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It’s not just part of growing up

DE-MYSTIFYING

Eating Disorders

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Fall 2011

OV22011 PM41927547

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Working to build a safer city. Partnering to make it happen. At Crime Prevention Ottawa, we know there is strength in numbers. We work closely with government, police, school boards, businesses, community services, child protection, the United Way and local residents to reduce crime and build safer communities. Our vision? To create a city where individuals, families and neighbourhoods feel safe and are safe.

How we do it

Our work is based on collaborative, evidence-based approaches to crime prevention. We bring together the latest research and professional experience to prevent crime. Our priorities? • to reduce violence against women • to reduce crime in high risk neighbourhoods • to focus on youth in high risk environments We do so by building partnerships, supporting local initiatives and promoting policy solutions. We foster community action. We know that together, we can make a difference.

Safety starts at home

Join us in building a safer Ottawa. Whether you’re one person or part of a community organization, you can support efforts close to home. How? Get involved: Take part in efforts to combat violence against women, prevent youth gangs and empower young people. Implement safety initiatives in your own home or neighbourhood. Use the Neighbourhood Toolkit: This practical guide offers tips and advice on dealing with issues such as drugs, identity theft, domestic violence and street racing. Access it on our website and learn how to start a Neighbourhood Watch program, organize a community clean-up, and much more. Sign up for our newsletter: Find out about the latest crime prevention initiatives, events and other community safety news. Register on our website to receive our newsletter by email. www.crimepreventionottawa.ca


From The Editor Editor & Publisher Jacques Beauchamp former regional police officer Executive Assistant Christine Panasuk Assistant Editor Joyce Li Circulation / Production Joyce Li Production Co Ordinator Jonathan Beauchamp Graphics & Art DESIGNit.CA Cover Illustration Tom Vopni - Rizengraphics.com Printed in Ontario, Canada Dollco Printing Columnists Sandra Friedman, MA Canadian Paediatric Society Walt Mueller Kids Help Phone The Sens Foundation Holly Johnson - University of Ottawa Jenna Mackay - Carleton University The Centre for Parent/Youth Understanding Ottawa Polices Services

There are many women and men who suffer from Eating Disorders. Eating disorders can affect anyone. They do not discriminate any specific weight categories or body types. Those with Anorexia could be slightly overweight, or underweight. Those with Bulimia could be at a perfectly good weight. Eating disorders can also affect the young, old and everyone in between. An Eating Disorder is deadly for anyone. People who have Eating Disorders do harmful things to their bodies due to their obsession with their weight and body image. It is important to understand that even though a person may be suffering from a specific Eating Disorder, it is not uncommon for them to exhibit behaviours from any or all types of disorders. It is also not uncommon for someone dealing with one Eating Disorder to develop a second one at the same time. This is caused by a dangerous fixation on trying to be thinner, skinnier, and leaner. Eating Disorders have one of the highest mortality rates of all Metal Illnesses. 10-20% of people suffering from Eating Disorders either die from malnutrition or complications due to emaciation. It is so serious that it could be looked at as a form of unconscious suicide.

Account Executives Donn Holt Thomas Easton Dan Cole Crimesense is Published by Vantage Publishing Group Corp. and distributed free, all rights reserved. Contents and photographs may not be reprinted without written permission. The statements, opinions and pointts of view expressed in articles published in this magazine are those of the authors and publication shall not be deemed to mean they are necessarily those of Vantage Publishing Group Corp. or other affiliated organizations. The publisher accepts no responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts, photographs, transparencies or other materials. Publications Mail Agreement No. 41927547 ISSN 1927-3142 Crimesense Magazine (Print) ISSN 1927-3150 Crimesense Magazine (Online) Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to 174 Colonnade Road South, Suite 33 Ottawa, Ontario K2E 7J5

Can Eating Disorders be treated? Yes! The treatment starts by seeking the help of a Health Professional who can help you get back on track in terms of the physical aspect, including proper nutrition. A Mental Health Specialist will also be needed to help work through the psychological aspects of the Eating Disorder. Many Eating Disorders begin by a simple thought, “If only I was thinner”, or “It’s just a temporary phase”, and then snowball into a deadly condition. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have an Eating Disorder, I urge you to seek help right away. Life is good.

Telphone: (613) 724-9907 Toll Free: 1-888-724-9907 info@vantagepublishing.ca www. vantagepublishing.ca

SAY HELLO

Share your suggestions or comments with Jacques by sending him an email at:

jacques@vantagepublishing.ca

Jacques Beauchamp Editor-in-Chief c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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he needs of children and youth in eastern Ontario and western Quebec have never been greater. With that thought in mind, the Sens Foundation works around the clock to improve the quality of life for these children, with needs addressed in the areas of education, health, sport and recreation. Our vision is “for greater goals” in making these off-ice “assists” a reality. The Sens Foundation is largely supported through event fundraising, corporate partnerships, and private donors. Earlier this summer the Sens Foundation hosted one of its largest fundraisers: The Scotiabank Walk, Roll & Run for Roger’s House, which is the Sens Foundation’s charity of choice. The facility provides a comprehensive paediatric respite and palliative care program with elements of outreach, residential hospice, pain and symptom management; grief and bereavement counseling and research. The event, which took place June 19 at Scotiabank Place, saw more than 800 participants take part in the Irving Oil Tot-Trot, PwC 2K and Enterprise 5K routes. Senators forward Chris Neil joined the festivities and signed autographs for participants. With a helping hand from the community, participants and corporate partners, more than $192,000 was raised for the paediatric palliative care facility. Title sponsor Scotiabank encouraged its staff to participate and collect pledges for the event. The bank raised more than $62,000 from more than 10 branches spread across the region. “Being associated with a great event and raising funds for such a wonderful place like Roger’s House made our sponsorship choice an easy one,” said Emily Farrell, vicepresident of Scotiabank’s Ottawa River District. “Our entire staff and customers have done whatever they could to help make such a significant contribution.”

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Walk, Roll & Run honours the memory of Roger Neilson, a former Senators assistant coach who died June 21, 2003, after a lengthy battle with cancer. This year the event paid tribute to Neilson by asking children to draw a colourful tie for the event T-shirt. Neilson was renowned for wearing a crazy assortment of colourful ties. The contest was a huge success, with more than 100 submissions. Kanata resident Madeleine Visser drew the winning design.

They’ll follow in the footsteps of Neil’s former teammate and good friend, Mike Fisher, who was honoured at the event for his long-term contributions to Roger’s House. Fisher was named to the position in 2004, when the house was under construction. While Neil and Fisher “talk all the time,” the event marked the first time they saw each other in person since the latter was traded to the Nashville Predators back in February. “We always stay in touch,” said Neil, who became emotional at a reception at Roger’s House as he spoke about his former teammate. “To be able to spend some time with him ... it’s like whenever one of your best buddies comes back. Having him there just felt right.” As co-honorary chairs, the Neils will help promote awareness and fundraising for the facility, which relies on the Sens Foundation for 30 per cent of its annual operating budget.

This year’s event featured Roger’s Dream Team, an innovative fundraising campaign that encouraged local businesses to sponsor one of 10 courageous children currently receiving care from Roger’s House, and Roger’s All-Stars, a group of families who have come together to support fundraising efforts and celebrate the lives of their deceased children. Both campaigns were a success. “This year’s Walk, Roll & Run was a tremendous success for Roger’s House,” said Sens Foundation president Danielle Robinson. “The strong support shown is a testament to the character and compassion we have in our community.” The Sens Foundation has made a long-term commitment to cover 30 per cent of the annual operating costs for Roger’s House. Walk, Roll & Run provides an opportunity for members of the community to get involved and support the Sens Foundation, while making an important and lasting contribution to countless children and their families in a time of need. The Sens Foundation and Roger’s House had some more good news to share in July as Chris Neil and his wife, Caitlin, were officially named co-honorary chairs of the pediatric palliative care facility at a reception held in July.

