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Studio Kathmandu volume 2

LANDSCAPE URBANISM EXPLORATIONS

for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan area, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Valentina Amaya Marin, Sheeba Amir, Ashim Kumar Manna, Isabelle Matton Thesis presented to obtain the degree of Master in Urbanism and Strategic Planning at KULeuven

Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning, MaHS MaUSP, KULeuven, 2015 Promoters: Bruno De Meulder, Viviana d’Auria Co-promoters: Padma Sunder Joshi, Annelies De Nijs, Stefanie Dens


STUDIO KATHMANDU 2015 STUDIO STAFF Bruno De Meulder Viviana d’Auria Annelies De Nijs Stefanie Dens THESIS STUDENTS Valentina Amaya Marin Sheeba Amir Ashim Kumar Manna Isabelle Matton IN COOPERATION WITH UN-Habitat Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: paulien.martens@kuleuven.be Website: www.mahsmausp.be ISBN 9789460189944 © Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Landscape Urbanism, Studio Kathmandu 2015-2016, Nepal).

www.mahsmausp.be


Studio Kathmandu volume 2

LANDSCAPE URBANISM EXPLORATIONS

for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan area, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Valentina Amaya Marin, Sheeba Amir, Ashim Kumar Manna, Isabelle Matton Thesis presented to obtain the degree of Master in Urbanism and Strategic Planning at KULeuven

Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning, MaHS MaUSP, KULeuven, 2015 Promoters: Bruno De Meulder, Viviana d’Auria Co-promoters: Padma Sunder Joshi, Annelies De Nijs, Stefanie Dens


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to take this moment to thank all the people who contributed towards the realization of this fantastic journey. To those who gave us positive sources of inspiration and helped us in the interpretation of a difficult situation, the impact of the 2015 Nepal earthquake, towards envisioning a more resilient territory. We would like to thank our Professor and Promoter Bruno De Meulder for his valuable time and guiding us through this thesis. His constant interest, eye for details and keen involvement in our work gave us strong motivation and great insights during this learning process. To Prof Viviana d’Auria for her guidance and valuable time. To our co-promoters and tutors Mr. Padma Sundar Joshi (UN-Habitat), Annelies De Nijs and Stefanie Dens for their patience and trust during the course of this study. We would like to thank KU Leuven, Paulien Martens at Department of Architecture and the MaHS MaUSP program. We would like to give special thanks to UN Habitat Nepal and their staff for giving us the opportunity to address this unique case, for the facilities on site and availability during the fieldwork process. To Mr. Padma K. Mainalee, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, Nepal. Prof. Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, Prof. Sangeeta Singh at Department of Architecture at Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, for having shared their immense knowledge with us. To our fantastic and hardworking volunteers Anil Tuladhar, Kusma Thapa, Anatta Shrethacharya and Angela Tamrakar for sharing with us their beautiful culture and taking us around interviewing people. We are grateful to Gopal and his family of the little house in the rice fields, our home in Nepal. And we cannot end this word without expressing our gratitude to the community of Bungamati and Karyabinayak municipality for their trust, hospitality and infinite kindness. Dedicated to our families and friends who always support our efforts with love, despite the distance.

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Table of contentS 0. Introduction 1.Atlas – Narratives of the Kathmandu Valley Evolution Dynamics of the landscape The making of a cultural landscape Landscape transformations Problem statement 2. REVITALIZING BUNGAMATI - AN ACTION PLAN 3. Interpreting the Frame HYDRO ECO/LOGICS IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY Introduction Groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley Introduction of the FRAME Cultural Waterscapes Hydro Eco/logics at risk Problem statement

4. Design Investigations Collective Strategies Hold, Recharge and Increase Adjusting trajectories Recomposing the valley- Urbanism strategies Connecting resources 5. sCENARIOS Afforestation Strategy Public spaces as anchor of resilience Stakeholders Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY

THE COMPLEXITY OF THE ROAD Introduction Market dynamics Spatiality of the infrastructure Movement patterns: (Dead – Living – Gods) - cycle of occupation Public transportation Conclusion EXPLORATION OF URBAN PATTERNS & PATCHES Introduction Inhabiting the Valley Urban Tissue & Housing Typologies Public spaces- Culture & Community resilience Trends of urban expansion Positioning the framework Conclusion RESOURCE & RESILIENCE The productive valley Flows and capacities Defining a productive frame Resource footprints Rhythms & cycles Spatializing resources Resource extraction Impact Resource potentials - wasted capacities 7


CHINA

7742 m

Plateau

high mountains

NEPAL Mid mountains

KATHMANDU VALLEY

INDIA

SIVALIK/MAHABHARATA RANGE

TERAI/PLAINS

8

Geographical and political condition of Nepal Fault line between Indian & Eurasian plate


Introduction

Topographical map of Kathmandu valley, highlight its bowl shaped condition

9


INTRODUCTION For at least 1,500 years, Nepal has been a kingdom from which the Kathmandu Valley has represented its more salient political, economic and cultural center. Landlocked between China and India, Nepal has constantly evolved together with economic flows and cultural references coming from both North and south while still remaining politically independent. Indeed, as far back as the 4th century, the people of the Kathmandu Valley have created a unique variant of South Asian civilization, based on Buddhism and Hinduism but influences as well by the culture of the local Newars1 (Andrea Savada – 1991). In that sense, local communities have created a complex culture in which the interrelation between religion and tradition is reflected in almost every urban space. In fact, traditional settlements in Kathmandu are the manifestations of a harmonious dialogue between settlements, landscape, topography and ecology. Despite of its strong cultural traditions, the Kathmandu valley has not resisted to the desire of modernity. External cultural reference led to an ongoing fast modernization process from which is resulting in an overexploiting of resources and a development of the city’s boundaries towards vulnerable areas. These practices seem to be breaking the prevailing concept of equilibrium between nature and habitat and because of the geological conditions of the Kathmandu Valley and its long standing story of seismic risk; such loss of equilibrium makes the region particularly vulnerable to natural phenomenon. The following thesis analyses the fast urban and ecological transformations of Kathmandu Valley and investigates an opportunity to incorporate alternative strategies in which landscape becomes the carrying structure for further urban development. Looking at a context of rapid urbanization, the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area was selected as a study case of a transitional landscape which stands as the current “front of urbanization”. An area in which important infrastructural project are envision in an overall process that consume important amount of valuable productive lands and forest areas as well as it set great pressures and radical transformation over the landscape. The vision focuses on the resilient aspect of urbanization, preservation of productive landscapes and ecological perspectives that can strengthen this region for a more sustainable urbanization.

Map of the valley, 1927, published by Perceval London, 1928. Map mentiones the altitude of most of the settlements, however the contour lines do not reflect the true topography

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Methodology The starting point of the studio was an intensive six weeks of fieldwork and research during the summer of 2015, four months after the earthquake that struck Nepal on April 2015 and caused massive damages in the Kathmandu Valley. The summer workshop resulted in an action plan for Bungamati, to support a sustainable redevelopment of the area and simultaneously serve as an exemplary project for other similar cases. The thesis is a step further that looks into a deeper understanding of the urban dynamics of the Kathmandu Valley, particularly in the southern edge of this growing capital. For this study, investigation area was extended to a larger frame, in order to position Bungamati as one of the many traditional settlements that are at the edge of Kathmandu metropolitan area. The fieldwork studies revealed that earthquakes are a constant threat in the Valley and that the recent episode of April 2015 will generate a momentum of even greater acceleration in the ongoing urban growth. This thesis comes then as a reflection of how natural disasters are a catharsis for change and offer the opportunity to envision future conditions of urbanization as a dialectic process between existing and new development. An understanding of the existing logics, how they came into being, through readings at Valley scale sets the base for the thesis. Research includes discussions with field specialists, scholars and stakeholders of the region. Field explorations through public transport, walking and tracking contributed towards understanding the spatial qualities of site. Hundreds of images taken during the fieldwork were used in recollecting the experiences of site while working in the studio. Interviews with inhabitants further added to the knowledge. Base maps are prepared combining GIS data, old published aerial images, maps and documents. An exercise of mapping and analysis of conflicts, risks and trends resulted into a synthesis, which makes base to w a future scenario for Kathmandu Valley through landscape design strategies. Maps and images used are from summer studio fieldwork and spring studio fieldwork unless mentioned otherwise.

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Fieldwork experiences

Explanations of a kitchen garden in a traditional house around the main square of Bungamati.

Visit of a carpet factory in between the two settlements of Bungamati and Kokhana.

Discussions before a day of fieldwork together with the Tribhuvan University. 14


Fieldwork sketches

Mapping typologies in Bungamati: case study of a traditional house.

Sketches realized after a day of mapping the public spaces of Bungamati. 15


Mapping for an action plan in Bungamati

Preparation of the stakeholder presentation in the little house in the ricefields.

Drawing perspectives of the envisioned project for the revitalization of Bungamati. 16


Collaboration and stakeholers meeting

Final stakeholder presentation in Kathmandu, September 2015.

The complete team of KULeuven, UN-Habitat, Aracadis Shelter team and volunteers. 17


Tiers of terraces provides space for wet culture - eastern slope of the valley. Source: Nepal Mandala


CHAPTER 1 ATLAS - NARRATIVES OF KATHMANDY VALLEY In order to grasp the complexity of our study frame, it was necessary to step back and look at the larger perspective.Hence, the first chapter of the thesis proposes to depict the various construction stages of the Kathmandu Valley, a palimpsest territory whose morphology results of added layers through time and history.


the making of a cultural landscape

DYNAMICS OF THE LANDSCAPE

the making of a cultural landscape

1225

1916

1225

1916

June 7: 7.8 mag

August 28: 7.7mag

Licchavi 700-1200

7th bc

Lan

Malla 1201-1769

1482

June 7: 7.8 mag

Licchavi 700-1200

Malla 1201-1769

January15: 8.4m

Shah 1768–1846 August 28: 7.7mag

Shah 1768–1846

Early Settlements as Bungamati & Khokana

Division of the Kingdom > the three kingdoms

1769

Rana 1753 Conquest of Gorka e kingdoms 1769

Conquest of Gorka e kingdoms

Specialization of the villages Specialization of the villages

Temples Temples along rivers along rivers

Water Management Water Management Stupas inStupas higherinlands higher lands

20 Timeline of various periods in history of Kathmandu Valley

1482

Foreign trade Foreign Tibet/India trade Tibet/India

Kathmandu Kathmandu Valley from Valley a from a lake lake

Division of the Kingdom > the three kingdoms

Buddhism Temples Stupas

Rana 1753

January15: 8.4m

Early Settlements as Bungamati7th & Khokana bc

Buddhism Temples Stupas

Lan

Durbar Squares Durbar Squares

DYNAMICS OF THE LANDSCAPE


EVOLUTION

nscape transformations

current times

1934

nscape transformations 1934

mag

1988

2015

1988

2015

current times

August 21:6.9 mag

April 25: 7.8 mag May 12: 7.3 mag

August 21:6.9 mag

April 25: 7.8 mag May 12: 7.3 mag

3–1951

mag

Physical Development Plan of KV

Land Use Plan of KV

KV Urban Development Plan and Program

2015 - 2035 New constitution KV 20 Years Strategic Development Master Plan

end of the

Physical Development Plan of KV

Land Use Plan of KV

KV Urban Development Plan and Program

KV 20 Years Strategic Development Master Plan

1991

2015 - 2035

Urban growth Moving towards the souther region Urban growth Moving towards the souther region

Souther Region Southerfront Region of front of future urbanization future urbanization

Physical Development Physical Development Plan Plan of KV 1969 of KV 1969 Land pulling Land projects pulling projects

Constuction Constuction of the of the Airport Airport

1991

EQ 2015 EQ Destructuin 2015 Destructuin of tradi- of traditional Settlements tional Settlements

1976

Fist Car in Fist theCar Valley in the Valley

New Roads NewAfter Roads EQAfter 1934EQ 1934

1969

1976

2015

end of the

3–1951

1969

2015 New constitution

21


Dynamics of the landscape Located in the central region of Nepal, Kathmandu valley owes its genesis to the draining of the pleistocene lake, an episode which has extensively been narrated as the story of Manjusri God cutting a gorge with his sword to empty the basin and forming the habitable and fertile lands of the Kathmandu Valley. The bowl shaped mountain valley of Kathmandu lies at the Himalayas foothills at an altitude of 1350 m. It is surrounded by four mountain ranges Shivapuri, Nagarjun, Chandragiri and Phulchowki. Bagmati is the main river of the valley, which originates in the north and drains across the Mahabharata range to the Gangetic plain. The river is fed by springs and monsoon rainfall. Geologically the Valley is a very fragile system due to its particular location between the two young Eurasian and Indian plates. Consequently many fault lines are crisscrossing the area and the land vulnerability is accruing even more with the soft ground of an ancient lake. Agriculture is intensely practiced in the valley. Fertile and hydrous soil provides good quality cultivable land. Lowlands of the valley are suitable for the wet cultivation like paddy and sloping drylands are suitable for dry cultivation like corn and wheat.

