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Contents COVER STORY •••

NATIVE AND INUIT RESOURCE MAGAZINE

LEADERS OF THE NORTH

EDITOR & PUBLISHER Jacques Beauchamp

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Former Regional Police Office

EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT Christine Panasuk CREATIVE DIRECTOR Jonathan Beauchamp

A northern Inuit community serves as an inspiring example of a positive way forward for Aboriginals who are innovative and determined.

PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jonathan Beauchamp GRAPHICS & ART www.DESIGNit.CA PRINTED IN ONTARIO, CANADA Dollco, a division of The Lowe-Martin Group

SPRING 2013

CONTRIBUTORS Tony Palermo

Joyce Lahure

Gary Economo

George McTaggart

Marke Wong and Selene Nguyet ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES Don Holt

Daniel Cole

Thomas Easton First Nations Resource Magazine is published by Vantage Publishing Group Corp. and distributed free, all rights reserved. Contents and photographs may not be reprinted without written permission. The statements, opinions and points of view expressed in articles published in this magazine are those of the authors and publication shall not be deemed to mean they are necessarily those of Vantage Publishing Group Corp. or other affiliated organizations. The publisher accepts no responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts, photographs, transparencies or other materials. Publications Mail Agreement No. 41927547 ISSN 1927-3053 Native and Inuit Resource Magazine (Print) ISSN 1927-3061 Native and Inuit Resource Magazine (Online) Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 40 Colonnade Road Nor th Ottawa, Ontario K2E 7J6 Telephone: 1-888-724-9907 info@vantagepublishing.ca www.vantagepublishing.ca

SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS WITH US! Send your feedback, ideas, stories, and suggestions to: share@hopeforthefuture.ca or follow us on twitter: @creatinghopefor

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hard work, hard workers

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Nighthawk Gold Corporation

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the goal is to grow

Memorial University Faculty of Medicine reaching out to nunavut

Labrador Iron Mines

canada’s newest iron ore producer

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Aurora College

success speaks for itself

44 Tarsis Resources

true north strong and free?

53 HTX Minerals

owning our future

57 BLCS

a year in reflection

60 Livingworks

promoting life in communities

63 Northern Lights College

centres of excellence

67 Memorial University

25 Bank of Montreal

Office of Student Recruitment

28 Canadian North Airlines

70 MMG Minerals & Metals

raising the bar on education for canada’s indigenous youth helping strengthen and build communities

32 Agency Chiefs Child

- est 1990 -

H.J. O’Connell

and Family Services youth helping youth

37 Focus Graphite

mining the lac knife deposit

inuit social work students: professional bridge builders the izok corridor project

73 Avalon Rare Metals

building relationships in the north

77 Advanced

Explorations Inc.

collaborates with the government of nunavut on remote power solution

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OUR MISSION

To provide an unsurpassed level of Heavy Civil Engineering Construction Services to Canada’s mining, energy and infrastructure sectors.

HISTORY

H.J. O’Connell Ltd. has been a leader in the heavy civil engineering construction industry since 1931. Originally, under the leadership of Montrealer Herbert John O’Connell, the company quickly grew into one of Canada’s leading heavy construction firms, establishing Les Entreprises de Construction de Québec Ltée. (L.E.C.Q.) in 1937 and H.J. O’Connell Construction Ltd. in 1970. Our 80 plus year history ranks H.J. O’Connell Ltd. among the oldest of such firms in Canada. Our prosperity is a result of our innovative approach to business and our continued interest in growth and development. Since our establishment, we have grown to be a leader in the various markets in which we provide quality service. Our diversified business includes expertise in Mining, Energy, Roads, and Bridges as well as Municipal, Industrial, Northern and Project Management related work. Our clients have come to know us as an organization that continuously strives to find win-win solutions where projects are completed on time and on budget. Our ability to identify opportunities, attract and retain the finest talent in the market and continuously serve and exceed our clients’ expectations will ensure our success for years to come.

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PARTNERSHIPS

H.J. O’Connell takes pride in the successful partnerships and joint ventures that we have formed over the years to address the challenges facing the mining, energy and construction industries. We fully appreciate the synergistic benefits that can accrue from a well-developed partnership where all parties bring unique capabilities and proficiencies to the table. Always open to new ventures, O’Connell management sees partnerships as an important driving force behind future opportunities and welcomes the opportunity to discuss new projects with potential and existing partners. In 1997, H.J. O’Connell Construction Ltd. formed a partnership with the Mushuau Innu of Davis Inlet, Labrador, to pursue opportunities in the construction of the new community of Natuashish (Sango Bay) Labrador. The partnership successfully constructed an access road, an airstrip and a terminal building and installed the main water supply line to the new community. In April 2008, H.J. O’Connell joined forces with EBC Inc. (based out of L’Ancienne-Lorette, Quebec) and Neilson Inc. (based out of Saint-Nicolas, Quebec) to form O-N-E (O’Connell – Neilson – EBC) general partnership. With HJOC contributing as the managing partner, this Partnership was established to pursue business opportunities on the Wuskwatim Generating Station Project in Northern Manitoba. The Partnership subsequently bid on and won the General Civil Works Contract for the Wuskwatim project. This $241 million contract includes the construction of all of the 200MW generating station’s concrete structures (including the Spillway, Intake and Powerhouse) as well as the Main Dam. The owner of this project is the Wuskwatim Power Limited Partnership, consisting of Manitoba Hydro and the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (NCN.)

We will create a safe, quality oriented work environment that is respectful to our employees thereby allowing O’Connell people to use their exceptional skills to exceed the expectations of our clients. Furthermore, sustainability and environmental protection will be central to our strategy. Throughout our operations and in everything we do we will conduct ourselves with the highest standards of honesty and integrity.

OUR FUTURE

O’Connell works hand in hand with clients to develop economic solutions to today’s challenging construction environment. With over eighty years of experience in Quebec, Manitoba and Atlantic Canada H. J. O’Connell Limited offers clients dependable construction services and a reputation for on time, on budget performance within a highly safety-conscious and environmentallyresponsible corporate approach. We are proud of the long-standing relationships we have with many of our customers, several of which exceed forty years. H.J. O’Connell Ltd. recognizes the real challenges that lay ahead for the resource sectors of our economy and the construction industry in the 21st century. We are committed to working as a partner with clients to develop effective solutions and to meet those challenges head on. www.hjoc.com

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THE INDIN LAKE GREENSTONE BELT is one of Canada’s most under-

explored gold camps. It lies within the West Bay – Indin Lake Fault Zone, which extends over 200km from the Giant and Con Gold Mines (approximately 13 million ounces of production), in the south, to the Colomac Gold Mine (approximately 500 thousand ounces production) within its northern bounds.

Nighthawk believes this structure has played a major role in the development

and localization of Indin Lake Gold Camp mineralization, much the same role as that of other large regional fault systems, such as the Destor-Porcupine Fault’s influence on gold deposition within the Timmins Gold Camp.

Nighthawk Gold Corp. (TSX-V:NHK)controls over 90% of the prospective Indin Lake Greenstone Belt in this historic gold camp with a 100%-owned total ground position now comprising 89,922 hectares. This underexplored gold camp is located approximately 220 kilometres north of Yellowknife, NT, Canada, and hosts over 80 km of mineralized structure to explore. The company has identified several high-grade gold deposits with six properties - Colomac Project, Leta Arm Corridor, Treasure Island, Echo-Indin, Damoti Lake, JPK - and gold targets (Pinhook, Fishook and Red Pepper) during its exploration activities in its land package. The Indin Lake Gold Property (Figure 1) boasts year-round exploration infrastructure with access via a government maintained ice road that connects Colomac (central part of property) and Yellowknife and yearround airstrip at Colomac. Nighthawk’s management team has extensive experience in the resource sector and has a proven track record in assembling and consolidating mineral properties of merit. To date, Nighthawk’s team has grown the company’s property from a 2,800 hectare land package at Damoti to a nearly 90,000-hectare property with a significant gold resource.

COLOMAC GOLD PROJECT

Figure 1 Nighthawk’s 100%-owned Indin Lake Gold Property

The Colomac Gold Project lies within the central portion of Nighthawk’s Indin Lake Gold Property. Access is by winter road from Yellowknife or year round by chartered aircraft to a 5,000 foot airstrip at the former Colomac Gold Mine site. The Colomac Gold Project contains at least five separate gold deposits open in all dimensions (Colomac Dyke, Grizzly Bear, Goldcrest, Dyke Lake, and 24/27), only one of which, the Colomac Dyke Deposit, was historically mined. Intermittent mining from 1990 to1997 was limited to three shallow open pits developed on the Colomac Dyke. Historical production is reported to be 527,908 oz Au with an average head grade of 1.66 g/t Au. Mining activities impacted only a small portion of the dyke’s 7 kilometre mineralized strike length (Figure 2). HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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2012 Resource Estimate

Figure 2

The Colomac Gold Project’s mineralized zones are considered low grade bulk tonnage style deposits. The 2012 NI 43-101 compliant resource (Table 1) was estimated utilizing historical diamond drilling results from approximately 896 holes; most completed between 1987 and 1997. Despite the number of holes, all resources have been assigned to the Inferred category because of the historic nature of the data and the need for verification work, which is yet to be completed by Nighthawk. Total Inferred mineral resources, at a cut-off grade of 0.6 g/t Au, are estimated to be 42.65 million tonnes with an average grade of 1.05 g/t Au for 1.446 million oz Au. Historically mined volumes of the Colomac Dyke mineralization have been deleted from the current resource model.

Long Section of Colomac Dyke

Table 1: Colomac Gold Project Inferred Mineral Resources by Zone (using Block Model Cut-off Grade of 0.6 g/t Au) Zone

Tonnes

g/t Au

Oz Au

Colomac Dyke North Colomac Dyke Central Colomac Dyke South Goldcrest Dyke North Goldcrest Dyke Grizzly Bear 27 24 Total

8,127,000 21,896,000 8,830,000 998,000 1,075,000 807,000 528,000 390,000 42,650,000

0.95 1.10 1.01 1.03 1.32 1.04 1.21 0.96 1.05

248,000 771,000 287,000 33,000 46,000 27,000 20,000 12,000 1,446,000

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Notes:

1. A block cut-off value of 0.6 g/t Au was applied to all resource blocks. 2. Tonnes and ounces have been rounded to reflect the relative accuracy of the mineral resource estimate; therefore numbers may not total correctly. 3. Mineral Resources were calculated with Nighthawk mining software. Drill holes traces showing lithology and gold grade were reviewed in plan and cross section to generate 16 mineralised domains. Assays with each domain were top cut to 31 g/t and then composited to regular 5ft intervals. Block model grade interpolation was undertaken using Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK). 4. The resource estimate was prepared by Leon McGarry, B.Sc., Geologist, ACA Howe and supervised by Felix N. Lee, B.Sc., P.Geo., Senior Geologist, ACA Howe. 5. Gold price is US$1400 per ounce. 6. A default average specific gravity (SG) value of 2.7 has been used. 7. Mineral Resource tonnes quoted are not diluted. 8. No Measured or Indicated Resources or Mineral Reserves of any category are identified.


Diamond Drill at Indin Lake Gold Camp

9. Mineral resources are not mineral reserves and by definition do not demonstrate economic viability. This mineral resource estimate includes inferred mineral resources that are normally considered too speculative geologically to have economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves. There is also no certainty that these inferred mineral resources will be converted to the measured and indicated resource categories through further drilling, or into mineral reserves, once economic considerations are applied. 10. 1 troy ounce equals 31.10348 grams.

Nighthawk had great success working with local companies, including Tlicho Investment Corporation member companies, to provide support with our camp and reclamation activities in 2012. Over the coming months and years, Nighthawk looks forward to

building on these relationships. The company remains devoted to our commitment of promoting environmental stewardship and advancing economic development in the region.

Drill core from Treasure Island showing visible gold

www.nighthawkgold.com

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m

emorial University’s Faculty of Medicine has a solid reputation for training family doctors for work in rural and remote areas. Now that expertise is being put to good use in Nunavut to develop a new program that will provide family medicine residents with a structured and longer-term educational rotation in the Territory. Funding for the Nunavut Family Physician Residents Project (NunaFam) project is provided by the Government of Canada. In response to Nunavut’s ongoing challenges to recruit and retain family physicians, the federal government will provide $4.9 million to support up to eight newly-graduated doctors to do their family medicine training in collaboration with Memorial University. The NunaFam Project will also establish a Family Practice Training Centre based at Qikiqtani General Hospital in Iqaluit, which currently serves as the main referral centre for the Qikiqtalluq Region of Nunavut. The training centre will provide additional educational and academic networking support for physicians practicing in Nunavut, as well as being a focal training point for residents in this project. This extended exposure will encourage residents to stay and work in Nunavut after the completion of their medical training. While based in Iqaluit, the eight residents will conduct visits to several communities including those in the Qikiqtalluq (Baffin) Region. “This collaboration will enhance support for family physicians working in Nunavut on an ongoing basis and will encourage their continuing medical practice in the Territory,” said Dr. James Rourke, dean of medicine at Memorial University. Memorial University faculty and staff have already made two site visits to Iqaluit. In June 2011 Dr. Ean Parsons, faculty site lead for the Iqaluit site, Dr. Cheri Bethune, faculty development co-ordinator, and project manager Linda Kirby visited to meet the people who will be involved in the project and do some faculty development. In February 2012 a larger group travelled to the Territory: Dr. Parsons and Ms. Kirby returned, along with Dr. Marshall Godwin, chair of Memorial’s Discipline of Family Medicine; Dr. Danielle O’Keefe, program director; Patti McCarthy, educational co-ordinator; Reanne Meuse and Shannon Aylward, the project evaluation team; and John Crowell, photographer with the Faculty of Medicine. Dr. Sandy Macdonald, a graduate of Memorial University’s medical school (Class of 1986), is director of Medical Affairs for the Department of Health and Social Services in Nunavut. HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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“We have advertised for an on-site administrative person, and currently have Evelyn Fontanilla contracted to fill this role until September 2012,” explained Ms. Kirby. “We have an administrative office site in Iqaluit, with a Learning Resource Centre for the residents. Our third resident is currently in Iqaluit, and the fourth is scheduled to head up north in June.  Three of the residents have been first- year residents, completing two months in maternal health. The current resident is a second-year resident completing a four-month rotation in rural/remote family medicine.” NunaFam project manager Linda Kirby

Dr. Amy Pieroway is one of the family medicine residents who has already spent time in the Territory. “I had an amazing time in Nunavut,” she said. “The work was stimulating, the people were kind and funny, and socially there was so much to do. I decided to go to Nunavut because I always like to seek out new experiences, and to challenge myself, both medically and personally. I love to travel and had always heard great things about Iqaluit and Nunavut, so when the opportunity presented itself, I jumped at the chance.” Dr. Pieroway said practicing medicine in Nunavut was completely different from any other clinical experience she’s had. “Having done rotations across Canada, in the Caribbean, and Western Africa, I thought I might have an idea as to what to expect, but it exceeded my expectations in every way. The patients were challenging, and not having the backup of a bevy of specialists as we do in St. John’s, allowed me and the family physicians practicing in Nunavut to really work through the full spectrum of a general practice. I delivered babies, did home visits with elders in Cape Dorset, worked in the emergency department, and did work in the tuberculosis clinics.” The family medicine resident said one home visit stuck with her in particular. “I was in Cape Dorset doing a community visit, and we were asked to go to the home of one of the elders as she was not particularly mobile, and was blind, so she was unable to attend our medical clinic.” “As we were preparing to leave her home, she was asking a few questions about us,” said Dr. Pieroway. “I was described as the tall woman from Newfoundland, and she wanted to stand up beside me to see how tall I really was. So after some maneuvering, she stood up, clutching on to my hips, and she reached about half way up my chest.  She would reach upwards to feel my face, and then she would laugh outrageously, and feel downwards to make sure I wasn’t

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standing on a stool. She couldn’t believe that women existed who were six feet tall! As we were leaving she said to us (through a translator) that when she was a little girl she was afraid of white people, as so few visited her community. She never dreamed that one day she would be inviting them into her house!”

