Page 1

TJ159-11-04 Cover 175L CTP

10/11/04

7:26 PM Page 1 Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

and Crafts Movement of the late nineteenth and early

of the calibre of Frank Lloyd Wright, Gustav Stickley

twentieth centuries, the subject of this ground-breaking

and Joseph Hoffmann in subtle and far-reaching ways.

and beautifully illustrated book. Influenced by John

Arts and Crafts ideals later spread to Japan, where

Ruskin, and concerned at the effects of industrialisation,

they gave rise to the Mingei (Folk Crafts) movement

designers such as William Morris, C.R. Ashbee and

from 1926 to 1945, exemplified by designers such as

Walter Crane advocated a return to a simpler way of life,

Hamada Sho¯ji and Bernard Leach.

Edited by

a revival of traditional handicrafts and techniques, and an appreciation of the ‘beauty in everyday things’.

Lavishly illustrated, extensively researched and published to coincide with a major exhibition at the V&A,

Those radical principles galvanized the avant-garde

Karen Livingstone

this book presents a compelling reassessment of the Arts

in Europe and America, changing the face of domestic

and Crafts Movement, and an invaluable visual record

architecture and interior design as they spread

of an ever-popular era of design.

and Linda Parry

TJ159-11-2004 IMUK VLX0156 Arts and Crafts W253mmxH293mm 175L 130 Lumi G/A Magenta

throughout the Western world, and influencing figures

International Arts and Crafts

Edited by Karen Livingstone and Linda Parry

The world we live in today owes a great deal to the Arts

International Arts and Crafts

Cover


P001-009_P001-009 12/06/2012 10:30 Page 4 Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

This book is published to coincide with the exhibition

FRONT JACKET ILLUSTRATION :

International Arts and Crafts at the following venues:

commemorative cup (see plate 1.11)

17 March – 24 July 2005 Indianapolis Museum of Art

BACK JACKET ILLUSTRATION :

Recreation of a Craftsman room

18 March – 18 June 2006

Linda Parry and Karen Livingstone PART ONE

Heal’s until 1908. A woven version was manufactured by

Arts and Crafts in Britain 2

160 Brompton Road

17 Arts and Crafts Dress 224 Lou Taylor

38

3

19 Central Europe 238 Andrzej Szcerski

The Importance of the City 62

20 Arts and Crafts in Vienna 252

Alan Crawford

and leaded glass panel. Britain, 1904. Designed for Walter Blackie for Hill House, Helensburgh. National Trust for Scotland

4

Juliette Hibou

Arts and Crafts Book Arts 82

21 Russia 256

Annemarie Riding Bilclough

and Glasgow Museums and Art Gallery.

5

© Christies Images Ltd 2005

Rosalind P. Blakesley

Arts and Crafts Graphics 88

22 Finland 266

Stephen Calloway

All new V&A photography by Christine Smith

6

of the V&A Photographic Studio

Marianne Aav

Nature and the Rural Idyll 92

23 Sweden 276

Mary Greensted ISBN 1 85177 446 7

7

Library of Congress Control Number 2004111390

8

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

24 Norway 286

Arts and Crafts Metalwork and Silver 122

Ingeborg Glambek

Juliette Hibou and Eric Turner

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any TJ159-11-2004 IMUK VLX0156 Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

4

Denise Hagströmer

Architecture and Gardens 108 Alan Powers

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

18 The Netherlands 228 Yvonne Brentjens

Origins and Development 40

Charles Rennie Mackintosh, writing desk.

Ebonised mahogany inlaid with mother of pearl, coloured glass

16 Arts and Crafts Textiles 218 Linda Parry

Karen Livingstone FRONTISPIECE :

Designed by Harry Green

Introduction: International Arts and Crafts 10

in a block-printed linen by G.P & J. Baker and then sold through

V&A: E.3054-1934

The moral right of the authors has been asserted.

202

15 Germany 204

textile. Watercolour on paper. Britain, 1905. The design was made

V&A Publications

© The Board of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum 2005

Arts and Crafts in Europe Renate Ulmer

1

Alexander Morton & Co.

Distributed in North America by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York

Director’s Foreword 7 Acknowledgements 8

Detail of Lindsay P. Butterfield, ‘Apple’, design for a

First published by V&A Publications, 2005

London SW3 1HW

PART THREE

Workshops (see plate 11.1) ENDPAPER :

de Young

Sponsor’s Foreword 6

based on original drawings from Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman

27 September 2005 – 22 January 2006 Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco

Contents

9

means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or

PART FOUR

Arts and Crafts Jewellery 128

Arts and Crafts in Japan

Clare Phillips

otherwise, without written permission of the publishers.

