78th ANNIVERSARY -
Hope College, Holland, Michigan
May 13, 1966
Hope Alumnus Lives Life Advocating Goals of Pacifism *M..u By John M. Mulder This m a n is 81 y e a r s old, a graduate of Hope College and one of the leading advocates of pacificism in the U.S. today. He h a s been arrested for climbing over a barbed-wire fence into a U.S. missile base, beaten for leading a picket line of striking textile workers, and most recently pelted with eggs and tomatoes by irate Saigon youths. This m a n is A. J. Muste, "the peace agitator," and last week he returned to New York a f t e r another a t t e m p t to convince people through peaceful demonstrations of the folly of war. He led a delegation of six men to Saigon to protest the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war. but before they could demonstrate before the U.S. embassy in Saigon, the group was arrested and expelled f r o m the country on the grounds that their visas were only good for one week. Mr. Muste returned to New York in time to receive the 1966 Gandhi P e a c e Award, given each year by Promoting Enduring P e a c e . Inc. In receiving the award he is among o ' h e r famous recipients; Eleanor Roosevelt. Rev. Edwin T. Dahlberg. f o r m e r president of the National Coucil of Churches, and Dr. Linus Pauling, 1954 winner of the Nobel Prize for chemistry, and vocal advocate of various " p e a c e c a u s e s . " D . .
A. J. MUSTE
These recent incidents a r e part of his active life, which began in the Netherlands in 1885. Mr. Muste c a m e to the U.S. when he was six, attended Hope College, where he was anchor editor in 1904, and New Brunswick Seminary, and has spent his entire life living and preaching his radical philosophy; "You do your revolutionary job, and if that lands you in jail, fine. You never compromise or 'chicken out' in order to keep out of jail." He has been a well-traveled minister in the denominations, serving Reformed, Presbyterian, Congregational and Quaker churches. However, since 1940 he has held no pastorate. He started on his radical road shortly before the outbreak of World War I when he b e c a m e a pacifist. However, between 1929 and 1936 he moved away from his emphasis on nonviolence and joined militant labor movements. One of these was the Conference for Progressive Labor Activities, which urged " a definitely anti-imperialist, anti-militarist and internationalist labor m o v e m e n t . " The minister found himself with s t r a n g e bedfellows during these years, since many of his agitator friends were Trotskyites. Mr. Muste says that nevertheless he never gave up his belief in God. Later he emphasized pacificism a^ the demands of labor began to be met. The sting of the Depression abated, but his conscience was once m o r e aroused by World War II. Since then he has been an untiring advocate of pacificism, but his diversion has led Reinhold Neibuhr to criticize him for being " a pacifist, then a revolutionary, and a pacifist once again and he hasn't learned a thing on the journey." Today he's the darling of all radicals, young and old. He is an inspiring figure with white hair and a f i r m voice but with hands that shake both with age and the vehemence with which he speaks. One admirer describes him as " a devastating reminder to young pacifists of what a real radical is." His contribution to the civil rights movement has been considerable, especially his influence upon Dr. Martin Luther King, who was (Continued on Page 2)
ROBERT DE YOUNG
LARRY TER MOLEN
De Young, Ter Molen, Tysse Recent Appointments to Administrative Posts Three m a j o r Administration appointments were announced this week by President Calvin A. VanderWerf. L a r r y Ter Molen, who has served as E a s t Coast Representative for the College during the past year, will be moving to the office of development where he will a s s u m e the new position of Director of Foundation and Business Relations. The other m e m b e r of the development office is Stuart Post, Director of Church and Community Relations. John Tysse, who c a m e to Hope last year as Administration counselor, has been appointed coordinator of the Centennial Homecoming celebration for next fall. After he fulfills his duties in this capacity, he will move to some other Administrative post, as yet undetermined, according to President VanderWerf. The newest m e m b e r of the Hope Administration is Robert De Young, who has been n a m e d to the position of Associate Director of Admissions. Mr. De Young comes to Hope f r o m G r a n d Valley State College in Allendale, Mich., where he served as associate director of admissions since 1964. Prior to his position at Grand Valley he was assistant director of admissions and financial aid for three years at Michigan State
Will Guard Against
University. He is a graduate of Hope College '1956), and received his master's degree in counseling from Western Michigan University in 1959. He has also done work for a doctor's degree in administration at Michigan State. Mr. Ter Molen came to Hope from the Central Intelligence Agency in Washington, D.C. He is a 1959 graduate of Hope and received his M.A. in political science from the University of Michigan
in 1962. As Eastern Representative, he was responsible for contacting prospective students and working with alumni, churches and business in the East in connection with the development program. Mr. Tysse is also a graduate of Hope College (1960) and has done graduate work at Western Michigan University. His duties as admissions counselor included working with prospective students at Hope and traveling to their high schools.
Barlow, Carwell, Savage And Wegter Resign Posts Dean of the College William Vandej-Lugt announced that four more members of the Hope faculty will be leaving at the end of this year.
will be going to the University of Minnesota. He has held his position at Hope since 1961.
Announcing their resignations were Dr. William R. Barlow, Dr. Virginia A. Carwell, Dr. Edward B. Savage and Robert W. Wegter.
Dr. Carwell, who has been an assistant professor of English at Hope is leaving Hope to assume a position at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas.
Dr. Barlow leaves a position as assistant professor of history which he has held since 1961. Next year he will fill a position at Nebraska's Wayne State Teacher's College. Dr. Savage is leaving his post as associate professor of English. He
Mr. Wegter, who has held the position of instructor of speech since 1964, plans to spend next year working for his Ph.D. degree before asuming a position that he has accepted at Central College in Pella, Iowa.
Controversial Draft Test Given Tomorrow By John Renwlck Tomorrow at 9 a.m. the Selective Service College Qualification Test will be given in Winants Auditorium. According to Dr. F. Phillip Van Eyl, administrator of the test, 200 students will take the test in the auditorium, which seats 210, on each of the three test dates. Potential cheating in such a situation is considered dangerous. However, Dr. Van Eyl said that as a matter of professional integrity, students caught cheating on the test would be dealt with accordingly. The examination is being used as one criterion for draft deferment. Dean Thomas Carey said that a score of 70 per cent on the test
gives the local board the "option" of deferment. In other words, if a student does not make the mark of 70 per cent and is not of high enough academic standing, he is reclassified 1-A and, depending upon the number of voluntary enlistments and the course of the war, may be drafted. A passing score of 70 per cent or higher means that the draft board may, if it sees fit, choose to defer a student in spite of his academic standing or part-time enrollment. The validity and morality of the test have been sharply questioned. Newsweek, May 16, had this to say; "Far more moderate voices (than the SDS) have not only attacked
unfairness of the Selective Service System, but also specifically its deferment policies that militate against the poor: the dropouts, the boys from low-income families, who have to work and can only educate themselves on a part-time basis. "Others feel deeply that the deferment test itself is biased in favor of white, middle-class students because aptitude tests reflect the conditioning of their environment. Science Research Associates denies the charge, but one grading expert at Columbia's Teachers College says: 'Of course the test is culturally loaded. It has to be. Its function is to measure a student's adaptability to the middle-class environment of an American university.
What other point could there be to the test?' " Dr. Van Eyl remarked that the test is discriminatory in that it chooses for the draft those who are not intelligent. These people are not unintelligent by choice, he said. U.S. Representative Adam Clayton Powell said this week that the test will fail a great many Negroes because in this country Negroes are not as well educated as whites. Dr. Van Eyl expressed some concern over the quality of the job Science Research Associates has done in making up the test. It may be necessary to raise the 70 mark for passing if too many students pass, or lower it if too many fail.
Newsweek asked the question that is in the minds of most insecure college students: "Will I go if I flunk?" The outlook is hopeful, Newsweek seem to think. Enlistments have lately been holding steady at a high rate which leaves the number of draftees every month well below the established quota. Dr. Van Eyl was also hopeful. Most of the students who fail the test, he said, will be students from second-rate colleges and junior colleges, rather than from schools of high academic quality. Hope students tend to underestimate the quality of their college, he said. There is not cause for the fear of many students, he concluded.