Dr. Sandy Macdonald and Dr. Marshall Godwin, chair of the Discipline of Family Medicine at Memorial

Dr. Amy Pieroway and young patient

Dr. Pieroway has already made plans to return to Nunavut, whether for a locum or a longer stay. “My experiences there were so positive that I knew I would return long before I even left!” Dr. Madeleine Cole, director of Medical Education for Nunavut, said the residents from Memorial were kept busy during their time in the Territory. “Clinically, they were able

to deliver lots of babies, work in a busy emergency room, learn about and see tuberculosis and go on visits to the smaller fly-in communities to do clinic medicine. Residents have also done medical outreach and advocacy work such as health teaching visits to the women’s shelter and providing first aid at speed skating tournaments.” Dr. Cole said the experience is beneficial for all residents training in Nunavut. “The residents from Memorial have lived with and befriended residents from other family medicine and pediatrics programs who are also here, making for a collegial learning environment.” www.med.mun.ca

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S

ince the formation of Labrador Iron Mines’ (LIM) in December 2007, the Company’s objective has been to bring its Schefferville area iron ore projects into production as quickly as possible. In an accelerated and ambitious timeline of only three and half years, LIM successfully built a portfolio of 20 direct shipping iron ore (DSO) deposits in the Labrador Trough, engaged in consultation with First Nations groups, proceeded through a two-year environmental and permitting stage, and advanced the mine and plant construction in just 10 months. In June 2011, Canada’s newest iron ore producer emerged as LIM successfully commenced initial production at its James mine. LIM’s DSO deposits are located within the western central part of the prolific Labrador Trough, a unique geological feature covering over 30,000 hectares in the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Québec. Most of these deposits are situated within 50 km of the town of Schefferville. While the history of LIM spans only a few years, mining in the area dates back over the last half century. The Labrador Trough is a prolific iron ore belt that extends roughly 1,500 km south-southeast from Ungava Bay through Québec and Labrador and southwest into Central Québec. The Trough contains

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several major open pit iron ore deposits, the first of which originated in the Schefferville camp when the Iron Ore Company of Canada (IOC) commenced production there in 1954, producing a total of 150 million tonnes of iron ore until operations ceased in 1982. Today, while many development plans are currently underway from several mining and exploration companies, it is the commencement of LIM’s operations that has prompted a revitalization in the region. On June 29, 2011, LIM’s first loaded iron ore train departed the Schefferville area for the Port of Sept-Îles. This historic event marks the first commercial iron ore train to depart from the Schefferville area in almost 30 years.

Building partnerships for long-term success The term ‘corporate social responsibility’ is defined as the commitment of a business to contribute to sustainable economic development – working with a number of stakeholders, including employees, the local communities and society at large to improve the quality of life, in ways that are both good for business and good for development. Corporate social responsibility goes beyond compliance and regulatory requirements. It addresses how companies manage their economic and social impacts and, particularly for mining companies, it also means taking responsibility for the impact on the environment. For LIM, it’s not only a responsibility, it’s a priority.


The James Mine

In the spirit of a shared vision, LIM’s commitment is to contribute to, and collaborate with, the communities with close ties to its operations in order to maximize socioeconomic benefits for all stakeholders, consistent with maintaining the financial viability of its projects. LIM believes this can only be achieved by building positive partnerships and relationships built on trust and mutual respect. Certainly, the successful start-up of LIM’s operations would not have been possible without the benefit of the strong partnerships that have been established with its stakeholders, including the local and Aboriginal communities. While LIM’s projects are relatively small-scale compared to previous historical mining in the area, they are the first positive economic stimulus in over 30 years and could lead to significant long-term economic stability.

environmental and permitting stage, LIM conducted an extensive issues scoping process in relation to its projects, which included detailed discussions and consultation with appropriate regulatory agencies, the local communities and Aboriginal groups, including elders, and the general public. LIM ensured this process was initiated very early in the development stage in order to identify and address potential environmental issues.

The Company has also ensured that its operations are in compliance with all laws and regulatory requirements, while at the same time respecting the traditional use of land. During the two-year

Today, LIM is the only company in Schefferville that has signed Impact and Benefits Agreements (IBA) with four Aboriginal communities, representing five First Nations groups: the Innu Nation of Labrador

LIM’s Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is the result of extensive evaluation and consideration of the environmental effects and also outlines mitigation measures to minimize its environmental footprint during all cycles of the mine-life.

Partnering with First Nations

First Nations IBA Signing – (left to right) the Innu Nation of Labrador, the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach, the Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John and the Nation Innu Takuaikan Uashat mak Mani-Utenam HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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representing the Sheshatshiu Innu First Nation and the Mushuau Innu First Nation, the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach, the Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John and the Nation Innu Takuaikan Uashat mak Mani-Utenam. These IBAs are life-of-mine agreements that establish the processes and sharing of benefits to ensure ongoing positive relationships between LIM and First Nations. In return for their consent and support, First Nations members will benefit through training, employment, business opportunities and financial participation in LIM’s projects. Aboriginal Engagement Policy Under the IBAs, LIM has committed to: • the development of its projects in an environmentally and socially responsible manner, and to address and mitigate any environmental, cultural, economic and spiritual concerns of the local Aboriginal communities. • the equitable participation of the Aboriginal communities through employment, training, contract opportunities and financial benefits. • provide support for education, training and social programs. • take certain social and environmental protection measures to mitigate the impact that its projects may have on the Aboriginal communities, families, and traditional activities. • contribute to Aboriginal Traditional Activities Funds for the benefit of the members of the relevant First Nations. It is intended that the funds shall be used for the purposes of traditional, cultural and subsistence activities and the protection and preservation of Aboriginal values. LIM has formed an IBA Implementation Committee, which consists of representatives from each of the Aboriginal communities and members of LIM’s management team. The first IBA Implementation Meeting was held earlier this year and covered topics including health and safety, human resources and employment, communication programs and support, environmental and land use, permitting requirements and contract opportunities. A tour of LIM’s mine site and facilities also provided a firsthand opportunity to see the various components that make up LIM’s operations. These meetings will be held four times a year and serve as a platform for open dialogue and communication.

More than just miners LIM has implemented a number of programs to support a healthy culture for its employees and the local communities. While mining skillsets and training in areas such as health and safety will

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always remain a top priority, LIM also actively empowers its employees through team building and leadership training, culture immersion, including language classes, and career advancement programs. LIM’s operations are located in a remote area, bordering on the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Québec. The area is home to different cultures, traditions and four distinct languages: English, French, Innu-aimun and Cree Naskapi. While these may pose a challenge to some, LIM has embraced this as an opportunity. This year, LIM has implemented various Innu Culture Immersion Training programs for its leadership team to enable a greater understanding of working and dealing with intercultural


relationships. Innu and French language classes are provided to enable successful communication, in addition to cultural classes for greater understanding of the Innu culture. Recently, members of the leadership team were given a hands-on opportunity to experience the Innu customs and lifestyle through a two-day program, taking place on the Innu traditional land.

LIM is also active in the community, participating in and sponsoring local community events. In addition, regular meetings are held with community groups and leaders to discuss recent developments. The Company has also launched a Community Newsletter, a quarterly publication outlining progress reports on its mining activities and various initiatives in the local and Aboriginal communities. To help maintain open lines of communications, LIM has established offices in Schefferville, Goose Bay, Labrador City/ Wabush and plans to open a future office in St. John’s, to act as a portal between LIM and each of the communities and regions. The Company’s community relations personnel and other staff at these locations endeavour to meet regularly with community and government leaders, community groups and individuals to answer questions and address concerns.

LIM employees and the local Aboriginal Community participate in the Innu Culture Immersion Training program

For local employees, training and educational programs are provided in the areas of leadership coaching and mentorship. Also, a skills work program has been established with curriculum that includes French and English language classes, basic computer skills and team building. Recently, LIM put in place a “Workplace Literacy & Essential Skills Training” program in partnership with Frontier College. Currently, two bilingual teachers are on site to help employees enhance their individual skill sets for career advancement.

“Listening to people is an important first step. Through listening, we strive to understand the needs and aspirations of the communities in which we operate and conduct our activities in ways that benefit those communities and our stakeholders. In doing so, we strive to act as good corporate citizens. Adopting open and transparent communications with local communities and governments is paramount to establishing strong partnerships and relationships. Learning from one another, having mutual respect and working together will result in shared success.” www.labradorironmines.ca

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College of the Northwest Territories… 95% of certificate, diploma and degree students surveyed in 2012 would recommend their program to others.

Aurora College is the cornerstone of the Northwest Territories post-secondary education system. A vibrant, Northern college committed to excellence in education and research, Aurora strives to foster understanding and respect among all Northern people. With campuses in Fort Smith, Yellowknife and Inuvik, NT, and 23 Community Learning Centres spread throughout the NWT, Aurora College offers a variety of programs designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and other Northern learners. Students are the centre of all we do, and Aurora College strives to provide the support, skills and training needed to achieve success in their chosen careers.

Your career starts here… Aurora College’s unique programs in Arts and Science, Health and Human Services, Business and Administration, Education, Adult Basic Education, Trades and Apprenticeship and more; offer strong cultural content and plenty of hands-on experiences combined with the latest technology and practices. To learn about our courses, campuses and student life at Aurora please visit our website at www.auroracollege.nt.ca and view a sampling of our course offerings.

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Feature Programs Bachelor of Education

Graduates will become active participants in healthcare through instructional and practical training within the modern healthcare system.

(In partnership with the University of Saskatchewan) The Bachelor of Education Program is a uniquely Aboriginal and Northern culture-based teacher education program that meets the needs of NWT students and schools. The nationallyrecognized four-year Bachelor of Education Program is delivered in partnership with the University of Saskatchewan (U of S). Course design ensures the inclusion of the Aboriginal perspective and effective teaching techniques through academic coursework, practical teaching experience, internships and culture camps.

Environment and Natural Resources Technology Diploma Program

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (in partnership with the University of Victoria) The Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program trains students to work as nurses with individuals, families, groups and communities in a variety of settings. Students learn to work as partners with clients and other health care providers, guided by a fundamental emphasis on both health promotion and caring. The program assists students in developing sensitivity to people’s experiences of health, healing and health promotion.

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The two-year Environment and natural Resources Technology Diploma program links field experience, classroom-based academic coursework and lab-based skills training. Graduates of the program are able to succeed as natural resource technicians and officers, or enter environmental management careers in areas including wildlife, forestry, marine and freshwater fisheries, planning, water resources, environmental protection, parks, land claim resource management, oil and gas, and mining. The program places an emphasis on hands-on, experiential learning.


Business Administration The Business Administration program is intended to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for students who want to enter careers in business, government and non-profit. Business courses stress applicability to small businesses in the NWT. The Business Administration program provides students with an opportunity to acquire either a certificate (one-year) or a diploma (two-year). Some of the program’s streams offer additional opportunities outside the classroom including work placements and accreditation by the Council for the Advancement of the Native Development Officers (CANDO). www.auroracollege.nt.ca

Aboriginal Language and Cultural Instructor Program The two-year Aboriginal and Cultural Instructor program trains individuals to work as Aboriginal language instructors in NWT schools, teaching Aboriginal languages and culture courses. The program is a mixture of courses in Aboriginal language immersion and in teaching methodologies related specifically to Aboriginal languages.

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T

he difficulties that Canada’s Indigenous peoples face are wellknown and significant improvements appear to be elusive.

In 2010, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs released an analysis that suggested there was little or no progress in the well-being of Indigenous communities between 2001 and 2006. In fact, the average well-being of those communities continued to rank significantly below that of other Canadian communities. Meanwhile, conditions on many reserves across the country remain poor. Solving these problems requires significant effort in a number of areas. One of the most critical is education. In a recent report from the Auditor General of Canada, education was identified as being critical to raising the social and economic strength of people in Indigenous communities. Indeed, Shawn Atleo, National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations, sees education as a major priority for Indigenous peoples.

population (comprising the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples) and only 4 per cent of First Nations peoples have a university degree. We need to ensure that this situation improves, not just for the sake of Indigenous peoples themselves, but for the benefit of all Canadians. If the post-secondary education gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people can be stemmed, Canada’s rapidly growing Indigenous population has the potential to fill the country’s looming skill and labour shortage.

As the youngest and fastest growing segment of Canada’s population, Indigenous youth represent a large

pool of talent for Canada’s workforce. The Indigenous population is growing at a rate of 1.8 per cent - almost twice the growth rate of the general population at 1 per cent.

