Exploring a Symbiotic Design Approach
Master of Architecture Thesis 2015 School of Architecture College of the Arts
A Symbiotic Design Approach
GARMENT-ARCHITECTURE A Symbiotic Design Approach by Vanessa Vanderhoof
Thesis document submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture at Portland State University Portland, Oregon June 2015
PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS The undersigned hereby certify that the Masters thesis of Vanessa Vanderhoof has been approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture
Thesis Committee: Advisor Aaron Whelton Assistant Professor of Architecture __________________________________ ________________ Date Committe Member
Clive R. Knights Professor of Architecture, Director of the School of Architecture
__________________________________ ________________ Date
Acknowledgements This research and documentation would not have been accomplished without the support and guidance of the faculty of the School of Architecture at Portland State University. I am grateful to every member of the faculty for collectively shaping my graduate experience and education. I am proud to have contributed to this program and look forward to its growth. I would like to thank my cohort members for challenging and supporting me through our shared journey. I would like to express my gratitude to the faculty who served on my thesis committee. Thank you to Aaron Whelton. Aaron was a great faculty advisor; he helped me adapt my thesis over the course of the school year and was always bringing fresh thought and creativity to my design process and ideas. As I struggled through learning everything I could about another design field, he saw opportunities to express that learning process into my thesis. Thank you to Clive Knights for always revealing new design opportunities and approaches at reviews, and for being a great critic. I would like to thank Noriko Kikuchi for making time in her busy schedule to meet with me to share her experience and thoughts as an artist and designer in the fashion realm. I would like to thank my aunt, Susan Ipaktchian, for taking time to help me with the production of this book. Thank you to my family for all of their love and support. Thank you for believing in me and encouraging me to become what I wanted to be. My family constantly inspires me, and I would never have made it through graduate school without them. Thank you to my friends back home in Utah, and here in Portland, for encouraging me and for those occasional breaks from the endless work hours in the studio.
abstract Architecture and garment design share many deeply rooted territories that drive each field. One of the most basic shared territories is sheltering the body, although they operate at vastly different scales. This difference in scale leads to the assumption that architecture and garment design are incompatible at large scales. There are a number of small-scale works, usually a garment influenced by architecture, that represent a convergence of architecture and garment-making. There has yet to be a larger-scale work, such as a building, that integrates the design and making-techniques of both fields. This thesis focuses on how garment-making can influence the architectural design process, in an effort to create a building design that embodies both fields. In Portland, the garment industry is sparse, leaving a sort of placelessness to the industry. This project proposes a garment center that would house different elements of Portlandâ€™s garment industry, becoming a focal point to cinch the elements together. Through research and explorations, a design process and a building concept emerge to showcase the convergence of architecture and garment design.
Table of Contents 1.0
1.1 Research Question���������������������������������������������������������������������������������03
Research & Analysis
2.1 Literature Reviews����������������������������������������������������������������������������������09
2.2 Case Studies��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14
2.3 Understanding Both Fields��������������������������������������������������������������������20
The Fabric of Portland
3.1 Mapping Portland’s Garment Industry������������������������������������������������25
3.2 Site Selection & Analysis������������������������������������������������������������������������29
3.3 Toward a Portland Garment District���������������������������������������������������33
4.1 Design Overview������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37
4.2 Garment-Architecture: Urban Fabric��������������������������������������������������52
4.3 Garment-Architecture: Structure���������������������������������������������������������58
4.5 Garment-Architecture: Program����������������������������������������������������������64
4.6 Garment-Architecture: Site�������������������������������������������������������������������70
5.1 Summary (final design process diagram)��������������������������������������������79
5.3 Moving Forward��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������81
End Notes Appendix A: List of Figures Appendix B: Bibliography
1.0 Hypothesis Overview
How can the design & making of garments inform building design & the surrounding urban fabric? 3
introduction “Fashion is architecture: it is a matter of proportions.” - Coco Chanel1 The need for shelter binds together the origins of architecture and garment design. The different scales of either shelter cater to specific needs or desires for the body or inhabitant. For instance, the body’s need for clothing is a more localized and efficient means of portable shelter from weather forces like temperature, while also creating 5
privacy that shields the naked body at varying levels. Architectural shelter is not typically inhabited as intimately as clothing, and usually offers shelter for more than one person. Beyond sheltering the body, architecture and garment-making share the attribute of design. The fields of garment-making and architecture are seen as incongruent at certain points. Architecture is rigid, monumental, and permanent; clothing is pliable, ephemeral, and sometimes neophilac. However both architecture and garment design “engage in the creation and representation of urban
environments and together question notions of temporality, space, form, fit, interactivity, and mobility.”2 Garment design as an industry moves at a rapid pace, with trends and style as driving forces. The design and making of a building takes time, moving at a much slower speed. Although both garment design and architectural design move at differing speeds, the two fields constantly reflect on each other. The designers are able to refer to, and inform on each other through the common entity of the human body and how the designs respond to, or interact with it.
As garment design moves much faster, as well as operating at a much smaller scale, there are many examples of integrating architecture into a garment design. Some smaller-scale architectural examples of garment-making integration have been produced through installations or designs that tend to be impermanent or transient. Projects at smaller scales can more easily achieve a convergence of both architecture and garment design; this inherently allows for less permanence and more manageability of the design in total. Regardless of size, these previous projects prove that the two fields
have enough congruence to coexist conceptually and physically within one design project. I am interested in taking the coexistence of garment design and architecture through a symbiotic design process leading to a large-scale building design that merges both fields. By creating a symbiotic design approach, a building concept emerges through the â€œgarment-architecture lineâ€? as a holistic product of both architecture and garment design.
2.0 RESEARCH & analysis
literature reviews WEAR:WHERE? THE CONVERGENT GEOGRAPHIES OF ARCHITECTURE & FASHION By Louise Crewe In Wear:where? Louise Crewe suggests that both architecture and fashion engage in the creation of urban environments, and that a dismissal of the boundaries of the two fields may bring new developments and reveal intersecting qualities of the two disciplines. Crewe argues that fashion and architecture inject critical, intuitive understanding into the way in which we inhabit, interact, and understand built form. His premise is that both fashion and architecture are focused on the body, particularly sheltering the body. Crewe holds that the nature of the two fields are shifting closer to each other; architecture embracing a softer, sensory, and more tactile form typically associated with clothing. Fashion now challenges and embraces the idea of structured garments, blurring the lines between the two fields to expose new territories to be explored between 9
fashion and architecture. Other literature has acknowledged the correlations between fashion and architecture, and Crewe’s work draws upon these writings to define a base argument for the convergence of the practices. This piece opens up my research to many literature sources and projects that can validate and reinforce my research. Crewe also talks about how the fields of architecture and fashion view each other differently, highlighting where the two fields already intersect, such as fashion spaces. He suggests these fashion spaces could be a basis for the two fields to begin to converge, noting that fashion spaces offer transformative possibilities of how we inhabit urban built form and that could also potentially revise the politics of consumption. ARCHITECTURAL INSPIRATIONS IN FASHION DESIGN By Dr. Halime Paksoy In Architectural Inspirations in Fashion Design, Paksoy discusses how fashion can mimic architecture. The piece provides examples of how fashion designs have mimicked or drew
concepts from specific buildings. He often refers to “The Designer”, but is intentionally ambiguous as to who the Designer is; architect or fashion designer. Paksoy seems to imply that architecture is fashion’s muse, or can be, because it is monumental and more permanent. “Architecture can be an inspiration for a fashion design,” whether it is the overall architectural theme or just focusing on a small detail that is then incorporated into a garment. This implies that fashion moves so rapidly that it needs to pull concepts from something more permanent and grounded. There are plenty of examples of fashion designs that draw from architecture. Paksoy then analyzes the design of the fashion piece and its correlation to its architectural muse. Though I believe this is the first step toward merging part of the field of fashion design with architectural design, the difference in scale great enough for to argue that we cannot yet put the styling of clothing on an equal footing with building design. I appreciate the way in which the references to The Designer make it difficult to discern who the designer actually is. This work also provides me with potential small-scale case studies for my thesis.