May 13, 1968
Hope College anchor
Modern Treatments Discussed On May 9 and 10, Dr. Donald D a m s t r a presented a talk titled " C u r r e n t Developments in the Rehabilitation of Alchoholics" before m e m b e r s of the faculty and student body. Dr. Damstra's lecture was sponsored by Beta Beta Beta, the national biology society, and by Psi Chi, the national t psychology honor society. The purpose behind the joint sponsorship was to provide both biology and psychology m a j o r s with some knowledge as to what alcoholism really is. Dr. D a m s t r a stated that he felt not only psychologists and biologists should be interested in this a r e a but also pre-seminary and pre-medical students and prospective t e a c h e r s who plan to teach on the junior and senior high level. The reason for Dr. D a m s t r a ' s inclusion of these particular people is that t h e r e is definitely a moral as well as physical and mental problem involved in alchoholism. Dr. D a m s t r a ' s m a i n e m p h a s i s was on the importance of prospective teachers to know something about alcoholism. Dr. D a m s t r a stated, "If we a r e ever going to m a k e any significant inroads in working with alcoholics, we h a v e to remove the r a t h e r tremendous social s t i g m a t h a t is attached to this d i s e a s e . " The removal of this stigma. Dr. D a m s t r a feels, is in part the job of the teacher. As Dr. D a m s t r a stated,
a teacher simply cannot say that it is bad. There must be some understanding of the problem on the part of the teacher. Before discussing the various treatments which are used today, Dr. Damstra defined what he felt alcoholism is, although he stated that his definition was far from complete. He defined alcoholism as an uncontrolled pattern of drinking which causes impairment in a person's social, business and religious life.
Concerning t r e a t m e n t s , Dr. Dams t r a very strongly stated that an alcoholism is suffering f r o m a physical and m e n t a l illness and must be treated accordingly. In the a r e a of the use of drugs, Dr. Damstra felt that there is much to be desired. For as he stated, d r u g s simply become a substitute for the alchohol. He gave an exa m p l e of a m a n who stated he hadn't touched any alchohol for three years. But a f t e r an examin ation the physician discovered that this man had been taking up to 40 pills a day. These pills were supposed to help cure him of his drinking condition. Dr. D a m s t r a , however, does feel that one of the greatest aids in the rehabilitation of the alchoholic is in the a r e a of group theapy. Dr. D a m s t r a stated that this is where the organization Alchoholics Anonymous enters in. He stated that it is here that the alchoholic obtains the help of those who understand hif problem. Dr. D a m s t r a , a 1955 g r a d u a t e of Hope College, received his M.D. degree from Northwestern Medical School and a f t e r finishing his studies moved to Grand Rapids, where he was in c h a r g e of the Kent County Alchoholic Rehabilitation Center. Dr. Damstra then b e c a m e director of the Brighton Hospital, in Brighton, Michigan.
DR. DONALD DAMSTRA
Take your good time going home.
Schlichting Discusses European Nationalism "DeGaulle is an a n a c h r o n i s m even in Europe: the m a j o r i t y of the French people a r e far wider in their ideas than the G e n e r a l . " This was one of the opinions expressed by Dr. L. G. A. Schlichting during his lecture on May 9 titled "Nationalism and Supra-nationalism in Western E u r o p e . " In the course of the lecture, he analyzed the nature of the historical development of nationalism in Europe, explained the nature of the supranationalism of the Common Market nations and compared the European brand of nationalism to that developing in the e m e r g i n g states. "Nationalism is one of the strongest and most powerful notions in politics today," according to Dr. Schlichting. " E u r o p e a n nationalism is not a rational, but a sentimental m o v e m e n t , " he said. Dr. Schlichting explained that the folkways of the people created a " s e n s e o/ c o m m u n i t y " and t h a t this cultural consciousness b e c a m e allied with the political idea of a state. Supra-nationalism, developed as the world w a r s led to " f a r wider interdependence of nations." After the war. the European states " w e r e not sufficiently powerful to stand on their own feet. Thus the Common Market was formed. It involved "common authority for the whole of the six nations" as well as "the largest possible freed o m " for each of them. General DeGaulle clings to the older form of nationalism and h a s not accepted the concept of supranationalism. The m a j o r i t y of his countrymen and other Europeans. such as the British, ". . . haven't the same sentimental view. They a r c p r a g m a t i c and economically conscious," according to Dr. Schlichting. Non-European nations have a different type of nationalism than the sentimental type such a s found in
the Netherlands, said Dr. Schlichting. "The newly independent nations were created indiscriminately" without allowing a cultural community to develop, he said. The new nations are "pure political units with a different motivation for national passion," he concluded.
Muste Remains A Radical and Pacifist Today (Continued From Page 1) a college student when he first heard Mr. Muste speak. Dr. King has said of him: "The current emphasis on nonviolent direct action in the r a c e relations field is due m o r e to A. J. than to anyone else in the country." In addition, J a m e s F a r m e r , a principle founder of the Congress for Racial Equality, was one of Mr. Muste's young proteges during the '40s. His n a m e and energies have been most consistently affiliated with the Fellowship of Reconciliation, an international pacifist organization that reached the U.S. f r o m E u r o p e in 1914. He dedicated his book "Non-Violence in an Aggressive World" to, among others, the late f o r m e r professor at Hope College. J a m e s G. Sutphen. About him and his other favorite teachers, he writes: " . . . since they were g r e a t t e a c h e r s they taught m e above all that the s e a r c h for truth is endless and exciting, that the highest courage is to look truth straight in the eye, and that those who u n d e r t a k e to write or teach must utter the truth as they see it, taking nothing away, adding nothing thereto and in naught equivocating. To strive to do this is to worship the Lord thy God with all thy m i n d . "
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N U M B E R O N E TO THE F U N
HOLUND Serving Food at Its Finest in a Pleasant Atmosphere 28 W. 8th St.
May 13. 1966
A former Hope basketball s t a r and a controversial professor who was recently deported from Lebanon for his own safety have been added to the staff of the history department, announced Dr. Lars Granbcrg, acting Vice president this week.
Warren VanderHill, Hope graduate of 1960, will join Hope's history department to teach American history. He received his M. A. from the University of Denver in 1961 and is currently working on his Ph.D. with that institution. He is currently teaching at Ball State University.
SCHOLASTIC TROPHY—Last weekend in May Day ceremonies IFC president Jim Klein present the scholastic trophy to Arcadian fraternity president Bruce Menning. The Arkies won the award again with a 2.742 grade point, and the Emmies were second with 2.698. The Alpha Phis also won the trophy again with a 2.910 average and second was Delta Phi with 2.865.
Father-Son Relationship Probed by Muilenburg This quote summarizes the basic theme of the May 5 lecture by Hope's Theologian - in - Residence, titled "The Biblical Und?rstandin^ of F a t h e r and Son." The vital subject in our modern world of the father-son relationship in the family is understood by the Bible, which tells us that "we a r e the children and heirs of Christ," according to Dr. Muilenburg. In the Old Testament, the meaning of fatherhood and sonship i^ understood in the relationship of Israel and God. "God is the father and Israel is his son." said the
Ousted from Lebanon
Two Named to History S t a f f
"The Bible is preoccupied with the modern question of the relationship between father and son." according to Dr. J a m e s Muilenburg.
Hope College anchor
Theologian-in-Residence. "The Bible is a family book; history in the Bible is understood in t e r m s of the continuous family relationship." Geneologies give us "a succession of father and son perpetuating the vitality of the family," he noted. "The relationship of fath?r and son is a vital concern in modern times, especially in W^st o rn nations. The breakup of families exacts a dreadful toll on the whole of societv. The effect of too severe or too indulgent a father is the concern of much of modern literat u r e . " according to Dr. Muilenburg. According to the Bible, he said. "The father passes his judgment to his son. We must take Jesus Christ to be our father. In Christ the image of the father and son relationship is made clear."
Dr. John Spagnolo, who recently left Lebanon after a spectacular incident involving academic freedom at the American University in Beirut, will teach courses in European and Middle E a s t e r n history. He is Spanish by birth, but he was born in Jerusalem and has lived in Beirut most of his life. He has a B. A. and M. A. from the American University in Beirut and a Ph. D. from Oxford -n England. Dr. Spagnolo. f o r m e r director of A.U.B.'s Cultural Studies Program, had mimeographed copies of writings by St. Thomas Acquinas. including two p a r a g r a p h s which criticized Islam and Mohammed. A Leftist Beirut newspaper. As-Shaah, printed photostats of the two objectionable p a r a g r a p h s and attacked the University. Students at the nearby Beirut Arab University responded by issuing a call for student demonstrations and a strike, saying that Moslems "must cut out the tongues of the infidel." During the next few hours the Minister of Education launched an investigation. Security forces entered the campus and arrested several faculty m e m b e r s of the Cultural Studies Department ^or questioning. Dr. Spagnolo was ordered out of the country, his work permit withdrawn and an order went outo seize all copies of the "lecture." That evening, according to the New York Times, " a stick of dynamite thrown from a moving car exploded at an entrance to the American University. No one was injured."