10 Photography in Britain and America 132 Every effort has been made to seek permission to reproduce those

Martin Barnes

26 A New Generation of Artist-Craftsmen 312

PART TWO

task. Any omissions are entirely unintentional, and the details

Arts and Crafts in America

should be addressed to V&A Publications. Printed in Singapore

25 The Mingei Movement 296 Yuko Kikuchi

images whose copyright does not reside with the V&A, and we are grateful to the individuals and institutions who have assisted in this

Rupert Faulkner

144

11 The East Coast: ‘Enterprise upon a Higher Plane’ 146

27 The Cultures of Collecting and Display 328 Edmund de Waal

David Cathers

12 Progressive Chicago: Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School 164 Cheryl Robertson

13 Arts and Crafts Art Pottery 182 V&A Publications 160 Brompton Road London SW3 1HW www.vam.ac.uk

Karen Livingstone

14 Western North America: Nature’s Spirit 186 Edward R. Bosley

Notes 338 Bibliography 344 Object List 350 Picture Credits 358 Name Index 359 Subject Index 363 Notes on the Contributors 368

Cased edition

294

TJ159-11-2004 IMUK VLX0156 Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

Victoria and Albert Museum

C.R. Ashbee, ‘Painters and Stainers’

Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

5


P001-009_P001-009 12/06/2012 10:30 Page 4 Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

This book is published to coincide with the exhibition

FRONT JACKET ILLUSTRATION :

International Arts and Crafts at the following venues:

commemorative cup (see plate 1.11)

17 March – 24 July 2005 Indianapolis Museum of Art

BACK JACKET ILLUSTRATION :

Recreation of a Craftsman room

18 March – 18 June 2006

Linda Parry and Karen Livingstone PART ONE

Heal’s until 1908. A woven version was manufactured by

Arts and Crafts in Britain 2

160 Brompton Road

17 Arts and Crafts Dress 224 Lou Taylor

38

3

19 Central Europe 238 Andrzej Szcerski

The Importance of the City 62

20 Arts and Crafts in Vienna 252

Alan Crawford

and leaded glass panel. Britain, 1904. Designed for Walter Blackie for Hill House, Helensburgh. National Trust for Scotland

4

Juliette Hibou

Arts and Crafts Book Arts 82

21 Russia 256

Annemarie Riding Bilclough

and Glasgow Museums and Art Gallery.

5

© Christies Images Ltd 2005

Rosalind P. Blakesley

Arts and Crafts Graphics 88

22 Finland 266

Stephen Calloway

All new V&A photography by Christine Smith

6

of the V&A Photographic Studio

Marianne Aav

Nature and the Rural Idyll 92

23 Sweden 276

Mary Greensted ISBN 1 85177 446 7

7

Library of Congress Control Number 2004111390

8

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

24 Norway 286

Arts and Crafts Metalwork and Silver 122

Ingeborg Glambek

Juliette Hibou and Eric Turner

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any TJ159-11-2004 IMUK VLX0156 Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

4

Denise Hagströmer

Architecture and Gardens 108 Alan Powers

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

18 The Netherlands 228 Yvonne Brentjens

Origins and Development 40

Charles Rennie Mackintosh, writing desk.

Ebonised mahogany inlaid with mother of pearl, coloured glass

16 Arts and Crafts Textiles 218 Linda Parry

Karen Livingstone FRONTISPIECE :

Designed by Harry Green

Introduction: International Arts and Crafts 10

in a block-printed linen by G.P & J. Baker and then sold through

V&A: E.3054-1934

The moral right of the authors has been asserted.

202

15 Germany 204

textile. Watercolour on paper. Britain, 1905. The design was made

V&A Publications

© The Board of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum 2005

Arts and Crafts in Europe Renate Ulmer

1

Alexander Morton & Co.

Distributed in North America by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York

Director’s Foreword 7 Acknowledgements 8

Detail of Lindsay P. Butterfield, ‘Apple’, design for a

First published by V&A Publications, 2005

London SW3 1HW

PART THREE

Workshops (see plate 11.1) ENDPAPER :

de Young

Sponsor’s Foreword 6

based on original drawings from Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman

27 September 2005 – 22 January 2006 Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco

Contents

9

means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or

PART FOUR

Arts and Crafts Jewellery 128

Arts and Crafts in Japan

Clare Phillips

otherwise, without written permission of the publishers.