ARCHITECTURE’S TEXTURAL SPACE: TEXTILES & ARCHITECTURE By Oliver Lowenstein In Architecture’s Textural Space, Lowenstein talks about Frank Gehry and how influential the folds and fabric of clothing were to his iconic designs of organic looking facades. “This may be a sign of its vitality, though also of the dynamic between the ephemeral and the permanent.” Lowenstein also acknowledges the technological advancements and how they bring together the fields of practices of the fashion industry and of architectural design. He talks about the structure of fabrics, down to the tension and compression of materiality that coincide within architecture discourse; fabrics and fashion’s use of fabrics, can inform architectural and textural spaces. Lowenstein also focuses on the conceptual connection of fabric and the skin or envelope of a building. This reading is very relevant to my thesis, because Lowenstein begins to connect technology with textile, analog with digital. As he connects aspects of the two fields, he also points out areas in which one designer of clothing would prevail, where an architectural designer
may not, in dealing with certain scales or materials. The examples provided in this text help draw out the technological bridge of media that I anticipate will facilitate converging design between clothing and building designers. THE REFLECTION OF IDENTITY THROUGH ARCHITECTURE & FASHION: TOWARDS A FASHION INSTITUTE FOR DURBAN By Hafsa Kader In this reading, Kader explored the connection between fashion and architecture as a “visual communicator” with emphasis on how a fashion institution could create an identity for the industry in Durban. Kader began his research for South African fashion by looking at architectural influences in fashion and trends. This is a dissertation, so there is a design proposal following the outline of his research. The design cohesively unites architecture and fashion to create a place of identity of the city of Durban. The reading focuses on a sense of place, and how to create the specific identity through a fashion institution through visual communicators informed by fashion and architecture.
This literature is extremely helpful in my research in exploring how to bridge connections between architecture and “fashion,” or in my case, garment design. Kader seeks to create an identity the site that takes into account the surrounding urban fabric. This parallels my interests and I may utilize some of the concepts from his research in order to further my design strategy. His work also provides a framework similar to the one I developed for my project over the course of the year.
as a goal or not. The ability of garments and fashionable designs to appeal almost instantly to people’s wishes is something that Roos implores architecture to do as well. This article was written from the fashion world, looking in to the architectural realm and discussing the areas in which architecture may learn from the fashion industry and garment design. This begins to scratch the surface of what my design proposal seeks to accomplish: Garment design that informs architecture and the surrounding urban fabric.
MORE FASHION IN ARCHITECTURE By Jonni Roos In More Fashion in Architecture, Roos talks about the relationships between fashion, architecture, and the social qualities and aspects that surround the two through design and politics. He states that neither the term “architecture” nor “fashion” refers to a solid or concrete item, but that they inform on social and individual creative processes. “In other words, fashion lacks architecture and architecture could have more fashion.” Roos then notes that architecture reflects a history of the times, that architecture followed certain styles, whether architects pursued them
rise and who these social and cultural meanings are generated by. This literature is helpful because it examines the process of garment making and sheds light on how fashion design is ingrained into contemporary society and culture. The theories of the social and cultural constructs that surround fashion and garment design are presented, but Barnard questions the origins of these theories. This will be a good research point while studying the city of Portland to unearth specifically where the garment design and fashion industry take root here.
FASHION AS COMMUNICATION By Malcolm Barnard In Fashion as Communication, Barnard takes the notion that the garments people wear have meaning and significance. He attempts to explain that the garments as products are neutral, but their uses communicate socially meaning. Barnard states that fashion and garment design have a social and cultural agenda and status in contemporary culture. He examines the parties involved with garment design – the consumer, the producer, and the critics – and exposes the tensions that 10
Pattern Magic By Tomoko Nakamichi Pattern Magic is my primary resource for patternmaking in garment design. Makamichi diagrams how one can design personal garment patterns by altering of the original patterns. â€œJust like works of art, garments come in various kinds: garments with visual impact, garments that react to the movement of the body, garments for casual wear â€“ but there is no one prescribed way for how they are made. The history of clothing began with the wrapping of a piece of fabric around the body, so you should let your mind be free and approach the making of garments with a sense of fun. Ideas for garments are arguably infinite.â€?3 11
Makamichi offers a step-by-step construction process of the patterns, muslins, and finished garments to allow designers to completely understand a new process of patternmaking. This book also offers ways in which to effectively and simply diagram and explain the making and construction process. This book offers ways in which to learn how to effectively communicate the design process of garment design. There is a key to guide the viewer through the diagrammatic language expressed in the drawings of each pattern. Also one of the shared attributes of design noticed in this book is that Makamichi works with scaled dress forms to enable easy, clear communication about the garment designs.
case studies â€œFashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening.â€? - Zaha Hadid4 My research relied heavily on case studies, as there is no hard quantifiable data to measure in researching architecture and garment design processes. This is why case studies are important to my thesis and inform the designs, processes, and results from work in both fields.
The following case studies focus heavily on garments in order to inform my thesis as much as possible about the garment design industry and processes; which I am less familiar with than architectural design. The case studies not only revealed the designersâ€™ processes, and decision-making behind their work, but also what can be learned by each project in regard to other creative fields.
INNER SPACE By Hussein Chalayan PROJECT SUMMARY This fashion line shows objects that go through a particular transformation into a garment. Each piece references a particular fashion era as well, with some underlying sexual undertones throughout the entire collection. For instance, Chalayan mentions that fashion is centered or focused on women, and in the particular era of this table skirt he transformed household items to illustrate the notion that women stayed home to care for the home versus working. This particular piece is a coffee table that can be transformed into a wooden skirt. Some of the other memorable pieces include chair covers that transform into the dress that a model wears before a table is transformed into a skirt.5 15
RELEVANCY This piece in particular takes an object, or furniture, and transforms it into a garment of the body rather than taking a garment and transforming it to something more. This not only encompasses a dynamic design through the table or chair covers, but also takes the urban fabric of a home and transforms those objects into a static garment. This project works from a different angle of design, considering most projects take a garment and transform it into something stagnant or useful as something other than clothing.