President Kirkwood of the A.U.B. issued a statement saying that "in the teaching of the heritage of civilization the ideas of great thinkers and philosophers of all ages and creeds are properly presented for a thorough and m a t u r e discussion from all points of view." President Kirkwood was also quoted by the New York Times as saying the material had been used in that course for five years and there had been no previous protests. Dr. Spagnolo had not in fact used the Acquinas text in his lecture, but had only distributed it as reference material. The government succeeded in averting the planned strike of students at the Arab University and riot squads were placed around A.U.B. to prevent violent incidents. The earlier deportation order was changed at the last minute, and Dr. Spagnolo and his wife were
Fontier Winner At State-Wide Oratory Contest Glenn Pontier, a sophomore at Hope, won first place in the Michigan state contest of the Intercollegiate Oratorical Assn. and then placed eighth in the interstate finals. Colleges from 22 states participated in the interstate contest, which was won by a participant from Otterbein College, Ohio. Pontier also received an Excellent rating in the Men's Sweepstakes at the Pi Kappa Delta Province Contest of the National Forensics Society held last month in Vermont. He will give his oration "A Plea for Undertsanding" at the session of General Synod to be held on the Hope campus in June.
asked to leave Lebanon temporarily for their protection. He promptly flew to London. Shortly thereafter he accepted a job offer from Hope College. He will be teaching a course in Middle Eastern history which will replace the presently scheduled course in non-western readings.
Music Students Present Varied Recital Thursday The Hope College music department will present a student recital May 19 at 7 p.m. in Dimnent Memorial Chapel. The program will feature Baroque ensembles with harpsichord. Violinist Margo Hakken and Pianist Diane Hagle will perform George Frederick Handel's "Sonata No. 6, Vol. XXVII." Stephen Rumpf v ili perform "Three Pieces for Harpsichord" by Orlando Giobons. The " P a r t i t a No. 4 in G Minor" by George Phillip Telemann will be performed by Donn Mcintosh, oboist, John Renwick, violincellist, and Mary Hesselink, harpsichordist. Also performed will be "Where'er You Walk" from "Semele" by Handel and "Arise, Ye Subterranean Winds," f r o m "The Tempest" by Henry Purcell. performed by Floyd F a r m e r , baritone, Leslie Clark, violinist, David Tubergen, violinist, John Renwick, violincellist. and Caron VanderHoek, harpsichordist. "Ballade in D. Minor, Op. 10, No. 1" ( " E d w a r d " ) by Brahms will be performed by pianist Frances Webinga. The program will conclude with "Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H" by Franz Liszt, performed by Greg Hulse, organist.
The STUDENT CHURCH Dimnent Memorial Chapel
Dr. Marcus Bloch L-Hy P R E S I D E N T
Eastern Magical Society
P.O. Box 1 1 8 N e w York 9, N.Y.
" 'Uoa earfiect
f r o m andy,oii
This Sunday at 10:45 A.M. Participating: Dr. Hugh Koops, Preaching Professor of Christian Education, W e s t e r n Seminary
y e t it"
Chaplain Hillegonds MEENGS & DeBOER
16th and River
Gloria Renkes, Organist Susan Jalving, Soprano
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AT HOPE CHURCH THIS SUNDAY Morning Worship 9 : 3 0 A . M . —
SERMON: "The Mountain" Rev. Walchenbach, Preaching HOPE STUDENTS ARE CORDIALLY WELCOME
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May IS, 1966
Hope College anchor
On the Draft Test
S P I R I N G y o u n g m e n , m o s t of w h o m are s t u d e n t s at H o p e , will be t a k i n g t h e Selective Service e x a m in G r a v e s A u d i t o r i u m . It a s t u d e n t scores 70 p e r c e n t or a b o v e on t h e rest, h e is g r a n t e d the t r e a s u r e d 2-S d e f e r m e m lor a n o t h e r y e a r . If h e d o e s not score 70 p e r c e n t or a b o v e , he m a y well b e t o t i n g a rifle w i t h i n a year. W e r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of m a i n t a i n i n g a n a r m y , a n d in t h e a b s e n c e of e n o u g h e n l i s t e d m e n t o a d e q u a t e l y staff a n a r m y , we r e l u c t a n t l y a d m i t t h e v a l i d i t y of the d r a f t H o w e v e r , we a r e firmly o p p o s e d t o t h e d r a f t test as a m e a n s of d e t e r m i n i n g w h o is to fight a n d w h o is n o t to fight, a n d we are upsei a b o u t a d r a f t system whose i n j u s t i c e s go largely i g n o r e d a n d u n c o r r e c t e d .
A n y o n e , by a c u r s o r y look, c a n tell t h a t t h e Selective Service e x a m is essentially an i n t e l l i g e n c e test. T h u s , by m a k i n g this test a c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h o shall f i g h t , t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e U n i t e d States is s a y i n g t h a t t h o s e w i t h a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of i n t e l l i g e n c e m a y stay h o m e w h i l e those w h o h a v e n ' t b e e n blessed w i t h a n e q u a l a m o u n t of gray m a t t e r are m a t e r i a l f o r t h e b u l l e t s of t h e e n e m y . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h it m a k e s b e t w e e n lives of v a l u e a n d lives of n o n - v a l u e is, to say t h e least, f r i g h t e n i n g , a n d to pass it all off as a n i m m o r a l d e c i s i o n necess i t a t e d by a n i m m o r a l w o r l d is b l a t a n t sophistry.
U R T H E R M O R E , SINCE T H E T E S T
| Review of the News By Jack Shrier Will spring ever come to Michigan? It hardly seems possible. Last Monday recorded the coldest t e m p e r a t u r e in Michigan this late in the year in recorded history. Freezing temperatures were preceded by snow flurries as far south as Kalamazoo. In southwestern Michigan alone the •v crop loss was estimated at more than :?10 million. As the State Department predicted last month, Red China exploded another nuclear "device" this past week. Peking claimed it contained thermonuclear material but the J a p a n e s e Meteorological Agency said that it doubted that it was a hydrogen bomb. In addition, Peking charged that the U. S. had turned down a Red Chinese proposal that the two countries agree to never use nuclear weapons against each other and thus it is necessary for China to continue developing a thermonuclear bomb. Also from China comes the news -hat a smiling, rotund Mao Tse-Tung appeared in public for the first time in six months. Premier Kosygin went to Cairo on a mission expected to result in closer political ties (Nasser permits no communist opposition in Egypt) and in increased Russia aid for Egypt. Nasser has practically no other nation to turn to but Russia for economic aid since U.S. assistance is limited to short-term surplusfood programs.
In Vietnam, Buddhist leader Thich Thien Minh warned that the Buddhists would organize strong protest demonstrations if F remier Nguyen Cao Ky fails to keep the promises he m a d e during the last political crisis. Ky hasn't exactly reneged but stated that although elections would be held between Sept. 15 and Oct. 1 (originally he promised them for August), it would be at least a year before a national assembly would be elected and that he would keep power until then. In the war in Vietnam, U. S. planes again took the news headlines, dropping 7,200 pounds of tear gas on a Vietcong headquarters in South Vietnam, 70 miles from Saigon and d ^ r o y ing two missile sites in North Vietnam. They lost one plane to conventional ground fire. At home, it was announced that the use of the d r u g L.S.D. on college campuses and in big city ghettos would be tho »ct of a Senate Government Onerations subcommittee nearing May 17-18. Also, Arthur B. Schlesinger Jr. stated on CBS-TV's Face the Nation program that Johnson's own "instincts and goals" on Vietnam are right but that he has passively accepted advice from people who have been proven wrong in the past. His conclusion is that the President lacks confidence in his own judgment.
anchor Published weekly during the college year except tmcstion, holiday and examination periods by and for the students of Hope College, Holland, Michigan, under the authority of the Student Senate Publications Board. Entered as second class matter at the post office of Holland, Michigan. 19421. at the special rate of postage proinded for in Section 110) of Act of Congress, Oct. 3,1917, end authorized Oct. 19, 1917.
is a n i n t e l l i g e n c e test, it a p p r o v e s t h e place in college of those w h o t h e test says are i n t e l l i g e n t . T h e test in n o way can m e a s u r e m o t i v a t i o n or w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t is w o r k i n g t o his c a p a c i t y . T h u s , t h e less i n t e l l i g e n t w h o w o r k h a r d .get d r a f t e d a n d killed, b u t t h e m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t w h o slide t h r o u g h t h e i r c o u r s e s stay in college a n d stay alive. A c a r e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n d r a w n by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s conc e r n i n g t h e p h r a s e , "All m e n a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l . " T h i s does n o t m e a n , they say, that e v e r y o n e is b o r n w i t h t h e s a m e g i f t s . R a t h e r , all m e n a r e j u d g e d by t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t h o s e gifts. H o w e v e r , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t those b o r n u n g i f t e d s h o u l d be s i n g l e d o u t f o r d e a t h s m a c k s of t h e m o s t i m m o r a l use of p o w e r . F o r us t h e o n l y p r o p e r basis f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h o shall stay in college a n d w h o shall fight, a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e f i g h t i n g is necessary, is to base e v e r y t h i n g u p o n a c h i e v e m e n t .
