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Common Road Elements: Pedestrians

Sidewalks, Crosswalks, Buffers.

Streetscape

Trees, Bushes, Signs and other Street Furnishings.

Bicycles

Bike lane technicalities.

Motorized Traffic

Car Lanes and Parking Metrics

Service Traffic

Garbage, Deliveries, etc.


Sidewalk Parts

Curbs are always 6” wide

Buffer and Building Frontage: Everything that is not “public domain” or part of the pedestrian zone

Pedestrian clear walking zone Greenscape zone

Sidewalk Inhabiting Less Pedestrian Traffic Industrial Sidewalks Allow for ocassional, safe pedestrian traffic. Landscaping isn’t necessary given the ubiquitousness of loading zones.

2’

Minor Residential Sidewalks Division between pedestrian zone and landscaping is blurry/non existent, pedestrians are protected from pseudo-heavy traffic.

2’

5’

7’

8’

10’

Major Residential Sidewalks Increased and defined Greenscape Zone serves to increase quality of space and protect pedestrians. 2’

5’

5’

12’

+4’ to Buffer allows for Cafe Seating and other Bldg. Frontage Amenities

Mild Commercial Sidewalks Pedestrian zone is increased. Might be enhanced by a bigger frontage zone and greenspace. +4’

More Pedestrian Traffic

High Commercial Sidewalks Broad and defined pedestrian zone. Might be enhanced by a bigger frontage zone and greenspace. +4’

2’

2’

6’

5’

13’ 22’

12’

19’

+5’

5’

Boulevard-like Landscape add 5’ to Greenscape Zone

+5’


Sidewalk enhancing Increasing porosity and/or transparency to 50% or more of the frontage at ground level directly improves the pedestrian experience. Some other add-ons such as awnings and green walls are also vast imrpovement and make the sidewalks more inhabitable.

Aw n

Increasing Street Level Transparency

Pla n

Office, Residential and other “isolated” programs

Benches/Seating

Gre

Commercial

s ing

s ter

Walls en

Benches can be placed perpendicular to the curb, facing it or adjacent to buildings. Different regulations apply for each case.

Part of Frotange

Facing Curb

Perpendiculat to Curb

2’3”

1’ gap for maintenance

5’ clear pedestrian way

4’ - 5’ clear pedestrian way

18”

5’ clear pedestrian way

5’ - 6’ clear from curb

3’ clear from curb

1’ gap for maintenance

2’

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Basic Bench Measurements Other Clearance Metrics to keep in mind:

5’ from Fire Hydrants 1’ from All Other Street Furnishings

6’ from Bus Shelters


Sidewalk Landscaping Magnolia, Crab Apple, Cherry, Shadblow, Eastern Redbud.

2

6”

2’ 6”

20’ center-to-center spacing

Hedge Maple, American Hophornbeam, Goldenraintree, Columnar Red Maple

2

6”

2’ 6”

25’ center-to-center spacing

Red Maple, Sweetgum, Honeylocust, London Planetree, Red Oak

2

6”

2’ 6”

30’ center-to-center spacing

Other Clearance Metrics to keep in mind:

15’ from Lamp Posts (Med and Large Trees) 10’ from Drains and Utilities

10’ from Lamp Posts (Small Trees)


Bike Lanes vs. Cycle Tracks Single Lane Allows for Bicycle traffic parallel to the direction of Automobiles. It ought to be wider (+1’) when placed next to parking.

4’ 5’

+1’

Two-way Lane Allows for two-way Bicycle traffic. A 3’ buffer should be added when the traffic speeds are over 35mph.

6’

Cycle Track

6’

+3’

+3’ helps shelter cyclists from traffic and other hazards.

A Bicycle dedicated and buffered zone.

7’

Shared Lane In areas where automobile speeds are under 35mph, a shared street is an option.

12’ 15’

10’

3’


Parking 90 Degree Parking

Basic Dimensions Add 3’ for Handicap Spaces.

24’

22’

22’

18’

60 Degree Parking 24’

16’

20’

14’

20’

12’

45 Degree Parking 24’

14’

180 degrees

150 de gre

The turning radius of a car is 35’ curb-to-curb

es

de g

ree s

Fire Trucks and Service Trucks need wider turning radii, between 40’ and 50’

s

gre

ree

de

60

g de

es

90 degrees

30

120


Woonerf - Multi-modal Streets

Chaos = Cooperation Roads where pedestrians, cyclists and motorists have to negotiate their passage, one on one and on a case by case basis encourages all to act more cautiously and thus increasing the safety of the street. A road with too many signs tells users that “nothing can happen to you as long as you behave this way,” which disencourages paying attention to the surroundings.

Exhibition Street London, England Safer crossings for pedestrians at level without having to step down curbs, improved accessibility. Steady, average 15mph automobile traffic... instead of the previous 12mph stop - and - go scheme. Parking in the middle to encourage interaction on “shared street” Bicycle Parking sheltered by Bollards. 60% Less Accidents! By having Pedestrians, Cyclists and Drivers negotiate their passing on a case by case basis, safer interactions are encouraged.