VEASYBLE By Gloria Pizilli, Arianna Petrakis, Ilaria Pacini, & Adele Bacc PROJECT SUMMARY The Veasyble collection is a series of accessories that evolve and transform into something that allows for momentary escapes from the surrounding environment. By sheltering a part of the body, mainly the head, eyes, or face, this creates a disconnect and transformation of the wearer that takes them conceptually out of the environment, allowing them to escape and have privacy instantaneously.6 RELEVANCY Though the collection is accessories rather than garments, it is exemplary in showing how fashion items take on architectural elements in their design. This is the creation of something
dynamic as per the user or inhabitant, and creates arguable spatial qualities once implemented to create privacy on demand. This also reinforces the shelter qualities that garments and buildings share. Though simple and basic in design, it is powerful in representing these numerous aspects of my thesis work, and a source of inspiration as to a number of artifacts that may lead to ideas behind a building design.
MOBIUS DRESS By J. Meejin Yoon PROJECT SUMMARY This dress explores the use of a continuous material and form to cover the body. This garment explores territory of scale between a garment and something of a small architectural entity. This garment morphs into an architectural entity through a series of movements of the body inhabiting the garment. This item is, in fact, structured by the body: as the dress twists and turns, there is a continually evolving surface always in relation to the human body.7 RELEVANCY This garment creates a dynamic design in which architectural qualities are infused into a continually evolving garment as the body moves and
adjusts. The dynamics of this garment reinforce the continuity of the fabric, endlessly creating new surfaces wrapping around the human form, and creating a stimulated urban fabric surrounding the garment.
VOLTAGE By Iris Van Herpen Co-Collaborated With Neri Oxman
comes from abstract ideas and using new techniques, not the re-invention of old ideas.”9
PROJECT SUMMARY The fashion line,Voltage, by Iris van Herpen is an eleven piece collection that features two 3D-printed garments. Some of the garment line was done in collaboration with Neri Oxman, artist, architect, designer and professor, from MIT’s Media Lab. This piece focuses on creating two seamless garments, with a texture that embodies what electricity would look like running through the material and the garment. Van Herpen utilizes the 3D printing technology, as she believes it to be the future technique of design.8 “I feel it’s important that fashion can be about much more than consumerism, but also about new beginnings and selfexpression, so my work very much
RELEVANCY Iris Van Herpen’s work, in particular the Voltage collection of 3D-printed garments, uses a technology that is very present in the field of architecture. This technology bridge interconnects the fields of architecture and garment design. The use of 3D printing will continue to advance, and design creativity and opportunities will continue to emerge through its use. It is important to recognize the potential of this technology in designing architecture through the lens of garment design, and the technologies that allow for a convergent design to flourish.
THE BRIDGE OF ASPIRATION By Wilkinson Eyre Architects PROJECT SUMMARY The Bridge of Aspiration is a skybridge that connects the Royal Ballet School with the Royal Opera House. This bridge serves as a direct link for the dancers, and “is legible both as a fully integrated component of the buildings it links, and as an independent architectural element.”10 The openings are not directly aligned across from each other and the bridge spans 35 feet, 4 floors above street level.11 RELEVANCY The design of the enclosure of the Bridge of Aspiration embodies the techniques of garment making into a small architectural structure. The particular techniques include the folding and pleating of the enclosure and walls of the bridge. Conceptually, 17
the bridge stitches together two openings that are not directly aligned. Architecturally the bridge creates a space that flows and visually seems to unfold to connect the dancers to their performance stage. This is an example of how the language, tectonics, and topologies of garment design and making can inform an architectural design, which is responding to the surrounding urban fabric.
LASER DRESS From ‘Readings’ Collection 2008 By Hussein Chalayan PROJECT SUMMARY This collection of garments consists of two dresses, a jacket, and a hat. Between the four items in the collection, there are over two hundred moving lasers and Swarovski crystals. The lasers are held in place and have motors that control their movement. The lasers start out pointing directly into the crystals, then move the beam away from the wearer. This creates a matrix of beams, and the graphical rays create an effect that represents the aura of performance. The garments with the lasers pointing and moving outward from the model delineate the surrounding urban fabric, implying that fashion or garments are architecture of the body. Chalayan sees
the pieces as “monuments” to other ideas already evolved.12 RELEVANCY With the lasers in the dress, it creates a spatial quality that stems from the dress. It is as dynamic as the wearer, because as the model moves so does the garment and the lasers attached to it. When there is movement the delineated space transforms as the wearer remains dynamic, and once-static interpretations of the surrounding urban fabric are expressed through the projecting beams. The architecture of these garments specifically change the spatial qualities of space that are expressed through the aura of the beams and their interaction with the surrounding urban fabric.
SCI-ARC GRADUATION PAVILION By Oyler Wu Collaborative PROJECT SUMMARY The structure was originally built as a pavilion to house the graduation ceremony of the SCI-ARC program. The first iteration of the pavilion was titled Netscape, and was designed by the faculty and their students. Through the use of tube steel, knitted rope, and fabric, they were able to stretch the pavilion across the parking lot of the school and seat around nine hundred people for the graduation event. The success of the design was due to the rigorous back and forth design via digital and analog design strategies.13 “As the project progressed, however, large three-dimensional models provided a means of studying the behavior of the grids and their resulting geometries.”14 The following
year, the school wanted another ceremony pavilion and challenged the firm to create a new design with nearly no budget and the same materials, structure, and location. The firm came to the solution of altering the original orientation of the structure, and reused the rope and fabric differently throughout the structure. They were able to create an entirely new pavilion for the ceremony.15 RELEVANCY Though this is not a permanent structure, this exhibits how the same structure evolved and changed to meet the needs of the inhabitants. By essentially wrapping and re-orienting the project, they created an entirely new entity and space. The design process of using both analog and digital means is also reflective of how both garments and architecture are designed.
SAN FRANSISCO MOMA By Snøhetta PROJECT SUMMARY A 235,000-sq.-ft. building expansion on the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art shows a 10-story concrete enclosure that is textured.16 “New public spaces and additional public entrances to the building are designed to increase access and weave the museum more deeply into the neighborhood.”17 Construction is set to begin the summer of 2016, and provides lots of flexible space for performance and art galleries alike. Though the neighborhood is one of the oldest in San Francisco, “in many ways it’s still the freshest, where much of the most dramatic change is happening.” 18
MoMA building proposal as being “woven” into the neighborhood. The concrete skin of the building conceptually reinforces the notion of weaving, through a surface that seems to weave and pleat its way through space. The relevancy of this building stems further to the surrounding urban fabric, as it is stated that the neighborhood is undergoing dramatic changes. This means the environment surrounding this project is evolving and dynamic, requiring an equally dynamic design response.