While this produces certain other inherent i n j u s t i c e s a n d m i g h t p r o d u c e t h e s a m e ones all over a g a i n , at least it is s a y i n g t h a t those w h o r e m a i n in c o l l e g e are t h e r e b e c a u s e they a r e a p p l y i n g t h e m s e l v e s to t h e i r s t u d i e s . If t h e i r r e c o r d does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r b e i n g in college is p r o v i n g to b e of s o m e o b i e c t i v e v a l u e to t h e m , thev a r e of m o r e v a l u e to t h e i r c o u n t r y in t h e a r m e d forces t h a n in college. O u r s e c o n d o b j e c t i o n t o t h e d r a f t test is t h a t it is b e i n g used by t h e Selective Service to m e a s u r e loyalty. G e n . L o u i s B. H e r s b e y , t h e e n l i g h f e n e d d i r e c t o r of t h e Selective Serv-
ice, h a s said t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d t a k e t h e e x a m "as e v i d e n c e t h a t they a r e i n t e r e s t e d in f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n dodging t h e d r a f t . " T h u s , t h e c u r e f o r those w h o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e war is t h e d r a f t ; to a v o i d t h e d r a f t t a k e t h e test a n d sacrifice y o u r beliefs.
H I S A T T I T U D E , as we h a v e s t a t e d in these c o l u m n s b e f o r e , is in d i r e c t cont r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e s p i r i t of f r e e d o m s u p p o s e d l y i n h e r e n t in o u r d e m o c r a t i c society. W o r s e , it s q u e l c h e s d i s s e n t a n d proc l a i m s t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e f o r e i g n policy of t h e U. S. is is r i g h t .
T h i s policy of s q u e l c h i n g d i s s e n t is best i n d i c a t e d in t h e case of t h e 14 U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan students who peacefully demons t r a t e d a g a i n s t t h e w a r on O c t . 15, 1965, in t h e offices of t h e Selective Service B o a r d in A n n A r b o r . T h e s e 14 lost t h e i r s t u d e n t deferments a n d now may be d r a f t e d . T h e d r a f t system itself is g u i l t y of all k i n d s of i n j u s t i c e s . W e a d m i t t h a t by its very n a t u r e it is not e q u a l b u t selective, b u t it c e r t a i n l y d o e s not h a v e to be as u n j u s t as it is. T h e case of M i k e L a u g h l i n is well k n o w n to t h e r e a d e r s of this p a p e r , a n d alt h o u g h he escaped the d r a f t temporarily, he d i d so only t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s of m a n y adm i n i s t r a t o r s of this C o l l e g e a n d W e s t e r n Semi n a r y a n d t h r o u g h t h e w o r k of his C o n g r e s s man.
A M P L E of t h e i n j u s t i c e of t h e d r a f t is t h e case of a s t u d e n t w h o r a n k e d in t h e t o p 10 in his s e c o n d year class in a n o u t s t a n d i n g E a s t e r n law school. W h e n h e was n o t i f i e d o n e d a y t h a t he h a d b e e n reclassified 1-A, h e called his d r a f t b o a r d 2,000 m i l e s a w a y . T h e y t o l d h i m t h a t h e was c e r t a i n to be d r a f t e d w i t h i n a m o n t h , b u t he c o u l d m a k e it t h r o u g h t h e year if he e n l i s t e d f o r i n d u c t i o n in J u n e . H e d i d so b u t 10 d a y s l a t e r a n o t h e r l e t t e r came—this t i m e apologizing a n d s a y i n g t h a t t h e reclassification h a d been a mistake. (See Atlantic Monthly, Febmaty 1966, p. 60.) Last, t h e d r a f t u s u a l l y d r a w s p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e l o w e r classes: t h e p o o r , those w i t h inferior educations. In c o m b a t , these m e n a b s o r b most of t h e losses b e c a u s e t h e i r backg r o u n d s d o not e q u i p them to assume the n o n - c o m b a t s u p p o r t roles w h i c h t h e i r u p p e r class c o u n t e r p a r t s e n j o y . T h u s , as o n e critich a s p u t it, " T h e p o o r get c h i l d r e n a n d t h e c h i l d r e n get s h o t a t . "
E R E G A R D T H E T E S T tomorrow as a n a b u s e of g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r , a n d a n u n j u s t m e t h o d of determ i n i n g w h o s h o u l d fight for t h i s c o u n t r y . W e r e g a r d t h e d r a f t as r i d d l e d w i t h i n j u s t i c e s which must be corrected. Gen. Hershey a n d his fellows m i g h t b e r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e y a r e d e a l i n g w i t h lives a n d not s h i p p i n g c a t t l e .
Of course, if we w e r e n ' t in t h e V i e t n a m s w a m p s to b e g i n w i t h , we w o u l d n ' t h a v e to m e n t i o n this.
From the ranchor File
'And Then He S a i d . . . ' According to the minutes of the Student Life Committee: "AWS decided to leave women's visiting hours in the men's dorms as they stand." In more action, "After a rather skeptical discussion revolving around original sin and the ambiguous phrases which must be corrected, it was agreed that the fraternities should be given credit for wanting a more workable proposal and that ambiguous sections should be rewritten. It was further agreed that Section I. A. concerning the change in time for formal and informal rushing
Editor's note: Oh?
Manuel Yellen, chairman and chief executive officer, P. Lorillard Co., commented at the firm's national sales meeting in Dallas that he expected the new health warning on cigaret packages to have little effect on sales:
Island, a new cultural development featuring the towering, 200-year-old Windmill De Zwaan imported here in the fall of 1964 from Vinkel, the Netherlands, and restored in a garden setting on the banks of Black River."
Editor's note: The thinking man's filter undoubtedly. • • *
And in more news. Town Crier Hans Suzenaar spoke to Tulip Time guests and said: "Attentie, attentie, burgers en vrienden of bevel van de burgemeester en de gemeente raad kondig ik aan dat het Tulpenfeest van 1966 nu zal aanvangen."
From the Holland Evening Sentinel: "This year marks the second year of operation of Windmill
Editor's note: Heh sakes, that's a nice speech. Fm glad I stopped by once.
"I think the American public is too intelligent to pay any attention to that type of warning."
May 13, 1966
Hope College anchor
Romney, Foreign Guests Visit Opens Tulip Time Activities
The Visit B j Rob Wergc Aunt Maud c a m e to Tulip Time this year. She c a m e afraid of any holiday's mobs of s c r e a m i n g children and left a f r a i d of mobs of s c r e a m i n g Dutchmen. "1 really never should have come. I just don't know how to act around foreigners." Maud didn't have a motel r e s e r vation so she had to be placed in a private home for the festival. F o r five days, she h a s lived with J u a n Gonzales, his wife and their three children on 27th Street. "I told the placement people that I wanted some'hing ethnic, but I hardly expected tortillas for b r e a k f a s t . " Luckily the Gonzales' wore wooden shoes about the house so that Maud didn't lose entirely her sense of cultural identity. "The first spectacular event I
went to was the p a r a d e on Wednesday. For a town that doesn't collect its citizen's garbage, they cretainly are picky about their streets. George Romney and his Dutchmen did such a good street-cleaning job that I was tempted to hire t h e m to clean out the barn back home. I would have given them $1 an hour but in those costumes the neighbors would talk. They'd think I was running a zoo!" (It might be important for the readers to note here that Maud once actually did run a zoo in Broadback, Wis. Its main attractions were seven anteaters. three alligators and one donkey. Regardless, the enterprise was a complete and immediate failure and closed within a week.* After the parade, Maud, fearing another tortilla special back at the
Gonzales', went to a local restaurant. She sat down, was handed the menu and was about to order when suddenly the m a n a g e r , running towards her and wearing tulips twined into his s p a r s e hair, thrust a " n e w " "Tulip-Time" "special" menu into her hands. The selections were the s a m e , but the prices were set to new heights. So instead of steak, she ordered a tunafish sandwich, "I sort of like tunafish a n y w a y , " she mused to the waitress. "With some time still left in the afternoon, I went down to the Windmill. I could tell the minute I saw it that it was authentic; it was as if I were in 'Old Holland' like the brochure said. And I got there just in time to catch George Beverly Shea singing "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" over the authentic loudspeaker system. I could have sworn, if I were given to swearing, that the millstone grinding up flour moved in time to the music. I bought a bag of the flour . . . only a dollar. The amazing thing is that it looks just like the kind I buy at "Milley's Produce Store' back h o m e . " Thursday Maud went out to the Tulip F a r m and, though most of the flowers hadn't come up yet, she thought that the st em s looked wonderful. The m a i n thing that impressed her, however, was the hoards of people who j a m m e d the road to get out and see over 5J0,00U frozen green tulip stems. Traffic was so tied up that one m a n nearly starved to death try ing to get to his home on the beach. His wife, in the meantime, grew frantic and ran off with a salesman f r o m Poughkeepsie. Tulip Time, alas, is not a happy time for all. By Friday, Maud's a r m s were laden with the souvenirs; her fav-
STREET SCRUBBING—Gov. George Romney came to Holland Wednesday to open Holland's annual tulip festival by participating in the traditional street scrubbing. This year's crowd is expected to be smaller than in other years because of the unseasonable cold weather.
