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FUTURE


Future: Forms In English, there are many ways of talking about events in the future.

1. Basic meanings of the forms Most students know that “will” and “going to” are used to talk about future time in English. However, we also use the present progressive (“be” + ING) and the present simple tense. Here are the basic rules.

Form

Meaning / Usage

Example

“Will”

volunteering to do something

Angelo: I need a pencil.

deciding at the time of speaking

Sarah: I'll lend you mine.

to do something

“Going to”

talking about something that is

Angelo: Have you registered for

already decided

the class yet? Sarah: Not yet. I'm going to

register tomorrow.

Present

talking about something that is

Angelo: Do you want to go to

Continuous

already arranged

the movies tonight? Sarah: Sorry, I can't. I'm playing

soccer.

Present simple

talking about a schedule,

Angelo: What time does the

timetable or program

next bus leave? Sarah: It leaves at six.


2. Predicting the future When you are predicting what you think will happen in the future, you should choose the form based on how certain you are. If you're not too sure, it's fine to use “will”, but if you're nearly certain about something, it's best to use “going to”. I think it will rain. (I'm not sure, but it looks like it might.) It's going to rain. (I'm sure it's going to rain — I can see black clouds in the sky.)


1. Using “will” with verbs “Will”, like all modal verbs in English, does not change its form, and it is followed by the simple form of the main verb. “Will” is NOT usually used in first person questions. Note also that will is often shortened to ’ll. This diagram should make the situation clearer:

Subject

Statement I will stop smoking.

I

I'll stop smoking.

You

He

She

You will stop smoking. You'll stop smoking. He will stop smoking. He'll stop smoking. She will stop smoking. She'll stop smoking. It will be hard to stop.

It

It'll be hard to stop.

We

They

We will stop smoking. We'll stop smoking. They will stop smoking. They'll stop smoking.

Question

[not usually used]

Will you stop smoking?

Will he stop smoking?

Will she stop smoking?

Will it be hard to stop?

[not usually used]

Will they stop smoking?

Negatives are formed with “will not” or “won't”: He will not stop smoking. He won't stop smoking.


2. The meaning of “will” future forms “Will” is usually used in three situations:

Situation

Volunteering to do something

Deciding to do something

Example "Will someone open the window for me?" "I'll do it!" "I've made up my mind. I'll go to Whistler for my vacation."

Forcing someone to do

"Dad, I don't want to clean my room!"

something.

"You'll do it, and you'll do it NOW!"

“Will” is NOT usually used for fixed plans or scheduled events.


1. How to form "be going to" sentences To make a verb form with “be going to”, you first put “be” into the correct form to agree with the subject, and then add “going to” + the simple form of the verb. Note also that the “be” form is often shortened. This table lists the main forms:

Subject

Statement

Question

Negative

I

I am going to leave. I'm going to leave.

Am I going to leave?

I am not going to leave. I'm not going to leave.

You

You are going to leave. You're going to leave.

Are you going to leave?

You are not going to leave. You aren't going to leave. You're not going to leave.

He

He is going to leave. He's going to leave.

Is he going to leave?

He is not going to leave. He's not going to leave. He isn't going to leave.

She

She is going to leave.

Is she going to leave?

She's going to leave.

She is not going to leave. She's not going to leave. She isn't going to leave.

It

It is going to leave.

Is it going to leave?

It's going to leave.

We

We are going to leave. We're going to leave.

It is not going to leave. It's not going to leave. It isn't going to leave.

Are we going to leave?

We are not going to leave. We're not going to leave. We aren't going to leave.

They

They are going to leave. They're going to leave.

Are they going to leave?

They are not going to leave. They're not going to leave. They aren't going to leave.


2. The meaning of “be going to” future forms “Be going to” is usually used when something is already planned or definite. Look at the difference between these sentences: I'll make the supper tonight. (Making a decision/volunteering to do something.) I'm going to make the supper every Wednesday. (This is already planned and organized.)


Vanda Nunes

future english grammar guide  

future - english grammar guide

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