10 Photography in Britain and America 132 Every effort has been made to seek permission to reproduce those

Martin Barnes

26 A New Generation of Artist-Craftsmen 312

PART TWO

task. Any omissions are entirely unintentional, and the details

Arts and Crafts in America

should be addressed to V&A Publications. Printed in Singapore

25 The Mingei Movement 296 Yuko Kikuchi

images whose copyright does not reside with the V&A, and we are grateful to the individuals and institutions who have assisted in this

Rupert Faulkner

144

11 The East Coast: ‘Enterprise upon a Higher Plane’ 146

27 The Cultures of Collecting and Display 328 Edmund de Waal

David Cathers

12 Progressive Chicago: Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School 164 Cheryl Robertson

13 Arts and Crafts Art Pottery 182 V&A Publications 160 Brompton Road London SW3 1HW www.vam.ac.uk

Karen Livingstone

14 Western North America: Nature’s Spirit 186 Edward R. Bosley

Notes 338 Bibliography 344 Object List 350 Picture Credits 358 Name Index 359 Subject Index 363 Notes on the Contributors 368

Cased edition

294

TJ159-11-2004 IMUK VLX0156 Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

Victoria and Albert Museum

C.R. Ashbee, ‘Painters and Stainers’

Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

5


1 Introduction: International Arts and Crafts

Linda Parry and Karen Livingstone

1.1 M.H. Baillie Scott, window. Leaded stained glass. Britain, 1902. For the music room of Dr R. K., Mannheim, Germany. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

Arts and Crafts Arts and Crafts was an international movement that flourished in Britain, Europe and America from the 1880s until the First World War, and in Japan from the 1920s until the Second World War. It has been referred to as the first truly modern artistic movement. Developed initially in Britain, it had a widespread influence. It was originally based on an idealistic set of principles for living and working, which were taken up and adapted in many parts of the world to meet specific social and national needs, integrating heritage, local skills and resources. Many of the characteristics of the movement can still be detected in the decorative arts today: the importance and benefit of practical skills in which individual production and small workshop practice are valued above mass manufacture, for instance. Also inherited directly from the Arts and Crafts Movement was an improvement in domestic design brought about through a new attitude towards living in which items were made to match their purpose and also harmonize together in an interior to provide a total work of art, or Gesamtkunstwerk, a German term now used widely (plates 1.1, 1.2). This balancing of design and technique was quite alien in mid-nineteenth-century production when the search for new technology ensured that technique, in the form of novelty of effect, speed and cheapness of production, dominated. But it is perhaps in the advocacy of simplicity in design and manufacture, a need to allow the quality of materials to speak for themselves, that the Arts and Crafts Movement has had its greatest influence on the arts today. Whereas simplicity is a major characteristic of the movement, its foundations and development – a combination of the ideas and aspirations of many over a period of twenty-five years – were complex. Before tracing this in greater detail it is important to attempt to define the term ‘Arts and Crafts’. Today, Arts and Crafts describes the process of handmaking or decorating objects (also frequently referred to as ‘craftwork’) on a semi- or completely amateur basis.1

The Arts and Crafts Movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was different. Far more professionally and commercially based, it took its name from the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, which was founded in London 1887, and staged its exhibitions at the New Gallery, Regent Street, from 1888 (plate 1.3; see chapter 2). Subsequently, the movement encompassed international groups who frequently adopted the British term of Arts and Crafts for their societies,2 studios, workshops and even a shop.3 However, the movement also included a number of developments in different parts of the world with names or descriptions more appropriate for their own work, as will be described in the following chapters. What bound them together was a unity of ideas that influenced their work, even though the work is often visually quite different. All sought a great improvement in the arts through the adoption of a new democratic ethic towards living and working. In some areas this was brought on by a need for social, political and cultural change, whereas elsewhere it simply provided a means of reforming industry and improving everyday design. This was unlike any other artistic movement that had gone before. Many parts of Europe were in political and social turmoil in the late nineteenth century. Some countries, which had been ruled for centuries from outside their lands yearned for autonomy or at least some measure of independence. Other countries wished to escape from injustices and inhumanity, as they saw it, brought on by their own highly developed and complex industrial societies. The arts provided a fertile ground in which traditional ideas could be challenged, and this developed in a number of ways. Writers and genre artists had led the way from the middle of the century with calls to improve society through their own personal representations of class inequality and poverty. Music and the decorative arts followed, providing on the one hand a strong sense of national unity and on the other a means of improving day-to-day life through the design, manufacture and use of domestic items. Nothing was too small


1 Introduction: International Arts and Crafts

Linda Parry and Karen Livingstone

1.1 M.H. Baillie Scott, window. Leaded stained glass. Britain, 1902. For the music room of Dr R. K., Mannheim, Germany. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