But many Indigenous students face challenges that students elsewhere in the country don’t, such as geographic isolation, limited funding and a lack of role models. Such challenges impede these students’ ability to achieve educational success. As a consequence, we see a consistent gap in the level of education between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students.

As the youngest and fastest growing segment of Canada’s population, Indigenous youth represent a large pool of talent for Canada’s workforce. The Indigenous population is growing at a rate of 1.8 per cent - almost twice the growth rate of the general population at 1 per cent. And by the end of 2017, Indigenous peoples of will comprise 3.4 per cent of the working age population in Canada.

Yet Indigenous peoples continue to be over-represented amongst Canada’s unemployed. Statistics Canada, for instance, found that in 2010, the participation rate for core-aged Indigenous workers was 75 per cent, compared with 87 per cent for their nonIndigenous counterparts. As well, the participation rate for Indigenous young people declined was only 57 per cent, compared to 64.8 per cent among non-Indigenous youths.

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Raising the bar on education is integral to ensuring more Indigenous young people can join in the workforce in ever-greater numbers. It’s the right thing to do; it helps our students, it helps our country and it helps the private sector. Higher levels of education lead to better prospects, opportunities and jobs for these young people, and as a result to healthier communities right across Canada.

As Roberta L. Jamieson, President and CEO of Indspire, has herself said: “There is no question in my mind that the future of this country has everything to do with the degree to which Indigenous young people have the opportunity to play a part in the economy.” To date, Indspire’s Education Program has awarded more than $49-million in scholarships and bursaries to more than 14,000 First Nations, Inuit and Métis students across Canada. The success of Indspire provides ample proof that Indigenous students across the country and across academic disciplines are ready to make contributions to their communities and the country at large. But more must be done.

BMO Aboriginal Day

Organizations across the country have already taken a leading role in such efforts. For instance, Indspire – formerly the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation – is a charitable organization dedicated to giving Indigenous peoples the tools they need to achieve their potential.

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Private sector support represents an important part of what Indigenous students need to succeed. Through funds provided from companies across the country, we can develop bursaries, scholarships and internship programs. Plus, firms large and small can offer these students mentoring help to give them the knowledge they need to prosper and thrive. With more private sector support supporting the ongoing educational improvement of Canada’s Indigenous youth, then their success will definitely be on the horizon. It’s time for Canadian companies to take the lead.


Trainee and has extensive experience through a range of roles including Assistant Branch Manager, Branch Manager and midmarket Commercial Account Manager. As a Commercial Account Manager, he was accountable for managing BMO’s relationship with one of Canada’s largest First Nation communities. In 1998, Stephen assumed the role of Commercial Banking Area Manager, and was accountable for a large team of Commercial Account Managers, including those managing Aboriginal files.

Stephen Fay National Director Aboriginal Banking

Since December 2000, Stephen Fay has held the role of National Director, Aboriginal Banking at BMO Financial Group. In this role, Stephen is accountable to develop long-term strategic recommendations that allow BMO to pursue and develop opportunities with the Aboriginal market. Stephen serves as a leader within the Aboriginal marketplace advocating BMO Financial Group, developing and nurturing relationships with leaders and associations at a national level, and leading the development and positioning of holistic financial solutions for this unique market. Stephen began his career with BMO in 1980 as a Management

Since joining Aboriginal Banking, Stephen has been instrumental in establishing the first On-Reserve Housing Loan Program in western Canada and for negotiating BMO’s participation in the First Nation Market Housing Fund, established by the Federal Government in 2007. Stephen has contributed to several other industry “firsts”, some of the most notable being his involvement in arranging financial support for the first Aboriginal-owned dialysis and MRI clinics in Canada. Stephen is a graduate of Wilfrid Laurier University, with a BA in Economics and Political Science. He is CSC registered and has been a member of the Aboriginal Financial Officer’s Association since 2004. www.bmo.com/aboriginal/en/

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s an airline that serves the territories of Nunavut and Northwest Territories, you may have had the opportunity to enjoy the “seriously Northern hospitality” of Canadian North, however, few realize the commitment they make to the communities they serve beyond providing air and cargo services. For more than 80 years, Canadian North has been flying to the Canadian Arctic and has been involved for many of those years in supporting the communities they serve. From the days of Canadian Airlines when employees would volunteer to dress up as Santa and his elves and deliver Christmas gifts to children, to the current distribution of Jordin Tootoo hockey cards, airplane toys and tickets for holiday celebrations, it is clear they are committed to building up the people who make up the North. As a matter of fact, in the past three years, Canadian North has supported hundreds of events/organizations, valued at more than $5,000,000! Without the air and cargo donations and discounts from companies like Canadian North, people in the North wouldn’t enjoy things such as the following –

THE ARTS The Great Northern Arts Festival This event, held in Inuvik each year, brings artists from across the North together to participate in workshops and showcase their art to festival attendees. Given the remoteness of so many Northern communities, Northern artists would not have this opportunity if it weren’t for Canadian North’s provision of complimentary air travel as well as the shipping of the artists’ works. Folk on the Rocks Music Festival A long-standing Yellowknife celebration, Folk on the Rocks has been entertaining thousands during the summertime with local and national talent for years. Canadian North brings in those from afar and supports the festival through cargo support as well. The Alianait Arts Festival Entering its ninth year of operations, Alianait presents music, film, storytelling, circus, arts, dance, theatre and the visual arts over a four-day period in Iqaluit. Canadian North supports this summertime festival as well as their efforts throughout the year. The airline also participates in the support of the arts through events and organizations such as the Northern Arts and Culture Association, the Nunavut Arts and Crafts Festival, photography and writing contests, exhibitions and publications, to name a few.

YOUTH/EDUCATION A highlight of some of the initiatives Canadian North is involved in that support the youth include – Performing at the Folk on the Rocks festival

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HEALTH

Food First Not unlike the rest of Canada, many children in the North go to school without a nutritious breakfast. Canadian North provides tickets for fund raising efforts so that Food First is able to not only provide breakfast programs, but also to provide nutrition education so that young people learn the basics of nutrition for life.

Inuvik Drum Dancer Jimmy Kalinek photo by Nathalie Hieberg-Harrison

Northern Youth Abroad Canadian North supports this inspirational program for the future Northern leaders by transporting them to their southern gateways of either Ottawa or Edmonton. The program enables youth aged 15 to 22 living in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories to acquire professional skills and training, hands on work experience, and high school credits through a cross cultural work and learning experience in southern Canada and abroad. Duke of Edinburgh Awards The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award was founded by His Royal Highness Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh, to encourage personal development and community involvement for young people through community service, skill development, physical recreation, and adventurous journey. Canadian North helps engage the young people by providing transportation for their cross-cultural experience between the North and the South. Canadian North Student Achievement Awards Established in 2011, Canadian North provides a trip for two to the winning Grade 12 students in all High Schools in the Northern communities they serve, as well as a $500 post-secondary scholarship for the Best Overall student. Their spokesperson, Jordin Tootoo, encourages youth in the three categories of awards that include: Best Attendance, Most Improved and Best Overall Student. This is just a highlight of the many initiatives Canadian North is involved in that supports the youth of the North. They have helped raise funds for the Kamatsiaqtut Help Line in Iqaluit, literacy projects and many other organizations, as well as participated in events such as hip-hop workshops, school fundraisers and the Girl Guides cookie sales.

Run for our Lives This annual run raises funds that remain in the Northwest Territories for the Stanton Territorial Hospital patient care, equipment and major capital needs. Canadian North is a significant sponsor of this health-centered event.

Community health initiatives, addiction awareness programs, soccer and hockey programs and tournaments, curling bonspiels and golf tournaments are just a few of the many initiatives Canadian North contributes to that are geared towards encouraging health of Northern residents.

Former carver, Bernadette Saumik

COMMUNITY The number of community events that Canadian North participates in is exhaustive. From fishing derbies, feasts and snow machine races, to supporting the local Humane Societies, Community Centres and day cares, the airline is involved at all levels of community support. It’s great to know that this Aboriginally-owned airline contributes so substantially to the communities where its owners live – in the North! www.canadiannorth.com

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gency Chiefs Child & Family Services has partnered with the RCMP to introduce the First Nation Community Cadet Program. A positive after school program that is offered to youth ages 12 – 17 and delivered by local RCMP detachments to our community schools in Big River First Nation, Witchekan Lake First Nation and Pelican Lake First Nation. We have many different challenges throughout our lives. We do not inherit the skills, knowledge, or tools required to function effectively from our parents or elders. We must learn many survival tools to become healthy productive adults in the changing times of today. First Nations youth have changed lifestyles, values, beliefs and family systems to meet these changing needs. Often their search leads them on a negative and harmful path. It was with these challenges in mind that Agency Chiefs Child & Family Services and leadersof the three communities of Pelican Lake First Nation, Big River First Nation, and Witchekan Lake First Nation introduced the First Nation Community Cadet Program. Seeking new innovative programs that will help the challenges our youth face is a priority within our agency.

The First Nation Community Cadet program is one of the programs that have touched on many of the identified areas of concern brought to light with assistance from our local RCMP detachments, ACTC schools, community leaders and child & family services. The Cadet program teaches the participants team building, responsibility, respect, culture, discipline, goal setting, and more. They must work together as a troop to pass inspection drills. If one fails, they all fail and must do push ups until the drill is done correctly. Surprisingly, this is one of the most effective team building exercises we have seen, kids are encouraging each other and teamwork is observed. To promote our traditions and Cree culture, there is a teaching component where elders or facilitators have the opportunity to enhance the program and to cater it to its specific community, as each community has different priorities the cadet program allows room to be very adaptable. During our first year delivering the program, we have already seen improvement within our youth with the most interesting development being the empowerment of the kids. Previously, adults told them what they needed or what was good for them and now our kids have a forum to express their needs and wants within the programming. They can ask for what they need and have real input on decisions that directly impact them.

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As adults we tend to dictate to our kids what is best for them which is fine until they become young adults. We realize that by empowering our kids and giving them the opportunity to voice their opinions we are allowing them to develop into fully functioning adults who understand who they are. Eventually it will be our young people paving the way for other community members to follow and that will be their legacy. One of the schools shared a concern with us and we would like everyone to know that although some of the teachers, principals, and vice principals may disagree; we believe involvement in the cadets shouldn’t be tied to school attendance or academic performance. Cadets are a life skills experience that is separate from the school curriculum and the formal demands of mainstream education. In this regard it is in the best interests of the youth to be involved in something positive rather than being left to their own devices without direction or community involvement. Furthermore, we have observed that youth excel at hands on concrete tasks rather than theoretic or academic studies. It makes more sense to use a strength based approach in the cadet program and build strengths rather than trying to impose a system of learning that is a challenge to many of them. The cadet program started in the fall of 2010 and is delivered one hour once a week during the school year in each of the 3 ACTC community schools. Tuesdays at Kisikohk School in Witchekan Lake First Nation, Wednesdays at Se Se Wa Hum High School in Big River First Nation, and Thursdays at Pelican Lake First Nation Community Hall. Some of the weekly activities include: • Marching drills • Indoor sports (volleyball, floor hockey & dodge ball) • Outdoor activities (soccer, softball, canoeing & archery) • Community school yard clean up • Help out in all community school functions We take great community pride in our youth especially in having the program participate in annual gatherings: • Remembrance day • Elders Christmas supper • Treaty day celebrations • Canada day celebrations • School cultural days prep & take down • High school graduations Our cadets have attracted attention throughout the province of Saskatchewan, they have been invited to participate in opening ceremonies for large gatherings such as: Saskatchewan First Nation Summer Games, Grand Entry Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nation Pow wows, and to visit other community schools to perform drill demonstrations in front of students and teachers.

• Learn to set up tipi and introduce the traditional tipi teachings • Youth development of new cadet leaders in august and will be ready to start another school year of delivering the after school cadet program • Outdoor survival camps • Participate in fund raising initiatives for trips & purchase new uniforms • Utilize our community elders to participate during cadet nights for guidance and speak to youth to address as issues would arise from time to time. • Year career fair and Plan to attend Bold Eagle grad or RCMP grad In closing, we would like to let everyone know we love our kids and we will continue to network with other professional organizations. With the support of leadership, we will bring the best youth and family programs available so we can arm our youth with knowledge and the life skills they need to succeed in the modern forever changing world. Our teambuilding motto for our First Nation Community Cadet program is “if one fails, we all fail” May the Great Spirit be with you, Barry Morin | Agency Chiefs Child & Family Services

New activities are planned and made when everyone comes back to school from summer break. They include: • Cadet graduations • Inter-agency regular monthly meetings with youth on what works & what don’t work and what kind of activities they would like to see offered during cadet nights. • Elementary students moving to middle years canoe safety & learn how to paddle HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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When the world looks for solutions to today’s clean energy challenges, they look to Quebec. Focus Graphite is proud to be a participant in promoting global awareness of Quebec’s technology contributions to the world’s clean, sustainable energy developers. As one of many Quebec-based enterprises looking to capture a share of the clean energy market, we do so with the knowledge that our operations, our partners and our shareholders add value to Quebec’s ambitions to succeed in those growing global markets. Our technology partnerships with l’Insitute de Recherche de l’HydroQuebec (IREQ), our rare earths mining development partnership with SOQUEM and our pure scientific research and investment in graphene, the world’s wonder material, provide a small example of large-scale cooperation. That same sense of cooperation makes us proud to promote awareness of our working relationships with our community partners in Northern Quebec; the land, the Innu community and with the residents and civic authorities of Fermont, the planned location for our Focus Graphite’s primary technology graphite processing facility. Our Lac Knife graphite deposit, some 25 kilometers south of Fermont, to us, is the jewel in the crown of graphite mines or deposits anywhere on earth. Nature has bestowed upon Lac Knife’s land a gift of carbon that sets it, and us, apart from all other participants in the graphite industry. In a mining region overwhelmingly dominated by the iron ore industry, Focus Graphite’s participation in the community represents a small, but important element of diversity, in typical Canadian fashion, among a largely multinational field of miners. HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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Focus Graphite is more than just a mining development company. We’ve built our business upon the world’s greatest graphite resource. Our Lac Knife deposit, grading at 16%, is the highest grade of any other graphite resource on earth. In market competitive terms, it means that we’ll have a dramatically lower production cost than any other producer in the world. With production scheduled to begin in late 2013 or early 2014, we’ve already identified and we are discussing sales and purchase agreements with buyers from around the world. In the graphite world, grade is king. It means we can carry that cost advantage through each stage of production. Our initial processing at our Fermont plant will produce a 95%-97% marketable graphite product with total annual production of about 20,000 tons. Our technology licencing agreement with IREQ, however, is our key to dramatically increased revenues, expansion and reinvestment. IREQ is Hydro-Quebec’s research and development institute and one of the world’s largest patent holders for lithiumion battery technologies. In order to produce battery or technology grade graphite, we need to achieve between 99.5% and 99.9% purity. There are also markets for 99.999% pure laboratory-grade graphite. In time, we aim to be a supplier into those markets because of our technology.