(Continued to P a g e 6)
Holland was visited by Gov. George Romney and a group of 20 international dignitaries on Wednesday to m a r k the opening of the Tulip Time festivities. Romney and the foreign guests addressed a luncheon at the Civic Center attended by some 600 Hollanders and then the governor took part in the p a r a d e down 8th Street as the guests watched from the stands. At the luncheon, Romney revealed for the first time that he had appointed Rep. Robert Griffin to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy created by the recent death of Patrick M c N a m a r a . Griffin, a Republican. was the representative of this congressional district. In making his announcement, Romney saluted the "good j u d g m e n t " of the Holland people who had elected Griffin to Congress. The 20 international visitors were participating in tne "World Preview of Michigan Guests." In this p r o g r a m each guest was reciprocating for a visit m a d e to his nation by Romney. The purpose of the exchange p r o g r a m is to promote industrial enterprise involving Michigan firms in foreign lands.
While the visitors reviewed the p a r a d e , which was led by Romney cleaning the streets in a Dutch costume, several international students met with representatives of their native lands. Some of the Hope students present were J a n Huber from the Netherlands, Cornelius Agori-Iwe and Gibson Dallah of Nigeria, P i e r r e Sende and J a c o b Ngwa from the Comeroons, Fereshteh Sharafi of Persia, and Victor Batar from Lebanon. The students related to the world travelers the a t m o s p h e r e that exists at Hope College for a foreign student and told what it is like to live in an American community, particularly one with such a distinct retention of homeland ties maintained by m e a n s of an annual festival. Among the guests present were the niece of the late P r i m e Minister Nehru of India, the president of the University of Nigeria, and a Roman Catholic priest f r o m the Vatican. Among the people attending the luncheon were several international students and a dozen m e m b e r s of the Hope College Republican Club.
Clark and Tubergen Win Yale Summer Awards Violin m a j o r s Leslie Clark and David Tubergen have been awarded full scholarships to the Yale UniVTcif'- c i ' m m e r Music School. The scholarships were announced by the cxecut.ve director of the Yale University music d e p a r t m e n t . The scholarships cover full tuition and expenses for an eight-week session in the p e r f o r m a n c e and study of c h a m b e r music and music theory at the s u m m e r music campus of Yale at Norfolk. Miss Clark, a senior, has also been a winner of the Congress of
Strings Competition and the Young Artists Competition of the Kalamazoo Symphony Orchestra. She h a s appeared as soloist with this group in two concerts during the current year. Tubergen is a junior at Hopo Both students have been active in the College orchestra and the symphonette and have appeared in various solo recitals locally. Both violinists a r e students of Dr. Morette Rider and had studied under Wanda Nigh Rider for a n u m b e r of years prior to their enrollment at Hope.
Three Scenes From Hope-Supported Le Loi
i L - .
HOPE'S HAMLET — The three pictures above were
month ago to visit the Vietnam hamlet which MSU
taken of the Hope-Holland-Hamlet, Le Loi, South Vietnam, by Judith Rice and Karen Radan, two Michigan
had adopted, and while in Vietnam thev spent a day at Le Loi. Student Senate President Wes Michaelson said that the girls reported that "our village is in greater need than any other hamlet that they visited."
State University students and leaders in the Peopleto-People Assn. at MSU. They traveled to Vietnam a
seas Missions. The Student Senate has raised over $6,000 for the village of Le Loi.
The Best of Peanuts PEANUTS
Michaelson further stated that the girls were optomistic about the chances for improving Le Loi with the cooperation of W. Don McCleary of the United States Over-
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May 13, 1966
Hope College anchor
I'arullv l orn*
'Fantasticks' Cast Prepares
To Go or Not to Go?
Editor's Note: This week Dr. Fried, Director of International Education at Hope and chairman of the history department, writes on the subject of international education. Dr. Fried is a native of Leipzig, Germanv, received his R.A. from Hope, his M.A. from Harvard, and his Ph.D. in history from the University of Erlangen in Germany. By Dr. Paul G. Fried Actually, the a n s w e r to this question is obvious. Today most people hav e c o m e to r e g a r d a period of study outside the United States, contact with different political, social and cultural institutions and t r a v e l to the four c o r n e r s of the globe a s highly desirable p r e p a r a t i o n for effective life in our shrinking world. As a result, m o r e and m o r e American a c a d e m i c institutions consider study abroad as a legitimate and n e c e s s a r y aspect of u n d e r g r a d u a t e education and h a v e developed a g r e a t variety of o v e r s e a s p r o g r a m s to m e e t this new challenge. Thus, while it m a y no longer be n e c e s s a r y to discuss the why of foreign study, the i n c r e a s e in n u m b e r s of students going a b r o a d and the prc'-iferation of p r o g r a m s open up a whole r a n g e of new questions: Who Should Go? Who should go — everyone, or only a select few? Where should the student go — to E u r o p e . A f r i c a . Latin A m e r i c a , the Middle East" 7 When is the best t i m e — the junior y e a r , sophomore or f r e s h m a n y e a r , or during high school? How long should he stay — a y e a r , a semester. a s u m m e r or p e r h a p s only four weeks? T h e r e a r e still o t h e r questions: How much will this cast and can I afford it? Can I work m y wayover or get a job a b r o a d and a r e t h e r e scholarships? Can t get into a foreign university and will I be able to t r a n s f e r c r e d i t s e a r n e d abroad or a m I going to lose a y e a r if I a m gone t h a t long? And what will that do to the d r a f t ? Varied Answers A full answer to these and other questions would r e q u i r e at least a small book < which I hope to w r i t e before long). For the p r e s e n t , 1 shall m e r e l y try to suggest s o m e of the a n s w e r s in t e r m s of fairly general c o m m e n t s . F i r s t , t h e r e a r ? m a n y different kinds of p r o g r a m s because t h e r e a r e m a n y different objectives which individuals and
Harper Torch Yale,
Overcome False Attitudes Actually, most s t u d e n t s — and p e r h a p s most institutions — hope to achieve most, if not all. of these objectives at the s a m e t i m e . Though these m a y all be valid, this kind of a s s i g n m e n t is obviously impossible to c o m p l e t e by signing up for any one p r o g r a m . This m e a n s that we need to o v e r c o m e the attitude that study a b r o a d d e p r e s e n t s a "one in a life t i m e " opportunity and s t a r t thinking and planning in t e r m s of r e p e a t e d and varied exposure to foreign experience. I would like to see m o r e college students who ha ve a l r e a d y taken a d v a n t a g e of the various opportunitnes for living abroad now available on the high school level through the A m e r i c a n Field Service or Youth for U n d e r s t a n d i n g or the E x p e r i m e n t in International Living. I would also like to see more students "invest" a summer in some service project at home or abroad which will provide a genuine intercultural e x p e r i e n c e . And then I would e n c o u r a g e students to plan their course p r o g r a m in such a fashion that they can incorporate a y e a r or a s e m e s t e r or at least a s u m m e r of meaningful a c a d e m i c work a b r o a d . Available
There a r e y e a r p r o g r a m s in India. in Hawaii — with excursions to J a p a n or T a i w a n , in Columbia. Lebanon and in J a p a n which cost little m o r e than a y e a r at the home institution. And then t h e r e a r e opportunities for g r a d u a t e study abroad through Fulbright grants. Rhodes and R o t a r y fellowships or a variety of scholarships available to American students who have taken the trouble to " g r o o m " and to p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s for these and other a w a r d s during their undergrad days. On S e p t e m b e r 16, 1965, President Johnson delivered a speech at the bi-centennial of the Smithsonian Institution which went almost unheeded at that t i m e but which will. I believe, h a v e a profound and last-
ing i m p a c t on education both at h o m e and a b r o a d . S u m m i n g up his objectives the P r e s i d e n t said, "We m e a n to show t h a t this nation's d r e a m of a G r e a t Society does not stop at the w a t e r ' s edge. And that it is not just an A m e r i c a n d r e a m . All a r e w e l c o m e to s h a r e in it. All a r e invited to contribute to it. Johnson's
Together we m u s t e m b a r k on a new and a noble a d v e n t u r e : • First, to assist the education effort of the developing nations and the developing regions. • Second, to help our schools and universities i n c r e a s e their knowledge of the world and the people who inhabit it. • Third, to a d v a n c e the exc h a n g e of s t u d e n t s and teachers who t r a v e l and work outside their native lands. • Fourth, to i n c r e a s e the free flow of books and ideas and art, of works of science and imagination. • And, fifth, to a s s e m b l e meetings of men and women f r o m every discipline and every culture to ponder the c o m m o n p r o b l e m s of m a n k i n d . In all these e n d e a v o r s . I pledge t h a t the United States will play its full r o l e . " International Education Act The International Education Act of 1966 1 H. RV4 12452 and S 2874) is now b e f o r e Congress. The section designed to s f r e n g t h o n Underg r a d u a t e P r o g r a m s in International Studies, if p a s s e d , will provide f u n d s for such c o m p r e h e n s i v e prog r a m s as: 1. F a c u l t y planning for the develo p m e n t and expansion of underg r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s in international studies; 2. T r a i n i n g of faculty m e m b e r s in foreign c o u n t r i e s : 3. E x p a n s i o n of foreign language courses: 4. Work in the social sciences and h u m a n i t i e s which is related to international studies; 5. P l a n n e d and supervised student work-study-travel p r o g r a m s : 6. P r o g r a m s under which foreign t e a c h e r s and scholars m a y visit institutions a s visiting faculty or r e s o u r c e persons. Our Role It is up to us to a c c e p t the challenges and opportunities which foreign study and international education o f f e r us today.