120.000 years

30.000 years

5,000 years 22 Traditional painting depicting the Legend of Creation of Kathmandu Valley from a lake . ource: Kathmandu Valley 20 years strategic masterplan (2015-2035)

Evolution of Kathmandu Valley from draining of the lake


Details from Kircher’s map 1667. Source: Maps of Nepal, Harka Gurung

23


Khokhana Bungamati

24

Section


River System

Average Rainfall

Land Cover

Forest

25


Seismic risk Nepal lies on the boundary of Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates making it vulnerable to natural hazards like earthquake, landsliding and avalanches. Kathmandu Valley lies in active earthquake belt. Being located on the bed of a drained lake, the soil type of the valley is unstable and prone to liquefaction.

Casualties

Magnitude

Year of earthquake

26 A timeline of major earthquakes in Nepal


Kathmandu

Location of fault lines in Kathmandu valley revealing the vulnerability of the valley to seismic risk

Section through the valley highlighting the location of Kathmandu above Indian-Eurasian fault line Source: Adapted from ‘The Kathmandu Valley- A study in regional geography’- Willibald Haffner 27


The making of a cultural landscape Kathmandu’s original settlements polarized around temples. Small agricultural hamlets or gramas were mushrooming in a very disperse way throughout the Valley with a close relation to trading routes and the existing topography. The people of the valley are called Newars a term which is said to be derived from the word Nepal. Patan was one of the early settlement of the Valley, build on the banks of Bagmati River. However, particularly during the Licchavi period, the setting of the gramas will progressively move from the riverbanks to the ridges (tar) of the valley in order to maximize the area for the cultivation. In order to supply the urban areas, having low water tables with water, the Licchavis set out an indigenous water system that would develop a network of ponds and wells fed by rainwater and brick canals.

Map on the right: 1803 Catmandu Nepal by Charles Crawford, showing the three kingdoms of Kathmandu - Patan and Bakthapur as well as the myriad initial settlements in relation with landscape in Kathmandu Valley

28 The route survey from Nepal to Lhasa through the upper valley of Brahmaputra. Source: Syamukapu-The Lhasa Newars of Kalimpong and Kathmandu, D. S. Kansakar Hilker


Lhasa from ÂŤWhise collection of tibetan picture-map and drawingÂť - 1860

Newar traders singing devotional (dapa) songs in Lhasa - Procession hold by Newar merchants in Lhasa - 1950 by 1950 by P B Singh Tamrakar Harsha B. Singh Tuladhar

Ancient Great Trunk Route or Uttarapatha (road to the North) linking Kabul to Bengal. Early 20th century - by Shair Shah Souri

A pilgrimage route: Tibetan pilgrims in front of the Mahabodhi temple - 1948 Gaya Bodh

Chowringhee where many Newar traders were establish- Crossing the Brahamaputra River in a wooden crate ing a business office - Calcutta 1946 Tibet by S. Jeeb Tuladhar

Newar caravan somwhere on the Tibetan Plateau 1950 Harsha Bir Singh Tuladhar


Buddhism and the trading routes Kathmandu valley benefited from its strategic position in a depression zone of the Himalayas to develop foreign trade since 5th century. Indeed, the guarantee for a constant snow-free condition in the Valley assured a flourishing development of trade on a continental scale between the riverbanks of the Indian Ganges and Lhasa, in Tibet. But beyond carrying caravans and merchants, the paths crossing the Kathmandu Valley were also trodden by Buddhist monks who, to a large extend, transmitted the Buddhism culture to Tibet and Central Asia. However, starting from the 1930’s, a new caravan route is created further west,through Sikkim, and will become more popular.

Great Trunk Route

Trans-Himalayan Route

TRADE ROUTES Adapted from the map of early Jesuit travellers in Central Asia (1603-1721) - C. Craandijk 1924


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Initial settlements were small in size and dispersed in the valley. During the Malla rule, which started from around twelfth century, larger towns were developed. The Rana rulers were inclined towards maintaining good relation with the British Empire and absorbed many of their ideas and forms in the local architecture and urbanism. The result was an original style blending Newar and Western neoclassical design. Cities were planned based on the concept of vastu-purusha mandala. Pedestrian scale and community spaces were two important aspects of settlement planning. The cities had dense urban fabric built around squares. These squares are the public spaces of the city holding religious and cultural importance. The urban landscape was dotted with civic amenities like mandapa, sattal and water structures. Movements in the city were designed for the Gods, the living and the dead. These movements generated a pattern which connects the rivers, ponds, temples, farms and markets to the residential areas.

Mandala Map of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Source:The history of cartography,Volume ii, Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, J.B. Harley

Left: Chinese map drawn under the direction of a Chinese official named Song Yu who served five years as high commissioner in Tibet after that the kingdom of Gorkha (actual Nepal) had been defeated by Chinese forces around 1794. The cartographer mapped the route the Chinese troop took to enter Nepal without yet insisting upon places that weren’t directly involved in the journey. South being on top, we observe Yangbu, the native name of Kathmandu, drawn as a chief city surrounded by walls. Just above, in a cartouche, is written the original name of Patan, Yelang. Source: - BOULNOIS L., “Chinese maps and prints of the Thibet-Gorkha war of 1788-92 33


Relation of nature and cultural geography Patan Kathmandu

Kirtipur

Bhaktapur

Khokhana Bungamati

Settlements in Kathmandu Valley, during Lichchavi, Malla and Rana period, Source: Adapted from ‘Architecture of the Newars’ , Niels Gutschow Settlements occupied higher lands (tars), surrounded by agriculture fields. Landscape is marked with religious cultural spaces, with temples occupying river edge, mounds and hillocks. Location of sacred elements along the river edge highlights relation of water and public spaces 34


Temples

Relatiion of rivers, sacred places and festival routes, with temples locsted along the river and routes are linking cities and sacred sites 35


Organising city structure with relation to landscape elements

Khokhana Bungamati

agriculture

agriculture

Traditional settlements from pre-licchavi built on unirrigated higher lands (tars) Ghatperiod, werecanal to allow fertile plains to be usedRiver for agriculture. The plan highlights position of traditional settlements surrounded by agriculture lands in Kathmandu Valley.

temples River

(Below) The schematic section explains the structure of traditional settlements emphasising the role of productive landscape and a balanced relation between nature and built space.

The plan highlights position of traditional settlements from pre-licchavi period, on unirrigated higher lands to allow fertile plains to be used for agriculture. (Below) The schematic section explains the position of traditional settlements, Source: Adapted from ‘ The Kathmandu Valley, a study in regional geography, Willibald haffner 36

Agriculture on hills

Agriculture in valley

Forest

Settlements


Landscape & Religious Symbolism - Sacred and power places in relation with Landscape

(Left) Bagmati river forcing its way through four gorges which are marked as seats of sages and demons serving as important public spaces in Valley .(Right) Twelve most sacred places along the rivers, said to be the abode of snake Gods, who protect the valley, along with Stupas embeded in the landscape. Temples and important sites occupied place of important micro-ecology during Licchavi and Malla period.

(Right) A ritual route from palace to the cremation ground next to the river in Bhaktapur, a Newari settlement. The festival and ritual routes maintained their importance till date in Newari settlements, keeping alive the tradition and culture. (Below) Details of urban fabric of Patan, an important traditional Newari settlement, showing important squares and religious routes

37


Landscape transformations Both liberalization of the Rana rule and the fall of the British Empire induce radical change in Nepal. Prior to 1951, the scarcity of road infrastructure was blocking the expansion of the market. On top of that, came the pressure of a massive outflow of people leaving the hills in their “quest of land� after that the traditional trade with Tibet was cut off during the same period. Large amount of people migrated to the lower lands of Terai but also to the Kathmandu Valley that acted as an extended economic region where employment opportunities were concentrated. The airport opened the borders to international tourism in the 1950s and the intensification of trade with India. The construction of the ring road in 1976 gave further accessibility to areas of the Valley and fosters an even greater urban expansion. To meet the housing demands, government initiated site & services and land pooling projects in 1980s.

The development plan of 1969 was envisioned for the next thirty years highlighting the ecological imbalance in the valley. The plan acknowledges growing pressure of urbanization in south-east of the valley around Bhaktapur municipality and proposes south and south-west parts of the valley to accommodate the future growth.

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A transport and communication map of Nepal from 1960, highlighting the improved connectivity within the country as well as to India


Arrival of modern development projects in the Kathmandu Valley

39


1967 Opening of the borders Following a ‘modern’ approach for management of urban growth, a town planning office was established in 1965, which presented a physical development plan of the Kathmandu valley in 1969. Inauguration of airport in 1955 provided further connectivity and opened economic opportunities through tourism. Another noticable event of urban development in the valley includes construction of a cement factory in Chobar in 1967. The availability of cement and steel promoted construction activities in the valley.

1978 Construction of the Ring Road The land use plan of 1976 by Kathmandu Valley town planning team, included a ring road which accelerated urban development process towards making Kathmandu a metropolitan centre. Bhaktapur development plan was launched in 1974, an important project with an emphasis on much needed conservation. The project aimed to preserve historical buildings, improve infrastucture and provide new economic opportunities through small industries and tourism. To further guide the urban development, town planning committee launched site & services project in 1977.

1995 Land pooling projects

Land pooling projects were introduced by government in 1990s to assist housing development in Kathmandu Valley. 90s also saw the rise of private housing development companies and gated communities on a big scale. In between 1980s and 1990s, there has been a tremendous growth in Kathmandu valley, whihc led to conversion of forest and agriculture land into residential and commercial development.

40


Urban growth evolution

1967

1978

1995

2015

41


Growing urbanization and Risks

Khokhana Bungamati

42


43


The Valley as a fragile territory

Front of urbanization towards the southern region, the mos vulnerable territory of the valley. Relationship between endangered forests, landslides, liquefaction, earthquakes, and flooding.

44


Liquefaction Risk

Endangered Forest

Pollution and Flooding

Landslides Risk

45


CONCLUSION Since its origins, the Valley’s geography and its landlocked position at the foothills of the Himalayan range turned out to be the key element in the region’s development, starting with the prosperous trading route developed with Tibet and with the Gangetic plains of India. The valley became prosperous and even though commerce was the primary concern, the rulers saw the importance of agricultural production for the further growth of the valley. Over generations, the Newar culture has developed a context responsive urbanism where natural ecology and settlements are in balance and presenting an imagery of purity and symbiosis. The mapping of territory reveals how historically the indigenous culture of the Valley seemed to have mastered the way of designing cities around social & cultural public spaces (F. Hosken, 1974). In 1769, the petty state of Gorkha conquered and unified the territory that we know today as Nepal. The country entered in a period of conquest and expansion with growing political struggle. Until recently, the culture of the Valley has been closed to the West and preserved by its rulers as a strong feudalist state. At the end of the 19th century however, Jang Bahadur emerged as an important political figure of his time, he ruled Nepal for almost thirty years and made quite radical changes in the Valley and embraced the West’s architecture and culture. Opening of the valley to the world brought new transformations and infrastructure alike communication systems, electricity, roads, public amenities and aviation. Increasingly, foreign technology and its associated way of living further influenced the development of the Valley.

Hand-drawn map showing the southern region of the Valley of Kathmandu in which we recognize the Bagmati River on the left side and a collections of settlement throughout the area such as Bungamati, Kokhana and Sano Kokhana. Detail of Kathmandu 1879-84 in Maps of Nepal. 46


47


CHAPTER 2 REVITALISING BUNGAMATI : AN ACTION PLAN The summer workshop aim was to prepare an action plan for Bungamati, to support a sustainable redevelopment of the area and simultaneously serve as an exemplary project for other similar cases.


LANDSCAPE URBANISM STUDIO KATHMANDU 2015-2016 STUDIO TEAM Prof. Dr. ir.-arch. Bruno De Meulder Prof. Dr. arch. Viviana d’Auria ir.-arch., urb. Annelies De Nijs ir.-arch. Stefanie Dens IN COOPERATION WITH UN-Habitat Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Shelter Program MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: paulien.martens@kuleuven.be ISBN 9789491656057

© Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Landscape Urbanism, Studio Kathmandu 2015-2016, Nepal).