Our Social Responsibilities and Commitments

We accept that the land we exploit is not ours and that we have both a moral obligation to protect the environment and a social responsibility to offer employment and other benefits, buying local, for example, that come as a full-time participant in community affairs. We also stand to become one of the first mining developments to go into production under the Quebec Government’s Plan Nord, its 20-year, $80 billion northern Quebec development strategy. So, assuming a leading role in doing what we say goes to the core of our business and social responsibilities. Plan Nord was designed to be a model of modern, sustainable, and harmonious development. It enables development

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of Northern Québec’s natural resources while respecting the environment, its ecosystems with projected benefits for the North and ultimately, economic benefits for all Quebecers. It is the product of input from the provincial and regional governments and First Nations and Inuit representatives along with representatives from the economic, social, local and environmental communities. It is massive and will impact development of over 60% of Quebec’s total land mass, or about 1.2 million square kilometers. As a co-founder of Focus Graphite, it was with keen sense of personal interest and obligation to enshrine our company’s operational and social responsibilities in our corporate charter.


In addition to Lac Knife, we own a half interest with SOQUEM in the Kwyjibo rare earth and poly-metallic property north of Sept-Iles. So to us, taking corporate social responsibility (CSR) seriously means adopting and applying its meaning into every stage of our development. In doing so, we’ve taken an enlightened position that reflects upon our reputation and commits or weaves CSR into all facets of our business activities. Common sense and respect are values we believe strengthen those relationships we build as full participants in the communities we work in.

With demand for both graphite and graphene supercapacitors growing by some 10% annually today, having our technological foot in the door now means unfathomed advantages for the future.

Looking to the Future

Graphene is nature’s wonder material. It is a single atom thick, but stronger than steel, tougher than diamond and it is both flexible and electrically conductive.

As a company with our mining development operations and our head office based in Quebec, its made sense to us to look beyond the norms of mineral and metallic exploration and we began building and adding value to our various components.

In February 2011, we announced the creation of a graphene joint venture partnership. A year later, we incorporated that joint venture which now operates in the global graphene application development arena as Grafoid Inc.

The benefits to all our stakeholders, we believe, is tremendous.

In our case, we transform our high-grade graphite ore to graphene, but we can use graphite from any source on earth to achieve bilayer and trilayer graphene for application development.

To us, the future is the burgeoning high-tech demand markets for clean energy products.

This is where we see our future and graphene is where the scientific world is heading in the coming years.

Graphite for use in lithium-ion batteries is preparing itself for an explosion of growth, but more and more, global utilities are developing energy storage facilities – that is, electricity produced from solar and wind generation is stored and released when required to supplement conventional generation.

We are pleased and proud to be a small but leading player in the global development of markets for both products. And we are well positioned to assume leading role for Quebec and Canada in the years to come.

Investing in clean energy high-growth technologies now is good for our planet, and good for our shareholders.

www.focusgraphite.com www.grafoid.com

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n February 3, 2012, NGC Nunatsiavut Inc. (NGC) announced they had reached an agreement to obtain a 51 per cent interest in Air Labrador Inc., an airline which provides passenger and cargo transportation services to approximately 25 communities in Nunatsiavut, Labrador, Newfoundland, Nunavut and Quebec. This move marks a positive step forward for Nunatsiavut beneficiaries, effectively giving them control over one of Canada’s oldest airlines. “The addition of Air Labrador to our family allows the Nunatsiavut Group of Companies to offer integrated transportation and logistics solutions to those wanting to carry out projects in the region,” says NGC president and CEO James Thorbourne. “Air Labrador is the perfect complement to our existing business lines – tugs, barges, construction, remote camp operations and logistics.”

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As Thorbourne says, acquiring a majority stake in Air Labrador falls in line with several other equally impressive NGC business activities: 100 per cent ownership of NGC Nunatsiavut Solutions which provides logistics, expediting and remote camp operations services to researchers, resource companies and construction companies; 100 per cent ownership in NGC Nunatsiavut Construction, a company that handles construction projects including road construction, earth moving, tank farms, core box construction, building construction, aggregate supply, and environmental clean-ups; 100 per cent ownership in NGC Nunatsiavut Marine Transport, which operates two tugs, two barges and a passenger/tour vessel in the commercial charter market; 100 per cent ownership of Nunak Land Corporation, a company that maintains and operates a commercial real estate portfolio with assets in Happy Valley Goose Bay, Makkovik, Hopedale and Nain; and those are just a few of the businesses NGC has stake in. Annual revenues for NGC have grown from about $7 million with a net loss in 2009 to over $20 million with a $2 million profit in 2012.

This whole structure clearly shows the determination of an Aboriginal people that has used the goal of self-governance in a positive way. Clearly, NGC, the Inuit-led business arm of the Nunatsiavut Government, is doing something, or rather, many things right.

Successful self-governance Nunatsiavut, which means “our beautiful land” in Inuktitut, is a region of five communities and 72,500 sq. km. in northern Labrador, of which 15,800 sq. km are officially Labrador Inuit Lands. In 2005, it became the first Inuit area in Canada to achieve self-government rights through the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement. The Nunatsiavut Government is an Inuit regional government. Although Nunatsiavut remains part of Newfoundland and Labrador, the government has authority over many central governance areas including health, education, culture and language, justice and community matters. As the business arm of the Nunatsiavut government, NGC’s goal is to create wealth, in trust, for Nunatsiavut beneficiaries by owning profitable, sustainable businesses. Essentially, NGC reports to a separate trust called the Labrador Inuit Capital Strategy Trust (LICST) which provides independent oversight

of the Nunatsiavut government’s for-profit business interests. Business success for NGC directly contributes to the success of Nunatsiavut’s communities and beneficiaries This whole structure – the Nunatsiavut government, NGC and LICST – clearly shows the determination of an Aboriginal people that has used the goal of self-governance in a positive way. It is a region that has actively taken control of their present and their future by focusing on activities that contribute to improved employment, training, and the business and social well-being of all beneficiaries. “The idea of having an economic development corporation (like NGC) that represents the business interests of the Aboriginal community is gaining momentum,” says Clint Davis, Chair of the Board of Directors for NGC. “The purpose of the development corporation is to create prosperity, job and business opportunities for the community and their members.” According to the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business, there are over 250 of these types of corporations operating across Canada, with an average of 10 new ones being created each year. He believes an increasing number of Aboriginal communities are viewing business activity as a viable way to improve the lives of their citizens. Davis, himself a Nunatsiavut beneficiary, says this for-profit corporate structure involving a non-political Board of Directors is effective because it truly separates business from politics, all the while directly benefiting the communities the forprofit business is created to serve. Davis believes Aboriginal people are strategically positioned to become major players in the Canadian economy. But to get there, Aboriginal leaders need to develop solid strategies to attract business investment to their communities. In his January 4, 2012, Financial Post column, Davis identified five specific areas Aboriginal leaders can focus on to improve their communities: leadership and the political will to make economic development a priority; leverage by identifying items that give their community a competitive advantage over other communities; partnerships and identifying companies and industries the community would do well to invest in and partner with; establishing rules of engagement that gives companies a clear outline of the rules for doing business in the community; and, that leaders need to be the number one salesperson for their communities.

Investing in Aboriginal youth According to Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Aboriginal youth between the ages of 15 and 30 are the fastest growing population segment in Canada. So it only makes sense that Aboriginal leaders should be investing in their youth by encouraging education and creating opportunities to capitalize on this available labour pool.

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In one of his other Financial Post columns, Davis sounded a warning and wrote that “unless something is done now, Canada will have lost a generation of First Nation youth who are unskilled and understandably frustrated.” “Aboriginal leaders need to find a way to improve the high school completion rate for Aboriginal youth,” explains Davis. “But don’t stop there. Strongly encourage and create incentives for Aboriginal youth to get a post-secondary education.”

In 2008, Davis accepted a position as the president and CEO of the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business, a non-profit organization with a $2 million budget that connects Aboriginal business with corporate Canada. Four years later, he accepted a position as the vice president of Aboriginal Affairs with TD Bank, where he continues to work today along with his responsibilities at NGC. Davis says he became very interested in Aboriginal affairs during law school where he helped organize a number of events that celebrated Aboriginal culture and tradition. But it was his attachment and interest in his own heritage that steered Davis in a different direction professionally. “I left the practice of law to join the federal government because the Inuit of Labrador were very involved in land claim negotiations at the time and I wanted to learn more,” says Davis. “Once I entered the public service, I really enjoyed my work so I simply stayed with Aboriginals affairs. But my focus on Aboriginal issues has evolved from law to public policy, and for the last 10 years, in business.”

Clint Davis

From humble beginnings Born to teenage parents in Goose Bay, Labrador, Davis was raised by his grandparents. His grandfather spent time working as a hunter, fisherman and trapper before getting a job with the military at Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay. Davis never felt any real disadvantage growing up, noting that Goose Bay was a typical, small, remote northern Canadian community. Davis placed significant importance on education advice, earning a Bachelors of Business Administration from Acadia University, a Bachelors of Law from Dalhousie University, and a Masters of Public Administration from Harvard University. He is a CanadaU.S. Fulbright scholar and the recipient of multiple scholarships including two awards from the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation, as well as the Fred C. Manning Entrance Scholarship at Acadia University. Professionally, Davis went on to gain considerable experience in Aboriginal affairs. He worked as a lawyer before moving on to public service with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Canada. There, he served as an analyst in land claim negotiations in British Columbia and later as a senior advisor to the Minister in Ottawa. He later worked as a senior analyst with the federal Treasury Board Secretariat before joining BMO Financial Group, where he was appointed the national director for Aboriginal banking in July 2005.

Married with two children, Davis managed to find the time to contribute to a number of other Aboriginal initiatives. He was a member of the Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Economic Development for the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs, Government of Ontario; he currently sits on the Advisory Board for The Belinda Stronach Foundation for their One Laptop Per Child Initiative for Aboriginal communities; and is on the Advisory for the Aboriginal Professional Association of Canada. Not bad for a little boy with humble beginnings from Goose Bay. Despite his many accomplishments, Davis is quick to deflect the attention from himself when asked to talk about the one he is most proud of. “Honestly, my biggest accomplishment has been hiring James Thorbourne and the senior staff at NGC,” says Davis. “In a few short years, we have changed our brand, tripled our gross revenue, and are now considered a major business player in Labrador.” Davis has no doubt that Nunatsiavut and NGC will only become stronger in the future. “Nunatsiavut has done a tremendous job in providing education support for many Inuit youth and so we have an incredible body of talent both in Labrador and across the country,” he says. “We are producing great leaders and so it is conceivable that, over the long term, we will have prosperous, sustainable and culturally vibrant communities throughout the region. It is imperative for the Nunatsiavut government to tap into this growing talent in the short term. . NGC can be a $100 million company in the next 10 years. We have the professionalism, business acumen, and resilience to make it happen.”

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The development of Canada’s northern resources is described by Prime Minister Stephen Harper as the “great national dream”; however, this dream is complicated by unsettled claims regarding Aboriginal rights and title; and most recently by the challenge to the free entry system of staking of mineral rights on unsurrendered aboriginal lands. Photo: Selene Nguyet

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I

n Canada and around the world, the practice of community engagement and negotiating of agreements between resource companies and Indigenous people has been on the rise. In many cases this has brought new opportunities and a renewed hope for greater independence and selfdetermination among aboriginal communities. In Canada, community engagement with aboriginal communities is further complicated by something referred to as “Indian Specific Land Claims” – which embody Canada’s failure to address and resolve the claims of aboriginal rights and title of Canada’s first peoples1. The latest reason for resource companies to engage aboriginal communities early is a Dec. 27, 2012 court ruling by the Yukon Court of Appeal. The decision directs the Yukon government to consult with first nations before allowing mineral exploration activities that might affect Aboriginal title or rights. “The honour of the Crown demands that it take into account Aboriginal claims before divesting itself of control over land - What is required is that consultations be meaningful, and that the system allow for accommodation to take place, where required, before claimed Aboriginal title or rights are adversely affected.” Ross River Dena Council v. Government of Yukon (2012 YCA).

THE HONOUR OF THE CROWN?

The relationship between the aboriginal people of Canada and the Crown stretches back to first contact in 1497, when the British expedition of the Italian navigator Giovanni Cabota, first reached Newfoundland. Following the British conquest of New France the relationship was formalized by King George III in the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The Royal Proclamation is regarded by Canada’s aboriginal people as their Magna Carta, protecting their rights, recognizing them as nations, and also stipulating that only the Crown could acquire their lands, and only through a treaty. Today the Royal Proclamation of 1763 lives on in Subsection 35 (1) of the Constitution Act, 1982 which provides that “the existing Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.” “Put simply, Canada’s Aboriginal peoples were here when Europeans came, and were never conquered. Many bands reconciled their claims with the sovereignty of the Crown through negotiated treaties. Others, notably in British Columbia, have yet to do so. The potential rights embedded in these claims are protected by c. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. The honour of the Crown requires that these rights be determined, recognised and respected.”