“Chris and Caitlin have shown their commitment to the Senators family and our community, and they make a perfect fit to continue as honorary chairs of Roger’s House,” said Erin Crowe, chair of Roger’s House and executive vice-president and chief financial officer of Senators Sports & Entertainment. “We’d like to thank Mike Fisher for the contributions he made, both to help raise awareness and to invigorate the spirits of so many children and families.” “The Senators are very fortunate to have a roster of out-going, community-minded players,” said Cyril Leeder, president of Senators Sports & Entertainment and a Sens Foundation board member. “The addition of Chris and Caitlin to the Roger’s House team is wonderful news for the house, its staff and, most importantly, the children and their families.” “Chris is the ultimate Senator, he’s been committed on the ice and plays a very important off the ice and in the community,” said Senators general manager Bryan Murray “He cares greatly about the City of Ottawa and we’re very pleased for Chris and feel that he’s a great selection as honorary chair of Roger’s House.” Fisher was presented with several farewell items, including a Dancing in the Rain umbrella from staff at Roger’s House. Dancing in the Rain for Roger’s House is a major gift program developed to raise an additional $1 million over three years for the facility. To learn how to Dance in the Rain for Roger’s House or other Sens Foundation initiatives, please visit www.sensfoundation.com.

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the (Rideau) Canal is located close by, it’s very weather dependent, as are the 300 community rinks in this region. “This is something in the capital right downtown that people will be able to come and enjoy every day for five months (from November to March). I think it’s going to be a really great community meeting space, a really nice opportunity for children and youth and their families to come down and experience skating.” – Danielle Robinson The Sens Foundation is also part of a very COOL new initiative called the Rink of Dreams, which was officially launched in the spring. The Rink of Dreams is an open-air skating facility which will be constructed at Marion Dewar Plaza in front of Ottawa City Hall. The Sens Foundation has pledged to cover $1 million of the design and building costs for the Rink of Dreams, which has a total price tag of $1.25 million. The City of Ottawa is taking care of the remaining $250,000 and will operate the facility.

Leeder said he hopes skating at the Rink of Dreams will become “one of the must-dos” for tourists visiting the city in the winter. “We hope it will be a real people place and right at City Hall couldn’t be a better place for that,” he said. “We hope most of the time it’s used for free skating, so it’ll be open to all the residents of the community. But we hope there will be some hockey scheduled and played there as well.” The Senators and Sens Foundation plan to use the rink for a number of community programs such as I Love To Skate, an initiative unveiled earlier this year in partnership with the city and Canadian Tire Jumpstart. “The thing that we’re going to be doing as we move forward on this rink in our next season is partnering with school boards and schools that are in priority neighbourhoods to get kids out and learning how to skate on this rink,” said Robinson. “We’ll have skills workshops, provide them with an opportunity and get them into skates with helmets on, just to experience what skating is like. “It’s a great Canadian passion and pastime, and it’s something we want to do in the heart of Ottawa.”

Helping the cause in a major was is the Hockey Canada Foundation, which held its annual gala in June at the new Ottawa Convention Centre, along with a golf tournament the following day at the Marshes and Eagle Creek Golf Course. A portion of the proceeds was earmarked toward the Rink of Dreams, with the Senators and Sens Foundation hopeful to receive $350,000 worth of assistance for the project. The gala, which celebrated some of Hockey Canada’s championship teams during the past year, brought together the who’s who of the hockey world. One of the main mandates of the Hockey Canada Foundation’s initiatives is supporting grassroots hockey, which makes the Rink of Dreams an ideal fit.

The Rink of Dreams is likely to become a centrepiece of NHL All-Star Weekend celebrations next January. “We’re hoping we can have some kind of tie-in with the all-star game, so we can showcase the new facility,” said Leeder. “So that’s why we’re in a bit of a rush here to get this thing going. It’s a tight schedule, so we have to complete the fundraising in the next few weeks and then get the approvals done and get started in the fall. It’s ambitious, but we think we can get it done.” CS To learn more about the Rink of Dreams and other Sens Foundation events and initiatives please visit www.sensfoundation.com.

“It’s great for them to come into this city and want to partner with a local sports foundation or a hockey club and split the proceeds,” said Robinson. “We really appreciate the support and recognition they bring to the project.” The Rink of Dreams is designed to be an artificial outdoor facility with its own refrigeration system, which will be professionally maintained by a Zamboni. That makes it far less susceptible to the whims of Mother Nature during an Ottawa winter. “What that allows for is a consistent ice surface throughout the winter season,” said Robinson. “So really it’s almost an indoor ice quality of experience, but it’s outside in the downtown core ... it’s going to provide one of the largest ice surfaces in all of the region for people to come and skate every single day. While we’re aware that c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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Even though

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several years since I saw it happen, its impact on me is still strong. I was sitting in the stands at a Good Charlotte concert with a raucous crowd of young fans. At one point in the concert, the band stood on stage and asked for the houselights to be brought up. After quieting the 10,000 teens in the room, they calmly asked, “How many of you here have ever considered or attempted suicide yourself, or know someone who has taken their own life?” I stood in stunned silence as what looked like every hand in the room went silently and slowly up in the air. It was a powerful encounter with a dark cultural reality. Then, after the young

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quintet of punk rockers told the crowd that suicide is a road they should never travel, they launched into their hopeful anti-suicide anthem, “Hold On.” I had a difficult time listening as my eyes kept scanning the crowd of young

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That moment has come back to me whenever I read, hear about or discuss a teen suicide. Sadly, that’s been far too often. While there’s no way to really know just how many kids are pondering suicide, the Center for Disease Control tells us that suicide is the second leading cause of death (behind accidents) among 15-19 year-olds. In the United States, one teenager takes his or her life every 100 minutes. It’s recognized that this statistic is far too conservative as many teen suicides aren’t reported as such. What is known is that there’s been an alarming and steady rise in suicide among younger children and teens.   I don’t know Phil, but the brief story he tells on his Web site offers another reality check. “My name is Phil and last year I lost my son to suicide. He was only 17. If you were like me … chances are you don’t know anything about suicide or noticing the warning signs … I know that I didn’t … but I do now. My wife and I have put this site together for both adults looking for some information on how to prevent this from happening to their children, and also for other teens looking for help.”

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While they may not always communicate their pain and intentions with verbal clarity, the signs are there. But they may never be heard unless we know what to watch for.

Because I’m a father, I find Phil’s words somewhat haunting. One day his son was there. The next day he wasn’t. I can’t even imagine. For whatever reason, Phil didn’t see it coming. I’m sure Phil’s ignorance is admittedly shared by the great majority of parents who have experienced his same horror. One loving and involved Christian parent described to me what it was like for them after their 13-year-old son took his life. The young man had endured a horrible breakup along with a change in schools before slowly getting depressed. The parent says, “We were frogs in boiling water and missed the signs of the rising temperature. No one ever thinks suicide will happen to them—we thought we were dealing with the highs and lows of a budding hormonal teen.”   Sometimes it’s the things right under our noses that we so easily miss. This parent’s words are words we should all hear and heed. The parents deeply loved Christ and their son. They were active in his life. The signs were there. But still they were missed.   One of the most memorable moments of the 1992 Summer Olympics occurred when Britain’s Derek Redmond was sprinting around the track in the 400-meter run. As Redmond sped around the backstretch, his right hamstring tore. How did you and I know he was hurt? He showed us. He stopped running, limped a few steps and fell to the ground. His face contorted in response to the physical pain he was feeling. He grabbed his leg and rolled around on the ground. Those who were

in close proximity heard him scream out in agony. We knew he was hurt because he told us not in words but through his actions. His physical pain was obvious to anyone who was watching.   Teenagers who attempt suicide give signs. About 80 percent of those who take their lives communicate their intention to someone prior to the act. While they may not always communicate their pain and intentions with verbal clarity, the signs are there. But they may never be heard unless we know what to watch for. Experts say there are five categories of signs teens give when contemplating or before attempting/committing suicide. No, they’re not all there all the time. But some signs will most likely be present. Carefully read through the descriptions of these signs, realizing that they will usually appear in some combination before a teenager acts on their thoughts.

