageable scope. Lubricants, Air & Coolants. In this paper I will be the performance of the function or the asset itself. mainly discussing our efforts with Fuels & Lubricants. The figure opposite is a simple P-F Curve denoting Preparation That’s not saying Air & Coolants are any less the typical degradation of a function and/or conditionIt is vitally important that before undertaking any improvement project that we know our current state, important, but it made sense to focus our efforts on a otherwise how would we know that we’ve improved at all? Secondly, if we do improve (or go backwards), it’s of equipment. manageable scope. important to know by how much? We can define a Defect as: “An imperfection that Current state, future state and the delta (difference) must be defined up front in order to create an action plan exists (that may not be immediately apparent), Continued on page 8 > to close the gap and achieve our desired end state. Otherwise, one could potentially end up investing significant capital for minimum gain.

n www.mobiusinstitute.com

Mobius Institute 1525 Frankston – Flinders Road, Tyabb, Victoria, 3913 | AUSTRALIA Tel: +61 427 224 544 | GMT +10 | Email. Dare.Petreski@mobiusinstitute.com April 2019 | Issue 92

7


se was conducted, based on all oil analysis results, to identify the overall state of all the equipment 0+ operations on a monthly basis. It quickly became apparent that only between 50-60% of the nt was ‘Good’, 30-40% was in ‘Caution’, 5-8% in ‘Alarm’ and the rest in ‘Severe’. On aISO positive note, Cleanliness Code Preparation e was ‘Unknown’ whichimportant suggested oilthat samples were being taken and processed with aThe high degree of ISO Cleanliness code measures particles at It is vitally before undertaking any y and discipline. three different micron levels: greater than or equal improvement project that we know our current state,

to 4 microns, greater than or equal to 6 microns and greater than or equal to 14 microns. A sample returning the ISO code 23/21/18 indicates that there was between: must be defined up front in order to create an action • 40,000 & 80,000 particles >= 4μ e good, we set atotarget of 16/14/11 • 10,000 & 20,000 particles >= 6μ plan close the gap and achieve our desired nd 15/13/10 for fuel. Although the one could potentially end up • 1,300 & 2,500 particles >= 14μ end state. Otherwise, nliness codes appear significant very close to capital for minimum gain. A sample returning the ISO code 19/17/14 indicates investing her, the fuel specification denotes a cleanliness that is effectively twice as clean as the lubricant that there was between: tion. • 2,500 & 5,000 particles >= 4μ Case Study • 640 & 1,300 particles >= 6μ In my position as the Defect Elimination Manager • 80 & 160 particles >= 14μ at a large multinational mining corporation, I was anliness Code 19/17/14 is four ISO Codes cleaner than tasked with identifying large scale Cleanliness code measures particles at three different micron 23/21/18 and it can generally be said and repeatable strategic global eater than or equal to 4 microns, greater than or equal to 6 that it is therefore 24 times cleaner (2 x 2 improvement initiatives. and greater than or equal to 14 microns. An initiative with the greatest potential x 2 x 2 = 16) or 16 x cleaner. e returning ISO code 23/21/18 indicates there for the return on investment (ROI)that was a was This means that for every 16 particles : cleanliness control initiative across you had in your lubricant reservoir all operations for both fixed plant and previously, you now only have 1. This 0,000 & 80,000 particles >= 4µ mobile equipment. A review of the can also be interpreted as for every 0,000 & 20,000 particles >= 6µ current state of the equipment using 16 kg’s you previously had circulating ,300 & 2,500 particles >=quickly 14µ oil analysis revealed significant in your lubricant system; you now only potential life extension, have 1 kg. e returning the ISO for codeequipment 19/17/14 indicates that there was maintenance cost & spares holdings It’s certainly not difficult to see how : reduction, and deferment of capital cleaner lubes and fuels equate to ,500 & 5,000 particles >= 4µ investment. longer equipment life. & 1,300 >= 6µ Anparticles exercise was conducted, based n40Manager at a large multinational mining corporation, I was tasked allglobal oil results, to identify Ranking Operations ble improvement initiatives. 0 &strategic 160 on particles >=analysis 14µ the overall state of all the equipment The next step was to rank every l for return on investment (ROI) was a cleanliness control initiative across 20+ operations on a monthly basis. It quickly operation. For this we initially used a simple XL ant and mobile apparent equipment. A only review of the 50-60% current state became that between of theof the spreadsheet (later developing a live online software ealed significant potential for equipment extension, maintenance equipment was ‘Good’, 30-40%life was in ‘Caution’, 5-8% tool) that ranked each operation from cleanest to in of ‘Alarm’ the rest in ‘Severe’. On a positive note, dirtiest. eferment capitaland investment. very little was ‘Unknown’ which suggested oil samples We nominated certain common equipment types and l oil analysis to identify overall state thedegree equipment ranked each operation for each equipment class as were results, being taken and the processed withofa all high asis. It of quickly became that only between 50-60% of the well as overall cleanliness. regularity andapparent discipline. Caution’, 5-8% in ‘Alarm’ and the rest in ‘Severe’. Onmade a positive It was at this point that the decision was to note, The bottom row shows the difference between ed oil samples were being taken and(Specific, processed Measurable, with a high degree of cleanest to dirtiest with fixed plant hydraulics showing strive for a SMART target Achievable, Realistic & Timely) and that target was to a spread of 11 ISO codes. That’s 211 times difference between cleanest to was dirtiest (> 2,000 x). cific, This difference is not only reflective of the mely) cleanliness but also highlights the variance within f our the organisation for what are essentially the same equipment types, processes and procedures. Clearly, there was room for improvement. 4/11 It was also noticed that several databases were found h the to contain defects such as; e to • Inconsistent/unclear sample point naming, otes a have cleanliness that is effectively twice as clean as the lubricant over 80% of our samples returned as ‘Good’. • Duplicated compartment sample points, To define good, we set a target of 16/14/11 for Oil • Missing/incorrect sample point data, and 15/13/10 for fuel. Although the ISO cleanliness • Inconsistent/omitted sampling intervals and codes appear very close to one another, the fuel • Obsolete sample points. specification denotes a cleanliness that is effectively twice as clean as the lubricant specification. Continued on page 10 > ticles at three different micron ons, greater than or equal to 6 8 microns.

otherwise would t this point that the how decision was we know that we’ve improved strive forata all? SMART target (Specific, Secondly, if we do improve (or go backwards), ble, Achievable, Realistic &toTimely) it’s important know by how much? target was to have over 80% of our state and the delta (difference) Current state, future returned as ‘Good’.