The Duty to Consult and the Free Entry System

The duty to consult exists to ensure that the Crown does not ignore Aboriginal claims. The Crown’s duty to consult is triggered when a Crown action or decision has the potential to adversely affect Aboriginal and treaty rights. The Crown cannot delegate its responsibility to consult; and although the crown may delegate certain procedural aspects of consultation to industry; the ultimate responsibility rests with the Crown.2 Aboriginal peoples also have a reciprocal duty to negotiate in good faith during the consultation process.3 While there is no duty to agree upon a settlement there is a duty to engage in a meaningful process of consultation; as well as, a responsibility to use established regulatory procedures to address their concerns about development projects. 4 Some provinces and territories have a “free entry” system for mineral exploration. The system is designed to encourage prospecting and sustain a viable mining industry. In a December 27, 2012 court ruling the Yukon Court of Appeal Justice J.A. Groberman held that the duty to consult is triggered by the mere recording of a mineral claim which has the potential to impact aboriginal title, given that such title includes mineral rights; and “where Class 1 exploration activities will have serious or long-lasting adverse effects...[t]he affected First Nation must be provided notice...and, where appropriate, an opportunity to consult prior to the activity to take place.” 5 This ruling is predicted to have far reaching consequences not only in the Yukon, but particularly in BC where most of the province remains unceded aboriginal territory; and underscores the importance of developing effective partnerships with aboriginal peoples.

Partners of Choice: Sectoral Agreements

The recent publication by Natural Resources Canada (2012) entitled “Agreements between Mining Companies and Aboriginal Communities or Governments” lists 175 various types of sectoral agreements. In the Northwest Territory, for the nontreaty First Nations such as the Akaitcho Dene First Nations one of the very first agreements came in 2009; in the form of an Exploration Agreement with ATW Resources Ltd.

1. Chief Justice Sinclair (2007) Canadian Aboriginal Mining Association (CAMA) Conference, Vancouver, B.C. 2. Haida, supra note 5 at Para53. 3. R. Vs. Douglas, 2008 BCSC 1098 at para. 51 [Douglas]; and see Haida, supra note 5 at para. 42. 4. Brokenhead, supra note 119 at para. 42. 5. Adkins S. and T. Issac (2012). Aboriginal Law Update: Ross River Dene Council v. Government of Yukon (YKCA)

Haida Nation v. British Columbia (Ministry of Forests), (2004 SCC).

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“By using this model in the Chief Drygeese Territory, we have an agreement that gives certainty to the First Nation and ATW. The company can conduct its exploration activities, but we know our values and objectives are going to be respected – With this agreement with those that follow we are creating a new relationship between industry and the First Nation – no longer will consultation be an unknown process. It will have defined responsibilities for both sides, allowing the company to undertake their work while at the same time protecting the values that we hold dear.” Chief Edward Sangris, Yellowknife Dene First Nation (YKDFN) (Dettah) 6

ATW Resources Ltd. hosts a community lunch gathering with Lutsel K’e Dene First Nation a community in the North Slave region of the Northwest Territories. Initial consultations led to the very first modern mineral exploration land use agreement with the Yellowknife Dene First Nation and for the Akaitcho Territory Government. Photo: Marke Wong

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In 2011 members the Dehcho First Nation, signed Impact Benefit Agreements (IBAs) with Canadian Zinc for the Prairie Creek Mine. In the Yukon, one of the first agreements for mineral exploration on settlement land of the self-governing Teslin Tlingit Council (TTC) was with Tarsis Resources Ltd., a sister company of ATW Resources Ltd. Early demonstrations of respect helped Tarsis gain the formal consent of the TTC through a land use permit; and helped manage community expectations. “We understood this was a relatively small early stage project. Tarsis still took the time to demonstrate respect, recognize our interests and accommodate our values. They worked with our people to help build our capacity and in doing so they became our partner of choice.” Peter Johnston, Chief Teslin Tlingit Council 7

Tarsis employed several local TTC members on the project and helped one successful First Nation’s company get its start; and the Tescon Development Corporation continues to work in the mining sector across the Yukon today. “Ralph has never let me down - he’s one of our most reliable contractors” - said Marc Blythe, President and CEO, of Tarsis Resources Ltd. 6. http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/ATW-Resources-Ltd-First-Nation-FormallySupports-Mineral-Exploration-Project-1001676.htm 7. Peter Johnston, Chief (2008-12), Deputy Chief (2005-09) Teslin Tlingit Council


Ralph Smarch of Tescon Development Corporation worked with Tarsis on their first project on Teslin Tlingit Council Category B Settlement lands. He continues to work in the mineral exploration and mining sector today on projects across the Yukon. Photo: Tescon Development Corp (867.332.4017)

The positive experience with Tarsis helped the TTC shape their own mineral exploration and mining policy; and it built trust between the two parties that resulted in closer collaboration on related interests; including sharing technical expertise to help TTC’s resource development caucus on planning issues; as well as, supporting the TTC Lands & Heritage Department. Richard Mueller, Teslin Tlingit Council Environment Officer (standing) and Selene Nguyet of Tarsis Resources (in foreground) get a briefing from Yukon Water Resources Inspector Colin Remillard regarding a tailings discharge from a mine site within the traditional territory of the Teslin Tlingit Council. Photo: Marke Wong

Chief Peter Johnston of the self-governing Teslin Tlingit Council (left) shares a moment with former Prime Minister Jean Chretien during the 2010 Association for Mineral Exploration Roundup conference held annually in Vancouver. Photo: Brian Dennehy/AME BC

The Minto Mine, owned by Capstone Mining Corp. is unique as it is located on Category A Settlement Land of the self-governing Selkirk First Nation (SFN). The SFN negotiated their own surface lease agreement (SLA) with Capstone Mining Corp.; and one hundred per cent of the royalties are transferred to the Selkirk First Nation.8 8. http://www.gov.yk.ca/news/12-185.html

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Since 2008, the Minto Mine is reported to have paid $12.6 million in royalties.9 Some of the benefits include an early childhood development centre and a new water-treatment plant in Pelly Crossing; in addition the company paid a one-time dividend of $15,000 to some 600 citizens10 Tarsis Resources meets with Chief Darin Isaac (top right) and Council of the Selkirk First Nation at a community meeting for industry in the town of Pelly Crossing. Selene Nguyet, community engagement specialist (far left) and Marc Blythe, President & CEO (second from left).

One of the important factors for communities is the ability to participate in economic opportunities through employment and contracting. Preparation for this can begin in the early stages of mineral exploration; and skills training programs for environmental officers, camp managers, exploration assistants, drilling assistants and core technicians are available at various institutions across the country. Some training programs such as Northwest Community College School of Exploration and Mining12, BCIT Aboriginal Mineral Training Program13 and the BC Aboriginal Mine Training Association14, the Yukon Mine Training Association15, Aurora College16 and Nunavut Arctic College17 have programs that are specifically geared towards aboriginal job readiness training. Marke Wong, Director of Environment and Community Affairs for Tarsis Resources Ltd., volunteers his time to teach a unit on environmental assessment to a class of aboriginal students at the Northwest Community College School of Exploration and Mining, based in Smithers, BC.

Photo: Marke Wong

Other examples in the Yukon include Ross River Dene who have an MOU with Ketza River Holdings; and in 2010 The Na-Cho Nayak Dun government and Victoria Gold came to agreement on an impact benefit agreement on the Eagle Gold Mine. Mine construction is planned for April 2013. “...they are our partners, essentially...When I go into meetings with the Environmental Review Board, sometimes the Chief comes with me just to show the support of the First Nation, and I think that’s pretty unique.” John McConnell, President & CEO, Victoria Gold

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More recently, in 2012 the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in government signed a socio-economic agreement with Golden Predator regarding the Brewery Creek Mine; and Kluane First Nation signed a cooperation agreement with Prophecy Platinum. In BC a sister company of Tarsis Resources worked on early stage agreements with the Nicoamen and Westbank First Nations; and provided training and capacity building opportunities with the Upper Nicola and Upper Similkameen Indian Bands. Casey Holmes (left) a natural resource technician from the Upper Nicola Indian Band gets some hands on hydrological monitoring training from Gary Van Emmerick a hydrological technician on a near term gold project in BC. Photo: Selene Nguyet

On January 29, 2013 the Ktunaxa Nation became the most recent First Nation in BC to sign a revenue sharing agreement with the Crown, in this case regarding mineral tax royalties from the coal resources of the Elk Valley. The three previous agreements include those signed by the McLeod Lake Indian Band (August 25, 2010) and the Nak’azdli First Nation (June 12, 2012) regarding the Mt. Milligan Mine; and the Stk’emlúpsemc of the Secwewpemc Nation (August 24, 2010) regarding the New Afton Gold Mine, near Kamloops, BC. The Stk’emlúpsemc will receive about one-third of the royalties, estimated at approximately $30 million over the life of the project.

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Photo: Selene Nguyet

Eldridge Johnny a White River First Nation member working as a core technician on the Tarsis Resources’ White River Project, located in southern Yukon. Photo: Jay Timmerman

In order for Aboriginal communities to be able to develop effective partnerships and mutually beneficial agreements appropriate to each project stage, it is helpful to understand the differences between mineral exploration and actual mining operations. Each activity has very different potential environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits.

THE CHALLENGE OF MINERAL EXPLORATION

“The North’s time has come” said Prime Minister Stephen Harper in his summer tour of the North; and he described the development of Canada’s northern resources as the “great national dream”. In his August 21, 2012 speech Mr. Harper also mentioned the importance of early stage mineral exploration efforts; and singled out Tarsis Resources Ltd. as an example of companies that are making good use of the government geoscience and mapping information; and are continuing to raise capital and make new discoveries in the Yukon despite a global economic recession.18 9. Mining royalties are a share of profits from a mine paid to the owner of the mineral rights for permitting and extraction of mineral resources. Royalties are paid every year in which the operating mine returns a profit. 10. http://yukon-news.com/opinions/columns/30027/ 11. http://business.financialpost.com/2012/09/16/the-eagle-is-close-to-takeoff-interview-with victoria-gold-ceo-john-mcconnell/ 12. http://sem.nwcc.bc.ca/ 13. http://commons.bcit.ca/mining/minex/amte/ 14. http://www.bcamta.ca/ 15. http://www.yukonminetraining.com 16. http://www.auroracollege.nt.ca 17. http://www.arcticcollege.ca/ 18. http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media_gallery.asp?featureId=11&pageId=65&media_category_typ_ id=1&media_category_id=20&media_id=10842


The Prospect Generator

Vancouver based Tarsis Resources Ltd. is a ‘prospect generator’, an early stage explorer of mineral potential. The company focuses on low cost grassroots mineral exploration projects such as reconnaissance and detailed surface studies in areas that have had little or no previous exploration or mining activities. The risks are greater when exploring in new areas; however, the upside is the possibility of finding something that may be large with huge potential. One of the key challenges facing prospect generators is the management of community expectations.

contain an economic deposit; they are anomalies. Exploration companies such as prospect generators are in the business of testing these geological anomalies to determine if they may be economic. To understand how a mineral exploration project develops into a mining project, it helps to understand the project life cycle.

The Project Life Cycle

Figure 1 shows the project life cycle divided into the exploration phase and the mining phase. Knowing the stage and scale of the project is important for understanding what kinds of agreements might be most appropriate at each successive project stage.

“It’s very important to be upfront with the communities about the project stage and what the company is able to accomplish within the scale of the project, both time wise and financially. Most exploration companies are not miners and do not generate revenues. Early stage mineral exploration is an investment in the land - the research and development to identify new mineral discoveries, which provides the materials and wealth for future generations.” Marc Blythe, President & CEO, Tarsis Resources Ltd.

A mineral discovery does not mean a mine is going to be developed. In fact, it probably won’t be a mine because statistically, the odds are thousands to one that a project will move from mineral exploration to actual mine development. Geologic success can only come about if a company is exploring in the right geologic terrain; one that is capable of hosting a major deposit. It is estimated that approximately 90% of mineralized systems do not

Figure 1: The Project Life Cycle and the Types of Agreements (modified from Gibson and O’Faircheallaigh, 2010).19 19. http://www.ibacommunitytoolkit.ca/

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The project life cycle begins with initial exploration which may include 1 to 5 years of prospecting, staking, target generation and exploratory drilling. This may be conducted with relatively small crews operating from fly-in or small onsite camps, with no road building and no heavy equipment. If things go well the project may move to an advanced exploration stage with a focus on deposit delineation; this may involve 2 to 5 years of definition drilling before a preliminary economic assessment (PEA) can be made. A PEA is required to understand what the mineral deposit might actually be worth. This requires an assessment of the probable mining method, processing, and capital costs plus, metallurgical recovery and local infrastructure. Tax rates, royalties, permitting, social and political issues; all have to be factored in as well. If an economic assessment of the resource is positive then the project may move to the project design stage; this may involve 3 to 8 years of engineering prefeasibility, feasibility and environmental social impact assessment (ESIA) studies. Only once an engineered feasibility study and ESIA are approved, can a mining permit be issued and the project move from the exploration phase to the mine development phase. Mine development begins with construction; opportunities for training, capacity building, employment and contracts begin to increase in scale and this is an important time for communities to build skills and experience in anticipation of work and contracts during mine operations which may last as long as 50 or 60 years. During the closure and reclamation stage the project begins to scale down and ideally aboriginal partners will be the top candidates for closure and reclamation contracts. Figure 2 shows the life cycle of a mineral exploration company and the risk associated with early stage venture capital speculation of mineral exploration vs. institutional investment of mining during production stages.

and streamline the permitting process; however, already the public opposition to the proposed ‘Northern Gateway’ oil pipeline and the rise of the ‘Idle No More‘ movement against Bill C-45; has captured the attention of the Canadian public and the international community.21 Achieving a northern economic dream will face serious challenges to ensure aboriginal rights and titles are not adversely affected. Many industry proponents and aboriginal communities believe before this dream can be achieved, governments will have to ‘wake up’ to the reality of settling land rights and title issues with the original people of Canada. Natural resource companies are well advised to consult with First Nations early in the process and to actively look for ways to accommodate community interests and values into the project work plan at the outset. Aboriginal peoples also have a reciprocal duty to negotiate in good faith during the consultation process.22 While there is no duty to agree upon a settlement there is a duty to engage in a meaningful process of consultation; as well as, a responsibility to use established regulatory procedures to address their concerns about projects.23 Some communities may have unreasonable expectations of what kinds of benefits can be realized during an early stage project; or may not yet have the training or capacity for specific jobs or contracts. This can result in lost opportunities for the community and the company. Aboriginal communities who understand the project life cycle and are ready to build effective partnerships with companies during the early stage will be better able to develop opportunities throughout the mineral exploration stage; and if a mineral prospect eventually proves to be economic; then the community will be better prepared for providing input during the mine feasibility and permitting stage; as well as, negotiating impact benefit agreements for implementation during mine construction and operation. Working in effective partnerships for responsible resource development with industry can enhance capacity and help generate economic wealth for aboriginal communities. Here is a legitimate dream for the ‘true north’ and one that would help keep the land strong and free, for all Canadians. www.tarsis.ca 20. http://www.fmdynamics.com/2010/09/gold-miners-explorers-face-serious.html 21. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/story/2013/01/13/edmonton-idle-no-morewest-ed.html 22. R. Vs. Douglas, 2008 BCSC 1098 at para. 51 [Douglas]; and see Haida, supra note 5 at para. 42. 23. Brokenhead, supra note 119 at para. 42.