 

Emotional signs Teenagers, by nature, can be moody. But not all of their moody behavior should be written off as just a part of the adolescent stage. There are several unusual and extreme emotional cries for help that can clue us in to our teenagers’ struggles with hopelessness, depression and suicidal feelings.   The first emotional cry can be heard in the classical signs of depression. If these symptoms continue for two or more weeks, then it is time to seek help.   Withdrawal from normal activities is a second emotional cry. When a teenager suddenly separates from friends, family, objects and activities that are normally a large part of their life, trouble may be brewing. Depressed and suicidal teens may want to spend more time than usual alone or in their room.   The calm before the storm occurs when a teen’s spirits improve suddenly and dramatically after a period of deep and extended depression. Psychologists say this is a very dangerous time since the teen’s “peace” may actually exist because the decision has been made to take their life. They are excited because they feel like they have finally found the solution to their problems and the pain will soon be over. Parents should be very cautious when a teen who has a history of depression appears to be dramatically and suddenly improved.

Physical signs Sometimes an observant eye is all it takes to tell that a teen is depressed or suicidal. Here are some physical cries you can hear by being aware of your teen’s physical demeanor and day-to-day habits. c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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Physical complaints are sometimes heard from teens who experience depression and suicidal thoughts. Stomach aches, headaches and constant fatigue are a common occurrence among teens who are finding adolescence and the pressures of their life too much to handle.   A neglect of physical appearance, characterized by sloppiness and poor personal hygiene could be a way of saying, “Why should I bother? Nobody cares about me anyway.” Teens who feel worthless sometimes begin to look worthless.   A change in normal eating and sleeping habits is also a sign of trouble. Suicidal teens will sometimes sleep more, eat less and even develop an eating disorder.   Finally, body language that shows an inability to concentrate can be a sign that a child is preoccupied with depression and problems. Slouching, staring off into space and constant daydreaming may occur when the pain of what is going on inside drowns out an awareness of what might be happening in the same room.  

Behavioral signs

Teens who struggle with depression and suicide sometimes decide to become involved in some strange and frightening new behaviors. Accident proneness can become a conscious or unconscious attention-getting device for teens who desperately want someone to notice them. Teens who feel shut off from others find the attention they receive after an accident to be a form of immediate reinforcement. These cries for attention can also be cries for help.

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Acting out or other melodramatic behavior is another common attention getter. I remember one girl who always acted like the world was coming to an end. When she felt her friends were starting to ignore her, she would quickly step on stage and respond like a terrible actress to some new crisis that she had thought up. It didn’t take long for her friends to catch on to her act. As her fantasy world came crashing down, she would move on to a new circle of friends who would respond in the way she wanted. Sadly, this was a cry to be noticed, loved and cared for by a girl whose father had emotionally rejected her, leaving her depressed and feeling worthless. A preoccupation with violence and unusually aggressive behavior are clear signs something is wrong. Some suicidal teens will fight, yell, break things and throw objects during increasingly frequent fits of rage. Some will be mesmerized by video game, movie and television violence, renting and viewing violent films. Others will purchase or attempt to build weapons. Self-destructive behavior and involvement in dangerous activities are signs that a teen may have little or no regard for his or her personal safety or life. Many suicidal teens will live life on the edge by driving fast, playing dangerous games with weapons, or playing chicken with their cars and bikes. Any sort of high-risk activity of this type merits attention. Promiscuous sexual behavior is often an attempt to sedate strong feelings of failure and depression. Kids who see themselves as worthless, unloved and rejected will look for acceptance and love through sexual intimacy.


Drug and alcohol abuse is another factor contributing to suicide. While their abuse appears to contribute to suicide by aggravating and exaggerating depressed feelings and suicidal tendencies, their use can also point to the presence of depression and suicidal feelings.   Sudden rebellious and disrespectful behavior towards parents, teachers and other authorities may indicate that a teen has decided to take their fate into their own hands rather than listen to the wisdom and advice of those they may have respected at one time.

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Don’t believe it. It’s only a myth. Most suicidal acts are preceded by some warning or cry. All of those cries and warnings should be taken seriously.

A drop in grades and increased truancy are not uncommon when a teen is preoccupied with so many problems that they find it impossible or undesirable to care about schoolwork.   Teens who are thinking about killing themselves will sometimes become preoccupied with death. They may write poetry or stories focusing on death or other morbid themes. Their musical tastes may change and lean toward an interest in genres of popular music that glamorize occult themes, hopelessness and death. Their preoccupation with death may even lead them to dye their hair and dress in black.   Preparing for death is a clear sign that a teen has decided to commit suicide. Many teens who have made the decision will begin to give away valued personal items to close friends or family members. They will say good-bye and take care of other personal business. And they will acquire the means by which they intend to kill themselves (rope, gun, pills, etc.).   It seems strange that this last behavioral cry has to be mentioned, but the fact that many parents don’t hear this loudest of all screams warrants its inclusion. A suicide attempt should not be brushed off lightly. As Dr. Walter Byrd of the Minirth-Meier Clinic says: “Any suicide attempt should be taken seriously … whether the attempt was a determined effort to end one’s life or rather an act carried out in desperation to provoke the involvement of others in a help-giving model.”

Situational Signs Researchers and counseling professionals have noted numerous unpleasant life changes that affect teenagers more deeply than any other group of people because of the difficult developmental stage at which teens find themselves. These events might precipitate feelings of failure, loneliness, depression and suicide. One study found that among those who attempted suicide, nearly 76 percent reported having recently experienced one or more of these changes.   A teenager might commit suicide after losing friends and social status following a family move from one community to another. Other situations include a romantic breakup, death of a friend or loved one, divorce, or academic failure. Parents should be especially sensitive to the emotional needs of their teenagers during these times of personal crisis. Sometimes we falsely assume they will be able to adapt to change as well as we can.

Common signs

and symptoms of adolescent depression Persistent sadness Fluctuation between silent apathy and excited talkativeness Inability to concentrate • Severe weight gain or loss Major change in eating and/or sleeping patterns Withdrawal from friends or family Complaining about headaches or stomach aches Declining grades and an unwillingness to work in school Truancy • Rapid mood swings Lack of interest in regular activities (sports, church, music lessons, youth group, etc.) Hopelessness • Pessimism about the future Expressions of helplessness, worthlessness Preoccupation with death or suicide  The Center for Parent/Youth Understanding grants permission for this article to be copied in its entirety, provided the copies are distributed free of charge and the copies indicate the source as the Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.

  For more information on resources to help you understand today’s rapidly changing youth culture, contact the Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.   ©2005, The Center for Parent/Youth Understanding www.cpyu.org

Verbal Signs Parents who listen to their children might be alerted to suicidal intent by the words they hear from their children. A child who says things like, “I won’t be a problem for you much longer,” “Nothing really matters anymore,” “It’s no use,” “I won’t see you again” or “I’d be better off dead” is saying they may have already decided their fate.   Some people have speculated that people who talk about suicide won’t ever commit suicide. Don’t believe it. It’s only a myth. Most suicidal acts are preceded by some warning or cry. All of those cries and warnings should be taken seriously.   When Derek Redmond fell to the track in pain during the 1992 Summer Olympics, an amazing thing happened. As he stood up and began to hobble around the track in an effort to finish the race, his father came out of the stands, rushed past security guards, came to his son’s side and embraced him. With his son’s head buried in his shoulder and the crowd cheering, Jim Redmond led his son around the track to the finish line. It was learned later that when Jim Redmond came to his son’s side, he told him, “We’re going to finish this together.” When our children and teens cry out in pain during the difficult years of adolescence, we must listen, drop everything, rush to their sides, help them up, support them and tell them we will work with them to get through the difficult race that lies ahead … together. And as we walk, our talk must point them to the only One who gives the only hope that can lead them to “hold on.” He’s the one who says to us all, “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.” He’s the one who gives new life. CS c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are motorized vehicles with 3 or 4 wheels and large, low-pressure tires. They are designed to be used by a single operator in off-road areas, not on public roads. They can weigh up to 272 kg (600 lbs). ATVs are not safe for children and young teenagers, who don’t have the strength or skill to handle them properly. Still, many kids do use them, especially in rural or remote areas. And each year, many children and youth are seriously injured or even killed while riding an ATV.

Did you know? • In Canada, nearly 25% of ATV-related deaths are among children under 15 years old. • More than one-third of serious injuries from ATV crashes are among children under 15 years old. • ATV injuries have been reported in children as young as 1 year old.