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STUDIO KATHMANDU

REVITALISING BUNGAMATI : AN ACTION PLAN Design investigations for a post earthquake reconstruction process

Thesis Studio, Kathmandu, Nepal Prof. Dr. Bruno De Meulder, Prof. Dr. Viviana d’Auria, Annelies De Nijs, Stefanie Dens 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning

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Urban extensions in the landscape - Due to urban pressure, expansions happen quite randomly within the surrounding landscapes. This leads to interesting intertwined urban-landscape morphologies

52

The appearance of shelters - Temporary housing is emerging on any available spot in the landscape, leading to unstructured and scattered patterns on often very vulnerable sites


Earthquake destruction - Bungamati’s historical core has been heavily damaged by the 25th April earthquake and its aftershocks. Nearly two third of the houses have been damaged or destroyed.

Continuous reconstruction - The urge for reconstruction in the settlement of Bungamati is large and the need for a structured process is therefore very present

53


Urban extensions in the landscape - Due to urban pressure, expansions happen quite randomly within the surrounding landscapes. This leads to interesting intertwined urban-landscape morphologies

54

The appearance of shelters - Temporary housing is emerging on any available spot in the landscape, leading to unstructured and scattered patterns on often very vulnerable sites


Earthquake destruction - Bungamati’s historical core has been heavily damaged by the 25th April earthquake and its aftershocks. Nearly two third of the houses have been damaged or destroyed.

Continuous reconstruction - The urge for reconstruction in the settlement of Bungamati is large and the need for a structured process is therefore very present

55


1988

2003

2009 56

Bungamati, 1967 - drawn by the Danish Group of Architects


2009 Bungamati 2015 - aerial picture of Bungamati after the April earthquake, expansion of the town on former rice fields

0 10

50

100m

57


1

economically and culturally. A proper spatial frame is therefor crucial. Tailor-made urban strategies articulate this spatial frame. This action plan consequently concentrates on the definition of these strategies.

one.

THE EARTHQUAKE,

THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 1. READING THE EXISTING On 25 April 2015 11:56 local time, a 7,8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal, with the epicenter in Lamjung District (81 km N-W of Kathmandu), at a depth of 15km. Dozens of aftershocks followed, including a 6,7 magnitude earthquake on 26 April 2015. The hazard destroyed most of the traditional settlements and monuments in Kathmandu Valley and catalyzed major displacement flows. It is an enormous challenge to reconstruct these settlements while retaining their historical, economical, socio-cultural and architectural identity and simultaneously adapting them for a sustainable growth within an earthquake responsive development. Following the short-term tactics of first aid camps, which so often lead to slum development, now a long term vision is necessary for a sustainable redevelopment of the area. The redevelopment task indeed necessitates a clear urban framework. The post disaster effort should be steered as soon as possible towards sustainable development, shifting from urgency measures (amongst which immediate provision of shelters) towards durable contributions to the reconstruction post disaster shelters. On site technical assistance often proves essential in this regard. Generic solutions have to be avoided., They are usually prone to speculative trends and far to often controlled by real estate only. Reconstruction should indeed be tailor made, make best use of local resources and built on the expertise that is embedded within local practices and knowledge, and involve the population actively. This is self-evident. Mobilizing local knowledge allows to make appropriate choices of building materials and methods, and conserve of tangible and intangible heritages. Within this post-earthquake context, the aim is to revitalize the traditional settlements of the Kathmandu Valley socially,

With such objective in mind, several key areas were considered, with Bungamati as a pilot project. Within the Kathmandu valley, several sites are recognized as important and thus are priority areas for post-earthquake reconstruction. Criteria such as historic importance, cultural heritage, identity, (natural) resources, proximity of (future) infrastructures and community engagement did lead to the identification of hotspots. From this multi-dimensional analysis, Bungamati resulted as the first hotspot to be considered. It will at the same time serve as an exemplary case for other key areas in the Kathmandu Valley. The village Bungamati is located 10 km south of Kathmandu and has its origins in medieval times. Its inhabitants are predominantly Newars. It is situated under the newly established Karyabinayak Municipality, counts around 6000 inhabitants and is famous for the main temple of Machhindranath, as well as for woodcarving and handicrafts. It is furthermore one of the proposed heritage sites for UNESCO listing. The earthquake damaged 900 out of 1114 houses, destroyed the Machhindranath temple and injured many people. Many families are now forced to live in temporary shelters. Bungamati was chosen as a pilot project as it still hosts significant local potentials and resources. The goal of this action plan is to support the recovery of the local community and the redevelopment of their assets. Therefore, the focus lies on urban design strategies that take into account the genius loci, incorporate local housing traditions, and integrate local economies and heritage. Strategies are developed on different scales, for housing as well as the public realm, and take into account also technical issues such as construction methods and materials, in addition to water management and sanitation. The reconstruction of Bungamati is about place making, revitalizing urban space (the social and economic activities that characterize them so much included), rethinking the public realm while strategically incorporating technical solutions. Hence, public space should be considered as a catalyst: it becomes the center around which intensifications of residential and public activities and amenities can be planned, with the overall goal of inducing a swing to the local economy and thus engendering a sustainable and independent future for the settlement.

liquefaction risk Chandragiri Fault

58

landslide risk

Kalphu Fault

The Kathmandu Valley section – the position of Kathmandu and Bungamati in the valley brings very specific climatic and geological conditions that have an influence on landslides and monsoon seasons. Fault lines cross through the valley due to the presence of the nearby Himalayas


30 000 years ago

1967

Bungamati 1991

2014 Evolution of the Kathmanu Valley - from lake to condensed city plain

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Bungamati

Challenges on the regional scale – planned infrastructures will influence the historical settlements and their economies

2. DEFINING A SPATIAL FRAME Bungamati is however also a village on the verge of significant transformation. Booming development is underway, stretching as far out as the wide landscape of rice fields surrounding the historic core of the village. With new infrastructure developments (the outer ring road and the highway towards the South of the country) and the rapidly extending urban tissue, building with local craftsmanship 60

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becomes difficult and generic concrete buildings are on the rise. These uncontrolled, mushrooming practices threaten the natural resources and induce generic sprawl. They also neglect regional construction materials and methods (for earthquake resilient buildings) and are not based on intensive dialogues between the historic center and new extension areas. Seen the sudden growth of Bungamati, a complete urban development strategy has to be thought out, hand in hand with the reconstruction of the existing fabric.


Fieldwork frame and production map - productive territory between the Nhakku and Bagmati River.

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okharpaunwa landfill

X

X gokarna landfill

kathmandu

teku

Bhaktapur patan

mtwtfss

PRIVATE 200 R/MONTH DOOR TO DOOR / STREET COLLECTION

KTM

techo bungamati

BGM

khokana

mtwtfss MUNICIPALITY 35 STREET COLLECTORS

Water logics in relation to settlement structure – a system of interrelated water ponds and water wells is one of the base spatial layers of Bungamati

Waste trajectories - one of the mayor issues in Bungamati and the Kathmandu Valley is the (formal and informal) collection and treatment of waste

This action plan for the reconstruction of Bungamati necessarily has to apprehend the urban logics of the Kathmandu Valley, not only as a whole, but also as the Southern edge of the dynamic city. This regional analysis and understanding allows to frame urban and social changes in Bungamati and in its surroundings. At the same time, the needed deep analysis of the existing situation requires intensive fieldwork that combines mapping with interviews with local experts and other key respondents.

design process. The reflections generated by this process are steering the action plan and are determining the most strategic elements within the overall vision under articulation.

Intensive fieldwork is the basis for reflections on the revitalization process. Common grounds can be installed only through knowledge of current practices and (urban) landscape dynamics. To come to an integrated action plan, a process with the inhabitants and local stakeholders is developed. This means exchanging knowledge with local residents based on an intensive participative trajectory that is developed in parallel to the 62

The specific context of Bungamati is one of a village situated in a close relationship with Khokana, slightly off the main road yet influenced by it. Bungamati is likewise influenced from the strong urban growth coming from the city and the potential development of a new outer ring road. Situated on the hinge between peri-urban and rural conditions, Bungamati occupies as a crucial position. Its traditional architecture and settlement structure are fundamental for vibrant cultural practices that constitute an important element of the action plan.


A

Section - A

Value of vernacular typologies – the socio-spatial logics of a traditional courtyard house within the tissue of Bungamati

Various fieldwork exercises have unveiled the qualities of existing morphologies, typologies and landscape structures, as well as their limitations for receiving growth - and thus also future development. Existing cooperative organizations are important elements for the economy, and are established for agriculture as well as for brick production. Growth goes hand in hand with infrastructures and their enlargement. With a newly planned highway, an outer ring road and a bus station, all in the direct environs of Bungamati and Khokana, the urban realities will change with a fast pace. Therefore, the action plan does not only try to take into account the reconstruction of the current village, but it also reflects upon an expansion strategy with respect to both landscape and the heritage, including construction methods and earthquake resilient strategies. The spatial possibilities of reconstruction have been linked to structuring routes or armatures, in order to collect different actions and exceptional buildings that can serve the community,

but at the same time connect existing main elements in the tissue. Fieldwork exercises have been fundamental to grasp today’s realities and understand dynamics that can then lead to a grounded projection for the near and longer-term future of Bungamati. The action plan that is elaborated in the next chapters proposes a method for redeveloping the village of Bungamati and should not be read as a fixed master plan. All the elements included are of importance for the revitalization process, centred on the spatial structure that is proposed as a fundamental base on which an array of projects can be implemented. Reconstruction dynamics are delicate and should include community-based scenarios in order to sustain projects on the long run. Revitalizing Bungamati is therefore simultaneously an aim and a method. Where restructuring is needed, the urge of developing and reflecting on the reconstruction process is essential. 63


2

1. TWIN VILLAGE ARMATURE

two.

BUNGAMATI-KHOKANA, TWIN VILLAGES

The spatial reality and redevelopment of Bungamati (and its redevelopment) cannot be dissociated from its “twin-village”, Khokana. Together they form an interactive spatial and social system, with an obvious connection and a cultural node that ties them between them: the temple of Karyabinayak. They are part of a landscape generated by a spectacular geomorphological condition: a sequence of valleys and hilltops, The development and articulation of an important spatial connection between the two twin settlements is crucial for the future development of the two twin villages. This link should not only act as a collector and connector of existing functions and public spaces, but it also can become (whether extended or not) the armature sustaining reconstruction projects and future urban development alike. This armature connects the bus stations of both villages through a new type of public space, which allows pedestrian flows, public and social infrastructures and technical services to be collected in one trajectory. A path is choosen as armature that is not passing by the villages’ central squares in order to facilitate a more complete development that can also focus on regional accessibility.

<< to Patan - Kathmandu

64

Hills and valleys – the territory of Bungamati – Khokana as a system of hills and valleys, that defines the settlement structures


A structuring armature - densification and public functions are structured by an armature that connects Bungamati and Khokana. The armature becomes an important figure to guide urban (re)development

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Natural edges

- Natural Edges: the valleys and forests are creating a very strong natural edge for the villages towards the valley of the Bagmati river

Topography

- valleys and hills define the position of the current villages, the agricultural activities as well as the infrastructure and accessibilities

1 2 3

Cultural Assets - Festivals and traditional routes are culturally very embedded in the structure of Khokana and Bungamati. Chariots have to be carried through these streets and masses of people are passing through. This defines their width already since ancient times 66

Indication of the sections


3 rice fields

stormwater drainage

infrastructures

armature as pedestrian strip

recycle point - waste collection

lookout platform

2 rice terraces

reedbed purification system

reclaiming the rice fields

sitting area

stormwater drainage

wastewater - electricity - optic fibre ...

armature as pedestrian strip

1

67

pedestrian walkway

stormwater drainage

renewed infrastructure

wastewater - electricity - optic fibre - ...

centre for Newari culture and music

inner courtyard


KARYABINAYAK PARK preparation phase

construction phase

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opening

maintenance phase

dd/mm/yyyy

By upgrading the existing park along the temple of Karyabinayak and making it into an active landscape, a new kind of public space is introduced between Bungamati and Khokana. The ambition of this project is to combine ecological and water management strategies while enhancing community activities in a redesigned landscape. A reuse of building materials, from the Machhindranath Temple square, is introduced for the public spaces and urban furniture, while afforestation is used to prevent soil erosion, assure enough water recharge in the ground and can provide construction materials. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Karyabinayak community, UNDP, UNEP, â&#x20AC;Ś

Karyabinayak Park â&#x20AC;&#x201C; adding public amenities, enhancing the local economies and reinforcing the identity of the tourism site 68


V.Architecture-Dragonfly Park, Vietnam

S.Associates, Sanskriti Kendra, India

Turenscape-Shenyang University, China Turenscape -Houtan Park, China

Karyabinayak Park â&#x20AC;&#x201C; enhancing local tourism by upgrading the park, inserting amenities and turning it into an active landscape (planting to prevent landslides)

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2. THE ARMATURE AS A DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVE In the immediate post-earthquake aftermath a massive amount of temporary settlement structures were built with the help of multiple international organizations. As much as those structures are needed for post-disaster relief, they present challenges in themselves on the long run and require careful action. Indeed, these temporary structures are currently positioned on any type of available land, without necessarily having access to public services or without being located in flood-proof areas. Moreover, the shelters are spread around the village cores. The revitalization project is aiming to replace the temporary housing units as soon as possible by permanent and more sustainable solutions, built as much as possible with the community and by making use of the deeply rooted local knowledge. The armature plays an important role in this as it functions as a structuring element for the urban fabricâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s densification and for the location of collective and public initiatives. Village extension is projected to happen along this (extended) armature and in concentrated areas, referring to the historical pattern of urban cores. These new cores, however, are structured with active landscapes, community water treatment infrastructures and water collection areas. The infrastructures are interwoven with the existing structures and settlement patterns. The resulting spatial figure is a dialogue between both old and new.