Figure 2: Project Life Cycle (modified after Cook, 2010).20

One of the key differences between mineral exploration companies like Tarsis Resources Ltd. and actual mining companies is that, exploration companies have no actual revenues. Operating mines generate actual revenues from mine production and have the potential to generate new wealth not only for institutional investors but also for communities.

A DREAM FOR THE TRUE NORTH

Natural resources development in the north has become a renewed focus to meet global demand, particularly in the Asia Pacific region. Governments are preparing strategies to eliminate regulatory duplication HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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C

harlie Evalik understands deeply the importance of land to Inuit. “When you get down to it, the land is our greatest asset. It is our birthright, our legacy from the ancestors who struggled so hard to occupy it and pass it on to us. And the mineral wealth in these lands is fundamental to our economic future.” Charlie, who grew up and still lives in Cambridge Bay, has been on the forefront of Inuit land and resource development since the 1970s. He was a Director of PanArctic Oils Ltd., which was a dominant early explorer for oil and gas in Canadian Arctic, but he is perhaps best known for his important contribution to the settlement of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement and the creation of the new territory of Nunavut. He is also President of the Kitikmeot Inuit Association (KIA), a position he has been elected to four times. Over the years, his close collaboration with communities, Inuit organizations, industry and government on a broad range of projects and initiatives has given him a deep understanding of the interests and perspectives of all stakeholders. This is serving him well as he pushes forward with his latest efforts in resource development. Sparked by a long-term global commodity boom, we’re witnessing the dawn of an exploration and development push into Canada’s north. Rich deposits of iron ore, copper, zinc, gold, silver, uranium, diamonds and other vital commodities that are the foundation of modern society, are being sought across the north. The process from discovery to mining can take decades. Today, a number of large mining projects in Nunavut – including the Mary River iron ore project on Baffin Island, the Meadowbank gold mine northwest of Baker Lake, and the Izok Lake zinc-copper project southeast of Kugluktuk – are moving forward through the review or production stages, and there are a number of other projects with tremendous development potential. Inuit are significant beneficiaries from this resource development. “The jobs, service contracts, royalties and other fees, are all important benefits of mining,” notes Charlie. “But there’s something more. One of the greatest benefits comes from having an ownership interest in resource and infrastructure projects occurring on our lands, and their subsequent development or sale.” Charlie learned this valuable lesson in October, 2007, when Newmont Mining announced it had acquired Miramar and its Hope Bay gold project, which is located 150 km south of Cambridge Bay, for $1.5 billion. This represented a 30% premium over its stock value at the time. While he didn’t resent the fact that investors made a lot of money on that transaction, he was disappointed that this windfall bypassed the people of the Kitikmeot Region. “It was a wake-up call. Hope Bay made me realize we needed to change our approach. In order to realize our dream of greater economic autonomy and prosperity, Inuit need to participate more fully in the upside of mineral exploration and development, not just mineral production.” HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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Under Charlie’s leadership, KIA founded Nunavut Resources Corporation (NRC) in 2010, with the intent of capitalizing on this opportunity. It was established to help diversify and develop the economy of Nunavut by attracting resource investment capital to the region. Their strategy focuses on two critical components of the non-renewable resource economy related to the development phase of mining: the NRC-X subsidiary focuses on mineral exploration, and NRC-I focuses on infrastructure development. Because NRC had no mineral exploration expertise, they signed a strategic alliance in 2012 with HTX Minerals Corp., based in Sudbury, Ontario. HTX, led by a team of experts with a 20-year track record of discovery success, specializes in the discovery of new mineral deposits using a project generator business model. Its principals were awarded the prestigious Prospectors of the Year Award in 2004 for their discovery of the Nickel Rim South deposit, while with Falconbridge Limited. The team uses custom-built digital compilations, advanced 3D geoscience modeling and interpretive techniques, and fieldwork to systematically identify economically attractive targets, including some that would otherwise go undetected. The strategic alliance with HTX could result in millions of dollars being spent in Nunavut for a wide range of exploration, development and related services, including staking, prospecting, surveying, mapping, drilling, travel and accommodation. It will accelerate the discovery of economic ore deposits that will lead to much greater investments in infrastructure, including roads, ports, power plants and other facilities required to support mining activities. Further, through the alliance, Inuit will gain practical knowledge of, and hands-on experience in, the critical early stage of the mineral exploration process leading to discovery. This is all part of his vision, as Charlie explains. “This knowledge can then be applied more broadly, and on an on-going basis to help perpetuate the discovery process and further ensure the people of Nunavut realize the maximum potential benefits of mineral exploration and mining in the Kitikmeot Region.”

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Recognizing the importance of demonstrating Inuit commitment to this initiative, KIA has invested $1 million in seed capital to the alliance with HTX. With a goal of raising $18 million to fund an initial five-year exploration program, Charlie and the team at NRC have been pitching prospective investors in Toronto, New York and London, with the close support of HTX. “We’ve had a positive response from a number of prospective investors that are impressed by our unique approach. They like the low geopolitical risk associated with Nunavut, the high potential for discovery, and the fact that we’re bringing together the land owners with the geological experts.” Over time, Charlie would like to explore the potential for allowing individuals and other Inuit organizations to become investors in NRC too. Although exploration is focused initially on the Article 41 Land parcel, which is wholly owned by the KIA and is located in the Northwest Territories, the primary focus of NRC-X and HTX Minerals will be on highly prospective Inuit Owned Land (IOL) in the Kitikmeot Region. Inuit obtained the surface and subsurface mineral rights to over 11,000 km2 of IOL across the Kitikmeot Region alone, as part of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement that Charlie helped negotiate in the 1990s. These IOLs were chosen for cultural reasons and in large part because of their favourable geology and mineral occurrences. “We’re now prioritizing the parcels of IOL we’ll focus on, in light of their geology and mineral occurrences, and proximity to the coast or road infrastructure planned for the region,” explains Scott McLean, president of HTX. “Our focus is on the discovery stage, which is when the greatest appreciation of market value can occur in a project or property, on a percentage basis.” Because significant capital is required to advance a discovery to a development or production stage, strategic alliance partners NRC-X and HTX plan to form joint venture partnerships with


one or more mining companies in exchange for a royalty, equity and property interest. In some cases, a project may be spun off into a new entity that’s listed on the stock exchange. Over time, NRC-X hopes this approach will make them part owners of multiple discoveries.Infrastructure is the other half of Charlie’s vision for resource development in the Kitikmeot Region. NRC-I’s mandate is to participate in the development of essential mine-related infrastructure, including roads, ports and telecommunications, on behalf of Inuit, for the benefit of Inuit. In southern Canada, the model for building and developing essential infrastructure rests with governments, either through direct procurement by the relevant departments or ministries, or more recently, through public-private partnerships, or “P3s” as they are known. In either case the relevant government is ultimately responsible for covering the cost of the infrastructure, either during construction leading up to its completion or, in the case of a P3, over the course of a long period under the terms of a contract.

“We will also have facilitated the development of a producing mine with all its employment, training and contract opportunities for Inuit,” adds Charlie. “And we will have developed essential infrastructure that can continue to be available for use by other prospective mining projects, and by the residents of Nunavut.” Looking out across the land near his family home, Charlie sees a bright future. With his clear vision and steady stewardship of NRC, Inuit of Nunavut can now become future owners and operators of resource and related infrastructure developments. “This will ensure the things that Inuit value, namely our culture and our land, will not be overlooked, but instead will be at the forefront when resource developments are being planned and implemented.” www.htxminerals.com

There are significant challenges for governments in the north to finance infrastructure. As Charlie points out, “We are generally not blessed with tax bases large enough for governments, other than the federal government, to cover the extensive cost of infrastructure that is desperately needed to promote regional economic development.” NRC-I has set out a model for infrastructure development that it believes can work in the north. Their approach depends on the willingness of major mining companies to give up a measure of control over the infrastructure they need for their mine to be developed in exchange for a reduced requirement of them for upfront capital investment. NRC-I intends to raise the necessary financing and the mines will pay NRC-I for their use of the infrastructure. Charlie is understandably bullish on the value of this approach. “Our analysis shows that this approach can improve a mine’s feasibility by enhancing returns to the mine’s owners as much as 6%, per year.” NRC-I’s biggest challenge is to acquire the funding necessary to cover its investment in the ownership of the assets. To lead that effort, Charlie brought Scott Northey onboard. Scott previously led the infrastructure and project finance business at TD Securities in Toronto. He believes that “if we are successful, NRC will be able to generate a healthy return on investment, which can provide substantial dividends to KIA that can be employed for the benefit of Inuit.”

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By: Joyce Lahure

VISION...What does that mean to you? What does that mean to me? In context it means being able to see something that is not there but it leads you forward, it moves you forward. Vision is the ability to see what is in front of you. My dictionary defines it as “sight, insight, dream” I will stop there because I like that definition, it says it all. 2012 was a year of changes...for me personally, for my business and for my family. My son got married in Hawaii...married his childhood sweetheart...what more could a Mama want? It was a beautiful celebration, a joyous union of two people who love each other and more importantly, are dedicated to taking care of each other and making each other happy. They did a splendid job of planning their wedding, taking care of their guests and paying the tab. This last bit is said, tongue-in-cheek...we are really very proud of our son and his wife for a job well done. BLCS also suffered a fire that devastated our office space, our store Almart and our small engine and heavy equipment garages. July 17, 2012 is a day I will not forget; however, I greatly admire my husband and partner and our staff for rallying around the next day. The fire happened on a Tuesday and BLCS staff were still able to get payroll completed by Friday and our new temporary/semi-permanent office space within days. They did not stop and it was business as usual within a few weeks. I am also very thankful and appreciative to the people of Baker Lake for all their support and understanding, as well as their concern and prayers...it has not been easy to keep going as a great deal of our inventory burnt as well. These two events are what stand out the most for me this past year and here we are, we just celebrated another new year, 2013.

I see great things for this year, even though the last year was difficult in a lot of ways, within my family and my business. I do not focus on the negative, my goal is to focus on what is ahead and how I can be instrumental in making it good, better and best. Whatever comes first. I was told recently that I “preach without a ticket” and I think the person meant that I am not ordained or qualified to preach but I took it to mean that some of the things I post online or some of the things I say are perceived as “preaching”. Though that is not my intention I am pleased that what I believe and what I write and what I say are taken seriously like preaching and teaching are. I realize that the written word has a lot of power and influence and the spoken word can be equally effective so I am careful in what I share, either by writing or by speech. But there are exceptions to the rule and there are times we have to speak up and be heard. Like Idle No More...this, I understand, was motivated by the Harper government and Bill C-45, and the changes that are being brought forth. This movement was started by young people who are very concerned with what these changes will mean to our land, and to our environment. These young people want to have a voice, they want to be heard. Since this happened, a lot of people, different organizations and other folk from other countries have “got on the band-wagon” so to speak, pun intended. Though I do not agree with all the tactics involved and with what some people with their “own agenda” are doing, I believe this movement has to happen. We, in our small community, we keep saying our young people need something to do, that they need something to “motivate them”. Well, this may be the ticket, since what is happening at the Federal level is going to affect future generations for years to come or maybe even decades. I suggest that people find out more about Bill C-45 and how that will affect First Nations, Inuit and the rest of Canada before they make commitments to do anything. Being well informed is the first step. HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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lives and their children’s lives. With no vision we only focused on what was going on around us. And taking care of business for the day, getting through the day. My parents never talked about their experiences or their parents or their experiences. This lack of knowledge was like a sedative, numbing and quieting any kind of response or thought about tomorrow or beyond. As little children, my siblings and my friends and I never questioned the way things were being done. We were only concerned, as all children are everywhere, that there was food when we were hungry, clothes to wear and shelter from the storm.

From left to right: Daisy’s mother Jean, Daisy, Christopher, Joyce, and Al.