How can ATVs be used safely?

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You’re more likely to be injured on an ATV if you don���t use it properly. If you’re a parent who owns or operates an ATV, you can model safe behaviour by following these guidelines:

• Age and experience: Driver error and loss of control are common causes of ATV crashes. Children younger than 16 years old should not operate ATVs. They don’t have the strength, skills or experience to handle ATVs safely. • Four-wheeled vehicles: Injuries are more likely to occur on three-wheeled ATVs, which are more unstable than fourwheeled vehicles. Three-wheeled ATVs are not recommended.

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• Proper equipment: ATV drivers and passengers should always wear an approved helmet for ATVs or motorcycles (such as a helmet meeting the Canadian Standards Association, Department of Transportation/Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Snell or American National Standards Institute motorcycle helmet standards, not a bicycle helmet), eye protection, and proper clothing, such as boots, gloves and long pants. • Training: ATV drivers should take an approved training course. • Drugs and alcohol: Drivers should not operate an ATV after using drugs or alcohol.

Are there laws in Canada about operating ATVs? Laws governing ATV use are different in each province and territory. • Most provinces require ATV drivers to wear helmets. • Most provinces have restrictions for young drivers. Some require, for instance, that drivers under 14 years be supervised by an adult.

For more DETAILS Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles, a statement of the Canadian Paediatric Society. Developed by the CPS Injury Prevention Committee - Updated: February 2009 This information should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. CS

For more information on child and youth health and safety, please visit www.caringforkids.cps.ca & www.cps.ca

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• Passengers: Most ATVs are meant to be used by a single driver. Passengers are not recommended because they can affect the balance and make it hard for the driver to stay in control. Children younger than 16 years old should never ride as passengers on ATVs.

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t’s almost impossible to work with girls today without ever hearing the dreaded statement that ‘Katie’ may have an eating disorder—with the implication that it’s up to you to do something about it. Whether you are a teacher, counsellor, youth and/or mental health worker or public health nurse you will most likely have visions of starving girls dance around in your head. You don’t know where to begin. You are afraid that whatever you say will make her worse and that she will collapse right in front of you.

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No wonder you panic! Much of the literature and information you receive describes eating disorders as the mental illness with the highest mortality rate—10% to 20% of people die as a result of their eating disorder. When you read how complex the treatment of eating disorders is it’s hard not to feel inadequate. You ask yourself what difference you could possibly make. Yet not every girl with an eating disorder is on her way to the hospital nor do you have to be an eating disorder specialist to engage in intervention.

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to differentiate themselves from her and to form an “I” and a “ME.” In elementary school, girls understand that their self is made up of many different traits, abilities, characteristics, qualities, feelings and roles. They can also describe many of the parts of their self.

Why eating disorders develop Eating disorders exist on a continuum that includes girls with disordered eating patterns, girls just beginning to use eating disorder behaviours, girls whose behaviours are more entrenched, and girls whose behaviours are making them sick. Demystifying eating disorders means understanding where ‘Katie’ is on the continuum. It means reframing eating disorders. Instead of focusing on the ‘severity of the disease’, you can then address it as a set of coping mechanisms that develop over a period of time. Because coping mechanisms are learned, in many cases they can also be unlearned.

Until girls approach puberty they are normally psychologically and physically healthy. They read and write and develop their social skills. 1 They are physically strong and are active. Elementary school is a positive experience for many girls because it is in synch with their physical and cognitive development. However, as girls approach puberty the more detrimental forces of socialization come into play. Girls are socialized to put the needs of others ahead of their own 2 and are pressured to silence their thoughts, feelings and needs in order to achieve and maintain relationships. Girls begin to hold back their feelings and opinions. In the process they lose their ‘voice’ and subsequently their ability to know what they think and feel. 3 This causes them to doubt their perceptions, judgments and ultimately themselves. As girls move from being the centre of their experience and begin to focus outward for definition of themselves and their experiences. They lose their “I”, or sense of self, and focus on “YOU.” Girls are socialized to internalize their distress. When girls can’t express themselves directly, they do so indirectly. They blame themselves and turn their feelings against themselves by speaking about themselves in a negative voice. Because fat is seen as bad, girls express themselves in terms of fat regardless of their physical size. They ‘feel fat,’ speak in ‘fat talk’ and encode their feelings and experiences in a ‘language of fat’. This becomes a way of turning concerns about something real on the inside into something artificial on the outside. Girls deal with the discomfort of their psychological fat by trying to change their bodies. They diet in the belief that if they change their bodies they can change their lives and, thus, how they feel about themselves.

Eating disorders occur because of a complex combination of factors that include the predisposition to anxiety or to obsessive compulsive disorder, genetics, the individual’s stage of development, societal factors, family dynamics and personality Because fat is seen as bad, girls express themselves What you can do structure. The societal matrix in terms of fat regardless of their physical size. Intervention is about stopping behaviours before they escalate within which disordered eating They ‘feel fat,’ speak in ‘fat talk’ and encode their into fullblown eating disorders. occurs is one where food and How much you intervene and how weight management is strongly feelings and experiences in a ‘language of fat’ you use the suggestions provided endorsed as a sign of ‘good below will depend on your skills and expertise and on the character’ and where selfworth is defined in terms of body level of comfort that you feel. shape and size. Disordered eating behaviours become a way for girls to deal with feelings that are too painful or are Know and trust yourself considered inappropriate to reveal, with tension and anxiety, It’s important that you know and respect where you are on with emotional conflict and with difficulties that the individual the continuum of skills and experience and to acknowledge feels cannot be expressed or resolved. what you bring to the situation. Everyone has something valuable to offer. Developmental stages for girls While we can’t change biology or genetics, it is important Develop an honest relationship with her to understand that they may influence the predisposition to You can have four Ph.D.s but if you don’t have a solid disordered eating behaviours. Societal and developmental relationship with ‘Katie’ nothing will happen. Intervention is influences on girls’ development are significant in supporting more about connection than having the right techniques and both risk and resilience to an eating disorder. Here is a look things to do. Every girl has a story and wants to feel heard. at some developmental issues that are helpful to be aware of She wants to be reassured that you know or can imagine what when working with girls. her experience or feelings are like for her. She also wants you to not judge her if your experiences and feelings are different At birth infant girls are completely merged with their from hers. mothers. By the time they are 3 years old they have begun c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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Help her express her feelings symbolically Stuffed animals and dolls are helpful in representing the people ‘Katie’ has issues with. Talking to them symbolically means that she doesn’t have to worry about hurting them. It helps her take herself seriously and make the feeling real. It helps her move past the feeling, and teaches her that she doesn’t have to encode it in fat talk. She also doesn’t have to confront the person directly.

Encourage her to speak in a big voice Get to know her Don’t focus solely on the disorder. ‘Katie’ may be ‘anorexic’ but did you know that she is a soccer player, has a great sense of humour and hates mustard? Getting to know who she is part of forming a relationship. It also helps her articulate her interests, strengths, talents and insecurities and helps her define herself in terms that are not related to weight.

Girls feel powerless when they can’t set boundaries or express what they think and feel. This is evident when they express themselves in a tiny, soft little voice. Encourage her to stand up and speak in a BIG VOICE when you are role playing and when she is talking to someone symbolically. Talk about how the different voices make her feel.

Know how and when to refer

Learn the golden rule of intervention

Check out the resources in your community and when you need to, refer her to someone with more expertise.

I didn’t break it. I can’t fix it. I can provide support and services within my personal and professional role

Don’t work alone

Remember Nancy Drew Help her become a detective. Encourage her curiosity about her behaviours, her thoughts and what she tells herself. Embedded in ‘Katie’s’ stories are clues about the feelings and situations that trigger her fat talk and the eating disorder behaviours. It is only when we resolve these clues that we can help her to make meaningful changes.

It takes a lot of courage for both of you to confront your fears and embrace your curiousity. CS

Did you know?

Be specific Girls with eating disorders tend to have ‘black and white’ or ‘all or nothing’ thinking. They tend to use global language instead of being specific about right now. Keep asking her to give you a ‘for instance’ and help her focus on just one thing.