RELEVANCY Snøhetta refers to the San Francisco 18
GENERAL DESIGN Figure 29
understanding both ﬁelds “[Creating clothes is] a complex process of the sketch to the toiles to the samples to factory to the showroom to the shop to the customer. I feel that it can be a lot easier, and you see it changing with music or video and other things, and I really think that ‘materiality’ will change also in process.” - Iris Van Herpen19 Through the literary and case study research, it is apparent that architecture and garment design are related on various levels; this offers many opportunities for design integration.
The intersectional diagram (Figure 29) reveals that as both fields are part of the design realm there is an apparent intersection of garment-making and architecture. I am interested in the intersection of these two fields, and the design process that is derived from this intersection. More often than not, garment designers take inspiration from something architectural, and interpret that into a garment design or collection. Yet they still end up with a garment, and do not take the design any further. I want to expose a way to create a building design concept, by taking inspiration of techniques and typologies of both architecture and garment design processes into one symbiotic design
approach. To achieve this I started with listing the design process of a garment designer as well as an architect, and began to compare the phases and their characteristics (Figure 30.) This diagram revealed how part of an architectural design phase was relatable to one or more garment design phases, therefore mapping areas of connection between the two processes. In both fields of design, there is an instance when a concept or a physical aspect or entity of the project elicits a response. This was the most intriguing connection of architecture and garment design. I began to analyze a small sample of the typologies and tectonics of both fields while starting to compare the designs (Figure 31). 20
building completion Figure 30
diagrams GENERAL CLOTHING TYPOLOGIES GENERAL CLOTHING TYPOLOGIES PANTS pants
shirt SHIRT undergarments UNDERGARMENTS
GENERAL CLOTHING TECTONICS
GENERAL CLOTHING TECTONICS
BUILDING TYPOLOGIES GENERAL GENERAL BUILDING TYPOLOGIES RESIDENTIAL residential
commercial COMMERCIAL industrial INDUSTRIAL
GENERAL BUILDING TECTONICS
GENERAL BUILDING TECTONICS
enclosure ENCLOSURE Figure 31
3.0 THE fabric of portland
mappings of portland’s garment industry The urban fabric of a place refers to its physical aspects: building types, thoroughfares, open space, frontages, and streetscapes.20 This does not include environmental or sociocultural aspects; however I wanted my design process to respond to the urban fabric of Portland, as well as Portland’s garment industry, through a sociocultural lens. Mapping Portland’s garment industry became my solution for creating a design response to the urban fabric of Portland, and its garment industry. Previous mapping styles include that of the Nolli Map of Rome(Figure ##), figure ground mapping, and also more experiential maps such as the 25
Situationist International map (Figure ##). I wanted to approach mapping with a different strategy that would inform, the design process of my thesis on multiple levels. The first outcome I desired was to generate a possible site selection for the building design concept, through the mapping and analysis of Portland’s garment industry. The second was to find a new process of mapping that could be implemented into a physical design element. I started out by plotting points through a cross section of Portland that represented a place which contributes to the garment industry as a whole (Figure ##) whether it was industrial, shops, or studios etc. This map shows how sparse the garment industry is throughout the city, leaving no true epicenter or district for the industry to
thrive locally or nationally. Immediately following this realization, I started grouping the points in various levels of density or proximity in effort to create connection. As shown in Figure ##, I then went through this process multiple times creating new groupings of the points on the maps based on varying levels of density. The placelessness of the garment industry needed connection, which became the driving key word behind the design and creation of a network mapping concept. These groups began to appear like garment patterns – urban fabric patterns. Following the mapping exercises, I advanced the concept of connection by creating a stitch-like network to visually, and physically, connect the industry on a map (Figure ##). Some ambiguity was evident in the beginning of this exercise,
the idea arose that creating this network of connections remained valid due to the distributed nature of the industry. The variations of groupings left some dots as part of different groups creating a connecting-line between them. This was done for various dots that shared multiple grouping throughout the entire map. Eventually the groupings were connected by a stitched network. This is the beginning of a design language that can influence both architecture and garment design. By interpreting the mapped groupings of Portland’s garment industry as patterns, the groupings can be sewn together in a variety of ways to create a Portland mapping garment-like artifact.
site selection & analysis OVERVIEW As mentioned earlier, one of the initial purposes of the mapping was to select a site for the building design concept. I selected two of the more dense areas of the garment industry on either side of the Willamette River (Figure 37). From these selected regions I started looking for vacant lots that would offer potential â€œlight industrialâ€? zoning for shops, as well as offer pedestrian foot traffic, and the best overall opportunity for the design 29
to thrive from its location, and both the potential and existing connections to the surrounding industry. The downtown area was the densest area of the industry, and would allow for the best connections within the community. The second area is on the east side of the river. This site could be a point for outreach to connect the sparse east side of the garment industry, while still keeping a close proximity to the downtown area.
SITE 1 SITE 2
SITE OPTION 1: 10th & Oak St.
SITE OPTION 2: 6th & Ash St.
Currently the site is surface parking, but the site is optimally positioned in good proximity to the densest setting of garment designers and shops, as well as pedestrian traffic and accessibility to the site. The zoning is a Central Commercial zone with a Design Overlay. This zoning allows for taller building heights, adding vertical potential to the design. To allow for ties to educational programming, the site is located very close to the Art Institute of Portland, and will allow for collaboration between the facilities.
This site offers an entire city block, as it is currently surface parking for the overflow of a car dealership. The advantages of this site are: the available space, and the General Industrial zoning. This zoning, however, allows for a low total building height, leaving room for fewer floors in the design. Though there is little pedestrian traffic in this area, it may also be a potential destinationbuilding for the garment industry; particularly for functions related to Portland Fashion Week.
KEY SELECTED SITE: OPTION 1 10th & Oak St. I selected this site due to its location within the densest region of the garment industry. Pedestrian traffic is key to the design intent, particularly due to the incorporation of the Portland Fashion Week. The first site option on the east side of the river could not offer the pedestrian foot traffic and easy access to the site, as well as taller building heights. By placing my design concept in downtown this also allowed for the education link to the nearby Art Institute of Portland and their fashion design program. I did not want this project to become a simple warehouse 31
either, and the downtown setting allows for a more provocative design concept. This location also still allows for the building to become destination building; just a more accessible one. This site also allowed for an analysis of the surrounding neighborhood of the garment industry with the potential for a garment district; my building being the catalyst towards the growth of a district. The infrastructure of downtown is optimal for creating a garment district that could thrive in the heart of downtown Portland.
ZONING Central Commercial Zone: The Central Commercial (CX) zone is intended to provide for commercial development within Portlandâ€™s most urban and intense areas. A broad range of uses are allowed to reflect Porltandâ€™s role as a commercial, cultural, and governmental center. Development is intended to be very intense with high building coverage, large buildings, and buildings placed close together. Development is intended to be pedestrian oriented with a strong emphasis on a safe and attractive streetscape.