Increased Retail + Pedestrian Activity By encouraging pedestrian activity and more engaged traffic, retail activity has increased.

Reduced Emissions and Gas Expenses by allowing cars to drive thru at a steady pace rather than stopping at lights with vacant roads ahead.


Shared Streets

Fifth Avenue New York Shared Street? 1910


Shared Streets

Segregated Street By segregating modes of travel, safety is decreased for all users and interactions and trade-offs reduced. The view and streetscape are thus cluttered by street signs that guarantee the un-guaranteeable: that cars will not speed nor slow down from a pre-determined speed, that pedestrians won’t jaywalk and will only cross at crossings, that bikes won’t swerve into the car lane to avoid a parked car opening its door, etc.

Shared Lane By creating a leveled shared area, each user can negotiate their passing accordingly with fellow users. During high traffic, pedestrians can step aside and allow flow through, while during low traffic pedestrians can occupy the entirety of the space. Everyone uses caution when transiting since there’s no pre-determined “rule,” and thus judging on a case by case basis what would be the safest approach.


Bike-Friendly New York

Less Bike Friendly

Boston

Copenhagen

More Bike Friendly


Shared Streets Europe

America

Asia


Intersections Parking at street edge

Vehicles may not park within 20’-0” of an existing crosswalk. _except: where a single space meter is in operation

20 ’-

Parking at street edge

0”

Extension of sidewalk at parking street edge should be 6’-0” from the curb, being that the width of a parked car.

6’-0”


Intersections Curb Radius

curb radius of 5’-10’ used wherever possible _especially when higher pedestrian volume, low volume of large vehicles, where bicycle+parking lane make effective radius larger

maximum effective curb of 35’ for larger vehicles -factors to consider: street types, angle of intersections, curb extensions and high volume of large vehicles.

5’-10’

Roundabouts

effective radius actual curb radius

Minimum of 20’-0” from entry of roundabout to crosswalk _higher speed rotaries have larger diameters

min. 20’ - 0”


Crosswalks Curb Ramp Detail

5’ min pedestrian zone

minimum length of curb extension shall be the width of crosswalk

5’ min leveling landing pad

detectable warning strips should extend the entire length of the curb line

Curb Ramp Option

consider the addition of a ramped curb -facilitate transition from one sidewalk to the other (in compliance with title II of ADA).


Crosswalks Crossing Island

crossing island should be minimum of 6’-0” wide, preferable 8‘-0” -appropriate when crossing distance is greater than 50’

min. 6’-0” wide (8’ preferably)

Crosswalk Dimension

crosswalk should be minumum 10’-0” wide _25’-0” when crosswalk has high pedestrian traffic

min 10’-0” max 25’-0”

Crosswalk Layout

distance from adjacent intersection >200’ uncontrolled crosswalk should not be placed within 200’-0” of another existent crosswalk.

> 200’-0”


Street Types

pedestrian

car lane

car lane

bike lane

6’

10’

10’

5’

pedestrian

car lane

car lane

pedestrian

bike lane

6’

10’

10’

6’

5’

pedestrian

parking

car lane

bike lane

6’

7’

10’

12’

pedestrian

parking

car lane

car lane

bike lane

6’

7’

10’

10’

5’

pedestrian

parking

car lane

median

car lane

bike lane

6’

7’

10’

6’

10’

5’


Neighborhood Residential _Provides immediate access to residential access; characterized by lower vehicular and pedestrian traffic. _Typically no more than 2 lanes, one in each direction. _Emphasis on slow speed and providing pedestrian and biker safety.

pedestrian

car lane

car lane

bike lane

6’

10’

10’

5’

Neighborhood Connector _Traverse several neighborhoods. _Provides continuous walking and bicycle routes, and accommodates bus routes _May be single or multi-lane streets. __Use of trees to create buffer for pedestrians.

pedestrian

car lane

car lane

pedestrian

bike lane

6’

10’

10’

6’

5’


Neighborhood Main Street _Located @ heart of residential part of the city. _Concentrated in areas only few blocks long. _Serves as hub for bycyling, motorist, pedestrians and commuters.

pedestrian

parking

car lane

bike lane

6’

7’

10’

12’

Small Parkway _Typically 4 lane roads of uniterrupted long streches (makes it hard for pedestrians and cyclists to cross) _Usually doesn’t provide parking, but it was included to accommodate the small scale system

pedestrian

parking

car lane

car lane

bike lane

6’

7’

10’

10’

5’


Small Boulevard

pedestrian

parking

car lane

6’

7’

10’

me


_Grand scale and urban design. _Often with wide planted medians. _Connect important civic + natural places. _Trees’ canopy provide optimal walking conditions.

edian

car lane

bike lane

6’

10’

5’


Shared Streets Liveability

Access and Mobility

+

Pedestrian and Cyclist friendly

Flexibility

Balance

Healthy Environment

Visual Excellence


Developed as part of the Code Research Portion of Chris Genter’s Housing and Aggregation Spring 2013 Undergraduate Architecture Studio at Northeastern University.


Street Design Guide