Arts and Crafts Arts and Crafts was an international movement that flourished in Britain, Europe and America from the 1880s until the First World War, and in Japan from the 1920s until the Second World War. It has been referred to as the first truly modern artistic movement. Developed initially in Britain, it had a widespread influence. It was originally based on an idealistic set of principles for living and working, which were taken up and adapted in many parts of the world to meet specific social and national needs, integrating heritage, local skills and resources. Many of the characteristics of the movement can still be detected in the decorative arts today: the importance and benefit of practical skills in which individual production and small workshop practice are valued above mass manufacture, for instance. Also inherited directly from the Arts and Crafts Movement was an improvement in domestic design brought about through a new attitude towards living in which items were made to match their purpose and also harmonize together in an interior to provide a total work of art, or Gesamtkunstwerk, a German term now used widely (plates 1.1, 1.2). This balancing of design and technique was quite alien in mid-nineteenth-century production when the search for new technology ensured that technique, in the form of novelty of effect, speed and cheapness of production, dominated. But it is perhaps in the advocacy of simplicity in design and manufacture, a need to allow the quality of materials to speak for themselves, that the Arts and Crafts Movement has had its greatest influence on the arts today. Whereas simplicity is a major characteristic of the movement, its foundations and development – a combination of the ideas and aspirations of many over a period of twenty-five years – were complex. Before tracing this in greater detail it is important to attempt to define the term ‘Arts and Crafts’. Today, Arts and Crafts describes the process of handmaking or decorating objects (also frequently referred to as ‘craftwork’) on a semi- or completely amateur basis.1

The Arts and Crafts Movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was different. Far more professionally and commercially based, it took its name from the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, which was founded in London 1887, and staged its exhibitions at the New Gallery, Regent Street, from 1888 (plate 1.3; see chapter 2). Subsequently, the movement encompassed international groups who frequently adopted the British term of Arts and Crafts for their societies,2 studios, workshops and even a shop.3 However, the movement also included a number of developments in different parts of the world with names or descriptions more appropriate for their own work, as will be described in the following chapters. What bound them together was a unity of ideas that influenced their work, even though the work is often visually quite different. All sought a great improvement in the arts through the adoption of a new democratic ethic towards living and working. In some areas this was brought on by a need for social, political and cultural change, whereas elsewhere it simply provided a means of reforming industry and improving everyday design. This was unlike any other artistic movement that had gone before. Many parts of Europe were in political and social turmoil in the late nineteenth century. Some countries, which had been ruled for centuries from outside their lands yearned for autonomy or at least some measure of independence. Other countries wished to escape from injustices and inhumanity, as they saw it, brought on by their own highly developed and complex industrial societies. The arts provided a fertile ground in which traditional ideas could be challenged, and this developed in a number of ways. Writers and genre artists had led the way from the middle of the century with calls to improve society through their own personal representations of class inequality and poverty. Music and the decorative arts followed, providing on the one hand a strong sense of national unity and on the other a means of improving day-to-day life through the design, manufacture and use of domestic items. Nothing was too small


27

Porcelain. Germany, 1903–4. Made by Meissen. Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt 1.21 Peter Behrens, set of drinking glasses. Gilded glass. Germany, 1902. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt 1.22 Hans Christiansen, vase. Earthenware, painted with enamels, glazed and gilded. Germany, c.1901. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

1.23 Joseph Maria

The integration of ideas into new forms of enlightened, artistic, commercial production was repeated in a number of industrial areas in Europe. However, the level to which Arts and Crafts practices were wholeheartedly accepted or merely adapted was very varied. Germany’s espousal of Arts and Crafts has proved, in retrospect, to be one of the most long-lasting and influential developments of all. The setting up of many companies and workshops using both machine and hand production reflected the German perception that the British Arts and Crafts Movement was too anti-industrial and that the revival of traditional methods of manufacture was not economically viable. This did not, however, equate with a loss of quality, or a lack of desire to

Olbrich, cabinet. Maple

produce well-designed affordable goods for everyday use by a wide section of the public. The practical simplicity of German Arts and Crafts, and its emphasis on appropriate construction and materials were devised to meet both social and technological needs. Although many of the new workshops in Germany were founded on the model of British groups such as the Guild of Handicraft – they also aimed to elevate the status of the applied arts and shared common ideals about the use of materials and standards of craftsmanship – it was considered legitimate in Germany to use technology as a means of achieving efficient production as well as boosting local economies, so long as quality was maintained in the end product (plate 1.20). The concept of Gesamtkunstwerk was seen in its most developed form at the important artists’ colony at Darmstadt, Germany, founded in 1899 by Ernst