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Ranking Operations next step wasoperations to rank every operation. These wereThe primarily from with higher For this we initially used a simple XL spreadsheet (later contamination levels indicating a correlation between developing a liveand online tool) that administrative maintenance fieldsoftware maintenance. fromtocleanest It was at thisranked stageeach thatoperation we decided set twoto dirtiest. primary targets. We nominated certain common equipment types 1. Reduce the variance (spread) between the top and ranked each operation for each equipment and bottom operations as well asofoverall cleanliness. 2. Reduce class the amount particulate in our Lubes & Fuels systems. The bottom row shows the difference between

FLAC Cleanliness Challenge Leaderboard - FY18Q2

Overall

Hydraulics A 1

Fixed Plant Gearboxes Crushers H 1 D 1

Reclaimers A 1

Mobile Equipment Hydraulics Transmissions Gearboxes G 1 A 1 N 1

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19/17/14 (50.0) - 17/15/13 (44.9) - 19/18/15 (51.6) - 19/18/14 (51.0) - 17/16/13 (46.0) - 19/17/14 (51.1) - 20/18/14 (51.6) - 20/19/16 (55.1) 19/18/15 (51.9) - 17/16/13 (45.7) - 19/18/15 (51.9) - 19/18/14 (51.2) - 19/18/14 (51.0) - 22/17/13 (52.4) - 21/18/15 (54.3) - 23/20/15 (57.5) 20/18/15 (52.7) - 17/16/14 (46.3) - 19/18/15 (52.1) - 20/19/16 (54.4) - 19/18/14 (51.0) - 21/18/14 (53.6) - 21/19/15 (54.7) - 23/20/16 (58.8) 20/18/15 (53.3) - 17/16/13 (46.7) - 19/18/15 (52.2) - 21/20/15 (55.3)) - 21/19/16 (55.7) - 21/18/14 (53.6) - 21/19/15 (54.8) - 23/21/16 (59.8) 20/18/15 (53.3) - 17/16/14 (47.5) - 19/18/15 (52.9) - 20/20/17 (57.2) - 20/19/17 (56.0) - 22/19/14 (53.9) - 21/19/16 (55.0) - 23/21/16 (60.1) 20/18/16 (53.7) - 19/16/12 (47.7) - 20/18/15 (52.9) - 22/21/18 (60.9) - 22/21/18 (59.5) - 21/19/15 (54.4) - 23/19/13 (55.4) - 23/21/16 (60.6) 20/19/15 (53.8) - 19/17/14 (48.5) - 20/19/15 (54.0) - 22/21/19 (62.3) - 22/21/18 (60.5) - 21/19/15 (54.6) - 21/20/15 (55.7) - 23/21/17 (61.4) -

E 8 L 8 H 8 T 8 cleanest to dirtiest with fixed plant hydraulics 21/19/14H (54.0) 8- 18/17/14M (48.7) 8- 21/19/15P (55.9) 8- 24/23/18O (63.5) 8- Unknown - 21/19/15 (54.7) - 22/19/15 (55.9) - 24/22/16 (61.8) A Case for Change I 9 H 9 B 9 R 9 H 9 K 9 Q 9 O 9 showing a spread of 11 ISO codes. 21/19/15 (54.4) - 19/17/13 (49.0) - 21/19/16 (55.9) - 24/23/19 (66.6) Unknown - 22/19/14 (55.6) - 22/19/15 (56.2) - 24/22/16 (62.3) The only thing left was to quantify the potential value J 10 F 10 M 10 H X I X N 10 S 10 P 10 Unknown - 21/19/16 (56.2) - 22/19/15 (56.5) - 23/22/18 (62.4) in real for termsChange (net present for undertaking an to 22/19/14K (55.3) 11- 18/18/15R (51.3) 11- 21/20/17O (57.5) 11- Unknown A Case That’s 211 timesvalue) difference between cleanest J X Q X O 11 D 11 R 11 22/19/15 (55.6) - 22/18/13 (52.7) - 23/21/15 (58.8) Unknown Unknown - 23/20/13 (56.7) - 22/19/15 (56.5) - 24/22/17 (62.5) initiative of this scale. L 12 N 12 R 12 K X G E 12 N 12 A X dirtiest (> 2,000 x). 22/19/15 (56.2) - 20/18/15 (53.3) - 24/22/16 (61.2) Unknown N/A 22/20/16 (57.3) - 21/19/17 (56.8) Unknown as: TheWith onlytypical thing benefits left wassuch to quantify the potential value in real value) M 13 terms L 13 (net T 13present L X J Dfor13 undertaking M 13 C X an 22/20/16 (57.8) - 22/19/16 (57.0) Unknown difference not onlymotors, reflective of the 21/19/16 (56.2) - 21/19/15 (54.0) - 22/21/19 (61.6) - Unknown - N/A • 4 to 10xThis increased life ofis pumps, N 14 I 14 G X B K C 14 K 14 D X initiative of this scale. 21/19/16 (56.4) 21/19/15 (54.4) Unknown N/A N/A 22/20/16 (58.6) 23/20/15 (57.0) Unknown cleanliness but also highlights the variance within gearboxes and transmission systems. O 15 G 15 I X F L P 15 L 15 E X N/A N/A 21/20/17 (58.9) - 22/19/16 (57.1) Unknown • 5 to 100x increased the organisation what are essentially the 23/20/15P (57.4) 16- 20/19/16P (54.6) 16- Unknown J X G M M 16 R 16 G X With typical benefits suchlife as:offorvalves. 21/20/17 (57.7) 21/19/16 (56.5) Unknown N/A N/A 23/21/17 (60.5) 23/20/15 (58.1) Unknown • Elimination of valve stiction. types, processes and same equipment Q 17 Q 17 K X I O T 17 T 17 M X - 23/22/18 (62.3) Unknown N/A N/A 23/22/19 (64.2) - 24/22/19 (64.9) Unknown • Fluid lifeprocedures. through oxidation. Clearly, there motors, was room for 22/20/16R (58.4) 4 to 10xextension increased life ofreduced pumps, gearboxes and 18 transmission T 18 L X Psystems. P B B B • 10x increased life of plain bearings. 23/21/15 (58.9) - 27/26/24 (76.3) Unknown N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A improvement. S 19 S 19 Q X Q R F F F • 20x increased fatigue life element 24/22/18 (63.4) - 28/28/28 (83.5) Unknown N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5 to 100x increased lifeofofrolling valves. J X S X S S I I I It was also noticed that several databases were 23/22/19T (64.5) 20- Unknown bearings. Unknown N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5/5/5 (14.5) 20 11/13/15 (38.6) 20 5/4/4 (10.0) 20 5/5/5 (15.6) 13 5/5/5 (14.5) 11 4/5/6 (13.1) 17 4/4/6 (13.3) 17 4/3/3 (7.4) 17 WhatElimination the dollar figure that the organisation found to defects such as; stood to ofcontain valve stiction. gain by cleaning its lubes and fuels was quite large? ▪intoInconsistent/unclear sample point naming,• 1.7x life extension for Rolling Element Bearings Without getting the specific figures, suffice it to Fluid life extension through reduced oxidation. ▪ Duplicated compartment sample points, say that as a large multinational mining corporation, it • 1.8x life extension for Journal Bearings Missing/incorrect sample point data, • 1.5x life extension for Gearboxes and other increased life of plain bearings. stood10x to gain a ▪staggeringly significant amount. ▪ Inconsistent/omitted sampling intervals and general equipment ▪ Obsolete increased fatiguesample life ofpoints. rolling element bearings. For anyone wanting to justify the capital expenditure Value20x of Life extension of a cleanliness control program, the Noria Life The table below developed by Noria shows typical These were primarily from operations with higher contamination levels indicating atocorrelation between What the dollar figure that the organisation stood to gain by cleaning itsa great lubes and fuels was quite large? Extension Table is place start. life extensions when certain equipment types, in this administrative maintenance and field maintenance. similar extension chart alsomining exists for moisture it case Hydraulics & Diesel Engines, Rolling Element Without getting into the specific figures, suffice it to sayA that as life a large multinational corporation, content (shown opposite). Bearings, Journal Bearings and Gearboxes & Other stood to gain aIt staggeringly significant amount. was at this stage that we decided to set two primary targets. By increasing the life of our equipment, we do not go from one level to another. In the example above, capital spend but we certainly delay it. What if we were to start a cleanliness of 20/18/15 and 1. at Reduce the variance (spread) between theavoid top and bottom operations we do achieve is a decreased annual lifecycle cost. improve to 17/15/12, we could typically expect a: in our Lubes 2. Reduce the amount of particulate & Fuels systems. • 1.9x life extension for Hydraulics & Diesel Engines Using a very basic example, let’s assume that under