A renewed public space â&#x20AC;&#x201C; on the head of the armature, the current bus parking of Bungamati will be transformed into a vibrant public space with market functions and sport facilities for the community 70

Shelter living â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the post-earthquake relief aid has given many shelter housing that are now spread around the two villages of Bungamati and Khokana


Urban extensions â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the (extended) armature will also become the carrier of future urban development, with strong attention for interweaving new spaces with the existing, and securing both relations to the landscape and a clustered and compact configuration

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3

three.

AN ACTION PLAN FOR BUNGAMATI Starting from the spatial frame for Bungamati-Khokana, an action plan for the reconstruction and revitalization of Bungamati is elaborated. To re-found and renew Bungamati three fundamental components are proposed: (i) a structuring public space figure; (2) pilot projects; (3) a timeline for reconstruction. Public spaces and infrastructures structure settlements and have a fundamental impact on the character and identity of settlements. It is almost self-evident that they require very careful consideration during the reconstruction process. The action

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged shelters

72

plan also acknowledges the fundamental value of indigenous typologies and construction techniques. They are main assets to reincorporate the genius loci in the new urban structure of the village. The suggested action plan is based on the destruction degree of the different buildings as well as on the existing community and open space structures., This open spaces and community structures are indeed crucial as they define the hierarchy of public spaces, the green-blue structures and the built fabric. Three transversal routes structure the urban fabric and connect it to the new armature, becoming inner backbones for reconstruction. Public programs, collective housing, gardens and water management are some of the components that are prioritized for implementation along these routes. By choosing their anchor points carefully, specific characters are accentuated and public functions are stimulated.

COMMUNITIES shelters Shrestha Nyae Udaya Kapali

OPEN SPACE NETWORK Gathu Guvaju Bharamacharya Shakya Jyapu


A vision for Bungamati â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the future spatial structure of Bungamati is envisioned to be carried by large public space trajectories (the armature and three transversal routes), as well as a renewed green-blue logic

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A. OPEN SPACE NETWORK Reinforcing the green structures and open spaces within this dense tissue and turn them into active landscapes, providing services for the village, is consequently one of the priorities of the action plan. Several pilot projects are oriented towards this, with a community wastewater treatment strategy and collective rainwater harvesting as the most important ones.

Green Bungamati â&#x20AC;&#x201C; historically, the settlement of Bungamati developed in close relation to its green structures and water ponds [pictures from the publication of the danish group of architects, 1967]

Collective green as interface â&#x20AC;&#x201C; kitchen gardens are suggested to form the edge between the valley and the settlement core of Bungamati 74


Green-blue structures â&#x20AC;&#x201C; water harvesting and management and public space interventions go hand in hand in the action plan for Bungamati

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COMMUNITY WASTE WATER TREATMENT preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

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maintenance phase

Decentralised community wastewater treatment systems are proposed as astrategy to counter the heavily polluted environment and rivers of Bungamati. By introducing small-scale reed beds on strategic locations around the village, the water can make use of the topographical differences and be cleaned before it goes through the valley and reaches the river. A biogas system can be coupled to this approach and can generate energy for the households related to the treatment plant. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, UNDP, UNEP, WASH, Bill Gates Foundation, Tata Foundation â&#x20AC;Ś

ater

waste w

biogass International reference Purification system for office buildings, 100m2, USA, New York, Crawford and Associates Engineers 76


MICRO SCALE RAINWATER HARVESTING preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

dd/mm/yyyy

maintenance phase

Multiple rainwater collection points are integrated in the tissue of Bungamati and create not only common spaces but at the same time also ecological nodes. While providing solutions to stormwater floods in the monsoon season, the collection points can also serve as collective irrigation sources for the kitchen gardens within the tissue. Furthermore, they assure a recharging of the groundwater table, which then can reinitiate the ancient stone spout system. All buildings should therefore get an adapted system where rainwater is harvested separately (as a source for showering and toilets) and where grey water and black water get their respective circuits. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, WASH, UNDP, UNEP, Oxfam, Bill Gates Foundation, Tata Foundationâ&#x20AC;Ś

stone spouts micro retention ponds

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B. URBAN TISSUE AND PUBLIC SPACE The tissue of Bungamati has historically developed from the harmonious balance between landscape and built structures. Water elements like ponds were integrated in the village structure and of great importance for religious and water management functions alike. The density of the village generated an almost complete urban image

Pati - A traditional covered social space (gathering, storing, drying crops, ...)

People tree - Age-old trees create multipurpose community spaces 78

Ponds - Water bodies function as religious and social public spaces within the tissue

Peti - A linear collective space as extension of the building


Public space as a base â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the reconstruction of Bungamati is based on a public space structure that induces the construction of public amenities as well as individual housing

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ROUTE 1 PRATHAMPUR MAHABIHAR TO AMARAPUR BIHAR preparation phase

construction phase

opening

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maintenance phase

A public space route going from monastery to monastery is proposed as an instigator for public life and community redevelopment projects. The upgrading of this area, that crosses several communities, can be seen as a new artery to which specific buildings (a library, collective housing, a temple, …) are related, but that will at the same time incorporate a renewed public space approach (the pond as a manifestation of centrality and public life, collective gardens and play areas, …). The route is also in direct relation to the armature that functions on the Bungamati – Khokana scale.

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80 SECTION AA’ AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


Collective Courtyard housing

Prathampur

Collective housing with garden

Nhawan Gaa

Library

Amarapur

collective / community

PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project

Section AAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

81


ROUTE 1

DENSIFYER courtyard housing and rotation units preparation phase

construction phase

opening

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maintenance phase

In order to provide housing units for the owners of damaged buildings, rotation units are provided where they can be hosted during the reconstruction process. This makes sure that the squares and public spaces are freed from shelter housing, which then leaves room for construction materials. For the reconstruction of the courtyard building a vernacular Newari architecture is sought (with the very specific technical construction techniques), yet the organization starts rather from a reflection on the clan as a community than the separate families. This typology of collective housing thus goes beyond the vertical division of the historical houses, but rethinks them as one unit. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, Schools around Bungamati and Khokana, Community (clan), Architecture Sans Frontières, MIT, Air BnB, Namuna Ghar Vocational School, â&#x20AC;Ś 0 100

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International references 1. Newa Chann Hotel, Patan 2. Safe Haven Library, Thailand, Tyin Architects, built in 1 month, $4800 3. Copper House, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 4. Copper House, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 82

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ROUTE 2 MACHHIANDRANATH TO FAMILY HOMESTAY preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

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maintenance phase

A second public space route is prefigured from the Machhindranath Square to the armature. While crossing the dense inner tissue, this route also initiates several upgrading projects on the most damaged sites. A large collective garden is planned behind one of the renewed housing sites and can become a central green core for the inner tissue of the settlement. Densification projects assure the possibility to accept new dwellers in Bungamati in the future, or to keep the possibility for growing families to still live together as one community.

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84 SECTION AAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


CARPENTERS HOUSE ( SHEEBA)

Carpenter’s

Machhindranath

Hiti Gaa

Collective housing

play

Densifyer, homestay and social restaurant collective /

PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project priority project Section AA’

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

85


ROUTE 2 CARPENTER’S HOUSE preparation

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

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maintenance phase

As a training project in vernacular construction methods and techniques that are earthquake resistent, the house of one of Bungamati’s carpenters is being renovated together with the community. With capacity building being one of the most important goals of the Bungamati Action Plan, this household-scale initiative is vital for the reconstruction of the village and its individual houses. The small scale project is chosen for its fast execution in time, aiming at a fast but profound spreading of building knowledge. Vocational school training is the support for this project. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: Relief Committee, Vocational school, (craftsmen) Community, House owner, Architecture sans Frontières, Namuna Ghar Vocational School, BASEHabitat, different construction NGO’s with …

International references 1. Homestay, Bhaktapur, Nepal, Vocational School Namuna Ghar 86

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+1.

+ 2.

+ 3.

87


ROUTE 2 DENSIFYER rotation units + homestay + social restaurant preparation

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy This project combines densification strategies with a social restaurant function. The rotation units and community kitchen become a gathering space for inhabitants of the multiple communities of Bungamati. The building is also partly dedicated to a community-run homestay, which can swing the economy of the village. Being strategically located on the crossing of the armature towards Khokana and one of the public space routes in the tissue of Bungamati, this public building becomes crucial in the redevelopment process of the village. Traditional building methods and vernacular architecture are at the base of the design of this project, while the execution process is a combined effort of the vocational school and the inhabitants themselves.

Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, Community, WASH, UNDP, Oxfam, â&#x20AC;Ś

1

International references Cassia Co-op Training Centre, Sumatra, Indonesia, TYIN Architecture with university students of architecture, built in 4 months, 30 000 euro 88

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3


89


ROUTE 3 MACHHIANDRANATH TO FAMILY HOMESTAY preparation phase

construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

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maintenance phase

Following the festivity routes from the Machhindranath Temple Square to Bungamati’s bus square, the public space intervention rethinks and restructures an ancient community trajectory. Several collective housing projects are situated along the route, as well as an extension of the Bungamati museum, which houses at the same time an information point on the reconstruction project for Bungamati. The public space links smaller places for worshiping, drying crops, gathering, … with a narrow yet unified public domain.

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90 SECTION AA’ AND VIEW - of the main pond, before and after revitalisation


craftsatelier and housing extension museum, information brothers’ house

commerce and housing PROPOSED PUBLIC ROUTE inserted or enhanced collective functions priority project priority project

AMENITIES religion educational wood crafting groceries pati other shops

Section AA’

DESTRUCTION entirely collapsed badly damaged

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ROUTE 2 CRAFTS ATELIER carpenters’ and masoners’ atelier, housing preparation phase (design + plot) construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

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On a strategic location along the bus parking, a crafts atelier is constructed in order to gather different craftsmen of the village and to give them again a good working environment. This initiative will not only stimulate the economic activities of the individual craftsmen, at the same time it boosts the reconstruction of the settlements as the construction materials needed, can be produced in the atelier. Enthusiast inhabitants can learn by watching and doing in the atelier, and an intensive collaboration is set up with the vocational school that will also be constructed. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Vocational School, (craftsmen) community, local craftsmen, MIT, …

International references Atelier and Workshop for craftsmen, Alibaug Plantation, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 92

1


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ROUTE 2 VOCATIONAL SCHOOL preparation phase (design + plot) construction phase

opening

dd/mm/yyyy

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The vocational school is a project that combines the training of skilled craftsmen and the production of qualitative construction materials. Being conceived as a learning atelier, with classrooms, workshops and living units, the vocational school works around a large courtyard. Furthermore, the school is also equipped with a vegetable garden, a rainwater collection system and a biogas cycle with the aim to become self-sustaining. Possible stakeholders associated to this project: UN-Habitat, Relief Committee, Namuna Ghar School, UNDP, UNEP, local craftsmen, â&#x20AC;Ś

International references Atelier and Workshop for craftsmen, Alibaug Plantation, India, Studio Mumbai Architects 94


95


3. TIMELINE Besides the spatial strategy, the action plan consists mainly of a critical consideration on the organization of the action planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development over time. The armature, the three routes and the set of priority projects constitute a frame for reconstruction. The process of revitalising Bungamati is assured by introducing amongst the suggested initiatives some key instigators for redevelopment. Projects like the Craft Atelier and the Vocational School are strategically positioned at the beginning of the process as they are key elements for reinforcing community-based reconstruction methods. Densifiers introduce innovative ways of cohousing during the construction process, while preparing ground for economic activities later on. In order to stimulate inhabitantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; capacity building , and thus reinforce construction knowledge showcase projects such as the carpenterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house are collectively executed with skilled craftsmen.

The objective of the reconstruction timeline is to guide in time the development of a renewed urban structure for Bungamati, where temporary shelters will have made place for new constructions and renovated existing buildings. The maps in the timeline show the changing balance between temporary and permanent, between destruction and reconstruction, between individual and collective projects. As the lifespan of a shelter house is between 3 and 5 years, the timeline is envisaging a reconstruction process within such a time span. Of course, the smooth and logical flow of projects is more important than the exact dates of the actions, which will depend on funding conditions and management decisions

The important heritage sites follow a parallel trajectory of reconstruction, but stimulate at the same time economic activities and tourism. They are subject to larger investment and donor-driven support and are therefore imagined at a scale that is larger than the individual and collective reconstruction.