wood inlaid with various exotic woods. Germany, 1900. Made by Hofmöbelfabrik Julius Glückert, Darmstadt. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse. Ernst Ludwig wanted to raise artistic standards in local industrial products and demonstrate the relationship between the designer and the environment (plates 1.21–1.23). The houses and interiors created at Darmstadt were intended to show how design for the home could be focused and directed towards the simplest level, as a means of encouraging greater unity between art and life (plates 1.24, 1.25; see chapter 15). Germany also proved to be an important intermediary for British Arts and Crafts ideas across Europe and into Japan. Texts by Morris and Crane were quickly available in German translations, and British developments were followed through German journals and publications. These were widely read in countries such as Sweden and Norway, which both had strong connec-

1.24 Joseph Maria Olbrich, Das Haus Olbrich, original design issued as a postcard. Colour lithograph on paper. Germany, 1901. Printed by Kunstanstalt Lautz & Isenbeck, Darmstadt. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

I N T E R N AT I O N A L

1.20 Henry van de Velde, plate.

Europe

ARTS

AND

INTRODUCTION

CRAFTS

26


27

Porcelain. Germany, 1903–4. Made by Meissen. Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt 1.21 Peter Behrens, set of drinking glasses. Gilded glass. Germany, 1902. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt 1.22 Hans Christiansen, vase. Earthenware, painted with enamels, glazed and gilded. Germany, c.1901. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

1.23 Joseph Maria

The integration of ideas into new forms of enlightened, artistic, commercial production was repeated in a number of industrial areas in Europe. However, the level to which Arts and Crafts practices were wholeheartedly accepted or merely adapted was very varied. Germany’s espousal of Arts and Crafts has proved, in retrospect, to be one of the most long-lasting and influential developments of all. The setting up of many companies and workshops using both machine and hand production reflected the German perception that the British Arts and Crafts Movement was too anti-industrial and that the revival of traditional methods of manufacture was not economically viable. This did not, however, equate with a loss of quality, or a lack of desire to

Olbrich, cabinet. Maple

produce well-designed affordable goods for everyday use by a wide section of the public. The practical simplicity of German Arts and Crafts, and its emphasis on appropriate construction and materials were devised to meet both social and technological needs. Although many of the new workshops in Germany were founded on the model of British groups such as the Guild of Handicraft – they also aimed to elevate the status of the applied arts and shared common ideals about the use of materials and standards of craftsmanship – it was considered legitimate in Germany to use technology as a means of achieving efficient production as well as boosting local economies, so long as quality was maintained in the end product (plate 1.20). The concept of Gesamtkunstwerk was seen in its most developed form at the important artists’ colony at Darmstadt, Germany, founded in 1899 by Ernst

wood inlaid with various exotic woods. Germany, 1900. Made by Hofmöbelfabrik Julius Glückert, Darmstadt. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse. Ernst Ludwig wanted to raise artistic standards in local industrial products and demonstrate the relationship between the designer and the environment (plates 1.21–1.23). The houses and interiors created at Darmstadt were intended to show how design for the home could be focused and directed towards the simplest level, as a means of encouraging greater unity between art and life (plates 1.24, 1.25; see chapter 15). Germany also proved to be an important intermediary for British Arts and Crafts ideas across Europe and into Japan. Texts by Morris and Crane were quickly available in German translations, and British developments were followed through German journals and publications. These were widely read in countries such as Sweden and Norway, which both had strong connec-

1.24 Joseph Maria Olbrich, Das Haus Olbrich, original design issued as a postcard. Colour lithograph on paper. Germany, 1901. Printed by Kunstanstalt Lautz & Isenbeck, Darmstadt. Museum Künstlerkolonie, Darmstadt

I N T E R N AT I O N A L

1.20 Henry van de Velde, plate.

Europe

ARTS

AND

INTRODUCTION

CRAFTS

26


125

8.3 Arthur J. Gaskin, cup.

of wine decanters, with fat-bellied glass bottles, were

8.5 W.A.S. Benson, fire screen.

Phoebe (d.1955) Stabler in Liverpool, Arthur (1862–1928)

Silver, enamel, lapis lazuli.

based on Elizabethan sack bottles. The serpentine wires

Copper and brass. Britain,

and Georgie (1866–1934) Gaskin in Birmingham, Henry

Britain, 1903–4.

around the body, with a loop forming a frail handle, show

1884. Made by W.A.S.

Wilson (1864–1934) in London and Phoebe Traquair

Cheltenham College, on loan

the influence of continental Art Nouveau (plate 8.2).

Benson & Co. Ltd, London.