Baker Lake has its own challenges, and I am not just talking about the weather, -60 with the wind chill! But we have the usual alcohol and drug problems, pushers and bootleggers to boot and the usual lack of housing and the social ills that come along with it. We have just had Hamlet elections and though we have a few more women on council and some younger people, this is just the beginning of things to come. I do not expect a whole lot to change politically or even municipally because change happens gradually. I applaud these women. Especially the younger ones for their efforts and their aspirations but it is going to take a lot of work. It is going to take a lot of co-operation and a lot of communication to make the positive changes this community needs. My one word of advice to the new Mayor and his administration is forget what is behind and move forward, strive forward. When I was on council, we did an awful lot of writing and sending letters, cc’ing people and government departments to no avail. So I believe we have to start at the grassroots level in order to start addressing the needs in the community itself. When I think about VISION I think about Proverbs 29:18... “Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he”, that is found in the King James Bible. My Bible version puts it like this: “Where there is no revelation, the people cast off restraint; but the righteous will see their downfall.” The proverbs of King Soloman are filled with wisdom. For instance, the 17th verse of the same proverb reads, “Discipline your son, and he will give you peace; he will bring delight to your soul. “The 19th verse continues in the same vein, “A servant cannot be corrected by mere words; though he understands, he will not respond.” What this tells me is that we need vision, we need forward thinking, we need to look at the whole picture to see what needs to be done. We also need to abide by the law of the land. The law is there for a reason, being a law-abiding community ensures peace and happiness. Words like discipline and peace are related and when we administer discipline with our children, for instance, the result is peace in our lives. The same goes with practicing discipline in our own lives, we harvest peace and delight. What is happening in this great land of ours is exactly the result of what we have cast off...restraint, responsibility, independence. For too long, we were idle on the reserves and in our small communities, letting others make the decisions that affected our lives, our children’s

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The insidiousness of the reserve life, the lack of proper food and nutrition, the cramped living space, this was something that never occurred to us children as not being normal or not healthy, or not good. It was what we were used to. It was what it was. The apathy that was felt on the reserve started to be accepted, expected, even encouraged, especially when one talked about leaving. “At least we are together” was the collective thought. At least that was what was important to me and my little brothers and older siblings. This life on the reserve continued for me until I was ten. Then the worst happened! My parents split up and we were sent to boarding school... all of us between 5 years and 16 years old. The two younger boys, 2 and 4 were farmed out to foster homes, where sadly both suffered abuse. To this day we do not know the extent of this abuse, they have never talked about it or they do not remember. I was in a residential school from 10 years to 16 years of age. I guess I was one of the children that had a good experience. Aside from missing my mom and dad excruciatingly and worrying myself sick over my four little brothers, I managed to get through the first few weeks. I never blamed the system or the government or anyone else for the troubles in my family or in my life. My parents were incompatible and did not want to be together anymore and neither one of them had the resources, the patience or the wherewithal to look after eight hungry mouths. And let me make it clear, I am not speaking for my siblings and what happened to them or anyone else and their experiences because I understand there was abuse and hardship at some residential schools that has finally been investigated and uncovered. What happened with my family was not new...there were a lot of break-ups, suffering of relationships and couples starting over. And it seemed there were always kids left behind. That was not how it was with our grandparents and their parents, not to my knowledge. I know my grandmother on my mom’s side was Grandpa’s second wife, The offices of BLCS


but that was because his first wife died. Family and community were always very important to the First Nations, but by the time I came along, we had nothing. I would say we were the poorest family on the reserve but I think there was a lot more people in the same condition. Again, most of us thought nothing of it, that was just how life was. There is a lot of unrest happening right now with the First Nations people, they are starting to wake up to the way things should be. I just talked to a friend from home and she told me that her daughter just had a baby and the daughter confided in a nurse about problems she and her partner were having. And now, all of a sudden Social Services are “threatening” to take the baby. On what planet does this happen to a young mother because she is having relationship problems with her boyfriend. Instead of trying to help the young couple, their first response is to take the baby from Mom. I would say it might be an over-reaction to what happened to baby Phoenix or is this how First Nations are treated anyway? In fact, my friend with the daughter has given me permission to use her comments on facebook: She writes: “So today was quite the Day! Oh my gosh I can’t believe what happened. Its quite a story but basically long story short, I’ve been waiting all week to confront Social Services. It dampened a bit of the joy of my new Grandson into the world. They showed up at the hospital threatening to apprehend little Cashis. My daughter was by herself and they had just apprehended one child next to her bed. They came to her and told her if you don’t sign this paper we will apprehend your baby. Scared and afraid she signed they’re (sic) conditions. To me that is intimidation and harassment and I told the workers that. A lot was said and I told them, ‘my daughter’s not signing anything! You can see the baby is fine, my daughter is fine and so you can leave now!’ Wow, unbelievable, they got up and left! I told them this isn’t about my daughter as an individual, we as a family are trying to break the cycle and Social Services are just policing families. I can’t remember word for word but in bits ‘n pieces. I was angry and upset at how they treated my daughter and my grandson, just the whole system. Dictating to us how to be a family. We may not have won the war but today a battle was won! I had been praying last night and this morning about this. I had the courage and wisdom to know what to say to them. I had been in contact with MLA’s, lawyers, and the media. Families have been broken up as far back as I can remember. Children give purpose, meaning and change. My daughter has done a 180 degree change and I am so PROUD OF HER! I made it very clear that my daughter is not signing anything to bind her to any kind of contract, I have been through this and know what they are like!” I believe too much of this is happening and I also believe the family has to be given the opportunity to be more involved in problemsolving. Let Social Services take care of their already over-burdened system. What I am trying to say is they are too busy taking children from the parents and not spending enough time with the children that are already in the system. There does need to be more accountability when minor children are involved. As for First Nations, this is the time we start to take care of our own, our communities, our families, our children, just like my friend did for her daughter and new little grandson. It may be one family, one young woman and one child but I believe it’s a start. We all have to start somewhere. www.blcs.ca HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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very year close to a million people in the world die by suicide. Thousands more are injured from suicide attempts or have had serious thoughts of suicide. Rates can vary widely across communities, regions and countries. Canada’s northern people reflect this variation with Nunavut rates almost four times the Western NWT rates, and all rates are considerably higher than most age or gender equivalent rates in other parts of Canada. Suicide as any preventable death is a tragic loss whenever and wherever it happens. Working with others in developing suicide prevention solutions and creating suicide safer communities is the mission of LivingWorks Education. Recognizing there is no single solution, LivingWorks has developed a number of programs to help with the some of the many layers of suicide prevention. To talk or not talk about suicide openly and directly is a difficult challenge for any community. suicideTALK is a short 1.5 to 2 hour exploration in suicide awareness,

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organized around the question: “Should we talk about suicide?” It provides a structure for participants to safely explore strongly held personal and cultural attitudes about suicide. LivingWorks will soon be launching a new esuicideTALK that can be accessed individually or through a license agreement for use within organizations to begin discussion of the topic of suicide. It is aimed at all members in a community, ages 15 and up. esuicideTALK is designed to suit your schedule and lifestyle. You can take esuicideTALK on any computer with an Internet connection. Having a wide range of caregivers, natural and professional, ready, willing and able to intervene with someone at risk of suicide is an important community priority. Most people with serious suicide thoughts invite someone to see their distress and intent, but not always in open and direct ways. Suicide intervention training provides helpers with the confidence to respond to these invitations and the skills to ask about suicide when there is a concern about someone’s safety.


ASIST (Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training) is a two-day skill-building program that provides practical suicide first aid training for mixed groups of caregivers. Participants often include people concerned about family or friends, natural helpers and advisers, emergency service workers, counselors, teachers and ministers, mental health practitioners, workers in health, welfare or justice and community volunteers. ASIST uses many different teaching processes to balance safe and challenging experiences for learning the skills of suicide first aid. The emphasis is on helping a person at risk stay safe from suicide and seek further help as needed. ASIST workshop materials are now available in Inuktitut, French and Spanish.

With a broad base of suicide alert helpers in a community, more people with thoughts of suicide will get connected to the intervention help they want. LivingWorks programs are transferable to many cultures and communities with integrated adaptations. LivingWorks welcomes opportunities to partner with communities in creating suicide-safer places to live. For more information please contact us at: info@livingworks.net or call 1 888 733 5484. Visit our website at: www.livingworks.net.

Having a broad base and layered mix of trained caregivers in a community can be achieved. Complementing the ASIST program, safeTALK provides half day training designed to provide larger numbers of helpers with suicide alertness skills to increase the chances of more persons at risk being safely connected to existing ASIST or other trained caregivers. It is short, intensive, and capable of surfacing challenging emotions and increased hope. Participants become aware of how persons with thoughts of suicide are sometimes missed, dismissed and avoided. In only a few hours, participants learn how to be more alert to someone with thoughts of suicide and know how to link them to available resources.

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N

orthern Lights College (NLC) is ‘B.C.’s Energy College’, serving students in the northern third of British Columbia (an area covering more than 320,000 square kilometres) and beyond. NLC offers a wide variety of programming designed to meet the hiring and employment needs of residents, business and industry in northern British Columbia, as well as throughout the province. For information on NLC or any of its programs, check the website at nlc.bc.ca, call tollfree 1-866-463-6652 (1-866-INFONLC), or contact any campus.

Campuses

Health Sciences Building Dawson Creek Campus

NLC serves the communities and residents of northern British Columbia from five campus locations and three access centres. Campus locations include: Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, Fort Nelson, Fort St. John, and Tumbler Ridge. Access centres are located in Atlin, Dease Lake and Hudson’s Hope.

The Fort St. John Campus houses the Oil and Gas Centre of Excellence/Jim Kassen Industry Training Centre. The Industry Training Centre is the home to a number of trades and apprenticeship programs, as well as regular vocational and Workforce Training related to the oil and gas industry. The Fort St. John Campus also has a unique Simulated Well Site Training facility. The facility provides students with hands-on training on equipment they will use in the workforce and, starting in October 2012, includes a fullsized triple cantilever drilling rig for training.

Simulated Wellsite Training Facility Fort St. John Campus

Dawson Creek and Fort St. John are the largest campuses, and they both have a student residence, cafeteria, daycare, and bookstore. Chetwynd has a daycare facility on-site, and Fort Nelson has a cafeteria and bookstore. Videoconference facilities are available at each NLC campus.

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Aerospace Centre of Excellence Dawson Creek Campus

The Dawson Creek Campus is a Centre of Excellence in Clean Energy Technology, with a focal point in Energy House, which opened in September 2011. Dawson Creek Campus is also a Centre of Excellence in Aerospace, through its internationally-renowned Aircraft Maintenance Engineering program. The campus also features a new Health Sciences Building that was completed in 2010.

Clean Energy Technology Centre of Excellence Dawson Creek Campus

PROGRAMS NLC offers a variety of academic and vocational programming. At NLC, students have a number of options, depending on their chosen career paths. Students can earn a one-year certificate, a twoyear diploma or associate degree, or complete upgrading courses or bridging programs. Associate degrees can be used to transfer to the third year of degree programs at provincial universities. Students should check the transferability of courses when making their educational plans. The admissions process for most programs at NLC begins by contacting the Student Services department at any NLC campus. NLC’s friendly Student Services staff will examine admissions documents to determine if an applicant meets admission prerequisites for a program; if necessary, applicants will be referred for appropriate upgrading or assessments, or be directed to one of the College’s Admissions Officers. For students who are not sure exactly what program they are interested in, the Student Recruitment department is available to help determine which program best suits the individual. NLC has a wide range of programs and courses available for students of all ages. Certain programs and courses are offered through faceto-face delivery at specific campuses, while others are available via alternative delivery methods, including videoconference, online and mobile training facilities.

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Dual Credit programming at NLC provides a unique opportunity for secondary school students in school districts 59, 60, and 81. Dual Credit students enrol in college programming while still in secondary school, earning both secondary and post-secondary credits. NLC partners with the school districts to offer Dual Credit options in more than 20 program and course areas, including High school students give Dual Credit trades and apprenticeship programs, health programming at NLC a thumb’s up! care and business programs, and university arts and sciences courses. NLC also works in partnership with various postsecondary institutions in British Columbia and Alberta to offer program credentials, and credit-transfer agreements.

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Programming at NLC is categorized into three divisions: • Academic and Career, including Business, Degree, Human Services/ Education, University Arts and Sciences, and Visual Arts courses and programs. • Continuing Education, including Career and College Preparation, Industry, Contract and Workforce Training courses and programs. • Trades and Apprenticeship: Foundation Trades and Apprenticeship level training courses and programs, in conjunction with the Industry Training Authority; and specialty training such as Power Engineering, Oil and Gas Field Operator, and Wind Turbine Maintenance Technician. Visit nlc.bc.ca/Programs/AllPrograms for a complete program listing.

RESIDENCE Student residences are available in Dawson Creek (capacity 180 students) and Fort St. John (capacity 100 students). Accommodation availability ranges from one to fourbedroom units, and each residence includes wheelchair accessible suites. Management and security are located on site. For information or an application, contact Student Services at the appropriate campus, 1-866-463-6652.

ATHLETICS AND RECREATION The Dawson Creek campus includes a gymnasium, soccer pitch and softball diamond, which are used to host intramural athletics throughout the year. The Fort St. John campus is located adjacent to several softball diamonds and an elementary school soccer pitch. NLC students can participate in community leagues in a variety of team sports, including hockey, volleyball, soccer and softball. Other outdoor activities include skiing, fishing, hiking, snowmobiling and equine activities. Students can organize clubs for activities such as snooker, foosball, badminton, film, or cards. Downhill skiing is available at Bear Mountain, near Dawson Creek; Big Bam, near Taylor (south of Fort St. John); or Powder King, an hour west of Chetwynd.

ABORIGINAL GATHERING SPACES Aboriginal Student Advisors are based at the Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, Fort Nelson and Fort St. John campuses, with offices adjacent to new Aboriginal Gathering Spaces at each campus. Services to


Aboriginal students include: advice about admissions and services; support for program preparation; financial aid assistance; liaison with Aboriginal communities, local organizations, and government agencies; advocacy for Aboriginal student issues; and referrals to community agencies for personal support. The Aboriginal Gathering Spaces provide students a place to socialize, hold special events, and receive advocacy and support.

COMPUTER FACILITIES There are computer labs available to students at all NLC campuses, with wireless Internet access available at each campus. Assistance is available with on-campus software and hardware problems and with course access for distance and online students. The Information Commons sections of NLC libraries offer access to computer workstations with direct access to the Internet. Aboriginal Gathering Spaces also have computer and Internet access. Toll Free: 1-866-463-6652 www.nlc.bc.ca

STUDENT RESOURCES For more information on NLC call Student Services toll-free at 1-866-463-6652 or apply online today at nlc.bc.ca.

ACCESS SERVICES At NLC, Access Services for persons with disabilities may include: arranging academic accommodations (interpreters, note takers, tutors, alternate text or exam formats, exam time extensions); support to obtain appropriate documentation; support to access assistive technologies; referral to external support agencies and funding sources; referral to support services at other colleges and universities; orientation and registration assistance; and transitional assistance from secondary school to college. Persons with disabilities should contact the Access Services Coordinator well in advance of starting classes to make arrangements for any necessary services and accommodations.

LIBRARY The library provides resource collections and services for students registered in courses delivered by NLC. On-site library facilities are available at the Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson campuses, in addition to online access at nlc.bc.ca/Services/Library. aspx. Collections include: more than 33,000 print books; 25,000 electronic books; 5,200 videos, CDs and DVDs; 250 print periodical titles; catalogues of all NLC and provincial materials; a large collection of subject guides and user tools; 10,000 full-text journals online with an A-Z title search interface; 14 million items available from other libraries in British Columbia; and reserve collections and online reading room sites providing subject and course specific materials.

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A

focus on the unique culture, traditions and social issues of Inuit in Labrador is the driving force behind the Nunatsiavut Bachelor of Social Work program.

Nunatsiavut Government contracted Memorial University and its School of Social Work to deliver its fully accredited four year Bachelor of Social Work degree program in Labrador. The program’s design ensured a duality of approach: an equal focus placed on the standardized social work program of study and on traditional Inuit knowledge and cultural norms. Ultimately, program graduates would return to Nunatsiavut to work with fellow Inuit, developing a culturally relevant path to healing and health; an outcome that could be best achieved through the integration of Inuit and Western teachings. Memorial and Nunatsiavut decided this vision could only be realized if each respected the value and validity of the other’s knowledge. Memorial’s commitment to this process ensured that the Inuit culture was reflected in each course’s content as well as in the processes used to implement culturally relevant practices/ traditions.