166 ft 43 ft 86 ft
125 ft 82 ft Figure 47
toward a portland garment district While researching Portland’s garment industry for the mappings I found there is a strong need for a garment district. Portland has a vibrant garment design culture and many talented designers spread throughout the city. However, little options remain for the full clothing production process here, and there is little to no competition because the industry is spread out across the city. Portland needs a dense garment district with facilities in closer proximity to one another. Lack of consumer interest 33
or lack of effort on the designers’ part is not the issue regarding the challenges garment designers face in Portland. Designers in Portland need infrastructure to support growth and sustain a thriving industry.21 The mapping exercises lead my thesis to respond to the sparse nature of Portland’s garment industry in an effort to connect it together to form a dense tight-knit community network. This design could house various segments of the industry in one building design while still allowing for an outreach connection to the rest of the industry. A garment district would grow from this networkbuilding and Portland would soon have
a thriving garment industry that is able to compete with fashion capitals like Los Angeles and New York. Though this project had merit as a direction for my thesis, I found myself more concerned about the architecture itself. What would this network-building look like if I focused on creating a district rather than the design of the building? Would I be able to design something worth-while that is a complete merge of both design ﬁelds if I focus on the creation of a district? I decided the premise of my building design would stem from the mapping exercises and the idea of creating a
network-building. This alters the scope of my thesis away from creating a garment district and turning it toward the design process of a network-building for Portland’s garment industry.
4.0 GARMENT-ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
and creating a garment based on the information derived from it.
To start the design process, I took the maps from the previous mapping exercises and generated cutouts outlined by the stitched connecting-lines. These cutouts were used as patterns to cut fabric pieces which were then sewn together (Figure 52). This created an artifact that had potential to inform a garment design that is conceptually based off of mapping exercises of the urban fabric of Portland’s garment industry. This lead to my development of a design process of selecting an architectural instance, such as diagramming the urban fabric of a city,
I began listing “architectural instances” that an architect deals with in a building design process. This list contained instances like: structure, openings, urban fabric, surface etc. To explore these instances within the garment design ﬁeld, I also created conceptual garments, that would begin to reveal how an “architectural instance” could be the conceptual beginnings of a garment design. I also created a series of “protogarments” that explored garment design techniques, resulting in artifacts that would relay certain relevancies toward architectural design. Like the back-
and-forth process of patternmaking, between the design of the pattern and making tests ﬁts or alterations, these conceptual works have a back and forth aspect of their own. For example, taking an architectural instance and designing a garment in response to that instance. There is then information to be learned within the design and making of the proto-garment that may inform other garment and building designs. In the previous process comparison diagram (Figure 30), I created a new diagram showing the garmentarchitecture design process as an overlay (Figure 53). The diagram reveals a cycle of a design instance in one ﬁeld,
being responded to by the other design ﬁeld. This design-cycle can be repeated any number of times, with each design growing the garment-architecture ‘line’ until you have enough pieces to create a ﬁnal building design and complete the line of work.
urban fabric study
ARCHITECTURE PROCESS research
proto garment artifacts
relevancy diagram garment design architecture design low
conceptual work A few of the previously listed instances were chosen to create quick, conceptual garments. I was then able to test different approaches of responding to an architectural instance through garment making and design. These conceptual garments allowed me to learn and explore garment-making, and to refine viable processes to help reach a garment design.
conceptual garments I was able to explore and determine whether an instance was a viable towards informing a building design approach. The garments allowed for a new perspective for design, which involved both architecture and garment design.
The selected instances for the conceptual garments were: mapping, surface, circulation, openings, structure, and programming. Through these 40
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 1: Mapping The design for this conceptual garment was to create a garment utilizing the theme of connection over the river. I incorporated the theme of connection from my previous mapping exercises. The bridges passing over the river and connecting the east and west side of Portland translate as the moments of connection. The part of the garment representing the river is connected to the legs of the wearer. As the wearer moves, the fabric also moves and wraps concentrically around the body or head of the wearer creating a fluid and dynamic element to the garment. 41
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 2: Circulation This garment is designed based off the Mobius strip which creates a circular, continuous circulation system of fabric. If the body of the wearer is thought of as the program of the building, the circulation wraps around the body in many different ways. Parts of the body could represent different programmatic elements, and the circulation garment could inform how the circulation is dispersed through the program. The fabric also has the potential to indicate what type of circulation: primary or secondary, as well as stairs, ramps, and elevators.
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 3: Surface For the architectural instance of surface, I started by manipulated flat fabric, viewing the fabric as a surface itself. In order to turn this into a garment, however, I needed to select a style of clothing that I could then transfer the same manipulation of fabric onto. The concept for this garment was to take a simple body-con style of dress, which is typically fitted to hug the bodyâ€™s surface (or skin), and add the manipulated style into the garment. While the overall garment maintains the original body-con style, the alterations to the fabric gives ornamentation to the garmentâ€™s surface. 43
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 4: Openings For this garment I cut out parts of the fabric for openings and views. Some openings reveal the body of the wearer, while others reveal views of a mapping element in this particular conceptual garment. Most of the garment openings are typical for a garment, such as openings for arms, legs, and the head etc. Other openings reveal the map either behind or in front of the opening. I printed a map of the site and the surrounding neighborhood onto fabric in order to articulate the difference between the typical openings and the openings which create views.
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 5: Structure The design for this conceptual garment was derived from the primary structural element of the human body: the spine. The main feature of this garment is the structure that runs up the back of the wearer, mimicking the spine of the body and supporting the entire garment for the wearer. The black fabric is acts as a waist-cincher, which also provides structure to the torso of the body. The ties for the waist-cincher are incorporated within the spinal structure member of the garment. Figure 62
CONCEPTUAL GARMENT 6: Program This design focuses on creating a garment for multiple wearers. The program of a building, for example, could have three major program uses which the building intends to serve. This garment would be designed for three wearers who represent those uses or users of the building. The garment would develop conceptual relations between the different program uses, depending on the interaction of the wearers within the garment. The dressing of this garment also has the potential to inform the buildingâ€™s circulation or the proximity of program within the building. 46
proto-garments This investigation reinforced my garment-architecture design process shown in Figure ##. I had previously investigated the territory of starting with an architectural instance, and responding through garment design. These are ambiguous, conceptual artifacts that started with garment design instances, and were responded to by the making of concept models which can typically be part of the architectural design process.
design terminology. One yard of fabric was manipulated through the varying action words to create what I have termed: proto-garments (Figure ##). As is it difficult to discern whether some of the resulting artifacts are something to be worn, or are even a building concept model, there are relevancies that each proto-garment contains for both design fields. The garment action words are listed above the photos of the protogarment, along with a description of the relevant or learned outcomes of making the artifact.