Revitalising Bungamati : the action plan - timeline pre-phase:

project phase:

funding strategies community meetings preparations

01/2016

11/2015

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

1. CRAFTS ATelieR preparation phase (design + plot)

pla

library + pc-hall construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

kitchen gardens

>> Studio Mumbai - workshop

col

2. voCATionAl SChool (capacity building + construction materials) preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

>> Studio Mumbai - workshop

collective

3. houSe CARpenTeR (capacity building individual construction) preparation

construction phase

opening

collective housing + workshops

maintenance phase

>> Renovation of a house - Bhaktapur

4. DenSiFyeR i (rotation units + homestay + social restaurant) preparation

construction phase

opening

>> TYIN Tengueste - Cassia Coop training centre - Sumatra

maintenance phase

collective housing + Revitalising Bungamati (extension museum

5. DenSiFyeR ii (courtyard housing + rotation units) preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

maintenance phase

>> Hotel - Patan

ponds 6. ReeDBeDS (waste water treatment system) preparation phase (design + plots) construction phase

0

50

100

200m

opening

maintenance phase

waste water + drainage infrastructure public space armature

>> New York - reedbed system

96 11/2015

01/2016

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

soli


05/2017

09/2017

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

ayground collective garden

llective courtyard housing

collective housing collective housing

collective housing + commerce

extended public space collective housing collective garden

collective housing

exemplary family housing project collective housing

m)

collective housing collective housing sports fields

new bus station

collective housing + commerce

collective housing + workshops

collective housing

id waste infrastructure

market (old bus station)

rainwater harvesting infrastructure

Karyabinayak active landscape park

97 05/2017

09/2017

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019


preparation phase (design + plots) construction phase

0

50

100

200m

opening

maintenance phase

11/2015

01/2016

05/2016

waste water + drainage infrastructure public space armature

>> New York - reedbed system

09/2016

01/2017

Machhindranath Temple

hayagriva Bhairav Temple

heritage

Mu nani, Rudra Baha

Karunamaya Dya Chhen Temple

Kwa Chen Baha Temple

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11/2015 collective

bungamati tissue

individual

damaged house destroyed house temporary shelter

98

0

50

100

200m

01/2016

05/2016

09/2016

01/2017

soli


id waste infrastructure

rainwater harvesting infrastructure

05/2017

09/2017

Karyabinayak active landscape park

01/2018

05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

Bunga Bahi

Sala Chhen Temple

nhawan Gaa

hiti Gaa

05/2017

Re-opening Machhindra Bahal

09/2017

01/2018

Re-opening Chohel nani

lifespan bamboo shelter 05/2018

09/2018

01/2019

05/2019

lifespan Danish shelter opening Market square

99


4. A PARTICIPATORY TRAJECTORY AND SOCIAL MEDIA Reconstruction through a community-based process implies communication, moments of collective reflection on the project and information-sharing. The project is therefore based on a threefold participatory trajectory, of which the first part consists of the signing of a charter and community meetings during the project. A specific information point, with a wooden model indicating the reconstruction actions, will be established on site. A website will be running in parallel online. It is created to collect information on the project and gather possible demands for project aid. These three ways of interacting with inhabitants, but also with interested actors far beyond Bungamati, is crucial to the success of this project. The inhabitants are anyhow the protagonists in the revitalisation process.

signing of the charter COMMUNITY MEETINGS

community meetings

community meetings Inauguration Moment

PROJECT ACTION PLAN

project

collective projects + heritage informing the community presenting the action plan to the community

on site

debating and deciding on the action plan by the community

individual reconstruction

ON SITE 1. info + wooden model of current situation made by wood craftsmen

MEDIA

2. miniature priority projects to sell

SOCIAL MEDIA interactive website

update projects crowdfunding project 1

call for participants update partners involved

100

update projects call for participants crowdfunding project 2

festive opening project 1


english / newari

ON

ongoing

THE MAP

projects

timeline

project

crowd

frame

funding

training & technical knowhow for redevelopment

construction phase

ON

ongoing

the village

THE MAP

projects

opening

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

15/10/2016

08/04/2016

08/12/2015

english / newari

voices of

List of projects

vocational school preparation phase (design + plot)

partners

PROJECT AIM : Training of new craftsmen, taught by skilled craftsmen of Bungamati. Swing economy, revive craftsmanship, train on alternative energy, purification cycles and earthquake resilient building. PROGRAM : Class rooms, ateliers, storage space, boarding units. Implement water and biogass cycle to be self-sustainable. Rainwater harvesting, vegetable garden. EST. CONSTRUCTION TIME + COST : 4+6 months // xx USD

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD DEADLINE : 15 march 2016

IF YOU SUPPORT THIS INITIATIVE, YOU GET :

INDIEGOGO LINK

# 10 USD : honorable mention on the website # 25 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project # 50 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet made by the tinmen of bungamati # 100 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved in a wall of the school # 250 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet

timeline

project

crowd

frame

funding

densifyer II

KU school of arts

# 10/01/2016

# 24/06/2016

# 21/08/2015

Construction works have started and continue with an intensive rhythm. The damaged house is being repaired with local materials. The scaffoldings are reaching to the upper floors in order to first tackle structural issues over the entire house.

While the design team is going ahead with the proposal for the re-invented courtyard housing, which will include also rotation units for the shelter inhabitants, a team of community members has joined forces to start preparing the plot for construction.

The Vernacular Sense & Essence of Bungamati

Specialised craftsmen help in the reconstruction of the house, for which the materials are prepared in the crafts atelier.

INDIEGOGO LINK

SPORTS FIELDS FOR BUNGAMATI

severe damage after the earthquake

>>

the motivated team working on removing the debris

>>

Plans are ready for the renovation works and experienced helpers from the village are motivated to work on the project. If still interested in giving a hand or help funding the works, please have a look at CONTACT FORM and CROWDFUNDING .

>>

LIBRARY PROJECT

construction works have started

# 16/12/2015

DEADLINE : 25 june 2016

>>

>>

INDIEGOGO LINK

A live performance on sensing the Vernacular Architecture of Bungmati in the aftermath of the Gorkha Earthquake 2015.

The event will host the local screenings of Digital Storytelling produced in collaboration with Willemijn van Kol and Elizabeth Hacker in Tea Shops and vernacular spaces in Bungamati.

DEADLINE : 06 april 2016

# 1000 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet + homestay + wooden model made by the woodcrafters of Bungamati

- # REBUILDING BUNGAMATI

by Salil Subedi in collaboration with Amrit Karki, Bharat Rai, Bibek Thapa, Hisila Maharjan, Kunjan Tamang, Minod Bhaila, Parish Shakya, Rahul Thapa, Sameer Tamrakar, Santosh Jarga Magar, Saroj Maharjan, Shyam Prajapati, Utsab Maharjan, Ximi Wang, Yajyu Manandhar

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD

BUDGET AIM : xxx USD

voices of the village

house carpenter

FAMILY HOUSING PROJECT

# 500 USD : honorable mention + postcard of the project + bracelet + name carved + project booklet + gift voucher for a homestay in Bungamati

partners

english / newari

ON

ongoing

THE MAP

projects

timeline

project

crowd

frame

funding

partners

voices of the village

info-point Revitalising Bungamati

OPEN CALL vocational school

training & technical knowhow for redevelopment

preparation phase (design + plot)

construction phase

opening

# 01 - masoner for housing project WHEN ? - Saturday 7 & Sunday 8 november 2015 WHERE ? - Bungamati - 10 WHAT ? - Retrofitting works of a collapsed faรงade

PROJECT AIM : Training of new craftsmen, taught by skilled craftsmen of Bungamati. Swing economy, revive craftsmanship, train on alternative energy, purification cycles and earthquake resilient building.

REQUIREMENTS ? - experience in masonry CONTACT FORM

# 02 - help for plot preparation WHEN ? - Tuesday 16 to Friday 20 november 2015 WHERE ? - Bungamati - 10 WHAT ? - Cleaning of debris REQUIREMENTS ? - manpower

>>

CONTACT FORM

>>

# 03 - carpenter for wood structure

101


Existing suburbanization along the metropolitan periphery


CHAPTER 3 Interpreting the Frame An understanding of dynamics of the Kathmandu Valley reveals the southern edge of this growing capital as a particularly vulnerable area for the coming trends of urbanization. This chapter is about telling the hidden potentials of the territory through complimentary analysis of four distinct perspectives focusing on water, infrastructures, urban patterns and resources.


Introducing the frame The area under focus lies in south of Kathmandu Valley, framed by three important rivers- Bagmati, Nakkhu, Godavari and three movement corridors Ekantakuna, Satdobato-Tikabhairab, Satdobato-Godavari road. The study frame is witnessing fast urbanisation with new housing developments coming along the mobility infrastructure and brick kilns dotting the landscape to feed the demand of new constructions. Postearthquake rebuilding and new proposed infrastructure projects will lead to further restructuring of the landscape. These scenarios present a need to address these transformations to find an alternate future for the territory. The frame is explored with four themes water, infrastructure, urban patterns and resources to get a complete understanding of the territory. An understanding of different constituents of the territory will provide insights into how its structure can be enhanced and canalised to support future growth.

Presence of productive valleys which are yet not been Large mobility corridors are yet not been implemented in the encroached by the urban growth south of the valley 104

Large mobility corridors are yet not been implemented in the south of the valley


The Interpretation - southern frame as front of urbanization

105


106 Existing land occuption patterns

LEGEND


Introducing the SOUTHERN frame The area under focus lies in south of Kathmandu Valley, framed by three important rivers- Bagmati, Nakkhu, Godavari and three movement corridors Ekantakuna, Satdobato-Tikabhairab, Satdobato-Godavari road. The study frame is witnessing fast urbanisation with new housing developments coming along the mobility infrastructure and brick kilns dotting the landscape to feed the demand of new constructions. Post-earthquake rebuilding and new proposed infrastructure projects will lead to further restructuring of the landscape. These scenarios present a need to address these transformations to find an alternate future for the territory. The frame is explored with four themes water, infrastructure, urban patterns and resources to get a complete understanding of the territory. An understanding of different constituents of the territory will provide insights into how its structure can be enhanced and canalised to support future growth.

0 100

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107


108 Topographical Sections through the frame


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109


110

Fault lines

Liquefaction

River pollution

Forest

Landslide potential

Floodplain pollution

Urban tissue


Landscape risks The area under focus lies in south of Kathmandu Valley, framed by three important rivers- Bagmati, Nakkhu, Godavari and three movement corridors Ekantakuna, Satdobato-Tikabhairab, Satdobato-Godavari road. The study frame is witnessing fast urbanization with new housing developments coming along the mobility infrastructure and brick kilns dotting the landscape to feed the demand of new constructions. Postearthquake rebuilding and new proposed infrastructure projects will lead to further restructuring of the landscape. These scenarios present a need to address these transformations to find an alternate future for the territory. The frame is explored with four themes water, infrastructure, urban patterns and resources to get a complete understanding of the territory. An understanding of different constituents of the territory will provide insights into how its structure can be enhanced and canalized to support future growth.