BEST PLACE TO STAY FOR YOUR VISITOR IS
institutions try to achieve through foreign study and the choice of p r o g r a m , t i m e length of stay and country should be based on what you most hope to gain by going abroad. Obviously, you can go to study the language, culture, history, art. m u s i c or g e o g r a p h y of a country or region. You can also go to get to know the people and i m m e r s e yourself in a foreign e n v i r o n m e n t in order to gain new insights and g r e a t e r appreciation of your own country and traditions. Then again, you m a y want to go in o r d e r to " g r o w u p " or to "get a w a y from t h i n g s " or b e c a u s e you w a n t to s e r v e a s a "goodwill a m b a s s a d o r . "
present on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights the long-run Broadway musical, 'Fantasticks.' Above (left to right) Mel Andringa, Kathy Lenel, Ken Walz and Ted Johnson rehearse their lines for the production. Tickets went on sale today in Van Raalte.
Fulbright Scholarships Sponsor Foreign Study The F u l b r i g h t Scholarship Prog r a m has been one of the m a j o r opportunities for foreign study in 53 countries open to the American g r a d u a t e student. It was begun shortly a f t e r World War II when Sen. J . William F u l b r i g h t , now c h a i r m a n of the S e n a t e Foreign Relations C o m m i t t e e , proposed that the United States sell the war supplies that r e m a i n e d abroad at local c u r r e n c y p r i c e s and use the profits in these countries for educational scholarships. Hope College h a s had at least one applicant each y e a r for a Fulbright Scholarship since the creation of the p r o g r a m . According to E d w a r d J . Wolters, who until last y e a r was director of the F u l b r i g h t p r o g r a m at Hope, we have had only modera t e success in winning scholarships, however. Mr. Wolters offered a n u m b e r of r e a s o n s why Hope students have not been a w a r d e d m o r e Fulbright g r a n t s . F i r s t , s t u d e n t s have been reluctant to apply b e c a u s e they a r e anxious to get into g r a d u a t e schools and want to c o m p l e t e their educations as soon a s possible; taking a Fulbright would set t h e m back a year. Mr. Wolters also noted the d r a f t as a d e t e r r e n t to application. Finally the l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r has been a hurdle. Schools t h a t emphasize foreign l a n g u a g e h a v e had better success in winning scholarships. Many Hope students apply for scholarships to E n g l a n d and F r a n c e w h e r e t h e r e is no language b a r r i e r , but few get t h e m because the d e m a n d is g r e a t and the supply limited. According to Dr. P a u l F r i e d , head of the foreign study p r o g r a m Hope h a s also had limited success in the Rhodes Scholarship p r o g r a m . It has been 50 y e a r s since a Hope student
h a s been selected a Rhodes Scholar. Dr. F r i e d r e m a r k e d that a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n of applicants could r e m e d y this. " I t is not difficult to figure out what the screening comm i t t e e s look f o r , " he said, "so anyone desirous of such a scholarship should begin grooming himself for the scholarship e a r l y . " R e q u i r e m e n t s for Fulbright Schol a r s h i p s v a r y f r o m country to country. T h e applicant must h a v e a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e before the beginning d a t e of the grant. The deadline for application is Oct. 31 of the >ear b e f o r e the study is to begin. Anyone interested either in a R h o d e s or a F u l b r i g h t scholarship should s e e Dr. F r i e d for an application.
The Changling: The Visit (Continued f r o m P a g e 5) orite w a s a wooden shoe m a d e entirely out of toothpicks pasted together by Holland's g r a m m e r school children. As she walked downtown she slipped into a place which she thought w a s a pizzaria but which, in truth, was a pub. "Of course I ' m a prude but t h e r e w e r e the most fascinating people there. After I o r d e r e d my Coke, this fellow c a m e over and told m e t h a t h e ' d been hiding here for the last five d a y s and was not going to go outside again until t h e r e was a ' r e t u r n to n o r m a l c y . ' He looked suspiciously like W a r r e n H a r d i n g . But then again I ' m reaching the age when e v e r y m a n looks like W a r r e n H a r d i n g . On the other hand, to quote S a r a h B e r n h a r d t , 'A tulip looks like a tulip looks like a tulip.' T h e r e ' s something mighty c o m f o r t i n g in t h a t . "
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May 13, 1966
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Holland's Delinquents: Who Are They? How Large Is Their Number? Editor's note: This is the second of three articles by Bill Wichers on the teenagers of Holland, Mich. It is based on a report compiled by the Holland Junior Chamber of Commerce. By Bill Wichers E R NAME IS JEAN. She is 17 and a sophomore at Holland High. Her m a k e u p is heavy, her clothes garish, and she r e m a i n s a favorite topic of discussion in the boys' locker room. She's a lonely girl; her parents a r e guests in what is a place to e a t and sleep but not a home. Her t e a c h e r s h a v e written her off as a prostitute-to-be.
His n a m e is J i m . He had always been a s t r a n g e boy, aloof and mysterious. His one friend was an old m a n who took him fishing but who died of a h e a r t attack when Jim was 12. Girls disturbed him because they said he looked at them "kinda f u n n y . " Finally, when he was 16, he attacked a 14-year old girl, was caught and sent to a m e n t a l hospital. «
His n a m e is George. He isn't a good student but not a particularly bad one either. He is handsome, popular and enjoys " a good t i m e . " He and his friends on the football team often delight in a post-game cold beer while joy riding on Riley St. at 90 m.p.h. He hasn't been caught yet, and his c a r e f r e e spirit is infectious. These are the three different types of delinquents in the town of Holland, according to the report on t e e n a g e r s assembled by the Holland Junior C h a m b e r of Comm e r c e . The author of the report. Dr. E a r l Hall of Hope's sociology d e p a r t m e n t , classified delinquent behavior in three general categories because he believed that one classification w a s impossible. Used in conjunction with the preparation of the report was the r e s e a r c h study by Robert Havin^hurst, "Growing Up in River City." Dr. Robert DeHaan of the education d e p a r t m e n t of Hope defended the use of this source although " b a r s and taverns a r e to River City what churches a r e to Holland." He felt that the cultural, social and physical climates of the two midwestern towns were still m u c h alike.
me-first, chip-on-the-shoulder aggressiveness." Out of the 62 juvenile cases studied by the local police for the report, seven are seen as falling clearly in this category with nine m o r e appearing as marginal possibilities. They a r e so classed because of repeated anti-social behavior and attitudes. It is interesting to note that of the seven cases that clearly lie in thes "serious" category, all who a r e 16 and older a r e school drop-outs. The report estimates f r o m these statistics that 23 of Holland's 450 fifteen-year olds a r e in danger of growing up to lives of crime and prostitution each y e a r . This represents about five per cent of the total youth population. A deep concern is felt for the salvaging of these few without condemning the other 90 per cent who are doing a fairly good job of growing up or the other five per cent who a r e having some kind of difficulties.