These artifacts were developed from a set of action words pulled from garment 48
gather - fold - cinch
concept & outcomes:
This model compares how two different materials can be manipulated in similar manners, while producing different results. The fabric speaks to the manipulation of surface or form; the mesh is merely the representation mapping of the structural changes that the fabric endures. 49
fold - pleat - unfold - layer - gather
concept & outcomes:
fold - cut - weave - fold - pleat - unfold - wrap - turn wrap - (mobius) weave
concept & outcomes:
The model incorporates weaving within itself, resembling a Through a series of pleats, mobius strip. The concept of unfolding and layering, there this model was that the strips is a structure of interior spaces would represent circulation, or voids. Because the model and the spaces, volumes, or enfolds on itself, seams from the shapes between would program. pleats are exposed and show the The strips and be moved or division of the space going on manipulated, and the entire inside the model. The gathering model moves and shifts along of points on the seams allows for with it, changing with each pull openings, and their manipulation. and twist.
concept & outcomes:
This model focused on surface and overall form. The pleats give it structure, as well as surface inferences. The openings I created large enough to fit an arm through, in attempt to fashion this model onto the body as well as the site. Creating a different connection of overall form, for two purposes.
print - cut pattern - stitch
concept & outcomes:
cut - twist compress - wrap
concept & outcomes:
fold - gather cinch - stitch
concept & outcomes:
crease - press - pull down - wrap
concept & outcomes:
The concept behind this site proto-garment, is creating This model explores the various model This model attempts to The concept behind this model, a network of spatial connections options that stitching offers use materiality of a more deals with the site mapping represented through nodes placed the manipulation of fabric for a around the perimeter architectural nature, along printed on the fabric, where of the site. garment. The outcome explored The thread is then threaded cuts are made in effort to create with cloth. This was a stitchby this garment shows how the around the pins, to create a less model, with the intent of â€œurban fabric patternsâ€? for a mapping of stitching creates the wrapping and twisting of garment or garment piece. The language or communication of a language that is graphically outcome is the tent-like form and fabric being the only structure site analysis. This is inspired represented. This shows how the by the and manipulation of the fabric. interior spatial quality that the of threading a garment is transformed through sewing action Compression is the structural model takes on; reminiscent of machine, before making a result of the fabric manipulations. simple stitching. fashion show tent structures. garment, abstracted onto the site. The acts of guiding and wrapping the thread through or around the machine is both fluid and essential work to the making Figure ## of the garment. 50
43 ft 86 ft 207 ft
garment pattern derrived from mapping
urban fabric design As previously explored through the mapping exercises of Portlandâ€™s garment industry, the theme of connection became vitally important to the idea of cinching the widespread-industry together. For the design of this garment, I developed patterns from the various groupings within the mappings I had done. I connected the garment into one long garment by stitching the ends of each pattern piece together. As designers work mostly with their arms, I selected the arms to be the main 53 53
part of the body to â€˜connectâ€™ through a network of simple openings throughout the fabric. The wearer wraps the garment around their body, while placing their arms through the simple openings. The result is: the wearer has many different ways of dressing their body with this garment.
structure design Structure is comprised of a number of elements which come together to create a rigid and sometimes pliable system. The themes of tension, compression, primary structural members, and secondary structural members were selected as the architectural instances to form this garment design. By studying and exploring techniques of garment construction, I discovered a way to embed the architectural instances into garment design techniques. For example, 59
using a knit-like strategy, I was able to sew the structural member of the garment together. Ornamentation was part of the knitted elements placed strategically on the parts of the body which many of the garment-architecture design focused on such as: over the shoulders, and around the waist. The overall look of the garment also began to inform structure design for a building by creating a language of a knit-tension structure.
program design One of the major design instances architects resolve, is program or uses for the building. Recalling the research I have done involving Portlandâ€™s need for a garment district, I decided to utilize this need and created a program for a building design proposal. By researching the different elements to garment design and making, I was able to list the relative programmatic needs for a building design located at the selected site in downtown. I determined three main divisions of program were needed 65
for building: education, designers (and their industry needs), and the Portland Fashion Week/Council. After refining the program to these three sectors or uses, I determined that the garment would be a three-person garment. I developed concepts for each â€œcharacterâ€? of program which I then design connecting factors of the garment, making them fuse into one shared garment between the three wearers. By extracting design language from the previous garments, this program-garment takes on a design that is easily translated into a sitegarment and building design proposal.
the model creates both positive and negative spatial volumes.
The process of â€œclothing the siteâ€? began as adding different layers of fabrics to represent different functions of the program. I was unable to complete a full building design proposal; however I created a starting point in a concept model for the site. This concept model begins to inform how spaces and program begin to inhabit the site or structure of the model through the fabric. I then began to overlay sketching of potential spatial qualities within the model. Certain aspects such as circulation, and spatial volumes began to take form as I manipulated the fabric more and more. The fabric that is inserted, weaved, and pinned into
Rather than thinking of the fabric simply as a skin surface of a building, you can start to think of each piece of fabric as any type of surface, creating spaces throughout every movement of the fabric. As an example, a part of the fabric that is vaulted could be a volume of space for covered circulation; whereas the fabric might suddenly dip down below the plane that would be the covered circulation space and is a ramp leading to a lower level of program. By seeing the fabrics as any type of space that both molds and carves out the related program, a building design approach has emerged which could lead to truly symbiotic design.
designer Retail shops 5 3 2
Small 3 Medium 2 Large 2
,000 ,598 ,500
Small 2 Medium 3 Large 3
,000 ,600 ,000
Industry Shops E D M P P
Textile/Fabric Shop 1 quipment/Supplies igital Lab aterials Lab roduction Lab 1 hoto Studio Fabric Printing
,500 800 800 800 ,800 500 800
Portland Fashion Week/ Fashion Market 1 Large
Work Studios 4 4 2
Portland Fashion Council Administration 4 Offices 1 Meeting Room
Art Institute of Portland Administration 2 Offices 1 Reception
Classroom/Studios 2 Small Classrooms 4 Studios 2 1 Large Studio
Restrooms 4 4
Loading Dock 1
1,000 ,000 800
*The school may also use/share some of the Designer, and PFW/PFC spaces
as a total
Total @ 20% sqft
EDUCAITIONAL TOTAL: 4 ,100 sqft
Total @ 5% sqft
total sqft: designer
wc Women/Floor(4) wc Men/Floor(4)
summary Architecture and garment making have a strong bond, as both are part of the design realm. My thesis began with the goal of exploring how garment design could merge with architectural design; disregarding that the two fields work at completely different scales. We see more often that garment designers take inspiration from something architectural, and interpret that into a garment. The two fields of design typically work in isolation from one another. My thesis offers a new way to approach design through a combined design process. The building design is a Garment Center for Portland, to cinch together the widespread garment industry. Located in downtown, the program fits optimally within the location and the surrounding area. The building concept is derived directly from the other garment designs such as the design of the structure, the design and interactions of the program within the space. In either field of design, typically a concept or instance of a project will elicit a response which drives the following stages of design. I tried to keep that quality as a driving force while moving from one garment to the next, until I reached the point of designing a building concept. This thesis is about creating and exploring a new, symbiotic design approach involving two fields of design: architecture, and garment-making. The process of designing back and forth between both fields was very educational and vital towards the final building concept, as each designed effort was analyzed and integrated into the final designs of the garment-architecture line.