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URBAN SPRAWL

Situation in 2003

112


Situation in 2015

113


Landscape around Bungamati & Khokhana

114 Source: Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architects, Jørgen Rahbek Thomsen, Jens WÌrum and Hans Haagensen


115


A landscape in transition

1.BUNGAMATI

Traditional Settlement 2003

2014

2015

2014

2015

2. NAKKHU RIVER VALLEY

New urban typology along the river 2003

116 Source: google earth


2

1 3 4

3. CIVIL HOMES

A gated villa housing complex 2003

2014

2015

2014

2015

4. BAGMATI RIVER VALLEY

Brick Kilns consuming productive territory 2003

117


RESEARCH positions Kathmandu Valley is experiencing a fast transformation from a significantly tradition-bound society, being superimposed by layers of mobility infrastructures, urban extensions, water shortages, pollution and overexploitation of natural resources. This presents very serious environmental and landscape challenges, also in the light of the existing risks of earthquakes for the projected expansion of the city. The urban expansion also challenges the existing and future of the city. The analysis reveals that the south of Kathmandu as a fragile territory of the valley which is currently accommodating the urban growth of Kathmandu. Evolving from agricultural based settlements towards a dispersed urban mosaic. The occupation of agricultural lands, floodplains and forest areas brings new â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interactions within the landscape, which is impacting the concept of landscape and townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s balance in which these settlements were conceived. In the light of the (projected) city growth and its impact on the landscape, four distinct yet complimentary themes have been chosen for detailed analysis, followed by an position on the key issues and potential offered by them _on water The principle structure of the city, is guided by it hydro-geological network of rivers and valley. Population increase has, led to changed in the water-society relationships. Can the city reposition the blue structure for preserving its landscape qualities. _on road infrastructure The proposed new infrastructure aims at efficient connecting the valley internally and externally with its region. The existing patterns also highlight the layering of rituals, production and publicness associated with the infrastructure. Will these stay valid in the future? _on urbanization It is stated that the urbanization in Kathmandu cannot be accommodated within its metropolitan limits. How can visions be developed from the existing geological and topographical conditions in restructuring and guiding future urbanization. _on resources Kathmandu valley is significantly a agriculture bound society, engaged with its landscape. The expansion of the population positions us with the challenge for improving capacity for food, for managing waste. 118


120 Loss of agricultural land Current trend of urbanization over the productive landscapes of Nakhu River Valley.


Hydro Eco/Logics of the kathmandu valley Valentina Amaya

121


Introduction With a unique morphological condition, Kathmandu is positioned in the basin of intrusive rocks belonging to Lesser Himalayas as well as sedimentary rocks equivalent to Tibetan Tethys Zone (Stocklin and Bhattarai, 1977). A mutually rich and complex geographical system defined the water structure of this valley, counting with an extensive groundwater basin of abundant water availability complemented by the position of the valley over the Bagmati River Watershed and its five tributaries. These inherent conditions make this region abundant in water resources and fertile landscapes. The settlements in Kathmandu valley grew in strong relationship with water. Rivers, floodplains, lakes and ponds were the centers of daily life, framing cultural traditions in public spaces together with a strong religious and spiritual significance. Cultural, religious and agricultural practices were directly reflected in spatial manifestations as Hities, Ghats, ponds and man-made canals. However, Kathmandu is rapidly expanding frames of cultural references transforming from an ancient city, into a vibrant capital with a radical process of modernization and urbanization. New dynamics are transforming traditions, the appropriation of public spaces and consumption patterns. These new paradigms are profoundly transforming the territory, setting new environmental impacts of waste, extensive groundwater extraction, loss of forest and agricultural land. The water ecology of the valley has been fragmented, rivers have been polluted, there is a strong external dependence of food and groundwater is drying up from overuse. Together with this, the territory of Kathmandu Valley is one of the most vulnerable to earthquakes, landslides and liquefaction. The earthquake of the past 25 April 2015 destroyed most of the traditional settlements and monuments in Kathmandu Valley. Current reconstruction plans have shown lack of interest in the conservation of public spaces, public/community buildings and lack in addressing the preexisting contemporary challenges that the valley is facing as a whole.

122

Alluvial planes of Bagmati View towards Bagmati River over the funeral route of Bungamati


123


water management timeline

Shallow aquifer

Traditional Water Ponds as sacred Management Systems and public spaces in traditional Settlements

Rana

Opening of Tourism

1980

Shah

1968

Malla

1960

Licchavi

1951

700

Deep aquifer

From early 1980s, private hotels and industries started to drill their own wells.

Agricultural canals

Deep wells were drilled in the valley probably for the first time

Rivers as sacred places

The south region is a potential area for groundwater recharge

NWSC also introduced groundwater into its water supply system from mid-1980s. Construction of the first 6 wells.

This timeline expresses the course in history of Kathmandu Valley in relationship to the water management. The different stages explained in this chapter are used to explain the reasons of clean water scarcity in the Valley.

1981

1971

1960

124

1951

Population growth


Notable pollution downstream of Bagmati River. solid Waste discharge

Earthquake 2015: water supply is completely broken down Starts operate Pharphing groundwater extraction in the south region

Decline in groundwater levels

Extreme river pollution. consequentially polluting the shallow aquifer

Ponds and canals encroachment

brick industry polluting the aquifers

2016

2015

2015

2001

1998

1990

Majority of wells (225 numbers) were drilled during 1990â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2000 to extract 40â&#x20AC;&#x201C;55 MLD of groundwater

1.003.000 Severe Drinking Water Shortage in Kathmandu Valley Currently, there are 386 wells:114 shallow, 222 deep and other dug wells

Land cover change decrease in recharge areas

Decline in production capacity of wells

Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) is underway to bring 510 MLD water to the Kathmandu Valley

Mal function of traditional water management cycles incrementing the water scarcity in the Valley

600.000

400.000

2011

2001

1990

200.000

Growth of urban population in Kathmandu Valley

800.000

125


Groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley

Redraw from: Groundwater structure of Kathmandu Valley, Retrieved from Groundwater basin, boundary and recharge area (JICA1990), Clay deposit (Jha et al 1997)

Basbari Wellfield

DhobiKhola Wellfield

Gokarna Wellfield

Clay deposit

Recharge area

Groundwater basin

Bagmati River

Patan

Manohara Wellfield

Pharphing Wellfield

Kathmandu Shallow Aquifer Mix Sand and Clay Thick Clay Layer Deep Aquifer Basement

126

Redraw from: Kathmandu Valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aquifers in geological cross-sectional view (Source: Warner et al. 2008)


Kathmandu Valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s groundwater basin is elevated at 1,340 m above the mean sea level. It covers 327 km2 of 664 km2 surface watershed areas in the central Nepal. The water supply in the Kathmandu valley is dependent of its surrounding mountains and watersheds. The valley, characterized by a warm and temperate climate in semi-tropics, receives 80% of the 1755 mm annual rainfall during monsoon (June to September) (Acres International 2004). The main source of aquifer recharge is the amount of precipitation that falls on the surface of the valley throughout the year, being June the month where the water table reaches its highest levels. However the geological and physical characteristics of the surface dramatically affect the recharge processes of the valley aquifers. With a particular variety in the soil structure, Kathmandu Valley counts with an extra factor that interrupt the recharging process, an extensive ground layer of lacustrine deposits interbedded with impermeable black clay. The clay layer is more than 200 m thick in the central part and gradually decreases towards the edges; and diminishes to zero in some area towards north and southeastern part of the valley (Metcalf & Eddy 2000). Those areas serve as rechargeable areas for the valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deep aquifer. Natural Recharge Areas exist where the water table comes close to the surface, so that the distance that rain has to infiltrate through the ground is minimized. These areas exist outside of the built up areas of Kathmandu and close to where the rivers emerge from the mountains. ( Hoffmann 1994).

Groundwater Basin

Recharge Area

Thick Clay Layer

Wellfields in KTM 127


Aquifers and soil condition

SHALLOW AQUIFER Distribution of thickness

00 - 10 m

25 - 50 m

10 - 25 m

50 - 85 m

Clay layer

DEEP AQUIFER Distribution of thickness

25 - 50m

100-150m

50-100m

150-200m

200-285m Clay layer

Redraw from: PANDEY, V. (2009) Estimation of groundwater storage potential of aquifers in Kathmandu Valley using GIS, 3rd NEA-JC Workshop Current and Future Technologies, Tokyo 128

Groundwater aquifers in the Kathmandu Valley can be divided into shallow and deep systems which are isolated and independent respectively due to the existence of a clay layer between them. A shallow unconfined aquifer occurs at around 0â&#x20AC;&#x201C;10 m depth and a deep confined aquifer occurs at around 310â&#x20AC;&#x201C;370 m (Khadka 1993). Other isolated groundwater sources are situated at significantly deeper levels (Gautam and Rao 1991). Due to accessibility and abundant water resources, shallow aquifers have been the main source of water for the Kathmandu valley. Confined from 15-20 m deep shallow aquifers has been serving the need of water for all the uses in the valley including traditional water management systems, dug wells and rower pumps used daily by local inhabitants for thousands of years. With a fairly fast recharge process, shallow aquifers are also the main water source of the traditional stone spouts (locally known as Dhungedhara or Hities). On the other hand deep aquifers are located in mayor depths starting from 25-200m, this condition made these aquifers mainly inaccessible for local inhabitants or traditional systems. However, the incremental water demand of the valley conditioned by important population and tourism growth is leading to private water companies, restaurants and hotels to extract water from this aquifer. The recharge process for deep aquifers is more complex not only for its deep but also for the soil clay layer that isolate this aquifer from the surface water. Groundwater from both the shallow and deeper aquifers has been used extensively for drinking and industrial purposes. About 50% of these aquifers, especially the shallow aquifer, has decreased rapidly in recent years ever since water demand in the valley increased, all these sources have been tapped for the municipal water supply (Khadka1993). Most of the groundwater resources are mainly renewed (recharged) directly from the precipitation through infiltration into the saturated zone thereby maintaining the recharge potential of an aquifer and this is essential for the sustainability of that aquifer (JICA1990). A key challenge in this regard is to define and preserve the recharging areas within permeable surfaces that aloud water to penetrate the soil. Reconstructing natural water cycles and following the logics of recharge processes are fundamental strategies to preserve the water security of the valley.


Groundwater recharge process are fully conditioned to soil type and its permeability potential, nevertheless the spatial manipulation of the surface can also modify these processes. With the rapid, unplanned and constant changing urbanization patterns of land use in the valley, and with an expanded road network, there is a strong tendency of land transformation from agricultural or forest areas towards residential uses. In Kathmandu valley there are 3 main areas where soil conditions and permeability potential aloud aquifers recharging processes, the simultaneous occurrence of the diminished clay layer and the sand/gravel soil are the necessary conditions to improve the aquifer sources. Presented in the map, north and south recharge areas initially forest and agricultural lands, conversely these are currently susceptible to change in the surface cover and land uses. Changes in land use affect the regional hydrological regime, which in turn causes a social response. With increasing urbanization, more area comes under construction, which may be reducing the permeable area. As a result, less rainwater probably infiltrates into the ground, thereby reducing groundwater recharge. In addition, with an increase in impervious areas, more runoff is generated when it rains (PANDEY, V. 2009)

Soil map of Kathmandu Valley Unconsolidated sediments Hardrock

Consolidated sediments Redraw from: Engineering and environmental geological map of kathmandu valley

Alluvial plains

SOIL PERMEABILITY Source: AUGMENTED URBAN HYDRO-ECOLOGY. Drawing Water in Kathmandu.

129


Rainfall and Rivers run off Opportunities Maximum precipitation can be found in the northern and western slopes- the range of Sipucva and Candragiri- up to 5800 mm/a; a minimum precipitation is measured in the southern part of the valley with about 1300 mm/a. The rivers in the Kathmandu valley, the Bagmati, Bishnumati, Manohara, and Hanumante including their tributaries and spring from the surrounding mountains, belongs to the primary river systems that originate in the Himalayas. Therefore, no snow and ice resources contribute to the water volume (Ibid 1962). All the rivers of the Kathmandu Valley join the Bagmati before it leaves the Kathmandu Valley at Chobhar. The Bagmati joins the Ganges near Monghyr / Bihar. (Sharkya, Regmi, DR 1990)

2000 mm

1900mm

1400 mm

1300 mm

1800mm

1700mm

1600mm

1500mm

Rivers run off

Redraw from: Raj Pandey, K. (1969). THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE KATHMANDU VALLEY. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal. 130


With an annual rainfall of 1755mm during monsoon season (June to September), water tables in the valley reaches its highest levels in June, an excess of storm water runoff is rapidly discharged along the rivers of the valley. Monsoon season is as well the most productive period for agriculture, however it represents just 4/12 months of the year of excess water availability. Therefore dry season present the most urgent situation to address due the water scarcity scenario. The valley of Kathmandu faces dramatic changes in the rainfall during the year, with an excess of water during summer and very dry winters, this condition has set a fundamental need to rethink in strategies to face the water scarcity of the valley by thinking in the possibility to store water during monsoon and re-use it in the dry season, simultaneously shifting the cycles of water towards more circular practices where black and grey water can also be a feasible irrigation resource during dry periods.

Water table lowest level

Water table highest level

500mm

375mm

250mm

125mm 0,0 mm

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Grey / Black Water Re/use

May

Jun

Jul

Ago

Sep

Rain Water Collection

Oct

Nov

Dic

Grey / Black Water Re/use

Rough calculations suggest that substantial amounts of water could be made available if aquifers were used more efficiently or if other storage mechanisms were created. With a catchment area of 656 km², Kathmandu Valley receives an annual average of 1,500 mm of rainfall annually. Even if half that rain either evaporates or percolates into the ground, about 500 million m3 could still be captured. Assuming an average per capita usage of 100 l/day (double of the amount assumed for rural areas), if just six percent of the available 500 million m3 were harvested, much of Katmanduâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water demand could be met by allocating less than 1.5% of its area to 3 m-deep water tanks (Gyawali 2001).

Source: AUGMENTED URBAN HYDRO-ECOLOGY. Drawing Water in Kathmandu.