Help her expand her range of feelings Feelings such as anger, disappointment, loneliness and feeling criticized are often not part of a girl’s emotional vocabulary and are often labelled as bad. I ask my clients to pick a few ‘feeling cards’ from the bowl in my office and use the feeling on each card in a sentence. In the beginning the sentences are general but gradually they become more specific and more about the girl herself.

Another interesting fact!

www.nedic.ca

Women are often known to overestimate their weight and body size? When asked to select the image that best corresponds to their own body type, most choose an image that is 1-2 sizes higher than their actual body type. What does this mean? Most women perceive their body shape to be larger than they actually are.

200 Elizabeth Street 7ES-421, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4

Ask her to remember the specific day and time of day when she felt fat. Encourage her to talk about what she was doing and thinking about. Did she have any thoughts that made her feel badly, such as being annoyed at someone, or feel jealous or insecure? Have her tell her story again without feeling fat. Some girls feel fat so much that it’s difficult to pick out one incident. When this is the case, focus on feeling small or powerless.

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Remember that You are Both Heroes

National Eating Disorder Information Centre

Help her decode fat talk

Work with the family doctor to ensure that ‘Katie’ is not at medical risk. If you are the only resource in your community (as is often the case in many rural and remote areas) consult with the professionals at the eating disorder resources in your province and/or with NEDIC. Asking for help and for reassurance is a sign of strength not weakness.

What women consider to be beautiful or the ideal shape is significantly smaller than what men consider to be the ideal shape. An experiment was done with the Body Type Scale. The result was that men leaned towards women being in the 5-7 range, whereas the women said that the 2-3 area is the ideal shape for a woman.

Endnotes

• Shakeshaft, C. (March 1986) “A gender at risk,” Phi Delta Kappan. Vol. 67, No. 7. pp. 500503 • Jack, D. (1991). Silencing the self: Women and depression. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. • Gilligan, C., Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. (1991). Women, girls, and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth Press.

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BARRY J. HOBIN & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS INCORPORATED

Glebe Chambers, 63 Pamilla Street, Ottawa, K1S 3K7 613-238-7200

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very day when the phone rings at Hopewell’s small office; at the other end is someone is looking for help - to find the resources they need to recover from an eating disorder, to obtain hope that a family member or friend will recover, wondering what they can do to help them, or how to get support for themselves as caregivers. 12 years ago three Ottawa mothers met at CHEO emergency room and realised that they had something in common – more that the fact that they each had a daughter that was struggling with anorexia, but that they had sought support in the community and found none. Frustrated by the lack of information, support and self-help services for eating disorders available in the Ottawa region, they founded Hopewell to provide these vital supports and to work with existing treatment providers to fill gaps in community services for teens, adults and their families coping with eating disorders. Over the years Hopewell grew, staff were hired, connections made and as the only eating disorder support centre in Eastern Ontario, Hopewell achieved credibility in the community. Now a not-for-profit registered charitable organization that is recognized and supported by the professional community, CHEO and the Ottawa Hospital, Hopewell has become the ‘go to’ place for information on and support for those affected by eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia or binge eating) providing hope, support and information to individuals struggling with eating disorders and to their families and friends.

As the only eating disorder support centre in the region it remains the sole support available to people looking for information on how to navigate the system, find professional help, and gain hope for recovery.

Hopewell is proud to have received recognition in the community as recipients of the 2010 CHEO “Let’s Keep Kids out of Hospital” award in the mental health category and the 2010 Canadian Mental Health Association Award “for services to mental health”. Hopewell offers a number of programs that give families and individuals positive coping skills to use in recovery from an eating disorder. These including telephone, e-mail and face to face peer support, support groups for individuals and families, expressive arts groups, mentoring programs, presentations and workshops for professionals as well as educational presentations in schools and workplaces. c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m


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In 2010, Hopewell responded to over 1200 requests for information and support and made presentations to over 3,000 people. Hopewell also promotes awareness of eating disorders by helping youth understand the importance of healthy attitudes towards body image, eating and physical activity. Hopewell’s presentations are designed to educate participants on healthy attitudes, well being and building self-esteem. Hopewell suggests high schools start the conversation about body image by showing “Teen Truth; An Inside Look at Body Image” to their students. This 22 minute documentary film intertwines compelling teen interviews with true stories of  young men and women who are struggling to overcome their dangerous fixations on an unhealthy

self-image. With a focus on teen performance enhancing drug use and eating disorders, the film challenges youth to think differently about how they see themselves and their peers. The film is accompanied by a curriculum package to stimulate discussion.

Hopewell receives no ongoing or government funding, and relies entirely on the community for support. We hold two annual fundraising events every year; “Stepping Out for Hopewell” Fashion Show held at the Royal Ottawa Golf Club in October, and the “Love Your Life” Valentine’s Gala held at the Hilton Garden Inn in February. Hopewell offices are located in Heartwood House – a community of 14 not for profit organizations which allows them to maximize their limited resources by sharing space and services such as reception, photocopying and internet.

Statistics

• Eating disorders are the most common chronic illnesses in the female adolescent population, with an incidence of up to 5%  • Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness,

between 18-20%  • One study suggests that unhealthy dieting behaviours are reported in girls as young as 10 years of age • Significant symptoms of eating disorders were reported by 27% of Ontario schoolgirls aged 12–18 years.

What People Say about Hopewell:

“I am so very appreciative of the work that Hopewell does to help those suffering from an eating disorder. Over the years we have sought help for our daughter from hospitals, psychiatrists ... and Hopewell has by far been the best help we have ever received”. “From our very first contact with Hopewell, we were very much given that hope that we needed at a time when we were at the end of our rope. My hat goes off to all those who work with Hopewell for their expertise, their generosity and their sincere desire to help those afflicted with this disorder.” CS

Contact Hopewell

Web site: www.hopewell.ca Email : info@hopewell.ca Phone: 613-241 3428

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What bullying looks like Throughout this past year, bullying has been making headlines across Canada. In early 2011, a series of suicides in Nova Scotia related to bullying and cyberbullying inspired an anti-bullying movement in Atlantic communities, and led Nova Scotia’s Ministry of Education to set up a cyberbullying task force. In Alberta, news of another teen’s suicide, also related to cyberbullying, surfaced in the spring. From Vancouver to Ottawa, St. John’s to Montreal, bullying became a major focus in the media. Gone are the days when bullying was seen as a rite of passage, or as something that was just part of growing up. Today, parents, educators, and young people everywhere are talking about bullying in a different way. The perception that it’s something to “tough out” has shifted. Now, bullying is something that is no longer to be tolerated. As schools, parents, and various levels of government learn new ways to manage bullying, Kids Help Phone continues to be a go-to resource for young people across Canada who are dealing with all aspects of bullying, which can take many forms. Kids Help Phone is also a trusted resource for parents and youth professionals, who will find a new report about cyberbullying online now at www.kidshelpphone.ca.

“I know what bullying is like seeing as I go through it every day. My parents or friends have no clue about because I will never let them know! People are now spreading rumors saying I’m emo. my life sux and the popular girls are making it worse. people hate me for no reason and I can’t figure it out. I think it’s cuz of how I dress and look. I’’ve been pushed and shoved in hallways, had someone spit on me, threaten me...my life sux... please I need help!” - Real post from kidshelpphone.ca

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Bullying can take many forms: verbal, physical or social. It can also take place at school, at home, or in the community and can happen in person, on the phone, online, or a combination of all three. While some people might think of bullying as purely physical (i.e. hitting or pushing), actions like stealing or destroying someone’s belongings are also considered forms of physical bullying. Social or verbal bullying take the form of rumours, gossip, social exclusion, threatening, criticizing, or making sexist, racist or homophobic statements. Relationship or dating violence can also be understood as a form of bullying, and can include ridiculing; sharing private, personal information with others; forcing a boyfriend or girlfriend to do things that he or she doesn’t want to do; and verbally or physically hurting the other person. And then there is cyberbullying, which takes place over technology platforms like social networking sites, instant messaging or or texting. Sending hurtful emails, posting embarrassing photos of someone, or gossiping about them in online forums or social networking sites are all examples of cyberbullying.