Value of Life extension

The10table above developed by Noria shows typical life extensions when certain equipment types, in this case


Table is a great place to start. A similar life extension chart also exists for moisture content (shown below).

the current operating positive effect but conditions, an the equipment equipment type has will continue to a life of 5 years. deteriorate at an If the capital cost accelerated rate. was $500,000 and The ultimate point of it required 4x major a program like this services at $25,000 is long term culture each and 5x minor change. To embed a services at $10,000. way of doing things This equates to a that become a way By increasing the life of our equipment, we do not avoid capital spend but we certainly delay it. What we do life cycle cost of of life. Think of how achieve is a decreased annual lifecycle cost. $650,000 over 5 years or $130,000 per year. far we have come along with workplace safety in the Using a very basic example, let’s assume that under the current operating conditions, an equipment type has If we were to clean our oil achieve a very 10-20 want to5xembrace and embed a lifeand of 5 years. If the capital cost was $500,000 and it last required 4x majoryears. services at We $25,000 each and minor services at $10,000. This equates to a life cycle costcleanliness of $650,000 over 5 years or $130,000 year. reasonable 1.5x life extension, the lifecycle cost control andperprecision maintenance If we wereper to clean our oilfor andthe achieve a very reasonable 1.5x life extension, the lifecycle cost drops drops from $130k to $86,660 year 7.5 practices at every stage of from the equipment and $130k to $86,660 per year for the 7.5 years that the equipment is in operation. We have also deferred our years that the equipment is in operation. We have the FLAC’s life, from Storage, to Installation, to recapitalisation by 2.5 years. also deferred our recapitalisation by 2.5 years. Commissioning, to Operation & finally Maintenance. Going to the next level and increasing the life of our equipment by a factor of 2x (again, not an unreasonable Going to the next level and increasing life of chart belowdown highlights number) we naturally dropthe the lifecycle cost by 50%, or inThe the case of this example, to $65,000 per the year path ahead. It will be with a recapitalisation period of 10 years as opposed to our original interval of 5 years. our equipment by a factor of 2x (again, not an different for every organisation and/or operation, but unreasonable number) we naturally drop the lifecycle the concept holds true for all. cost by 50%, or in the case of this example, down to It’s important to measure where selected equipment $65,000 per year with a recapitalisation period of 10 classes are currently at with relation to two measures. years as opposed to our original interval of 5 years. MTTFF (Mean Time to First Failure) and MTTR (Mean Time to Repair). We all know that reactive Where to from here? $500K Capital $500,000 work is both costlier and riskier to perform under the It’s very important at this stage to clarify that this isn’t a ‘quick win’ type of program. There may be some quick $25K / major x 4 $100,000 of time constraints. A general rule of thumb wins along the way, but this type of initiative will start duress showing a return on investment in the long term. Typically, from 18-24 months after$50,000 launch and depending on how well it’s executed (adherence to schedule, $10K / minor x 5 is that poor performing (reactive) operations will maintenance practices & procedures, etc). $650,000 have longer MTTR times and shorter MTTFF’s. This keeping our lubes & Fuels clean, we are protecting against two distinct and very different types of Life cycle cost over 5 yearsBy (per year) $130,000 reflects an operation suffering from unmitigated and contamination. unpredictable failures that take longer and are more $500K Capital $500,000 costly to repair. The repair is often time constrained $25K / major x 4 $100,000 leading to less than optimal maintenance/repair work $10K / minor x 5 $50,000 being carried out and thus a shorter operational $650,000 Life cycle cost over 7.5 years (per year) $86,660 period until it must be ‘serviced’ once again since it was returned to service in a less than optimum state $500K Capital $500,000 in the first place. $25K / major x 4 $100,000 The goal here is to eliminate, or at least greatly $10K / minor x 5 $50,000 reduce the number of unplanned interactions with the $650,000 asset, leaving it to operate as required with planned Life cycle cost over 10 years (per year) $65,000 and scheduled maintenance services being carried out in a safe, structured and efficient manner. This should have a twofold effect: Where to from here? 1. Reduce the time taken for maintenance tasks It’s very important at this stage to clarify that this isn’t 2. Increase the reliability of the equipment after a ‘quick win’ type of program. There may be some servicing. quick wins along the way, but this type of initiative As the diagram on the next page indicates, this is will start showing a return on investment in the long not something we expect to achieve overnight but term. Typically, from 18-24 months after launch and rather over time. It is also important to know that this depending on how well it’s executed (adherence to is not a race with a finish line. Sure, there is a target schedule, maintenance practices & procedures, etc). cleanliness but once achieved, you can’t stop, and By keeping our lubes & Fuels clean, we are shift focus to something else and think that the FLAC protecting against two distinct and very different cleanliness will take care of itself. Your equipment will types of contamination. quickly return to a contaminated state in much less 1. Ingress - where contaminants enter our systems time than it took for you to clean it and your efforts from the outside. will have all been for naught if stringent metrics are 2. Generated – where the equipment itself is the not continuously met. source of the contaminant(s). If equipment is damaged and generating debris, Continued on page 12 > simply cleaning the Lubes/Fuels will have some April 2019 | Issue 92