(1852–1936) in Edinburgh (plates 8.3, 8.4).

to Cheltenham Art Gallery

There are also unexpected touches of richness, such as

V&A: M.37-1972

and Museum

the gemstone finial, which introduces a sophisticated

Other British craftsmen developed distinctive styles. The architect Ernest Gimson (1864–1919) in Sapperton,

element of concentrated colour.

Gloucestershire, along with the blacksmith Alfred Bucknell,

Another, cheaper way of introducing colour was through

produced items in iron, brass and polished steel. C.F.A.

enamelling. The Arts and Crafts Movement was predictably

Voysey designed a wide range of metalwork as part of his

attracted to this traditional technique. Champlevé and

8.4 Henry Wilson, chalice.

architectural commissions, including door and window furniture that incorporated motifs of birds and hearts.

cloisonné techniques, as well as painted enamels, were

Silver, partly gilt, ivory

adopted by craftworkers. Alexander Fisher (1864–1936)

and enamel. Britain, c.1898.

was at the forefront of this revival (see plate 3.19).

St Bartholomew’s Church, Brighton

If Ruskin apparently rejected the machine, most Arts and Crafts practitioners opposed only those industrial processes

Originally an enameller on pottery, he became interested in

that diminished or replaced human creativity and work

the technique of painted enamels on metal after visiting

satisfaction. W.A.S. Benson (1854–1924) shared this

France and was soon the most influential enameller in

conviction that the machine if properly used could be made

Britain, inspiring the work of Harold (1873–1945) and

to produce beautiful work. His metalwork, inspired by plant forms in the Arts and Crafts tradition, was manufactured with much mechanical assistance (plate 8.5). This compromise shows that for some it was important to serve the consumer with well-designed but affordable goods. Commercial success was the key for Arthur Lasenby Liberty as far as the metalwork he commissioned and sold through Liberty & Co. was concerned. Archibald Knox (1864–1933), the most influential designer working for Liberty, was famous for incorporating Celtic patterns into his silver and pewterware designs. In May 1899 Cymric silverware was launched, followed in 1903 by Tudric pewter (plate 8.6). If London served the top end of the market, many firms in the Jewellery Quarter in Birmingham met the demand for cheaper goods. And yet distinguished work was also being achieved. William H. Haseler in Birmingham produced both the majority of the silverware and all the pewterware for Liberty. The first and best known Arts and Crafts metalwork in Birmingham was made by the Birmingham Guild of Handicraft established in 1890. Arthur Dixon (1856–1929) designed brass and copper items for the Guild, characterized by frank, simple construction, with structural elements such as handles or rivets used ornamentally. In Scotland the ‘Glasgow girls’ (Margaret and Frances MacDonald, Marion Wilson and Margaret Gilmour) designed probably the most impressive repoussé works. Radical directions in Arts and Crafts metalwork enjoyed widespread recognition throughout continental Europe and the United States. In Vienna the silver and jewellery

METALWORK

AND

BRITAIN

S I LV E R

124


125

8.3 Arthur J. Gaskin, cup.

of wine decanters, with fat-bellied glass bottles, were

8.5 W.A.S. Benson, fire screen.

Phoebe (d.1955) Stabler in Liverpool, Arthur (1862–1928)

Silver, enamel, lapis lazuli.

based on Elizabethan sack bottles. The serpentine wires

Copper and brass. Britain,

and Georgie (1866–1934) Gaskin in Birmingham, Henry

Britain, 1903–4.

around the body, with a loop forming a frail handle, show

1884. Made by W.A.S.

Wilson (1864–1934) in London and Phoebe Traquair

Cheltenham College, on loan

the influence of continental Art Nouveau (plate 8.2).

Benson & Co. Ltd, London.

(1852–1936) in Edinburgh (plates 8.3, 8.4).

to Cheltenham Art Gallery

There are also unexpected touches of richness, such as

V&A: M.37-1972

and Museum

the gemstone finial, which introduces a sophisticated

Other British craftsmen developed distinctive styles. The architect Ernest Gimson (1864–1919) in Sapperton,

element of concentrated colour.

Gloucestershire, along with the blacksmith Alfred Bucknell,

Another, cheaper way of introducing colour was through

produced items in iron, brass and polished steel. C.F.A.

enamelling. The Arts and Crafts Movement was predictably

Voysey designed a wide range of metalwork as part of his

attracted to this traditional technique. Champlevé and

8.4 Henry Wilson, chalice.

architectural commissions, including door and window furniture that incorporated motifs of birds and hearts.

cloisonné techniques, as well as painted enamels, were

Silver, partly gilt, ivory

adopted by craftworkers. Alexander Fisher (1864–1936)

and enamel. Britain, c.1898.

was at the forefront of this revival (see plate 3.19).