How bullying affects kids

“I have been bullied since around grade 2 to grade 3 and I’m now in grade 7…I am getting sadder and sadder. I am depressed and my parents don’t know it. Inside I am crying for help but it doesn’t show.” - Real post from kidshelpphone.ca Bullying was long seen as a rite of passage, something that many kids go through as a regular part of growing up. But that perspective has started to change as we learn more about the impact of bullying. It’s no longer seen as a way for young people to develop a “thick skin” or learn to stick up for themselves, but as something that can cause stress and anxiety, sometimes for years after the bullying has stopped.


Kids and teens are who are experiencing bullying might be afraid to go to school, coming home with unexplained bruises or cuts, or might seem upset when they’re online if they’re being cyberbullied. If your kid or teen is being bullied, there are things you can do to help. Listen to what they’re telling you, and let them know it’s okay to ask for help. They might also want to talk to a friend, a teacher, a counsellor or a coach they trust. At first, young people might worry that confiding in someone is the same as tattling. Help them understand that there is a difference, especially when it comes to their safety. Remind them that it isn’t their fault. It’s not uncommon for kids who are bullied to feel like it’s their fault: bullying can affect a child’s self-esteem. Help them understand that bullying can stop. Suggest that next time they are bullied, they walk away and get to a safe place; avoid places where bullying has happened; and to spend time with people they know will stick up for them. Practice responses together. Spend some time with your kid and think about what they can say to a bully. If they don’t want to practice this with you, they can practice it in front of a mirror. They can also bounce it off a counsellor at Kids Help Phone: 1-800-668-6868 Work out a plan together to put an end to the bullying. This might mean contacting an authority, like a school principal or the police.

Along with fear, anxiety, and low self-esteem, young people who are bullied can experience anger, frustration, hurt, difficulty concentrating, helplessness, and loneliness. There is also a range of physical effects these feelings can lead to, including; stomach aches, headaches, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, sleeping too much and fatigue. Over time, all of these feelings – both emotional and physical – can be compounded with a growing sense of hopelessness and despair.

What to do if your kid is being bullied

Young people who are being bullied might feel embarrassed or afraid of what’s happening to them. Because of these feelings, they don’t always tell their parents they are being bullied.

Encourage them to try not to retaliate. Walking away sends a powerful message, and fighting is likely to make the situation worse. Don’t give up. If you and your kid have already tried a few different things to make the bullying stop, keep trying, and keep talking about it. Along with Kids Help Phone’s 2011 report on cyberbullying, parents, educators, and anyone with kids in their lives can visit www.kidshelpphone.ca for tips and other information about bullying. CS

©copyright iStockphoto.com | Hjalmeida

Young people who are bullied often feel lonely, unhappy, and frightened as a result. They might start to withdraw from family, school and social activities.

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39 Excerpt from Crime Prevention Ottawa’s Neighbourhood Toolkit

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n all neighbourhoods, urban or rural, wealthy or low income, illegal drugs are available to young people. Teens can be exposed to drugs at school, on the streets, at homes and in clubs— and at increasingly younger ages. The risks associated with drug use are very serious. Even what seems to a teen like harmless experimentation can lead to serious consequences, including health problems, addiction, damage to relationships, criminal activity and legal consequences. A good defence against drug use among youth in your neighbourhood is to try to involve and engage young people in positive social activities. You should also be aware of the different types of drugs and their effects, the signs that a young person may be using drugs and the resources available to help them and your family. Always keep the lines of communication open between you and your children.

Talk to teens about drugs

Many people think that talking to children about drugs will only increase their interest in trying them, but studies have proven that the opposite

is true. It is important for parents to create open lines of communication with their kids at a young age and to talk to them about drugs, addiction and how these affect people’s lives in negative ways. As exposure to drugs happens at younger and younger ages, youth need the tools to make good decisions early. The National Anti-Drug Strategy offers these tips for talking to your teen about drugs: • Listen to your teenager’s concerns and take his or her questions seriously; • Continue or develop the habit of talking regularly with your child on a variety of subjects. This will make it easier to discuss the issue of drug use when the time comes; • Start early and get ahead of the questions. Start talking about drugs as soon as your child learns about their existence through friends, the media and the people around them; • Your child should learn about the dangers of drugs from parents first. Getting a first perspective on drug use from the parent is the starting point for forming their own opinion in the future; and, • Be clear on where you stand. Successful communication with your teenager requires clear ideas. Your teenager needs to understand that you have a definite position on drugs and that his or her behaviour will be measured against that position.

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as Inhalants (e.g. aerosol sprays), Ritalin, pain-killers and other prescription drugs. Binge drinking is also a problem with many young people and can lead to many dangerous activities. Outbursts of violence, unsafe sex and impaired driving are just a few examples that can have serious and sometime fatal consequences.

Why do teens take drugs?

People, including teens, take drugs because they want to change something about their lives. Some of the reasons young people have given for taking drugs include:

Types of Drugs

In order to talk to your teen about drugs, it’s important to know what drugs are out there.

Recreational drugs fall into three categories: 1. Stimulants speed up the body’s central nervous system. Drugs in this category include Cocaine, Crack, Ecstasy and Crystal Meth. 2. Depressants slow down the body’s central nervous system. Drugs in this category include Heroin. 3. Hallucinogens cause the user to see, hear or feel things that do not exist. These include Marijuana, Hash/Hash Oil and LSD. Teenagers may also use everyday household items or prescription and over-the-counter drugs to get high, such

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• To fit in • To escape or relax • To relieve boredom • To seem grown up • To rebel • To experiment

Some of the dangers of drug use

Drugs can distort the user’s perception of what is happening around him or her. As a result, the person’s actions may be odd, irrational, inappropriate and even destructive. There are many health risks associated with drug use and teens are at greater risk because the adolescent brain is still developing.


Stimulant drugs can increase a person’s heart rate and blood pressure, leading to strokes and death. They can cause convulsions or cause a person to have trouble breathing. They can cause an irregular heartbeat and anorexia. Depressants can lead to gum infections, weakened immune system and impotency. Illegal drug labs don’t have quality control processes or equipment to control doses. A user can never be sure what they are putting into their body and many drugs contain other dangerous side products. As a result, users can overdose or be poisoned. Also, sharing needles and other drug paraphernalia can result in Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS or other blood-borne viruses. Drugs can lower inhibitions and affect a person’s judgment, leading to dangerous activity that might be unusual for the user, such as unsafe sex, impaired driving, additional drug use or trying more highly addictive drugs.

Warning signs of drug use – What to look for

Although teenagers can frequently change their friends, habits and interests, there are some changes to look for that often accompany drug use.

Parents should be aware of their children’s activities and look for: 1. Changes in social circle, in particular new friends that he or she doesn’t bring home or talk about. 2. Changes in personal priorities, such as turning away from family life or a favourite sport or other interest. 3. Changes in academic performance. Lowered interest in school is a clear sign there is an issue to be addressed. 4. Changes in behaviour, particularly if your teen becomes highly secretive or shows signs of depression and withdrawal. 5. Changes in health, such as changes in sleeping and eating patterns or weight. 6. Physical clues. Certain objects, such as pipes, small spoons, baby soothers and surgical masks have been associated with drug use. More details on the signs to look for can be found on the National Anti-Drug Strategy website at: http://www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/parents/ pubs/talking-aborder/talking-aborder.html#section1

Drug treatment

If the drug problem is serious, treatment is available, but it is important for the user to first understand that they can take control of their life. Addiction is a chronic and repetitive disease so it may take several attempts to help a young person kick the habit. Treatments can include counselling, medication or both. Your doctor can help you find the treatment that is right for you. Some local treatment options can be found by calling 2-1-1 or at: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse: www.ccsa.ca/Eng/KnowledgeCentre/OurDatabases/ TreatmentServices/Pages/default.aspx Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres website: www.oatc.ca

Legal risks

All drugs mentioned in this toolkit section fall under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and are considered illegal unless a person has been authorized to carry out specific activities. Young people who commit offences under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act can be arrested, charged, and could get a criminal record.