11


also important to know that this is not a race with a finish line. Sure, there is a target cleanliness but once hieved, you can’t stop, and shift focus to something else and think that the FLAC cleanliness will take care itself. Your equipment will quickly return to a contaminated state in much less time than it took for you to ean it and your efforts will have all been for naught if stringent metrics are not continuously met.

Conclusion Becoming a strategic maintenance operation doesn’t happen overnight. Like all good things, it takes time, effort and patience with the reward for your efforts being eternal vigilance. You must have the correct checks and balances in place to ensure that once you’ve achieved your goals, you don’t start to fall into your old ways and let standards drop. After all, what was all the cost and effort for if you weren’t going to derive some value for it in the end.

Simple Roles & Responsibilities. Individual Operations should; • Identify strengths and share with other operations within their network. • Identify areas for improvement from current ranking. • Validate potential local operational benefits from cleanliness improvements. • Identify actions that will deliver increased cleanliness. • Prioritise actions based on impact to operations. • Develop a sustainable implementation action plan. Conclusion

As Warren Buffet so famously said... “Price (Cost) is what you pay, Value is what you get.”

On a personal level, we can compare long term value generating corporate initiatives to a person’s tertiary education undertakings. Very simply, what is the cost of undertaking tertiary education versus the value it generates? Costs and efforts include but are certainly not limited to: • Tuition Fees • Textbooks • Accommodation • Living Expenses • Phones Immediate Becoming aOpportunities; strategic maintenance operation doesn’t happen overnight. • Food • on existing LikeBuild all good things, itFLAC takesinitiatives. time, effort and patience with reward for • the Power • Use tools to understand current and historical your efforts being eternal vigilance. You must have the correct checks and • Water results/trends. Entertainment balances in place to ensure thatand oncerelated you’ve achieved your• goals, you don’t • Use previous FLAC audits • Time Constraints start to fall into your old ways and let standards drop. After all, what was recommendations. • Part Time • Implement Procedures from leading all the cost andPractices effort for & if you weren’t going to derive some value for itJob in • Additional Stress, etc. operations.

the end.

• Review local skills and competencies. • Initiate skills capabilitysaid... refresher training from As Warren Buffetand so famously Subject Matter Experts (SME’s). “Priceexisting (Cost) issupplier what you pay, • Leverage contracts for capability development.

If there is no value in it then why do so many pursue some form of tertiary education? The simple answer is that as with all value generating endevours, cost is limited and can be capped wheras value is ongoing and uncapped. Value is what you get.” To achieve a positive cultural change will take time, Management Support; effort and incurr costs but the value it generates • Maintain a leaderboard & distribute to all on a greatly outweighs the initial burden. Do not On quarterly a personalbasis. level, we can compare long term value generating to a person’s tertiary undertakecorporate long terminitiatives value generating initiatives • Provide access and knowledge training and on education undertakings. Very simply, what is the cost ofifundertaking tertiary education versus the on value it you are looking for an immediate return the use of software, tools and equipment. generates? and local efforts includecapability but are certainly notinvestment. limited to: You have to be willing to wait, monitor • Assist & Costs Develop auditing to and guide your team(s) to achieve positive long identify FLAC improvement opportunities. Tuition Fees, Textbooks, Accommodation, Living Expenses,term Phones, Food, Power,value Water, Entertainment, and sustainable adding change. Time • Publicise and communicate case histories from

Constraints, Part Time Job, Additional Stress, etc. successful initiatives across your organisation.

• Provide access to external diverse SME’s to assist If there is no value in it then why and do so many pursue some with specific technical queries projects. form of tertiary education? • Provide FLAC input to new projects, acquisitions and installations. • improvement workshops to TheFacilitate simple Kaizen answer type is that as with all value generating effect rapid change. endevours, costpositive is limited and can be capped wheras value is • Create a career path for FLAC (Hydrocarbon) ongoing and uncapped. management staff.