St Bartholomew’s Church, Brighton

If Ruskin apparently rejected the machine, most Arts and Crafts practitioners opposed only those industrial processes

Originally an enameller on pottery, he became interested in

that diminished or replaced human creativity and work

the technique of painted enamels on metal after visiting

satisfaction. W.A.S. Benson (1854–1924) shared this

France and was soon the most influential enameller in

conviction that the machine if properly used could be made

Britain, inspiring the work of Harold (1873–1945) and

to produce beautiful work. His metalwork, inspired by plant forms in the Arts and Crafts tradition, was manufactured with much mechanical assistance (plate 8.5). This compromise shows that for some it was important to serve the consumer with well-designed but affordable goods. Commercial success was the key for Arthur Lasenby Liberty as far as the metalwork he commissioned and sold through Liberty & Co. was concerned. Archibald Knox (1864–1933), the most influential designer working for Liberty, was famous for incorporating Celtic patterns into his silver and pewterware designs. In May 1899 Cymric silverware was launched, followed in 1903 by Tudric pewter (plate 8.6). If London served the top end of the market, many firms in the Jewellery Quarter in Birmingham met the demand for cheaper goods. And yet distinguished work was also being achieved. William H. Haseler in Birmingham produced both the majority of the silverware and all the pewterware for Liberty. The first and best known Arts and Crafts metalwork in Birmingham was made by the Birmingham Guild of Handicraft established in 1890. Arthur Dixon (1856–1929) designed brass and copper items for the Guild, characterized by frank, simple construction, with structural elements such as handles or rivets used ornamentally. In Scotland the ‘Glasgow girls’ (Margaret and Frances MacDonald, Marion Wilson and Margaret Gilmour) designed probably the most impressive repoussé works. Radical directions in Arts and Crafts metalwork enjoyed widespread recognition throughout continental Europe and the United States. In Vienna the silver and jewellery

METALWORK

AND

BRITAIN

S I LV E R

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Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

(bingata). Okinawa, 19th century. V&A: T.18-1963

25.14 Folk painting, character meaning ‘Righteousness’. Colours on paper. Korea, 19th century. Kurashiki Folk Crafts Museum

TJ83-9-2004 IMUK VLX0156-Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

308

organized a series of lectures, exhibitions and concerts. These were partly aimed at enlightening and extending friendship towards the Koreans, and partly at raising funds for his project to collect Korean folk crafts and establish the Korean Folk Arts Gallery, which was eventually opened in 1924 in the Kyongbok-kun Palace in Seoul. Another incident that marked Yanagi out as an enlightened philanthropist was his involvement in the rescue of the Kwanghwamun, the front gate of the Kyongbok-kun Palace, which the colonial government had planned to demolish. On the other hand, Yanagi’s views, encapsulated in the term hiai no bi (beauty of sadness), have raised questions among post-colonial Japanese and Korean critics, who have challenged Yanagi’s characterization of Korean art as sad, helpless, static and feminine as a reflection of his colonialist aesthetic.

TJ83-9-2004 IMUK VLX0156-Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

with stencil-resist decoration

them with the grotesque gargoyles of Notre Dame, and Okinawa’s awesome graves and jiishiigami (funerary urns) (plate 25.12). These funerary urns in the shape of houses, which held the washed bones of the dead, were placed inside ancestral graves. The strong spirituality evident in Okinawa’s unique burial customs and forms of ancestor worship profoundly impressed Yanagi.62 To Yanagi, as to many mainland Japanese, Okinawan culture was both exotic and highly artistic. The Okinawan women in brightly coloured kimonos with unglazed ceramic jars on their heads, whom he saw when he visited the islands, fired his image of a semi-tropical paradise that was primitive on the one hand while also suggestive of classical Rome and Greece. Yanagi vicariously experienced the romantic primitivism of the PostImpressionists and the modern sentiment of the neo-classicists. Yanagi, for whom Okinawa held a national importance, described it as a cultural archive, which retained the jun nihonteki (purely Japanese) and koyu¯ na, dokuji no (innate and original) qualities of ancient Japan.63 He believed that bingata (stencil dyeing) was a purer and more supreme form of yu¯zen dyeing, an elaborate and refined dyeing technique developed by Miyazaki Yu¯zen (d. 1758) in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century (plate 25.13).64 Okinawan kasuri (ikat) was also described as having the most ‘innate and original’ quality of Japan and, since kasuri did not exist in the west, of the east as a whole.65 Yanagi’s interest in the art of Japanese colonies began with Korea and his first visit there in 1916. Korea was a Japanese colony from 1910 to 1945. In Japan Yanagi is often credited with the rediscovery of Chos˘on pottery four hundred years after the tea master Sen no Rikyu¯ (1522–91) discovered the beauty of Chos˘on rice bowls.66 His interest in Korean ceramics and folk crafts preceded his interest in Japanese folk crafts and indeed predated his formulation of the criterion of beauty (plates 25.14–25.16). Yanagi’s involvement in Korea was a complex mixture of art and politics. On the one hand he was active as a pacifist philanthropist, on the other hand his aesthetic views were informed by a sense of colonialist superiority. With his empathy and concern for Korean suffering under Japanese colonization, Yanagi and his wife Kaneko, a professional western classical singer,