For more information

Please visit Crime Prevention Ottawa’s Neighbourhood Toolkit at: http://crimepreventionottawa.ca/en/neighbourhood-toolkit

Resources

National Drug Strategy www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/parents/parents.html Talking with your Teen about Drugs www.nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca/parents/pubs/ talking-aborder/talking-aborder.html#section1 Drug Rehab Ottawa www.drugrehabottawa.com Drug and alcohol treatment centres in Ontario w w w.da r t .o n .c a / DA R T/ ow a l i ve / da r t _ o r g _w w w_ address_newDB.www_address_list CS

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Committed to competing vigorously in the restaurant and retail sectors by providing quality touch screen point of sales products at an affordable price.

1930  Norwood  Avenue, Ottawa,  Ontario K1H-5K6

Tel: (613) 260-8629 Fax: (613) 731-0524 www.dineamix.ca sales@dineamix.ca

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The Youth In Policing Initiative (YIPI) is a summer employment program with the Ottawa Police Service (OPS) for youth 14-17 years of age who are attending a secondary school program. The goal of the initiative is to give youth, who may experience barriers to success, an opportunity to develop job skills while enhancing police and community relations.  It also provides them with a glance at the inner workings of the Service from the viewpoint of a member of the community, and an opportunity to view the Service as a prospective employer.

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he program began in 2006 with a mere nine students and has been growing ever since. As a result of community based referrals and recruiting initiatives at schools and youth agencies, the OPS received a total of 300 applicants. From these applications, 39 students were selected and subsequently worked in sections across the organization such as the Marine/Dive/Trails Unit, Finance, Mail Services, Fleet, Human Resources, the Professional Development Centre, Fraud, Youth, the Chief’s Office, and many more. The YIPI students worked in the various sections throughout July and August, supporting community initiatives and learning valuable life and employment skills. As well, students were given the opportunity to participate in the Co-operative Education program, which allowed them to receive two credits towards their secondary school program upon successful completion of the program. The leadership skills acquired through the program, and the training the youth received, has aided them in serving as great ambassadors for the Service. Their contribution to the Service and the community as a whole, as well as the value of the program itself, has been recognized both within and outside of the OPS. This was exemplified by a generous $10,000 donation from Waste Management Ottawa towards leadership development in the program. Below are a few examples of how the YIPI students made a difference in their community this year.

YIPIs get involved in crime prevention

On July 26, 2011, Ottawa Police launched the “All Valuables Removed” initiative aimed at reducing thefts from vehicles by reducing opportunities for criminals. To help promote the initiative, a Youth Section Constable, along with several YIPI students, handed out “All Valuables Removed” warning cards from July 12-14, 2011, in parking lots and garages in the downtown area. c r i m e s e n s e m ag . c o m

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RR#2 3621 Moreland Dixon Road Inverary, Ontario K0H 1X0

613-353-1606

Owned and Operated by Brian Harrison

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A total of 4500 warning cards were handed out and not only got noticed by the community, but also by newscasts. A warning card happened to be placed on a van belonging to CTV and the participating YIPI students ended up getting an interview with the media outlet, explaining what the cards were and how they helped. A week later, there was a large amount of break and enters and robberies being reported in the Rockcliffe area. On July 19, 2011, YIPI students walked around the area putting theft notices in mailboxes in an attempt to raise awareness about the crimes that were happening. By the end of the day, a total of 400 notices had been handed out. Not only did the YIPI students help raise awareness, but shortly after handing out the notices, a suspect was arrested.

YIPIs help search for missing youth Justin Rutter

Justin Rutter disappeared from his family home on October 8, 2009, and has not been heard from since. The Youth Section continues to investigate this file but leads are drying up. In the hopes of stimulating new information, the Youth Section Sergeant directed several of the YIPI students to canvass areas of Vanier where Justin was known to frequent. From August 2-3, 2011, YIPI students attended over 200 businesses in the Vanier area and handed out Justin Rutter’s missing person poster.

At the end of the second day, the group attended the Factory Direct located at 1235 Donald St and ran into Justin Rutter’s mother and brother. Mrs. Rutter told the group that she, “really appreciated their efforts as it shows that people still care and remember Justin”. The group was touched by Mrs. Rutter’s comments as they could see the tears forming in her eyes and it nearly brought them to tears as well. This one interaction brought home the message that even the simplest task can have a huge impact. The response this year towards the contribution of the YIPI students as been overwhelmingly positive and the OPS looks forward to continuing this initiative in the years to come. Applications for next year’s YIPI summer positions will be available in early 2012 at ottawapolice.ca! CS

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Holly Johnson, University of Ottawa Jenna MacKay, Carleton University

Building Prevention:

Sexual Violence, Youth and Drinking The recently released research, Building Prevention: Sexual Violence, Youth and Drinking, is an insightful look at a critical problem. It found that young people have mixed understanding about the issue, and there are almost no prevention programs that address alcohol-related sexual violence. Alcohol-related community services focus on addiction and drunk driving, but don’t integrate a sexual violence component. Learn more in the executive summary. crimesense

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his report is the outcome of an Ottawa-based study that explores the connections between sexual violence and drinking among young people. Along with a review of programs aiming to reduce alcohol-related sexual violence, this study profiles some Ottawa-based prevention programs, and presents the results of focus group discussions with local service providers, youth workers, and young women and men recruited from high schools and universities. The objective of this project is to stimulate broader discussion about prevention strategies for the Ottawa community. Effective sexual violence prevention requires an understanding of the context in which it is most likely to occur. Young women experience the highest rates of sexual violence and young men are

particular complexity to the topic of sexual violence prevention. A broad health promotion strategy is important for youth violence prevention as numerous high risk and harmful behaviours among youth are interrelated. Research suggests that the following are important elements of successful sexual violence prevention programs: • Focusing on positive youth development and building overall capacity • Focusing on preventing sexual violence and drug and alcohol abuse together rather than targeting just one of these behaviours • Changing attitudes and beliefs among young people, their peer networks, and the broader community that provide a climate where sexual violence is tolerated • Engaging peers or young adults to deliver prevention messages • Approaching men as allies and inviting them to take an active role in preventing violence against women • Including a gender component and discussions about gender roles and peer pressure

most often the perpetrators. Most sexual violence takes place between people who know each other, typically in the context of social events such as parties and bars or in dating situations.

• Providing plenty of opportunities to practice and build confidence with new behaviours • Providing repeated and sustained messages

Alcohol is so common in sexual violence that it is considered by many to be the “date rape drug”. A study of women using sexual assault treatment centres in Ontario found that two-thirds had consumed alcohol immediately prior to the assault and 21% (25% in Ottawa) were thought to have been drugged (Du Mont et al., 2009). In fact, alcohol is often used as a deliberate strategy to increase the vulnerability of victims and to reduce resistance to sexual violence. Very often young men receive approval from friends to use these tactics. In one study in the United States, onethird of male university students said their friends approve of getting a woman drunk to have sex with her (Carr & Van Deusen, 2004). When alcohol is involved, a societal double standard arises. Intoxicated women are held responsible for their own victimization whereas intoxication is considered to reduce the responsibility of male perpetrators. Thus, although alcohol is not a direct cause of sexual violence, alcohol adds a

Research also identifies what has not worked to prevent sexual violence: • Educating young women on avoiding high-risk situations such as drinking or travelling alone – while this may be good advice and may protect individual women in specific situations, it does not reduce sexual violence • Painting all young men as potential rapists – young men resist these messages as they tend to think this is irrelevant to them personally • Simply providing information about rape myths • Instructing young people on how to change their behaviour without providing opportunities to practice new behaviours in different situations

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An innovative new “bystander approach” holds great promise as it broadens responsibility for preventing sexual violence and enlists men and women as positive agents of change. This approach encourages men and women to get involved as bystanders by learning to detect risky situations in social contexts, challenge sexist attitudes and behaviours, and intervene and provide support to a woman at risk of assault. The primary goal is to have a lasting effect on changing social norms.

colleges. The objective is to raise awareness and change attitudes about sexual violence among young men and women. The program provides opportunities for thoughtful discussion and self-reflection, and opportunities to apply new information. A primary component of the public education work of ORCC is to identify and challenge rape myths and stereotypes that contribute to a culture that condones and tolerates sexual violence.