To achieve a positive cultural change will take time, effort and incurr costs but the value it generates greatly outweighs the initial burden. Do not undertake long term value generating initiatives if you are looking for an 12 immediate return on investment. You have to be willing to wait, monitor and guide your team(s) to achieve


Vortex analysis on a

Francis hydro turbine

Francis hydro turbine Article by: Peter Smith – Mercury

Francis hydro turbine

Article by: Peter Smith – Mercury

Hydro turbines have a significant mass and a relatively low operating speed, so vibration analysis Hydro turbines have a significant mass and a relatively low operating speed, so vibration analysis should be easy. But due to the large volumes of water movement, flow induced vortices can occur should be easy. But due to the large volumes of water movement, flow induced vortices can occur under certain operating conditions to complicate matters. under certain operating conditions to complicate matters.

This article is an overview of flow vortices that can occur on a Francis hydro turbine at various flow This article is an overview of flow vortices that can occur on a Francis hydro turbine at various flow rates and their influence on vibration amplitudes. These vortices form in the runner and draft tube The cavitation in the lower flow range causes a slight increase in overall vibration amplitudes and rates and their influence on vibration amplitudes. These vortices form in the runner and draft tube during normal operation. once flow is above the channel vortex range (>50% optimum flow) a cavitation free zone exists

during normal operation. Hydro turbines have a significant mass and a relatively low operating speed, so vibration analysis should be easy. But due to the large volumes of water movement, flow induced vortices can occur efficiently in a wide range of conditions (fig. 1). The water flow through the runner is controlled by under certain operating conditions to complicate matters.

which allows for smoother operating (Fig 3). The Francis design accounts for around 60% of the worlds hydro power generation and can operate efficiently in a wide range of conditions (fig. 1). The water flow through the runner is controlled by The Francis design accounts for around 60% of the worlds hydro power generation and can operate the guide vanes. In this article we will progress from low flow conditions through to maximum flow.

the guide vanes. In this article we will progress from low flow conditions through to maximum flow.

Fig.1

Article by: Peter Smith – Mercury

T

his article is an overview of flow vortices that can occur on a Francis hydro turbine at various flow rates and their influence on vibration Figure 3, cavitation zones amplitudes. These vortices form in the runner and draft tube during normal operation. In the upper flow range (70-85% optimum flow) a swirling vortex (rope vortex) can develop leading Figure 1 The Francis design accounts for around 60% of the to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 - 0.4 times the runner speed (Fig 4 and 5). The rope vortex initiates from the runner cone and proceeds down the draft tube and can have a At the lower flow range (<50% optimum flow) cavitation occurs in the runner and draft tube. Initial worlds hydro power generation and can operate cavitation is random but as the flow increases channel vortices form between the runner blades (Fig significant effect on overall vibration. efficiently in a wide range of conditions (Fig 1). The 2). Figure 1 water flow through the runner is controlled by the guide vanes. In this article we will progress from low At the lower flow range (<50% optimum flow) cavitation occurs in the runner and draft tube. Initial flow conditions through to maximum flow. cavitation is random but as the flow increases channel vortices form between the runner blades (Fig 2). At the lower flow range (<50% optimum flow) cavitation occurs in the runner and draft tube. Initial cavitation is random but as the flow increases channel vortices form between the runner blades Fig 4. Rope vortex in draft tube, image provided by Andritz Hydro. (Fig 2). Fig 2. Channel vortices on the Figure 2, Channel vortices on the runner, image provided by Andritz Hydro. Fig 4. Rope vortex in draft tube, The cavitation in the lower flow range causes a runner, image provided by Andritz image provided by Andritz Hydro. Vortex frequency, Hydro. slight increase in overall vibration amplitudes and 226µm at 0.33 orders 14


The cavitation in the lower flow range causes a slight increase in overall vibration amplitudes and once flow is above the channel vortex range (>50% optimum flow) a cavitation free zone exists which allows for smoother operating (Fig 3).

The cavitation in the lower flow range causes a slight increase in overall vibration amplitudes and once flow is above the channel vortex range (>50% Under certain operating conditions the pressure optimum flow) a cavitation free zone exists which once flow is above the channel vortex range (>50% optimum flow ) a cavitation free zone exists fluctuations during the turbine-circuit interaction Figure 6. Vortex frequency and turbine circuit interaction. allows for smoother operating (Fig 3). which allows for smoother operating (Fig 3). (hydro-acoustic resonance) can generate significant forces within the system. Under certain operating conditions the pressure fluctuations during t Once operating at the optimum flow rate the unit (hydro-acoustic resonance) can generate significant forces within the should exhibit no cavitation issues. At flow rates greater than 100% optimum flow you Once operating at the optimum flow rate the unit should exhibit no c enter the Areal cavitation zone (Fig 3) where another vortex forms but instead of swirling it remains At flow rates greater than 100% optimum flow you enter the Areal ca central due to the higher flows and has less of an Figure 3, cavitation zones another vortex forms but instead of swirling it remains central due to effect on overall vibration (Fig 7). of an effect on overall vibration (Fig 7). In the upper flow range (70-85% optimum flow) a swirling vortex (rope vortex) can develop leading to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 - 0.4 times the runner speed (Fig 4 and 5). The rope vortex initiates from the runner cone and proceeds down the draft tube and can have a significant effect on overall vibration.

Fig 3. Cavitation Figure 3, cavitation zones zones. In the upper flow range (70-85% optimum flow) a swirling vortex (rope vortex) can develop leading to In the upper flow range (70-85% optimum flow) a swirling vortex (rope vortex) can develop leading pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 - 0.4 to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 - 0.4 times the runner speed (Fig 4 and 5). The times the runner speed (Fig 4 and 5). The rope vortex rope vortex initiates from the runner cone and proceeds down the draft tube and can have a initiates from the runner cone and proceeds down the significant effect on overall vibration. draft tube and can have a significant effect on overall vibration. Fig 4. Rope vortex in draft tube, image provided by Andritz Hydro. Vortex frequency, 226Âľm at 0.33 orders

Figure 7. Areal cavitation Fig 7. Areal cavitation.

A common approach to prevent the rope vortex formation is by air injection. Injecting air through the A common approach to prevent the rope vortex formation is by air injection. Injectin centre of the shafts prevents the formation of the the centre of the shafts prevents the formation of the rope vortex during the partial rope vortex during the partial load zone (Fig 8). 8).