reflection While the scope of the project changed quite a bit over the course of this past school year, I feel that this design thesis has a lot to offer in the education of a merged design process. Learning a new field of design was both an interesting yet daunting task while constantly having to move forward with the thesis research and design production. I feel that if I had arrived at my final thesis question and project earlier, I would have been able to complete a schematic design of a building rather than the conceptual design. In hindsight, this sort of topic needed more time than one year. Though this process seems more like a personal process, I believe that there is still relevancy to the field of architectural design as well as garment design. In speaking with Noriko Kikuchi, she helped me realize how relevant my thesis work was; as the designs reminded Noriko of her time in design school for fashion. This brings more footing for my thesis and its stance in the design realm. I feel that the process of moving back and forth between one design instance responded to by another design field is the most intriguing thing about my thesis exploration. The heart of my project was to find a way to explore a new architectural design process garment-making. This topic is rich with research and design potential, and this thesis was just the starting point of a longer journey of exploration.
moving forward I believe in the innovation of architectural design. This thesis has incorporated a completely new design field into my education, and I am able to explore a different approach to building design. I have learned that to respond to something architecturally isnâ€™t the only way of approaching design. Expanding architectural design into other fields, like garment design, creates interesting and new design languages or opportunities that would not have happened otherwise. I plan to continue to learn what all I can about garment design, as I believe I am not done learning about this new field of design.
Endnotes: 1. Elefante, Carl. “The Greenest Building Is… One That is Already Built.”Forum Journal. (Summer 2007), 26. 2. Semes, Steven W.. “Forget Style. It’s the Building Culture That Counts.” The View From Rome, 2011 http://traditional-building.com/Steve_Semes/?m=201103 3. Page, Max and Randall Mason, Giving Preservation a History (New York, NY, Routledge 2004), 14. 4. Ibid., 14. 5. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. (New York: Penguin Group, 1994), 95. 6. Ibid., 14. 7. Page, Max and Randall Mason. Giving Preservation a History (New York, NY, Routledge 2004), 271. 8. Ibid., 271. 9. Ibid., 271. 10. Ibid., 14. 11. Semes, Steven W.. The Future of the Past. (New York,N.Y.:W.W.Norton & Co., 2009), 27. 12. Page, Max and Randall Mason. Giving Preservation a History (New York, NY, Routledge 2004), 284. 13. Ibid., 284. 14. Ibid., 285. 15. Page, Max and Randall Mason. Giving Preservation a History (New York, NY, Routledge 2004), 14. 16. King, Francis, and Patrick Procktor. Frozen music. (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), x. 17. “Oregon Parks & Recreation Department: Oregon Heritage: State Historic Preservation Office Historic, Property Tax Incentives.” Oregon Parks & Recreation Department: Oregon Heritage: State Historic Preservation Office Historic Property Tax Incentives. http://www.oregon.gov/oprd/HCD/SHPO/Pages/ tax_assessment.aspx (accessed February 25, 2014). 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid. 23. Cohn, David. “Court Case Tests Limit of Spain’s Preservation Law.” Architectural Record 28 Jan. 2008, http://archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/archives/080128spain.asp 24. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. (New York: Penguin Group, 1994), 96. 25. Lynch, Kevin. What time is this place?. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972), 124. 26. Semes, Steven W.. The Future of the Past. (New York, N.Y.:W.W.Norton & Co., 2009), 158. 27. Latham, J.E.. Economic benefits of preserving old buildings: conference, Seattle, July/Aug. 1975, papers. (Washington: Preservation Press, 1976), 153. 28. Heath, Kingston Wm.. The patina of place: the cultural weathering of a New England industrial landscape. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2001), 184. 29. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. (New York: Penguin Group, 1994), 91. 30. Semes, Steven W.. The Future of the Past. (New York,N.Y.:W.W.Norton & Co., 2009), 253. 31. Sears, Joy. “Oregon State Historic Preservation Office”, Restoration Specialist. email correspondence. January 2014. 32. Ibid. 33. Ibid. 34. Jacobs, Jane. The death and life of great American cities. (New York: Modern Library, 1993), 245 . 35. Walsh, Tom, meeting with author, November, 2013 36. Ibid. 37. Lynch, Kevin. What time is this place?. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972), 124. 38. Heath, Kingston Wm.. The patina of place: the cultural weathering of a New England industrial landscape. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2001), 179. 39. Youngson, Dr. William Wallace. Swinging Portals, An Historical Account of One Hundred Years of Religions Activity in Oregon and Its Influence on the West.( Kilham Stationary and Printing:Portland, Oregon, 1948), 18. 40. Ibid. 4. 41. Ibid. 4. 42. The Sanborn Map Company Online, ProQuest, LLC. http://sanborn.umi.com/HelpFiles/about.html 43. Ibid.
44. King, Francis, and Patrick Procktor. Frozen music. (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), 28. 45. Ibid. 46. Semes, Steven W.. The Future of the Past. (New York, N.Y.:W.W.Norton & Co., 2009), 85. 47. Le Corbusier. Towards a New Architecture. Translated Frederick Etchells,(New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1923), 266. 48. Rabun, J. Stanley, and Richard Miles Kelso. Building evaluation for adaptive reuse and preservation. (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2009), 23. 49. Bosker, Gideon, and Lena Lencek. Frozen Music. (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), 245. 50. Ibid., 245. 51. Ibid., 246. 52. Ibid,. 247. 53. Schmidt, Brad, “The Portland Building needs $95 million overhaul to fix structural problems, water damage”, The Oregonian, January 2, 2014 http://www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2014/01/the_ portland_building_needs_95.html 54. Ibid. 55. Schmidt, Brad, “The Portland Building needs $95 million overhaul to fix structural problems, water damage”, The Oregonian, January 2, 2014 56. The City of Portland Online. The Bureau of Planning and Sustainability http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ bps/article/325058 57. Geisen, Rebecca. Email correspondence to author. January, 2014. 58. The Improved Order of Redmen. http://redmen.org/redmen/info/ 59. Ibid. 60. Webster’s New World Dictionary. New York, N.Y.:First Warner Books Printing, 1985. 61. Rock, David. “Building Conservation and Rehabilitation, Reusing Buildings – A New Arts and Science.” 1979. Quoted In Rabun, J. Stanley, and Richard Miles Kelso. Building evaluation for adaptive reuse and preservation. (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2009), 24. 62. Ritz, Richard Ellison. Architects of Oregon: A Biographical Dictionary of Architects Deceased—19th and 20th Centuries. (Portland, Ore.: Lair Hill Publishing, 2002), 240. 63. Ibid. 64. Ibid. 65. Bloszies, Charles. Old Buildings, New Designs | Architectural Transformations, (New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2011), 15. 66. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. (New York: Penguin Group, 1994), 23. 67. Washington, Emily. “Historic Preservation and Its Costs.”City Journal. (Autumn 2013), 1.