Rainwater contours Rain water mostly drain towards the center of the valley after it falls where it is picked up by the rivers as run-off.

131


132

Valley 1300m

Valley +1300m

Clay layer

Existent forest

Recharge area

Agricultural canals

Pharping h


hydropower station

Water logics in the southern frame The selected south frame of the Kathmandu Valley is characterized by a complex series of river valleys, a transitional landscape from the built Kathmandu city towards the high mountains and watersheds that delimits as well the area of the valley. Most of the rivers of the valley flow towards the south, with some exceptions present in this southern region as Nakhu River and Godawari River that flow through natural edges carrying fresh water to this region until it reach the coming urbanization. Being the downstream and run off of the biggest and most important river of the valley, the Bagmati River flows out of Kathmandu when crosses Chobhar and its monumental and sacred Gorge. This geographical condition set important conditions of waste and pollution since the Bagmati River brings all the solid and waste water previously dumped in Kathmandu. The orchestration of landscape structures in this territory of forest, agriculture fields and micro valleys coexist with a complex network of the indigenous water management systems that was created since early historical periods (Licchavi, Malla) where agricultural canals, sluices, reservoir ponds and traditional stone spouts have supported the existence of the traditional settlements of the region bringing water for survival and agriculture. A convenient geological condition is existent in this south frame of the valley, the combination of a the decrease of the clay layer with the combination of porous soil types contributes to the complex recharging process of deep aquifers of the valley. Major rechargeable areas are Tokha, Budhanilakantha, Sundarijal, Gokarna, Bansbari, Dho-bikhola, Manohara, Sankhu, Techo, Chapagaon, Chunikhel, Bungmati, Sunakothi and Godavari. Earlier studies have estimated that recharge into the valley’s deep aquifers varies within 4.61–14.6 MCM/year. (V. P. Pandey, 2009). These data indicate recharge areas could have decreased along with the change in land cover, which affects adversely on supply to the groundwater reserve. In addition, conversion of rural land into urban areas has led to increased pumping in many areas, and more importantly, extensive pollution of both surface streams and shallow aquifer due to direct disposal of municipal solid waste and wastewater in rivers and their flood plains. However the juxtaposition of hard infrastructures, growing urbanization and land use change is decreasing the recharge areas. Agricultural land being reduced. Forest and watersheds areas has decreased by 40% during 1955–1995 (Pradhan 2004). The physical condition and the extensive water resources of this region has led to arrival of extensive groundwater extraction areas as Pharping which is as well the first hydropower project of Nepal.

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Cultural waterscapes Religious and cultural practices are fundamental aspects of the everyday dynamics of the Nepalese society. Water in its several forms and manifestations, is indeed strongly attached with this intangible aspect. Despite of the modernization process that the valley is currently experiencing, the traditional water structures are still strongly present and widely used by locals. All sources of water associated to storage, distribution and access to water such as stone spouts, wells, ponds, natural pools, rivers, streams, riverside ghats, are found in every corner of the valley and play a fundamental role of the cultural landscape of Kathmandu. It is barely possible to separate the functional and religious synergies of water structures. The indigenous water management system was created to fulfill a wide range of needs as drinking, bathing, washing and simultaneously to irrigate the productive landscapes that surrounded every settlement, each of this functions have strong religious requirements and meanings. The aesthetic component of the water related architecture beautify the old palaces, temples, shrines, stupas, viharas and houses in the valley positioning them as well as important functional sculptures of the public spaces. The water conduits of Kathmandu valley are the result of the well manipulation of the landscape by the interplay between the natural conditions of slopes, gravity and water to fulfill the fundamental need of water for survival.

134

Traditional stone spouts (Hities) in Patan


135


Agricultural production Water trajectories The main watercourses that supported the development of the south of Kathmandu are primary Nakhu and Bagmati Rivers both differentiated by their size, direction, uses and characters. However, both are complemented by a complex network of agricultural canals. Being historically considered an agricultural base society, this southern fringe maintained the balance between productive landscapes and settlements for centuries, and this was certainly possible by the transformation and manipulation of topographies which created a magnificent irrigation system. The physical aspects of the system consists of damming up of rain water following the natural gravity of the agricultural land and therefore supported by the creation of canals (also known as kulos), sluices and reservoir ponds. This irrigation system function by means of an organized control system, which has been in force for centuries (Muller U.1984). The valley depends mostly on rain for cultivation. However, during the dry winter season, rice-planting season, and in case of late monsoon rain, traditional man-made irrigation canals are used for supplying of water to the fields. The water sources for these kulos are either rivers, springs or fountains.

Bungamati and Khokana Kulo with an extension of approximately 2 km is able to irrigate 450hectares of agricultural land in monsoon season. (Poonam, 2000)

Bagmati River

136

Unconsolidated sediments

Alluvial plains

Consolidated sediments

Hard rock

Clay deposit


Khokana

Bungamati Ekantakuna Road

Agricultural Canals Nakhu River

Bungamati/Khokana Kulo

3d view agricultural canals of southern region 137


Maintance of agricultural canal Source: Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architects Jørgen Rahbek Thomsen, Jens WÌrum and Hans Haagensen

138


Irrigating productive landscapes Source: Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architects Jørgen Rahbek Thomsen, Jens WÌrum and Hans Haagensen

139


Domestication of the landscape, bringing water to higher lands Compared to the river valleys, traditional Newari settlements are typically located in higher lands, this particular geographical disposition set the necessity to create an elaborated water system within every settlement. This system consisted in a network of ponds, wells, stone spouts (or Hities) that together with rivers and canals configured a closed and complementary system that ensured the provision of water for centuries in towns like Bungamati and Khokana. Water bodies as artificial ponds of different sizes are commonly found within the dense tissues of Newari Settlements. These structures were conceived to support secondary householdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs as washing and cleaning. Simultaneously, many of the Newari ponds (also known as: Pukhu) have a strong cultural and religious significance, since they are linked to numerous rituals and traditions. Consequentially, Pukhus are then vibrant places of encounter and social interaction, its architecture settings includes steps down to the water, linkages with pedestrian streets and are often supported by Patis (traditional Newari rest house). Normal ponds in traditional settlements were interconnected creating a closed network of drains and sluices, this clever design was finally linked with the irrigation canals avoiding water loss in this complex cycle. The introduction and maintenance of ponds within traditional settlements was a fundamental importance. Not only to provide secondary water resources, but also they extensively contribute to the groundwater recharge.

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Bungamati Pond Source: Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architects. Jørgen Rahbek Thomsen, Jens WÌrum and Hans Haagensen


Section type traditional settlements

Dyo Pukhu Source: Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architects. Jørgen Rahbek Thomsen, Jens WÌrum and Hans Haagensen

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The water conduits and fountains “water architecture” The most representative water source in the Kathmandu valley is the deep fountain known in Newari as “Gaa hiti”. This form of water architecture is attributed to various regions of the Indian subcontinent (Jain-Neubauer, J, 1981) An intimate relation exist between the kind of water source and the function attached to it. Drinking water, then, requires a high degree of physical purity which is generally provided by groundwater sources. With a fairly accessible groundwater sources, these functional pieces of art were constructed in Kathmandu with means of the provision of fresh drinking water. They are, however designed with particular care, this competing with the most elaborate religious and secular buildings. (Becker-Ritterspach 1995) Hities are constructed in a depression of the ground, these fountains are fed by the gravity flow through underground clay pipes; one or more spouts emerge from the lowermost retaining wall, and drains are provided to carry away the overflow. Their sources can be local aquifer or transmitted to the spout through natural sub surface flow with manmade channels. These engineered hities may also have filtration systems placed before the stone spout. One gaa hiti can have one or more spouts based on water discharge and the number of users. (Tiwari, S. R. 2002). Located in the center of public spaces as squares and temples, these water sources established a fundamental spatiality playing an important role in public spaces. Its cultural and religious significance supported the character of social centers, more so in the earlier days. People have gathered here not only for water but also for social interaction. The inscriptions preserved within them shows that they were the places where proclamations concerning the community were made public (Slusser 1982:1,156).

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Hities in Patan Raimund O.A. Becker-Ritterspach (1995), Water Conduits in the. Kathmandu Valley, New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal.


INITIAL CONDITION STEPWELL CREATES ACCESS SPOUT AND DRAINAGE

Location of a traditional stone spout in relation of public spaces, Patan. Source: Raimund O.A. Becker-Ritterspach (1995), Water Conduits in the. Kathmandu Valley, New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal.

Shallow aquifer creates natural spring condition

Stepwell cut into stream of groundwater

Water passes through additional filtration media and comes out of spout, fall into sloped drainage channel and exists direction of groundwater stream

Hities HOSKEN Fran P., “The Kathmandu Valley Towns: A Record of Life and Change in Nepal”, Edition Weatherhill 1974

Source: AUGMENTED URBAN HYDRO-ECOLOGY. Drawing Water in Kathmandu.

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Riverbanks and the waters of life and death In some Eastern cultures, water is linked to people not only when alive, but even most importantly in death. Many people wish to draw their last breath by the riverside, preferably at the Pushupati ghats and immersed in the holy waters of Bagmati. (Tiwari, S. R. 2000). Rivers are the scenery for the burning of the dead, after the cremation, the ash is swept into the river. The multiple water rituals performed for the dead shows the continuous link with water (B. Ghimere 1998). Rivers and springs are places where the pilgrims may take a ritual bath. At the same time festivals and processions as the Machendranath festival in Bungamati are directly related with water and rain gods, its trajectory is defined by the physical connection with water. In the south frame, different rivers wash the territory. Nevertheless, during the conducted fieldwork Nakkhu and Bagmati River were more explored and studied. Trough spatial sequences we discovered different gradients of cultural, landscape and social dynamics which define and support economies and social activities. Traces of waste are nevertheless consequences of the undergoing modernization process which is altering the productivity of the alluvial planes of this territory. Nakhu River is one of the tributaries of Bagmati River. Flowing from south to north this river is one of the less polluted rivers remaining in the Kathmandu Valley. Mainly surrounded by agricultural lands and forest areas, this river still has soft edges natural borders. However, once it gets closer to urban areas Nakhu River is used for sand extraction and brick production which is one of the main causes of its water pollution. The deterioration of water quality is getting higher once Nakhu meets urbanization in the north part of the stream.

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Fieldwork documentation Nakhu River


Spatial sequences of Nakhu River

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Bagmati River is on the other hand the biggest and longest river of the Valley. With a strong religious character, it is the main river where Ghats and Gorges temples are located together with extensive public and religious spaces. Paradoxically, this river is as well the biggest solid waste and waste water disposal site of the valley. Downstream when Bagmati reach the south region brings sediments and heavy pollution from Kathmandu city. This condition limits the agricultural practices in the area. Floodplains and alluvial planes are heavily polluted and the edges are surrounded by solid waste.

146 Fieldwork documentation Bagmati River


Spatial sequences of Bagmati River 147


Hydro Eco/logics at risk Water has been for centuries the main mediator between life and traditional settlements which structured not only socioeconomic practices but as well had strong synergies with cultural and religious traditions. Indigenous water management practices set the notion of dealing with nature by keeping balances and close cycles by following the logics of territory in a given area. Every fabric of traditional settlement includes water elements that shows a clear understanding of the logics of nature applied for every specific needs. Nevertheless, Kathmandu valley is not resistant to the desire of modernity, which as well implies a changing lifestyle from its inhabitants. This is how the valley is gradually shifting from an agricultural economy to a services center that not only is transforming the traditional â&#x20AC;&#x153;water based settlementsâ&#x20AC;? but as well is inserting new patterns of urbanization in the peripheral areas. Simultaneously, urban fringes are rapidly becoming transitional landscapes which are accommodating a rapid population growth that comes with new needs and aspirations. With urban growth comes a huge pressure on the water resources and infrastructure, the government of Kathmandu is institutionalizing this resource to be able to meet the increasing demand but this process is characterized with linear and centralized systems that constantly collapse leading to severe water deficits mostly in the dry seasons.