Figure 5. Full spectrum of rope vortex frequency at 0.2 -0.4 times runner speed.

Fig 5. Full spectrum of rope vortex frequency at 0.2 -0.4 times runner speed. Fig 4. Rope vortex in draft tube, image provided by Andritz Hydro. On some Francis turbines with a High Specific Speed On some Francis turbines with a High Specific Speed (an index number due to runner design) the (an index number due to runner design) the rope rope vortex pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations that effect the Vortex frequency, vortex pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable entire hydraulic system and appear in a higher frequency range of 2 - 4 times the runner speed 226Âľm at 0.33 orders vibration (Fig 6). pressure fluctuations that effect the entire hydraulic system and appear in a higher frequency range of 2 4 times the runner speed vibration (Fig 6).

Figure 8. Air injection Fig 8. Air injection. I hope this brief article has given a basic insight into the world of Hydro vortex analy I hope this brief article has given a basic insight into

References: the world of Hydro vortex analysis. Upper part load vortex in Francis turbine by C Nicolet et al 2010 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 12 01

Observation of pressure pulsations on a Francis model turbine with high specific speed by P.K Dorfler. Energies article 11-02320, published September 2018. References: Analysis of the cavitation draft tube vortex in a Francis turbine, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Feb 2008

Figure 5. Full spectrum of rope vortex frequency at 0.2 -0.4 times runner speed.

Upper part load vortex in Francis turbine by C Nicolet et al 2010 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 12 012053 Observation of pressure pulsations on a Francis model turbine with high specific speed by P.K Dorfler. Energies article 11-02320, published September 2018. Analysis of the cavitation draft tube vortex in a Francis turbine, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Feb 2008

Figure 6. Vortex frequency and turbine circuit interaction. Fig 6. Vortex frequency and turbine circuit interaction. Under certain operating conditions the pressure fluctuations during the turbine-circuit interaction (hydro-acoustic resonance) can generate significant forces within the system. Once operating at the optimum flow rate the unit should exhibit no cavitation issues.

April 2019 | Issue 92

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April 2019 | Issue 92

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Fundamentals of vibration analysis The importance of sine waves (part 1)

Fundamentals of

Vibration Analysis

This is the first in a series of articles on vibration analysis where we will take a few s look at the fundamentals or first principles again.

The spectrum that our vibration analysers produce from a measured waveform give magnitudes of the different frequencies of sine waves that when added together wi give us the same waveform. The longer our sample the more accurate our results ca on that in a later article. As sine waves are so important to our analysis tools we wil look at their properties and why they are used. In this first article we will look at add analysis where we will take a few steps back and together.

The Importance of Sine Waves (Part 1) This is the first in a series of articles on vibration look at the fundamentals or first principles again.

Article by David Kenny

T

he spectrum that our vibration analysers produce from a measured waveform gives us the magnitudes of the different frequencies of sine waves that when added together will approximately give us the same waveform. The longer our sample the more accurate our results can be, but more on that in a later article. As sine waves are so important to our analysis tools we will take a closer look at their properties and why they are used. In this first article we will look at adding sine waves together.

Sine waves can be produced by real world processes called simple harmonic motion “simple” here is used to tell us that some of the other more complex real world effe rotating unbalanced mass and a “rotating” force can small for the chosen examples. The classic examples are a pendulum (mass) with a l produce changes in the displacement, velocity and mass on a spring. But probably most importantly, for machine diagnostics, is that a acceleration magnitude over time that are described unbalanced mass, or other rotating force, produces a sine wave motion on a machin by a sine wave. Although this shows that sine waves measure with our vibration transducers. We will not get into the maths or mechanic can represent the change in real world properties over state that a rotating unbalanced mass and a “rotating” force can produce changes in time it is not the main reason we use them to generate displacement, velocity and acceleration magnitude over time that are described by a spectrum. Although this shows that sine waves can represent the change in real world propert not the main reason we use them to generate a spectrum.

In my opinion the most important property of a sine wave is “when you add sine waves of the same frequency together you get another sine wave of the In my opinion the most important property of a sine wave is “when you add sine wa same frequency”. Sine and cosine waves are the only frequency together you get another sine wave of the same frequency”. Sine and cos waves to have this property. For example when you the only waves to have this property. For example when you add two triangular wav add two triangular waves together you get something Sine waves can be produced by real world processes get something that is not a triangular wave any more (Figure 1) as it has a flat botto called simple harmonic motion. The word “simple” here is used to tell us that some of the other more complex real world effects are very small for the chosen examples. The classic examples are a pendulum (mass) with a light string and a mass on a spring. But probably most importantly, for machine diagnostics, is that a rotating unbalanced mass, or other rotating force, produces a sine wave motion on a machine that we measure with Figure 1 Adding two triangular waves together results in a different wave type our vibration transducers. We will not get into the Figure 1. Adding two triangular waves together results in a maths or mechanics here except to state that a different wave type.

2

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1.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

0

0

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-1

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n David works on machine dynamics and problem solving. Email: nzkennys@gmail.com 26


to us. Say we have taken two spectrums on an item (Figure 2). One spectrum with only the unit running and one with the unit stopped but the unit next to it running. What will the vibration be when these items are combined, i.e. with both units running? While the spectrums clearly define the motion of the unit they do not provide enough information for you to add them together. All we can say is that the magnitude of the joined spectrum (i.e. the sum) will be between two (3-1) and four (3+1). The information we are missing to give a more accurate answer is called the phase angle. For now we will just consider phase angle to represent the fraction of the wave cycle which has elapsed relative to each other. Once we see why the phase angle is important we will provide a slightly more rigorous definition in a future article (so we can be sure our values are comparable).

In my opinion the most important property of a sine wave is “when you add sine waves of the same frequency together you get another sine wave of the same frequency”. 3

3 2 1

1 Sum? Spectrum 2 Spectrum 1 225

240

195

210

165

180

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150

0

Figure 2. Two spectrums taken on a machine.

that is not a triangular wave any more (Figure 1) as it has a flat bottom.