Five Per Cent Serious Criminals In the r e s e a r c h sample of 100 students, four boys and one girl fell into this classification. Two of the four boys were in junior high school and had committed f r e q u e n t and varied acts of delinquency. The other two were in high school and past the drop-out age, which was seen as an encouraging characteristic. If their later adult behavior does not type t h e m as criminals, however, it is suspected that it will be disturbing to the community. The girl is similar to the two boys although she is in high school. She is " a lonely outsider whose p r i m a r y concern is " f a c e and figure, hostile to school and society, and headed for a life of m a r g i n a l existence and probably prostitution." The most noticeable thing about all these juveniles is their very bad home environments as revealed in case studies. The mother of one is a widow who was unable to fill out the parent questionnaire without the interviewer's help. She has daughters who have been in trouble with the police. Her failure as a mother, which she admits herself, seems to "reflect incompetence and a very bad social situation" rather than any deliberate negligence. Home Life Is Cause The girl classified as a "serious delinquent" blames quarrels in her home on "my mother's boyfriends and m y father's girlfriends." One of the older boys comes from a good home, but has a father with "an exaggerated, every man for himself,
The Disturbed Juveniles A second, and even smaller, group ol young people exists whose disturbance is hidden deep within them and finds a more irrational, bizarre and unexpected expression than the problems of the serious delinquents. Deep frustration causes t h e m to display either "aggressive and uncontrolled behavior or severe and pervasive anxiety." Youngsters of this type are classified as "disturbed juveniles."
HE SURVEY T U R N E D UP two juveniles who fell in to the "seriously withd r a w n " subtype of disturbed juveniles, but failed to reveal any who could be placed in the "seriously a g g r e s s i v e " subtype. This tended to strengthen the res e a r c h e r ' s feeling that such youngsters comprise only a very small part of the juvenile population. They might, none-theless, be "both the most frightening and the most pitiful types of all." The background information on the two survey cases gives some indication of the causal factors involved in the development of these disturbed delinquents. One was a girl and the other a boy. Destructive Domination by Parents
EALT WITH FIRST was the "serious" delinquent presenting the community with the greatest threat. They a r e few in n u m b e r , and generally boys, but they are the children who grow up to be " c a r e e r c r i m i n a l s . " Suffering f r o m some disadvantages or frustrations, they lack self-discipline and a r e unable to grow up "playing the g ame of life according to the rules." Hostility and aggression toward society as well as bad school p e r f o r m a n c e a r e indicative of this type although they a r e often intelligent people. Girls in this category are m o r e likely to become prostitutes than criminals in a larger sense, and often become the girl f r i e n d s of the c a r e e r criminal boys.
The girl is described as " a classic example of complete home domination and the disturbance this can produce." The reporter s t a t e s : We asked the youngsters, "What do you do that m a k e s your mother and father really pleased with you" This girl replied for mother. "Not saying anything contradictory," and for f a t h e r , the s a m e plus "being a better d r i v e r . " We asked "How m a n y evenings do you spend away f r o m home a w e e k ? " This high school girl checked " n o n e " and added "except when m y girl frienc invites me to stay over night at her h o m e . " We asked, "Whom do you go to for help and advice when in trouble?" This girl bypassed parents, teachers, ministers and others to underline carefully "girl f r i e n d . " These answers and others like them in her questionnaire indicate an extremely lonely, suppressed young woman, a f r a i d of and distant f r o m her parents, without friends except for one similarly lonely girl friend. The boy's pattern is very similar; by experimenting with homosexuality, he tried to find the love and understanding he lacked at home. The report concludes that it is this tvpe of person who will, without outside help, develop into a social misfit and problem to society. A school official told the committee of one boy who had assaulted three young women before he was committed to a mental institution. Such behavior, of course, puts this boy in the category of the aggressive, disturbed juvenile. His crimes point out the extremely serious nature of the problem posed by these types. Some Are Nuisance to Society In the third category are those youngsters who may drive too fast or recklessly, occasionally steal small things and, infrequently, willfully destroy property. Some may go so far as to engage in sexual value for the community, it is not a regpromiscuity or steal cars for a joy ride without thought of permanent possession. Although their behavior has great nuisance value for the community, it is not a regular practice with any of them and is de-
Ak. V clared by the report to be a "consequence of the adolescent crises and conflict that most American youth experience." The m e m b e r s of this group a r e called "development delinquents." They will all probably grow up to be acceptable citizens. Their actions a r e of the kind that an increasing maturity and sense of judgment and responsibility will alleviate. These small-time, short-term criminals m ake up the largest percentage of what a r e usually called juvenile delinquents. Twenty-eight m e m b e r s of the survey group could be placed in this category by their own admission of delinquent actions of a "significant variety and f r e q u e n c y . " It was because of the variety and frequency that the reporters classified t h e m as delinquents. However, one shows the distinguishing characteristics of the serious delinquent: a dislike of school and an aggressive nature. It is the combination that r m k e s the teenager a serious delinquent. Twentv of the 28 a r e boys and eieht are girls and the report notes that over half of the bovs in the survey group fit into one category of delinquency or another. All Are Partially Delinquent The juveniles who are then left after the others are classified are the ones who will grow ud to be eood citizens with few difficult problems. They a r e the majority of teen-agers. Everyone in the samole group admits to having committed a few deviant acts, but case studies of this final portion show generally good behavior on the p a r t of its constituents.
K E M E M B E R S O F THIS last group a r e called "non-delinquents" for want of a m o r e positive n a m e . Its members m a y have stolen small items or driven too fast or recklessly, but the frequency and variety of such actions is much less than, and s e p a r a t e s them from, the "developmental delinquents." One girl in this group s e e m s to be so well adjusted that the r e s e a r c h e r s doubted the truthfulness of her answers to the questionnaire. Although she admitted to driving too fast occasionally and engaging in some casual sexual behavior, her overall a d j u s t m e n t was very good and, on the basis of a c a r e f u l analysis of the entire questionnaire, the reporters " e m p h a t i c a l l y " classified her as a non-delinquent. 'Basically Mighty Good Kids' Many of the non-delinquents reported some such deviance, but once again in the phraseology of the report — "The youngster with a perfect score does not exist in our sample and we would not have believed it if one had shown up." These youngsters were described as "basically mighty good kids" whom the adults should be proud of and recognize that occasional actions on their part short of angelic were only human and showed them to be so. In an attempt to discover whether any relationship existed between delinquency and the social standing of the delinquent's
parents, and whether the locality of the delinquents' residences had any particular distribution, a study m a d e by Dr. Donald Clelland and Patricia Simpson was included in the report. Various hypotheses were formulated and examined for validity in the light of evidence provided by these case. First the assumption was examined that "delinquents come disproportionately f r o m families of low social standing." Since complete information was lacking on the social class standing of most of the cases, a "windshield" appraisal was m a d e of the homes f r o m which the delinquents c a m e and used as a basis for qualifying their social standing. The responsibility of e r r o r s arising f r o m this method was acknowledged by the r esear cher s, but they pointed to other studies which indicated a high correlation between the factors of social class and type of dwelling. Not All Delinquents Are Lower Class Figures suggest that "youths of low status background a r e overrepresented among the delinquents and youths of middle rank backgrounds are under r e p r e s e n t e d . " Note, however, that upper rank families are not underrepresented. Thus, Holland's delinquency is not attributable entirely to lower class children. Other studies show that boys of upper and middle r a n k a r e less likely to be brought to the attention of the courts which might also affect these statistics. A second hvpothesis that was examined was that various types of delinquent behavior often was of a distinct tvoe charact ^ n z i n e a certain social group. To test this, four mutually exclusive categories w e r e devised for the delinquent acMons: petty acts inclndine truancy, jov ridine. nossession of alcoholic h^v^rages: thpft including larc^nv and shonliftine: malicious mischief including fiehtin^ and destruction of property: and sex offenses. The results are seen in the table below: The relation between social rank and type of delinquent behavior Social Rank Lower Middle Upper Malicious Mischief 8% 8% 30% Sex Offenses 8% 4% 0% Theft 50% 42% 35% Petty Acts 33% 46% 35% Although this table shows acts of theft to be more prevalent among juveniles of a lower social standing and acts of malicious mischief to be more prevalent among those of a higher social status, in other research there was no correlation discovered between the seriousness of the offense and the social rank of the offender; children of higher class families were just as apt to commit seriouslv delinou^nt acts as w^re children of lower social backgrounds. Urban Contact Not Sole Cause Through other tabulations is w a s discovered that delinquents were just a s apt to come from the outivin? parti d the oommunitv and its environs a s from the d t y "core" of Holland.
League Record Now 7-3
Dutch Slam Olivet and Aquinas Hope's Flying D u t c h m e n r a n their league record to seven wins and t h r e e losses with a double h e a d e r sweep last S a t u r d a y over the Comets of Olivet. The Dutch, behind the pitching of Don Kroodsm a . cut the tail f r o m the Comets, last season's c h a m p s , with 8-1 and 5-3 victories, in that order.
> X — <Qi*
• - r / %
The Dutch bombed the Comet pitching staff, and gave Don K r o o d s m a his first s a f e m a r g i n of the season. He allowed the C o m e t s only a single r u n . In the second contest, f r e s h m a n G a r y F r e n s took the mound, and also took ^ver where K r o o d s m a left off. F r e n s allowed t h r e e r u n s to be scored, and his t e a m m a t e s provided a tworun winning m a r g i n for the young, promising h u r l e r . Wednesday afternoon, the Dutch took the field in a non-conference contest, their last h o m e contest of
HIGH JUMP—Hope's Floyd Brady exhibits his good form on way to winning the high jump event against Valparaiso Tuesday at Van Raalte Field.