THE

25.13 Kimono. Cotton

MINGEI

MOVEMENT

309

309


P294-337_P294-337 24/07/2012 14:12 Page 308 Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

Cyan Magenta Yellow Black

(bingata). Okinawa, 19th century. V&A: T.18-1963

25.14 Folk painting, character meaning ‘Righteousness’. Colours on paper. Korea, 19th century. Kurashiki Folk Crafts Museum

TJ83-9-2004 IMUK VLX0156-Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

308

organized a series of lectures, exhibitions and concerts. These were partly aimed at enlightening and extending friendship towards the Koreans, and partly at raising funds for his project to collect Korean folk crafts and establish the Korean Folk Arts Gallery, which was eventually opened in 1924 in the Kyongbok-kun Palace in Seoul. Another incident that marked Yanagi out as an enlightened philanthropist was his involvement in the rescue of the Kwanghwamun, the front gate of the Kyongbok-kun Palace, which the colonial government had planned to demolish. On the other hand, Yanagi’s views, encapsulated in the term hiai no bi (beauty of sadness), have raised questions among post-colonial Japanese and Korean critics, who have challenged Yanagi’s characterization of Korean art as sad, helpless, static and feminine as a reflection of his colonialist aesthetic.

TJ83-9-2004 IMUK VLX0156-Arts And Crafts W:247mmXH:287mm 175L 130 Stora Enso Matt Magenta

with stencil-resist decoration

them with the grotesque gargoyles of Notre Dame, and Okinawa’s awesome graves and jiishiigami (funerary urns) (plate 25.12). These funerary urns in the shape of houses, which held the washed bones of the dead, were placed inside ancestral graves. The strong spirituality evident in Okinawa’s unique burial customs and forms of ancestor worship profoundly impressed Yanagi.62 To Yanagi, as to many mainland Japanese, Okinawan culture was both exotic and highly artistic. The Okinawan women in brightly coloured kimonos with unglazed ceramic jars on their heads, whom he saw when he visited the islands, fired his image of a semi-tropical paradise that was primitive on the one hand while also suggestive of classical Rome and Greece. Yanagi vicariously experienced the romantic primitivism of the PostImpressionists and the modern sentiment of the neo-classicists. Yanagi, for whom Okinawa held a national importance, described it as a cultural archive, which retained the jun nihonteki (purely Japanese) and koyu¯ na, dokuji no (innate and original) qualities of ancient Japan.63 He believed that bingata (stencil dyeing) was a purer and more supreme form of yu¯zen dyeing, an elaborate and refined dyeing technique developed by Miyazaki Yu¯zen (d. 1758) in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century (plate 25.13).64 Okinawan kasuri (ikat) was also described as having the most ‘innate and original’ quality of Japan and, since kasuri did not exist in the west, of the east as a whole.65 Yanagi’s interest in the art of Japanese colonies began with Korea and his first visit there in 1916. Korea was a Japanese colony from 1910 to 1945. In Japan Yanagi is often credited with the rediscovery of Chos˘on pottery four hundred years after the tea master Sen no Rikyu¯ (1522–91) discovered the beauty of Chos˘on rice bowls.66 His interest in Korean ceramics and folk crafts preceded his interest in Japanese folk crafts and indeed predated his formulation of the criterion of beauty (plates 25.14–25.16). Yanagi’s involvement in Korea was a complex mixture of art and politics. On the one hand he was active as a pacifist philanthropist, on the other hand his aesthetic views were informed by a sense of colonialist superiority. With his empathy and concern for Korean suffering under Japanese colonization, Yanagi and his wife Kaneko, a professional western classical singer,

THE

25.13 Kimono. Cotton

MINGEI

MOVEMENT

309

309


International Arts and Crafts  

Now in paperback, this lavishly illustrated and extensively researched book is a major contribution to a wider understanding of Arts and Cra...

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