Lucy Brennan, education program director with Nunatsiavut Government, said: “Through the perseverance and determination of our 19 wonderful social work students, staff and partners like the College of the North Atlantic and Labrador Institute, our program is setting the standard for future collaborations in Inuit education and training for years to come. We are deeply honoured for the recognition bestowed on all of us by Ashoka Canada.” “I spent a day with the students last fall and was so impressed with their commitment and knowledge,” said Dr. Maura Hanrahan, Memorial’s special adviser to the president on Aboriginal affairs and adjunct professor, Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine. “They well and truly deserve the national recognition they are getting.  Kudos to everyone involved in this model program.” Nunatsiavut BSW students with Elders

In 2012 the program received national attention, winning the Changemakers Initiative: Inspiring Approaches to First Nations, Métis and Inuit Learning Award for its “innovation, social impact and sustainability”. This groundbreaking collaboration was selected as one of the top entries pertaining to career education and workplace learning in Canada.

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From its start, students in the program have challenged themselves and their professors to discover ways to bridge sound social work practices with Inuit culture. “From the beginning of the BSW program in Labrador, the Elders have been involved in our learning,” said student Krista Mogridge. “When learning about social issues the Elders depended on their spiritual beliefs and their connection to the land to find solutions that worked well for the communities and kept community cohesion. Our BSW group hopes to take the knowledge that we learn from the School of Social Work and from the Elders to provide best practice for our Inuit communities in the future.”

Elders Ron Lyall and Mrs. Z Hunter

Fundamental to the program model is collaboration, information sharing, knowledge building and problem solving. This new approach is historically significant, demonstrates Memorial’s commitment to maintaining meaningful partnerships with Inuit, and acknowledges the vital contribution of traditional Aboriginal knowledge, values and practices to social work education. Dr. Donna Hardy Cox, dean, pro tempore, School of Social Work, said the success of this shared experience has increased mutual learning and cultural understandings, resulting in a collaborative model of undergraduate social work education. It has developed best practices for similar partnerships between Aboriginal groups and Schools of Social Work. “This collaboration has provided an opportunity for many people to learn from each other and develop new ways to contribute to the social work body of knowledge.”

Kudlik, traditional oil lamp

Dr. Dennis Kimberley, the School of Social Work’s program director for the Nunatsiavut Bachelor of Social Work program, said: “These students are uniquely positioned to become leaders in providing culturally sensitive, required services. They will be the first cohort of Inuit students to develop social work with local and cultural relevance and pride.” The cohort of students will graduate their four-year program in spring 2013 and begin applying their knowledge in their communities. www.mun.ca

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T

he resource industry, particularly the minerals industry, offers tremendous opportunity to create wealth in the North. The Northwest Territories represents one of the most mineral-rich anywhere on Earth with its vast diversity in mineral resources, as well as hydrocarbons. Further, the mineral deposits found in this area are among the very best quality found anywhere in the world. The diamond mines are a good example of that, as well as Pine Point’s lead-zinc operations. I think Avalon Rare Metals’ discovery at Thor Lake, with the Nechalacho Rare Earth Element deposit, will be another example of a truly worldclass resource providing new opportunities for wealth creation in the NWT. I also believe there is a tremendous opportunity for Aboriginal peoples to take full advantage. I would like to see Aboriginal peoples participate in this industry to a much greater extent than they have in the past. It is absolutely essential for the long-term health and sustainability of the industry that we have participation from the communities around which we are working. In most of Northern Canada, especially here in the NWT, those local communities are Aboriginal communities and we need their active participation in the industry. Not just to provide labour and services, but ultimately becoming proponents of mineral development; that is, having companies that they own and operate as explorers and developers in finding the next mines for the NWT. In order to do that, we need to build more capacity in all of the communities, which starts with education. Also, we need to start to facilitate more of an entrepreneurial culture in those communities. It is a very entrepreneurial industry at the exploration stage and we need more Aboriginal entrepreneurs to emerge in those communities to provide the leadership required to build companies of tomorrow and be proponents of new mineral development in the North.

Given the inherent mineral wealth that we see in the North, the level of investment is nowhere near what it really should be. It should be about 10 times what it is currently, at least if based purely on the opportunity that is represented by the rich mineral endowment of the area. The issue is around the regulatory process. The Northwest Territories needs a stable and predictable regulatory process for environmental reviews and permitting. This does not exist right now. Companies need to know that when they invest capital there is some predictability to what is required and how long it will take before they can get a new project permitted. That is not the case here currently and therefore capital is going elsewhere where there is more predictability. This is a very important priority for the NWT going forward. There is an enormous opportunity in this hot commodity market. It is sometimes referred to as the super cycle. The super cycle is still on and there are some dips in the cycle from time to time (we are in one right now) but there is no question that with the growing world population and emerging middle-class in Asia and elsewhere, that there will be an increasing demand for resources and new production of non-renewable materials going forward. Moving on to what Avalon is doing, we have this rare earth element project named Nechalacho, 100 km southeast of Yellowknife in an area known as Thor Lake. The rare earth elements play a significant role in today’s technology-driven economy. The REEs are key enablers of a lot of new technology, especially clean technology. We are talking about elements such as neodymium, dysprosium, europium, and yttrium—elements that many have not heard of since their high school chemistry class, but use every day in their hand-held devices, automobiles and household appliances. These elements are becoming increasingly more important and the Nechalacho deposit is one of the most richly endowed in these critical raw materials. HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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Avalon is planning to develop a secondary processing facility, also in the NWT, to take the mineral concentrate from Thor Lake and further concentrate the rare earths. This is a significantly new development for the North. Traditionally, concentrates are produced and shipped out for processing elsewhere. For the first time, we are proposing to build a secondary processing facility in the NWT at a site in the Pine Point area on the south side of Great Slave Lake. The reason why we selected that area is because it is a brownfield site. It was the historic site of lead-zinc mining operations by Cominco in the 1960s through to the 1980s. It does have grid hydro power available to it from the Taltson dam and an existing transportation network to move the material to the rail head at Hay River for shipping south for further refining. Having two sites means we have had to engage with quite a few different communities in the Northwest Territories. In relation to our project, we have been engaging with the Lutsel K’e Dene First Nation, the Deninu K’ue First Nation and, the Yellowknives Dene First Nation, but they are not the only interested parties in this project. The K’atl’odeeche First Nation near Hay River are interested because of the potential business opportunities originating from that area. There are also the North Slave Métis, NWT Métis Nation, and the Tłichǫ Government whose settled land claim overlaps with the Yellowknives’ Chief Drygeese Territory. One of the challenges a company like ours faces when entering into the Northwest Territories to do mineral exploration and development is understanding who our neighbours are, what their relationships are and how to develop working relationships going forward. It takes some time to sort out the landscape, but we have been quite patient about it. We started very early and had many meetings with Chiefs, Councillors, Elders and other community members to introduce them to what we are doing. We try to allow for a lot of Q & A periods to help community members understand, and we listen to their concerns and try to act on them. We recognize it takes time to build relationships and trust, so we started early to ensure we had more than enough time before making major investment decisions on going into a construction phase. It is important to engage with communities early and often. The biggest mistake that companies make in exploration and development is not going to the community early enough to explain what is being proposed and the potential opportunities. We make this point frequently to our industry peers. Often it is difficult to get that dialogue going, but we encourage companies to persevere and don’t give up after the first unanswered phone call. Once you get the relationship going and you are working on the ground, it is very important to just continue dialogue and engagement. You have to ensure communities are always informed on what is happening on the ground. Also, we encourage other companies to provide employment opportunities to the extent possible during the exploration stage, work with local contractors and find opportunities for Aboriginal business to participate and provide services, as well as provide access to training. We participated in a training program with the Mine Training Society, Aurora College and Foraco to train Aboriginal youth to work on diamond drills as helpers, which is an important part of the

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exploration process. No other company had ever done that before at the exploration stage, so we were proud to have had that opportunity and it was quite successful. There were a dozen graduates, several of whom are still working in the industry.

Core boxes

NWT regulations require that companies have a first aid responder in a remote campsite like ours. When we first started, we had to bring people from all across Canada to perform this role. It did not make any sense that there were no people in the North that could provide that service. It was simply a matter of providing training so people here could obtain those skills and do it. We organized that training program and ever since we have been able to source first aid responders in the local communities here. We have employed a lot of labour at times, with up to 50% of our camp staff being Aboriginal at some times. We have been providing contracting opportunities as well, including an airstrip at the Nechalacho site two years ago that was built by Det’on Cho Corporation; a $2,000,000 contract. In exploration you do lots of drilling and need to put the drill core in boxes. They are just simple wooden trays that you put the drill core samples in. Initially we were bringing them in from Winnipeg and reasoned that there ought to be someone up here that could build these boxes. Some folks in Fort Resolution agreed with us and started a new core box business and have been supplying us with our core boxes ever since. We have done some $300,000 worth of business with the Deninu K’ue Development Corporation Recently, we have been working hard to finalize formal agreements, we call them Accommodation Agreements, with our Akaitcho Dene community partners. One of the agreements is complete and two are close to finalization. This summer we finalized an Accommodation Agreement with the Deninu K’ue First Nation. The headline in the paper described it as an Impacts Benefits Agreement (IBA), the more common term for these partnership agreements, but it has some differences with the traditional IBA-type agreements. The main one is we are offering equity participation in the project to these communities. It is a small minority interest, but we think it is a very significant way for the First Nations to participate. It means they have an actual ownership interest in this resource. It is not a simple revenue-sharing model offering cash transfers, but it is an actual ownership interest in the project. . What we are asking them


to do is become an active partner in the project to both share in the risks and share in the rewards of successful development. Equity participation provides an opportunity for active involvement in the industry from which the community can learn and leverage into other business opportunities and more actively influence industry best practices in managing environmental impacts. I believe the industry is now moving towards this model. The traditional IBA model that involved fixed payments on an annual basis, unrelated to the scale of an operation or future profitability, is yesterday’s model. Tomorrow’s model is an equity participation model and Avalon is the first Company to introduce it here in the North. So it has taken us some time to educate the communities as to what it is about and why it is advantageous in the long term. It is different, so it is taking quite a while to do, but I think we are going to get there in terms of it being accepted as tomorrow’s partnership model between mineral exploration companies and First Nations. Lastly, going forward in the future, we have made a commitment to corporate social responsibility and being a good partner in the community. We have produced a sustainability report that details our commitments to environment and social responsibility and how we are going to report on performance against those commitments. This is the type of report that is more typically produced by larger corporations and not so much by small or medium-sized enterprises such as Avalon, but we feel it is important to do it at this stage to demonstrate sustainability as a core principle of the company.

DKFN Signing

We believe the whole industry is going this way with everyone starting to recognize the importance of embracing the principles of environmental and social responsibility. We wanted to show some leadership for our peers in the industry by taking this step now. We also think it will serve us well in developing our business down the road as more and more customers around the world who use the rare earth elements will insist that producers of this material operate in a sustainable way and demonstrate it to them before they will commit to business. That is the growing reality and so by getting in front of it we are opening more doors for building our business and developing new markets for our products going forward. www.avalonraremetals.com

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In building real partnerships with regional stakeholders through open communication, political and social engagement, Advanced Explorations Inc. and the communities of the Melville Peninsula have a joint vision to achieve prosperity and development for Nunavut and for Canada’s Far North.

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dvanced Explorations Inc., (TSX.V: AXI, FSE: AE6) based in Toronto, Ontario, is a resource development company focused on developing its Roche Bay and Tuktu Iron Ore Projects in one of the world’s largest developing iron ore districts, the Melville Peninsula in Nunavut. In collaboration with the Government of Nunavut, Advanced Explorations Inc. has completed a scoping study to determine the effect of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a low cost power solution for Canada’s Far North. The initial findings of the study suggest considerable potential to deliver a sustainable and cost-efficient alternative power solution to both the Advanced Explorations Inc. Roche Bay Iron Project and to Canada’s remote northern communities. HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.CA

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It is Advanced Explorations Inc.’s intention to further investigate these findings to a feasibility study level, as the knowledge gained from these advanced engineering studies will provide a useful platform to solve one of the key challenges facing development of Canada’s North: affordable power. Advanced studies on LNG power will ultimately assist other resource development projects in Nunavut to gain operating cost efficiencies, such to ensure a competitive cost base for future development in the North. Equally important to Advanced Explorations Inc. is the ability to apply these solutions, where appropriate, to reduce costs in our northern communities that are currently allocating significant amounts of their limited resources to Arctic diesel power generation. In addition to the LNG power solution, Advanced Explorations Inc.’s Roche Bay project will create many new opportunities for the Melville Peninsula’s Inuit communities. In building real partnerships with regional stakeholders through open communication, political and social engagement, Advanced Explorations Inc. and the communities of Hall Beach, Igloolik, and the Melville Region have created a vision to work together to achieve prosperity and development for Nunavut and for Canada’s Far North.

The ocean-based Roche Bay Project boasts an NI 43-101 compliant resource estimate of over 500 million tonnes outlined within a small portion of the potential 140 km of banded iron formation. A positive feasibility study for the project’s C Zone revealed a net present value of $642M on a base case 5.5 Mtpa start-up concentrate operation and substantial upside potential including becoming a low quartile cost producer. To date, the Company has delineated over 1 billion tonnes of iron under NI 43-101 among its Roche Bay and Tuktu deposits and continues to explore other targeted deposits in areas to the north, south and west of Roche Bay. The management team has extensive technical, exploration and Canadian Arctic mining expertise to effectively develop the high quality iron ore opportunities on the Melville Peninsula. www.advanced-exploration.com

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Profile for Vantage Publishing Group Corp.

Native & Inuit Resource Magazine 2013  

The Native & Inuit Yearbook was first published in 2000 after the creation of Nunavut to highlight/distinguish the Polar North’s unique Cult...

Native & Inuit Resource Magazine 2013  

The Native & Inuit Yearbook was first published in 2000 after the creation of Nunavut to highlight/distinguish the Polar North’s unique Cult...

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