Trackmen Beat Valparaiso For Sixth Straight Vietory The Hone t r a c k t e a m brought h o m e their sixth s t r a i g h t win by defeating Valparaiso University last Tuesday afternoon 84-61. Double wins w e r e collected by Chris Buys and Floyd B r a d y . Brady won, the high j u m p and long jump while Buys won the pole vault and discus. D^ug F o r m s m a recorded his fastest t i m e in the two-mile run but lost to V a b a r a i s o ' s R o g e r Anderson in the last stretch of the f w a l lap A n H o r s o n ' s time was 9:32.6 while F o r m s m a finished 9:33.9. Since F o r m c i T P did not take a f i r s t in the event this time, his t i m Q will not be recorded a s a school record. The record that he now holds for the two-mile is 9:42.5- set against Olivet last Saturday. Steve Reynen took first for Hope in the half-mile as did Sid Disbrow in the quarter-mile e v e n t . Jim Pierpont also took a first for the D u t c h m e n in the i n t e r m e d i a t e hurdles. One-tenth of a second is all t h a t s e p a r a t e d the mile r e l a y t e a m f r o m the MIAA record a s Hope won this event with a time of 3:23.2. Hope ends their dual m e e t competition tomorrow a g a i n s t Adrian at the Dutchmen's h o m e field. Starting time is 2 p . m . Results in order of finish: 440-yard relay: Valparaiso. Time 44.2 Shot put: Schonefield (V), Buys <H), Cole (H). Distance 49 , 5". Mile run: E s t e r l i n e (V), F o r m s m a tH), May (V). Time 4:25.3. 440-yard dash: Disbrow (H), Stoll (V), Hultgren (H). Time 51.5. Javelin: Sawaisky (V), Nichols (H), Candelora <H). D i s t a n c e 193' 10V. Long Jump: Brady (H), Tysse <H), Keel (V). Distance 2 0 ' W . 100-yard dash: Sobrey (V), Cooper (H), Cook (V). T i m e 10. 120-yard high hurdles: Cook (V), P i e r p o n t (H), Barwis ' H ) . Time 15.3. High jump: Brady (H), Menning (H). Keel (V). Height 6'2% M . 880-yard run: Reynen (H), Nintz (V), Anderson (V). T i m e 1:58.3.
Discus: Buys W , Cole (H), Poppink (H). Distance ^ I ' l l " . 220-vprd d a s h : Sombrew (V), Cooper (H), Thompson ' H ) . T i m e 22.8. 3?0-yard intermediate Pierpont (H), Cook (V), 'V). Time 40.1. Triple jump: Marsh Kley 'H), Tysse ' H ) . 40' 1 V
hurdles: Harbeck (V). Ten Distance
Pole vault: Buys (H), Poortinga •H), Nichols <H). Height i r 6 " . Two-mile run: Anderson (V), Form s m a <H), May (V). Time 9:36.6. Mile relay: Hope. Time 3:23.2.
the '66 c a m p a i g n . The T o m m i e s of Aquinas w e r e destined to be the Dutch's 15th victim of the y e a r , losing by an astounding 19-4 score. Don K r o o d s m a , again the win ning hurler, received aid f r o m Mark Johnson in the sixth s t a n z a . This gave Johnson valuable experience on the mound, which will p a y off in the future, since Johnson is only a sophomore this y e a r . The Dutch ae^in unloaded their bats, with Rog K r o o d s m a collecting 3 hits at t h r e e t i m e s at bat. Phil Pluister also went p e r f e c t at the plate. Steve P i e r s m a and R. Kroodsm a blasted h o m e r u n s off the Aquinas pitching staff. The g a m e was called a f t e r six innings of plav because of the cold w e a t h e r , t h u s ending the Hope h o m e baseball season. The Dutch a r e presently f i r s t in the conference with a 7-3 r e c o r d followed by the 5-3 record of Ad-
Women in Tournament; Tennis Team Defeated Ten Hope College women traveled to Alma College last Wednesday to p a r t i c i p a t e in the a n n u a l w o m e n ' s MIAA tennis-archery tourn a m e n t . The t o u r n a m e n t hosted 70 women f r o m the MIAA schools and was held May 12 and 13. According to D a u g h n Schipper, seven Hope women p a r t i c i p a t e d in the tennis competition while t h r e e women entered the a r c h e r y contest. The t e a m s p a r t i c i p a t i n g r e p r e s e n t each of the m e m b e r schools of the MIAA. The t o u r n a m ? n t next y e a r will be held on the Hope c a m p u s . The Hope College w o m e n ' s tennis t e a m suffered their first defeat last week as the Kalamazoo, H o r n e t s downed them 4-3. The defeat brought Hope's record to 5-1 ending the season play b e f o r e entering m e MIAA t o u r n a m e n t .
In singles competition, Mary Stratton of K a l a m a z o o d e f e a t e d B a r b Brunson 6-1 and 6-0. K a r l a Atkinson blanked Toodie F i n l a y 6-0 and 6-0. Liga Abolins d e f e a t e d Dottie Manuel 6-2 and 6-2 while Tina Roose defeated Rosie Hunt 7-5 and 6-4. B a r b a r a T i m m e r collected the only win in the singles division by downing Sharon Nash 6-2 and 6-3. In doubles, the H u d n u t - T i m m e r t e a m defeated the Swalm-Roose t e a m 7-5 and 6-3 and the Carol Jacobusse-Linda Kozel duo d e f e a t e d T e r r y B e r g s t r o m and Cindv Rudell 6-1 and 6-0 to take both m a t c h e s in the doubles competition.
r i a n ' s Bulldogs. The Dutch will try to w r a p up the title with victories in their last two conference g a m e s , a twin bill at Adrian tomorrow. Coach Siedentop is very pleased with the p e r f o r m a n c e s of ace pitcher Don K r o o d s m a and ace fielder and hitting whiz, P a u l T e r p s t r a . Kroodsma h a s won four g a m e s in the league to only one loss, while T e r p s t r a aided the t e a m greatly, as he batted n e a r l y .400 in league appearances. With two good g a m e s Saturday, the Dutch, u n d e r the able direction of Coach Siedentop, should walk away with a n o t h e r MIAA baseball championship.
Praters Garner Seven May Day Firsts at Meet It w a s a successful May Day for the F r a t e r n a l Society a s it dominated the M a y 6 inter-fraternity track m e e t . C a p t u r i n g seven firsts, and never finishing lower than second, the F r a t e r s g a r n e r e d a total of 51 points. Finishing second w e r e the Arkies with 41 points and t h r e e firsts. The Indies w e r e third with 29 points followed by the E m m i e s with 25, the Cosmos with 15 and the Knicks with 3. The May D a y m e e t was comprised of both t r a c k and field events. The m e n competed in the shotput, long j u m p and high jump in the field and ran in nine relay medleys on the t r a c k . Attended by some 150 s p e c t a t o r s , the m e e t was under the g e n e r a l direction of Daryl Siedentop. assisted by m e m b e r s of the varsity t r a c k t e a m .
NEXT YEAR G A I N SALES EXPERIENCE A N D INCOME AS REPRESENTATIVE OF A N A T I O N A L SPECIALTIES FIRM. SEND SUMMER ADDRESS TO:
Three Records Broken In Victory Over Olivet The Hope College track t e a m continued its record - breaking ways as three records were broken last Saturday during Hope's victory over Olivet 108-38 for the Dutchm e n ' s fifth straight MIAA victory. Doug F o r m s m a . Hope's two-miler. broke his own record fo rthe fifth straight time. He took five seconds eff his previous m a r k by registering a 9:42.5 p e r f o r m a n c e against his 9:47.7 m a r k set against Alma last week. J i m Pierpont broke the 330-yard intermediate record of 39.9 recorded by Gary Holvick in 1964. Pierpont was clocked at 39.5.
run and Nichols in the pole vault. Floyd Brady took a first in the high j u m p and Les Cole registered a first in the discus. In the r e l a y events the t e a m of Sid Disbrow, Steve Reynen, Bill Hultgren and Cooper won while the t e a m of Walt Reed, Hultgren, Bob Thompson and Cooper also collected a win.
O N CAMPUS A N D SUMMER JOBS AVAILABLE A great opportunity for aggressive college students to earn a high income distributing material to college campuses
F r e s h m a n Doug Nichols broke a record that had stood since 1929 in the javelin with a throw of 18r5 M . The previous record was s e t by Walter de Velder was 175 , 2". Roy Cooper took two firsts in the sprints while other firsts w e r e collected by F o r m s m a in the mile
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