Ottawa-based prevention initiatives

Sexual Assault Support Centre of Ottawa (SASC)

The Fourth R

CALACS francophone d’Ottawa

A sample of sexual violence prevention initiatives is profiled in the report to stimulate discussion concerning gaps and effective ways to address them. A relatively new initiative in Ottawa is The Fourth R, is a comprehensive, school-based program designed to involve students, teachers, parents, and the community in reducing violence and risk behaviours, including alcohol-related sexual assault. Over 100 teachers have been trained to deliver The Fourth R, covering all 50 English language high schools in Ottawa. The two French school boards are working towards implementation of The Fourth R for the 2011-2012 academic year. The program meets the curriculum requirements of the Ontario Ministry of Education and is taught as part of the regular health and physical education curriculum without the requirement of additional class time.

In Love and In Danger

This is a student-led sexual violence prevention program that was developed in collaboration with Family Services à la famille Ottawa, the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, and the Ottawa Catholic School Board to raise awareness and prevent dating violence among young people. This interactive program challenges students to get involved by developing their own anti-violence projects and becoming agents of change in their schools.

Sexual Abuse Support Program at Amethyst Women’s Addiction Centre

This program offers group support to women as they heal from the trauma of sexual abuse while resisting the use of alcohol or drugs as a coping mechanism. The program is unique in that it addresses the issues of sexual abuse and substance abuse simultaneously.

SASC provides public awareness and education information and workshops in high schools, universities and colleges, places of business, and other community locations. Centre d’aide et de lute contre les aggressions à caractère sexuel (CALACS) is an Ottawa agency that offers diverse services to survivors. CALACS works to end sexual violence against women by offering prevention and public education resources to the community as an integral part of their mandate.

Right to Respect Campaign, University of Ottawa

This campaign was developed through the collaborative efforts of the Student Federation of the University of Ottawa, the Graduate Students’ Association, Protection Services, a faculty member, and the University of Ottawa administration. The goals of the campaign are to bring about lasting change in behaviour on campus through positive messaging presented on posters and short video clips, to educate the University community on harassment, discrimination and sexual violence, to encourage individuals to speak out against these acts, and to inform the university community about the resources available on campus and off.

Prevent Alcohol and Risk-Related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y)

The purpose of this one-day program at the Ottawa Hospital is to provide relevant information to young people that will enable them to recognize potential injury-producing situations, to make informed choices, and to adopt behaviours and actions that minimize risk. Police, paramedics, emergency departments physicians, and injury survivors talk to young people about the impacts of risky behaviours. There is a particular focus on alcohol misuse and alcohol-related injuries and information about preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault, but no direct messages about preventing sexual violence in the context of alcohol use.

Ottawa Rape Crisis Centre (ORCC)

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The tag line “I am making a difference when…/Je change les choses quand…” encourages everyone to see that they have a part to play. The campaign message specifically related to prevention of sexual violence is “I am making a difference when I ask her how far she wants to go”. The posters and videos are shown at specific campus events and specific times throughout the academic year.

Carleton University

Carleton University employs a Coordinator for Sexual Assault Support Services who offers sexual assault education and training, individual short-term counseling, information and referrals, and safety planning to anyone in the Carleton community who has experienced sexual violence. Practicing from a feminist perspective, the Coordinator offers training on the issue of sexual harassment and sexual assault to staff, faculty and students, including frosh facilitators, residence fellows, athletics staff, and new student safety constables. She works closely with Health and Counseling Services, as well as with campus and community based organizations, such as Carleton’s Womyn’s Centre, student governments, the Ottawa Coalition to End Violence Against Women, and the Coalition for a Carleton University Sexual Assault Centre. Education and awareness activities include Sexual Assault Awareness Week on campus and co-host of the 2009 “Man Talk” Youth Conference with the Ottawa Coalition to End Violence Against Women and the Sexual Assault Network

Results of the focus groups

The results of the focus group discussions reinforce the need for broader preventive efforts for alcohol-related sexual violence in Ottawa. In analyzing discussions with youth, two general themes emerged: (1) Blurry Lines, where youth demonstrated confusion and contradictions in their attitudes and beliefs about sexual violence, and (2) Roles, where participants described stereotyped role expectations of the “victim”, whereas the role of the perpetrator was less often discussed or defined. Furthermore: According to young people and service providers,

there is confusion among young people as to what behaviours constitute sexual assault when someone has “crossed the line”. Consent, in particular, is not well understood among youth. Young women who were drinking while assaulted tend to minimize the severity and impact of the assault. It is difficult for women to report sexual violence, especially if alcohol was involved. Rape myths are prevalent among youth, although not consistently recognized as myths. Young men admit to joking about sexual violence amongst their friends. A number of important recommendations for preventing alcoholrelated sexual violence emerged from the focus group discussions with young people and service providers relating to education for youth, responsibilities of bars and clubs, and improving the response of the criminal justice system. Strategies for preventing alcohol-related sexual violence were also highlighted.

Collaboration among multiple partners

1. Prevention of sexual violence is the responsibility of a wide range of stakeholders including school boards, universities, colleges, community agencies, bar and club owners, youthserving organizations, and others. A multi-pronged approach is needed, with partnerships among all stakeholders.

Sexual and alcohol-related education for youth

2. Youth should receive education that examines gender role expectations, dating scripts, sexual scripts, and explicit information concerning consent. 3. Prevention efforts must take account of the reality of young people’s lives which includes drinking and sexual behaviours. Alcohol and drug prevention education should be linked with sexual education in school curricula and should employ a harm reduction approach. 4. Youth recommend that the “no means no” campaign, developed by the Canadian Federation of Students, be continued. They also state that the concept of “no” needs to be clarified so that youth understand that “no” does not need to be verbal, explicit, or the responsibility of the woman to communicate.

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5. Youth should receive alcohol education on how to drink responsibly and universities should work to challenge the cultural norms of student life that include binge drinking. 6. The stigma of being a victim of sexual assault should be reduced through educational initiatives.

16. Educate young women to take precautions to avoid sexual assault alongside the message that despite a woman’s actions or inactions she is never responsible for sexual assault. The responsibility of perpetrators needs to be a visible component of sexual assault prevention.

Bars and clubs

17. Promote the message that sexual assault is not just a woman’s issue, it is a community issue.

8. Bars and clubs should take some responsibility for intoxicated female patrons to ensure their safety.

18. Produce anti-violence initiatives that men can relate to and encourage young men to become leaders in anti-violence initiatives. Male-focused initiatives should be male-driven and include male-to-male and peer-to-peer education.

7. Bartenders should follow guidelines stipulating that intoxicated individuals are not served.

Criminal justice system

9. There continues to be barriers to reporting sexual assault to police which should be addressed. 10. The criminal justice system should treat sexual assault more seriously, resulting in harsher outcomes to help shift public perceptions about the seriousness of this crime. 11. Legal reform is needed as the court process continues to perpetuate myths and re-traumatizes victims.

Prevention messages

12. Prevention initiatives should continue to work to debunk rape myths and stereotypes that place the blame and responsibility on women and prevent victims from coming forward. 13. Poster campaigns should engage both men and women yet be clear on the gendered nature of sexual violence. 14. Promote an accurate definition of sexual assault which incorporates the concept of a continuum from unwanted sexual touching to rape.

19. Involve youth in the development and implementation of prevention initiatives. 20. Use contemporary social media and technologies to disseminate prevention messages. 21. Prevention efforts need to be culturally competent so that all young people can relate to them. The objective of this project is to stimulate discussion among young people, youth workers, service providers, educators, and health care providers and to work collaboratively toward developing effective strategies for reducing sexual violence in the context of alcohol use.

For more information on this project, please visit:

http://crimepreventionottawa.ca/uploads/files/initiative/ bullding_prevention_final_report.pdf To order or download posters for the “Don’t Be That Guy” initiative please go to: http://crimepreventionottawa.ca/en/ initiatives/dont-be-that-guy CS

15. Define consent and coercion within and outside the context of relationships.

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Crimesense Magazine - Fall 2011 - Ottawa