Figure 2 Two spectrums taken on a machine

To understand how spectrum 1 & 2 in Figure 2 need to be added together we return to the sine waves. Figure 3 shows us that if two sine waves of the same frequency (dashed lines) are almost heading in the same direction (i.e. in phase) then their sum (solid line) is bigger than the largest wave (wave 2 in this case). Figure 4 shows us that if two sine waves of the same frequency are heading in almost opposite directions (i.e. out of phase) then the resulting wave is smaller than the largest wave.

Let’s take a closer look at adding sine waves together. We will start with sine waves of the same frequency as this is the simplest. But first we will look at an example to show why this is important to us. Say we have taken two spectrums on an item (Figure 2). One spectrum with only the unit running and one with the unit stopped but the unit next to it running. What will the

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vibration be when these items are combined, i.e. with both units running? While the spectrums clearly define the motion of the unit they do not provide enough information for you to add them together. All we can say is that the magnitude of the joined spectrum (i.e. the sum) will be between two (3-1) and four (3+1). The information we are missing to give a more accurate answer is called the phase angle. For now we will just consider phase angle to represent the fraction of the wave cycle which has elapsed relative to each other. Once we see why the phase angle is important we will provide a slightly more rigorous definition in a future article (so we can be sure our values are comparable). To understand how spectrum 1 & 2 in Figure 2 need to be added together we return to the sine waves. Figure 3 shows us that if two sine waves of the same frequency (dashed lines) are almost heading in the same direction (i.e. in phase) then their sum (solid Continued on page 28 >

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27


line) is bigger than the largest wave (wave 2 in this case). Figure 4 shows us that if two sine waves of the same frequency are heading in almost opposite directions (i.e. out of phase) then the resulting wave is smaller than the largest wave.

4

Thus if the two vibration sources that produce Spectrum 1 & 2 (in Figure 2) always have the same phase relationship then the sum of their sine waves will always produce the same result. If one is running and then the other starts up it is likely that each time both are running the resultant vibration (their sum) will be different. But in this case we will know that the result will be a vibration between two and four. We can generalize this example to waves of unknown magnitudes called X and Y with X greater than or equal to Y. Adding sine waves with the same frequency together will produce a sine wave of the same frequency with a magnitude between X+Y and X-Y.

0

Real world examples of this are: • 125 RPM synchronous generators that share a foundation. Each can have 24 positions of the shaft relative to the grid (or line frequency). • Items that have a clutch that locks the speeds together but the position where that happens changes from run to run. Thus the vibration magnitude changes between runs.

3 2 1

Wave 1 Wave 2 sum of 1 & 2

-1 -2 -3 -4

Figure 3. Two waves almost “starting” together make a larger wave.

Figure 3 Two waves almost “starting” together make a larger wave

4 4 3 3

2 2 1 1

Wave 1 Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 2 sum of 1 & 2 sum of 1 & 2

0 0 -1 -1 -2 -2

-3 -3

-4 -4

Figure 4. Two waves “starting” almost opposite make a smaller wave.

Figure 4 Two waves “starting” almost opposite make a smaller wave Figure 3 Two waves almost “starting” together make a larger wave

Thus if the two vibration sources that produce Spectrum 1 & 2 (in Figure 2) always have the same phase relationship then the sum of their sine waves will always produce the same result. If one is 4 running and then the other starts up it is likely that each time both are running the resultant

PUZZLE CORNER

3

2 1

Wave 1

WORD BUILDER

0 WORD MARCH

How many words of three or more letters can you make, using each letter only once? Plurals are allowed, but no foreign words or words beginning with a capital. There is at least one 5 letter word. 6 - Good | 8 - Very Good | 12+ - Excellent

Draw a path from one square-1to To solve, each number from 1 to 9 must appear once in: another to find the secret nine • Each of the nine vertical columns letter word. You may move in-2any • Each of the nine horizontal rows direction. Each square can only be • Each of the nine 3 x 3 boxes. -3 used once. There is 293 words (two letters or -4 more) that can be made from the 8 5 2 combination of letters below. How many can you make? Figure 4 Two waves “starting” almost opposite make a smaller wave Solution on page 34. 1 7 6 5

E

A

B

L

F

SODUKU

sum of 1 & 2

Thus if the two vibration sources that produce Spectrum 1 & 2 (in Figure 2) always have the same phase relationship then the sum of their sine waves will always produce the same result. If one is running and then the other starts up it is likely that each time both are running the resultant

R

U

A

E

R

T

S

M

A

9

5

4

5 4

9 9

3

1 2

1 6 5

28

Wave 2

2 7

5 4

6 9

1


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TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - PART 54 OF A SERIES

1

Which of the following sensors is capable of measuring down to DC? a

Eddy-current proximity probe

b

Velomitor T E S T Y O U R K N O W L E D G E - PA R T 5 7 O F A S E R I E S TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE - PART 54 OF A SERIES Single-axis Accelerometer

c plate to promote diffusion (misting) of essential 1 A cocked hat is something you might encounter d Triaxial Accelerometer oils. What frequency do some models claim to 1 where? Which of the following sensors is capable of measuring down to DC?

a When doing cross-channel phase analysis operate at? a Eddy-current proximity probe 2 b When A large rotating drum weighing 80 tonnes is perfectly balanced. After both of its bearings failed, the shaft a 2.4 Hz analysing bearing fault frequencies was re-sprayed and machined in-situ. Unfortunately an error occurred in the machining and the centre-ofb conducting Velomitor b 2.4 kHz c When certain types of balancing rotation was off-set by 0.1 mm from the original (same angle and off-set at both bearings). The drum has a c 2.4 MHz d In Timaru, at an up-market clothing store c Single-axis Accelerometer diameter of 4 metres. What correction weight would be required at the outer surface to correct the d 2.4 GHz unbalance created by the machining error? d typeTriaxial Accelerometer 2 What of vibration sensor would you most-