Appendix A: List of Figures Figure 1.1: Santa Maria del Pi Barcelona, Spain Drawing by author Figure 1.2: Friends at a Wine Bar Barcelona, Spain Photo taken by author Figure 1.3: NE tip of Spain from Airplane Photo taken by author Figure 1.4: Jewish Museum Girona, Spain Drawing by author Figure 1.5: Copy of Drawing by Subirachs, Barcelona, Spain Drawing by author Figure 1.6: Reina Sofia Addition Madrid, Spain Photo by author Figure 1.7: Caixa Forum Madrid, Spain Photo by author Figure 2.0: Mt Vernon first regiment firing demonstration. Shamus Ian Fatzinger/Fairfax County Times Figure 2.1.1:Flyer to raise money for the cause. http://www.mountvernon.org/educational-resources/encyclopedia/early-fundraising Figure 2.1.2: Mt. Vernon circa 1898 http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Counties/Fairfax/NR_FairfaxCounty_GW%20ristmill%20N.R.. Figure 2.1.3: View from St. Michaelâ€™s Church. Charleston, South Carolina. Circa 1902. Photograph by William Henry Jackson Figure 2.1.4: Rally to save Penn Station 1962 http://mas.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/save-penn-station-jacobs-protest.jpg Figure 2.1.5: Penn Station during demolition 1964 http://therealdeal.com/issues_articles/this-month-in-real-estate-history-69/ Figure 2.1.6: Grand Central Station, New York City Terminal, Viaduct to Elevated Terrace, and Commodore Hotel, c. 1919 by Hulton Archive/Getty Images Figure 2.1.7: Grand Central Station with proposed addition by Marcel Breuer http://www.thecityreview.com/byard.html Figure 2.1.8: Portland Hotel before demolition. Circa 1897 Courtesy of City of Portland Archives Figure 2.1. 9: Parking lot where Portland Hotel used to be. Circa 1955 Courtesy of City of Portland Archives Figure 2.1.10: Building #60 on grounds of State Hospital in Salem, Oregon http://www.katu.com/news/local/Stall-in-plans-for-memorial-for-Oregon-cremains-148459415. html?tab=gallery&c=y&img=0 Figure 2.1.11: Former patient remains in canisters that will be part of the memorial AP Photo/Statesman-Journal, Kobbi R. Blair Figure 2.1.12: Fire station after remodel. Photo courtesy of Henneberry Eddy Architects Figure 2.1.13: Fire station at opening circa 1913 Photo courtesy of Henneberry Eddy Architects Figure 2.1.14: Madrid, Spain at sunset (2013) Photo taken by author Figure 2.1.15: Caixa Forum 2014 Photo taken by author Figure 2.1.16: Caixa Forum before remodel. Photo courtesy of Herzog & De Meuron Figure 2.1.17: Les Aligues in ruins Photo courtesy of Fuses-Viader Figure 2.1.18: Les Aligues Girona, Spain 2014 Photo by author
Figure 2.2: Sustainability exit sign Graphic altered from image on Bigstock.com
Appendix B: Bibliography Antonelli P, 2007, “Bias-cut architecture”, in Architecture of the Interior Ed. M Gabellini (Rizzoli, New York) pp 60-70 Barnard M, 1996, Fashion as Communication, (Routledge, New York) Bernier B, 1985, Fashion, City, People (MIT, Cambridge, MA) Borden I, 2002, “Fashioning the City” Architectural Design 70 6 Bostwick, et.al, 2011, Digitally Enhanced: technological innovation is enabling design ideas at all scales, from city planning to fashion vol. 31 no. 3 Castle H, 2000, “Fashion and architecture” Architectural Design 70 6 Chalayan H, 2002, “Designing, dwelling, thinking”, in The Fashion of Architecture Ed. B Quinn (Berg, Oxford) pp 119-132 Crewe L, 2009, “Wear:where? The convergent geographies of architecture and fashion”, in Environment and Plan¬ning A, (Nottingham, England) vol. 42, pp 20932108 Destefani F, 2007, “Express yourself: the politics of dressing up”, in Fashion Theory: A Reader Ed. M Bernard (Rout¬ledge, London) chapter 16 Smaellie, Kendrick, “Dressed to the Nines: Queen Elizabeth I and the Power of Her Clothing” (2014). Student Library Research Awards. Paper 7. Entwistle J, 2000, The Fashioned Body, Fashion, Dress and the Modern Social Theory, Polity Press (Cambridge) Frank K. A, 2002, “Yes, we wear Buildings” Architectural Design 70 6 Hill C, 2009, “Body”, in Textile Designers at the Cutting Edge Ed. B Quinn (Laurence King, London) pp 68-73 Hodge B, Mears P, Sidlauskas S, 2006, Skin and Bones: Parallel Practices in Fashion and Architecture (Thames and Hudson, London) Hollander A, 1975 Seeing Through Clothes (University of California Press, Berkeley, CA) Iveson K, 2007, Publics and the City, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Cambridge) Kader H, 2011, The Reflection of Identity Through Architecture and Fashion: towards a fashion institute for Durban (Durban) Koolhaas R, Foster N, Mendini A, 2001 Colours (Princeton Architecture Press Princeton, NJ) Lowenstein O, ????, Architecture’s Textural Space: texting and architecture essay for the lost in lace exhibition (IN¬SERT CITY) Montagu A, 1986 Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin (Harper and Row, New York) Pallasmaa J, 2005 The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses (John Wiley, Chichester, Sussex) Paksoy H, Architectural Inspirations in Fashion Design (Turkey) Papastergiadis N, 2002, “Traces left in cities” Architectural Design 72(2) 45-51 Porter T, 2005 An Illustrated Guide to Architectural Terms: ARCHITESPEAK (Spoon Press, London) Quinn B, 2002 Techno Fashion (Berg, Oxford) Quinn B, 2003 The Fashion of Architecture (Berg, Oxford) Reinhardt D, 2008, “Elastic Space: latent formations in fashion and architecture” in Architectural Theory Review (Routledge, London) 87
Roos J, 2014, “More Fashion in Architecture” Finnisharchitecture.fi Sidlauskas S, 1982 Intimate Architecture: Contemporary Clothing Design The MIT Committee on Visual Arts, Cam¬bridge, MA Slessor C, 2008, Future Imperfect: aarchitects must use their talents wisely if the more extreme visions of a dystopian future are to be forestalled vol. 223 issue 1335 Spector N, 1997, “Freudian Slips: dressing the ambiguous body”, in Art/Fashion Ed. G Celant, Exhibition Catalogue Looking at Fashion Firenze Biennale, Skira, Florence Webb M, 2006, “Free-Flowing Ideas”, in Architectural Review vol 220 issue 1317 Wigley M, 2001 White Walls, Designer Dresses: The Fashioning of Modern Architecture (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)
Vanessa Vanderhoof firstname.lastname@example.org 801-721-6651 www.vanessavanderhoof.com
Portland State University
PO Box 751 Portland, OR 97207
A symbiotic design approach.