7 A balancing program assigns names to the likely in a modern smart-phone? a find0.4 kg 2 a accelerometer A large rotating drum weighing 80 tonnes is perfectly balanced. After both of its bearings failed, the shaft different runs of the process. b 4 kg was re-sprayed and machined in-situ. Unfortunately an error occurred in the machining and the centre-of Which might be the order in which they occur? b velomitor rotation was off-set by 0.1 mm from the original (same angle and off-set at both bearings). The drum has a a Trial run, trim run, reference run c Prox-probe c 40 kg diameter of 4 metres. What correction weight would be required at the outer surface to correct the b Reference run, trial run, trim run d Velocity pickup d 400 kg unbalance created by the machining error? c Trim run, reference run, trial run

d Trim run, trial run, reference run 3 Where you encounter the term PPV? a might 0.4 kg 3 Many modern vibration analysers have a feature known as “pseudo tach”. When might you utilise this? a b c d

4 3

4

a b c d

5 4

5

5 a b c d 6

When analysing displacement data 4 kg vibration from blasting operations a b measuring When carrying out in-situ balance corrections on belt-driven fans. 8 “Gap voltage” is a term you will most-likely When encounter when... When doing route-based data-collection 40 kg b c When analysing electrical signals on 3-phase induction motors. a Setting up coupling hubs When balancing machines in-situ 400 kg c d When doing time-synchronous averaging on multi-shaft gearboxes. b Analysing the signals from vsd drives c Determining the absolute position of a shaft supported A vibration waveform has an RMS value of 10 d When testing for resonances by doing bump testing. Many modern vibration analysers have a feature known as “pseudo tach”. When might you utilise this? by journal bearings mm/s, and a peak-to-peak value of 28 mm/s. d Analysing the vibrations of a DC motor This is most-likely collected from... a signalWhen carrying out in-situ balance corrections on belt-driven fans. “Closed-loop vector” and “open-loop vector” are terms you might associate with … An unbalanced machine When analysing electrical signals on 3-phase induction motors. a b Variable-Speed Drives 9 What are some ways you might measure to A misaligned machine determine if a motor foot is loose on the baseA machine with damaged rolling-element bearings When doing time-synchronous averaging on multi-shaft gearboxes. b c Dynamic Balancing plate? A machine suffering from mechanical looseness When testing for resonances by doing bump testing. c d Examination of fluid-film orbits a Measure the vibration on the foot and on the baseplate and compare the readings There method of checking the residual d is a Patterns indicative of misalignment “Closed-loop vector” and “open-loop vector” are terms you might associate with … b Measure the phase difference between the foot and balance of a rotor by fitting a test weight at a Variable-Speed Drives the base-plate and compare the readings selected angular locations (often 8 of) around the Which of the following is true of BNC connectors? c Analyse the frequency composition of the vibration rotor and measuring the resulting vibration level b Dynamic Balancing signals, looking for the possible existence of fora each They are often used for making connections to triaxial accelerometers run. c Examination of fluid-film orbits For this test, how heavy should the test weight b They are a good choice to use in wet environments harmonics d All of the above might be useful be in comparison to the suspected residual Patterns indicative of misalignment c d Caution must be taken when making the connection to avoid cross-threading unbalance? 10 Vibration at which order is most likely to feature Half unbalance d the residual To be confident of good signal transmission, the connectors must be kept clean. Which of the following is true of BNC connectors? on a reciprocating machine? The same as the residual unbalance a They are often used for making connections to triaxial accelerometers a 1 x running speed 2 x the residual unbalance b 2 x running speed 5 tob 10 x the residual unbalance They are a good choice to use in wet environments c 3 x running speed c Caution must be taken when making the connection to avoid cross-threading Ultrasonic aroma diffusers are now a very popular d 8 x running speed household item. They utilise a small vibrating d To be confident of good signal transmission, the connectors must be kept clean. Answers on page 34 Further enquiries can be directed to: Carl Townsend at Carlton Technology Ltd. Phone: 64-6-759 1134 | Email: ctownsend@xtra.co.nz | Address: P.O. Box 18046 Merrilands, New Plymouth 4360, NZ

30


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CALL FOR PAPERS

The VANZ conference is a place for learning and sharing • Have you ever had an experience that you think others would benefit from? • Something that went right or wrong?

We can all learn from our own experience, but we can avoid a lot of problems if we learn from other people too! That is what VANZ is all about. If you could talk for just 15 minutes (or longer if you like), please write to Simon.Hurricks@genesisenergy.co.nz

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The official journal of

the Vibrations Associati

on of New Zealand The official journal of the Vibrations Association of New Zealand

spectrum Summer 2018 | Issue 90

VIBRATIONS ASSOCIATION of NEW ZEALAND

Spectrum #90

ISSN 1173-793X

July 2019 | Issue 93

Editor Angie Hurricks Ph 021 239 4572 Email: spectrumeditor@va nz.org,nz

Give ‘em some Publisher Frans Taris Email: franstaris@gmail.c

FLAC! om

Design Flashpoint Design and Marketing info@flashpoint.design www.flashpoint.design

The official journal of the Vibrations Association of New Zealand (VANZ)

A case study in long term cultural change

CONTENTS

New Zealand Spectrum is published quarterly by the Vibrations Association of New Zealand Inc. The journal is designed to cover all aspects of the vibration field, and is received by all VANZ members including corporate members. Contribut ions to Spectrum are welcome. Please address material to: Angie Hurricks Spectrum Editor c/o 358 Waerenga Road, R.D.1, Te Kauwhata, 3781 Waikato, New Zealand

October 2018

Analysis on a

Francis hydro turbine or email: spectrumeditor@va

nz.org.nz

Statements made or opinions expressed in Spectrum are not necessar ily the views of VANZ or its Officers and Committee. President Glenn Pepper Email: Glen.Pepper@gene sisenergy.co.nz

Features

Our quarterly magazine includes:

How to kill a bearing! An introduction to infrare

P SAVE UReg ulars ON 0 0 2 TO $ TISING ADVER

• Papers from conference reprinted • Conference information • Articles and reports from industry leaders • Presidents report • Notices • Committee reports • Interactive activities and much more...

d Technology

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photo gallery Treasurer Graeme Finch Email: g.finch@xtra.co.nz

with details revealed

From the president

for our 2020 event!

Secretary Rhiannon Swift Email: Rhiannon.Swift@ve ctor.co.nz

Editor’s report

and more inside...

Please address all VANZ correspondence to: VANZ PO Box 2122 Shortland Street Auckland

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Test your knowledge

Web Site www.vanz.org.nz

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Spectrum 93  

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