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Dry agriculture fields and traditional water systems in Sano khokana 149


The modern water management In 1970 the groundwater extraction was introduced as the main supply system in Kathmandu valley, aquifers in central Nepal are continuously under stress. Multiple actors intervene in the process of water supply in its multiple needs, conversely most of the sources are relying in groundwater sources of deep and shallow aquifers. Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC) is the governmental agency responsible for municipal water supply, and they introduced groundwater in their supply system since mid-1980s. However, municipal water supply are intermittent, poorly managed, often polluted, and the level of service is inadequate. This has driven several industries, private sectors, institutions, numerous individuals and communities to supplement their water supply by pumping large quantities of groundwater (Hoffmann 1994; Khadka 1993). Due to over exploitation practices shallow aquifers are extremely polluted and its quality has been dramatically reduced it. Is important to know that these shallow aquifers are also the main feeders of traditional water systems. Therefore, pressure is increasing on deep aquifers that count with good water quality. But, as was explained in previous chapters deep aquifers are not recharged as quickly as shallow aquifers. After groundwater became accessible with affordable technology, different agencies in need of water (such as NWSC, hotels, industries, government and private institutions, hospitals, housing companies and individuals) continued to pump groundwater. But, no institutional responsibility was felt necessary to impose regulation on pumping. As a result, 59.06 MLD groundwater is being pumped from the valley’s aquifers which exceeds recharge of 9.6 MCM/ year (Pradhan 2004). The resiliency aspect of the water cycles is allow its process to be full filled, once the system is encroached, important water loss start to occurred. The growing Kathmandu, for example, is being settled in the outskirts of the valley, including the main recharge area of the region. Disperse patterns of urbanization are fundamentally altering the recharge process with the juxtaposition of permeable surfaces as roads and housing infrastructure. The current urbanization dynamics are also endangering the food security with the excessive decline of agricultural area due to the cutting of agricultural canals. Numbers can confirm the fast transformation of the land cover in the valley, where the non-agri-cultural area has increased from 5.6 to 27.6% during 1984–2000. Particularly, urban area has increased from 4.8 to 14.6%. In contrast, forest area of surrounding watersheds has decreased by 40% during 1955–1995 (Pradhan 2004). These data indicate recharge areas could have decreased along with the change in land cover, which affects adversely on supply to the groundwater reserve.

250mld

200mld WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND DEMAND SUPPLY Redraw from: Pandey, V., Chapagain, P., & Kazama, S. (2010). Evaluation of groundwater environment of Kathmandu Valley. Environmental Earth Sciences, 60(6), 1329-1342. 150

150mld

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Public and governmental Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC)

Private water companies

NGO´S

Households not connected to supply and rely on traditional systems: 47% Some Hities are connected to the NWSC

47% Actors on water: ways of extraction and distribution

Redrawn from analysis of Pandey, V., Chapagain, P., & Kazama, S. (2010). Evaluation of groundwater environment of Kathmandu Valley. Environmental Earth Sciences, 60(6), 1329-1342.

Shallow aquifer

Deep aquifer

Groundwater extraction

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Urbanization footprint River & floodplain pollution

Disperse urbanization on recharge areas Water urbanism operations Clay layer

Recharge area

Irrigated land

Less irrigated land


Problem statement Research questions Contestations between landscape and current urbanization processes are dramatically shifting the availability of water and decreasing the productivity of agricultural areas leading to rapid land use changes. This water urbanism design investigation aims to explore alternative ways to deal with the complex urban and water issues that are influencing the present and future of this sensitive region. By exalting the structure capacity of the landscape, this area has the opportunity to reshape the interplay between forest, recharge areas, productive landscapes and settlements while implementing the logics of the good traditional practices. Understanding the issues that this region is facing, there are 2 main areas to approach: 1. Water scarcity, especially in productive landscapes during dry periods of the year. By implementing soft engineering infrastructure this landscape can be protected, and upscale its performance and economic values. The main strategy is the introduction of elements that reevaluate waste water as a resource for the most needed periods. 2. The rapid urbanization in the south west recharge area. To preserve its permeable surfaces is a key design element that contribute to recharge aquifers. By following the natural water cycles, we can even improve the well-functioning of traditional systems that is currently working with shallow aquifer sources. Speculative research questions â&#x20AC;˘What is the potential of afforestation strategies to restore and create ecologies? Can we implement forest as buffers zones or areas of conciliation where water, and landscape became tools to protect the groundwater drought situation and recharge the aquifers? â&#x20AC;˘What kind of strategies can be implemented to reduce the strong dependence of groundwater extraction as the main source of water in the Valley? What kind of complementary systems are most feasible to face the water scarcity? How can traditional water management spaces (Hities, ponds and manmade canals) be reconsidered towards multi-functional spaces where contemporary needs can also be fulfilled? Is the revitalization of these traditional systems a key for survival in a time of emergency ? The valley of Kathmandu is undergoing through a fundamental period, where ecological transformations and the post-earthquake situation also provides opportunities to reshape the landscape and reevaluate the urbanization practices. Alternative scenarios can be explored by integrating multiple environmental issues where water practices can be rethought towards a more ecological perspective and more productive process, a new frame that helps in the preservation of complete ecosystems and splintered environments.

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View of the Ring Road where already the expansion of its capacity, by widening the road, has begun


COMPLEXITY OF THE ROAD Isabelle Matton

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Festival of Rato Machendranath - pulling of the charriot by the local communities - september 2015


FOREWORD In a religion-based culture as Nepal, public spaces and infrastructure constitute a central element in the definition of a shared urban identity. More precisely in the context of the Kathmandu Valley, infrastructure constitutes a strong socio-cultural space where multiple uses are taking place: drying seeds, gossiping, playing music and games… a place where instruction is provided and business conducted. They are key element that supports in a way the construction of a landscape that organized territories by means of configuration able to integrate natural and human spatial dynamics (Berte, 2013). But roads also have a strong scenic capacity and the numerous festivals are the moment of the year when a road is taken over by the community to celebrate certain events (remembering the dead, celebrating the gods…) with people from all communities and casts mobilized together to maintain the roads, build the chariots… In present time, roads still constitute an important social element but are now confronted by the needs of the country to expand and support the national economy. It seems that now ancient pattern are somehow eaten by an uncontrollable growth that tends to forget the existing social practices. This part will then be looking into the road’s morphology and perception and seek into the way people still invest the road as a structural element of their social practices.

genesis of a network of pathways In an early period of the Valley’s history, road and pathways were constructed in order to create a cosmic pattern (Tiwari, 2015) and therefore they quickly acquire a ritually mediated character. Paths have thus, from an early stage, found a specialized travel function generated by a specific set of three movements: the movement of the god, the living and the dead. The movement of the divine was primarily including the key festivals hold in cities while the living’s routine consists of daily ritual such as bathing, offering to various gods or travelling from the fields to the market and from the market to the house. The consequent prioritization of streets has defined various width and conditions of pathways and created a system made of a countless points of attraction along the road that make the urban pattern as strings of short segments with a marker at each node (Tiwari, 1989) like a temple, a tree. Each node points alternative direction to take but also becomes as calming spots for those who are in a hurry. Streets, by their ritual and social character, activate a set of individual and collective memories and myths. It consists of a complex web of pathways providing a variety of alternative experiences of the immediate physical environment on which the attention of the passer-by is driven to.

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Market dynamics

Genesis of a network of dispersed markets

Since its origins and together with the development of a flourishing Pan-Asian trade, the Kathmandu Valley has constructed a society that culturally and economically greatly interacted with the population of the South and Central Asian continent. Such position in the transHimalayan trade has triggered the emergence of a myriad of commercial micro-centers vowed to market oriented activities all across the Valley. As such, cities and settlements in the Valley never really lived apart from each other and were rather part of a same system (Pocock 1960), a continuum in which the dichotomy between rural and urban never really applied. Truly, the presence of a supra-local structure based on religious activities (pilgrimage), commercial exchange, soil exploitation… interweaved populations of the cities to its surrounding towns. The more the settlement was located closely to the urban centers, the more there was a specialized activity at the individual level of the household. At the contrary, households living in isolated agglomerations would rather divide their time among a broader number of activities that would supply their daily needs. In a way, it seems that a systematic relationship existed between the specialization at the local level with the accessibility and size of the market. Nowadays, there is a tendency for cities to radically stand out from the countryside with the rising of the tertiary sector among other factors. Handicrafts and pre-industrial mode of production however still prevail in some of the traditional settlement of the Kathmandu Valley and particularly in our study area. But the trading route was also carrying pilgrimage and supported the diffusion of Buddhism through the continent which made commerce and religion two intricate elements of the Kathmandu Valley’s society. Alone, access to markets and financial wealth doesn’t guarantee economic security and has to be combined with cultural schemes of perception. In

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the Newar cultural economy, the network of ‘social capital’ (K. Nelson Rankin - 2004) supports market accessibility and constitutes a significant factor of opportunities. While markets in money are a key element to generate wealth, it is through forms of social investment such as feasting or gifting that one can indorse honor and good reputation. Honor or “ijat” hence fuels a system of social investment and forms a symbolic capital that, according to Bourdieu, can be produce or consume, hoarded or expended (K. Nelson Rankin – 2004). Hospitality, guthi obligations, religious duty… altogether weave a system of reciprocity and interdependence upon which security ultimately relies. “The predominant organization of production in Nepal is the household, particularly in agriculture. The household, as unit of production in developing countries, is different from factories or capitalist farms in the sense that hired or purchased inputs constitute very little proportions of the total factors used and what is produced is also consumed within the households. This however, need not necessarily mean that these households are self-sufficient or not integrated into the larger economy.”The status of Women studies (TU 1967/77 – 1980/81) Acharya 1987.


BHAKTAPUR - THIMI potteries

KATHMANDU Kalimati market BHAISEPATI

KHOKANA mustard oil SIDDHIPUR sukul - hand made mat

HARISIDDHI wool/straw weaving SUNAKHOTI BUNGAMATI wood carving

THAIBA

CHUNIKHEL livestock and grains

THECHO mustard oil

CHAPAGAON - PYANGAON bamboo craft

commercial corridors Market dynamic - villageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specialization/craft 159


Spatiality of the infrastructure Elements of public space along the road

PATI

The traditional resting place and space of encounter, a home for the occasional travellers, a playground for all generations (cards,...) but also a place of rituals where music is played at certain occasion.

CHAITYA

A shrine typically build and worshiped by the local communities within the settlements or along the roads.

CHAUTARA

A resting place often build around a Peepal tree.

PETI

Few steps in front of traditional houses but also in newly build housing. It acts as an in-between area that articulates the private and the public spaces.

PLAYGROUND

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Cycles of daily occupations along the infrastructure

Playing

Selling fruits and vegetables or other

Playground temporary used for shelters

Pati Chaitya Sitting together Bus terminal

Peti in front of a range of shope and small restaurants

Debris collected after the eathquake

Morning ritual: blessing the chaityas

Washing

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Spatiality of the road: Ekantakuna - Thikabhairab road

Bhaisipati - structuring of the road

Kokhana

Panoramic point - planned open spaces

Bungamati

Bungmati - bus terminal

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Chunnikkel - social encounter around a peepal tree


Satdobado - Tikabhairab road

Around the «National Agricultural Research Centre»

Entrance gate of Dholahiti settlement

Sunakhoti

Around new housing development

CHAUTARA

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Thecho Thecho 163


Movement pattern

The road-spectacle: procession routes In the towns of the Kathmandu Valley, the unity of Newar communities is the best represented during collective ritual practices. Indeed, festivals and other ritual network happen at specific times of the year and take a significant place in the construction of individual and collective memory. As deeply rooted in tradition, festivals become an essential part to whoever whom is participating in it and, in a way, reunites the entire society by emphasizing cooperation and territorial unity (Goffin, 1982). As punctual event in time, it imposes a larger temporal rhythm over the infrastructure and lends a brief importance to certain spaces in the urban fabric by re-establishing significant paths through the towns. But beyond the strict limit of the settlement, procession often communicates between several communities. As previously described, towns and settlement are not introverted elements but are largely integrated in a broader territorial unity. During festivals, numerous people from surrounding agglomerations converged to certain settlements for festivities, and chariot, for instance, are pulled from a certain location to another. One of the most significant festivals that we had the chance to witness during our fieldwork was the pulling of the Chariot of Rato Matsyendranath, God of Bungamati, and his journey towards Patan. Together with a large crowd of locals, tourists and medias, we followed the impressive chariot towards a first resting point marked on the ground by a mandala. â&#x20AC;&#x153;On the most elementary and transparent level, the ritual defines the territory which is the home of the worshipper, the home of his creedâ&#x20AC;? (NielsGutschow, 1976).

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PATAN

PATAN

TAUDAHA

PATAN Pilgrimage around the Valley

Machhendranath chariot

KHOKANA

HARISIDDHI mask dances SUNAKHOTI Balkumari

BUNGAMATI

my th

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anymore

THAIBA

NAGDAHA Nag Panchami PANAUTI

THECHO

Festival map - few of the processions and myths attaching the various settlements to each other and to Patan/Kathmandu

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Oilpressers from Banepa visiting Bhaktapur (source: Theorizing the local)

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Jatra of Sunakhoti (source: Theorizing the local)

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Rituals as practices to cope with disaster In Nepal, where communities have a long history and heritage of natural disasters, the symbolic practices of the festivals enable communities to organize a certain salience and repetitiveness in their normal life that contribute greatly to their social capacity to cope with disasters. According to Wenger and Weller (1973) disaster preparedness is also based on belief, values and legend that is integrated as a blueprint for behaviors before, during and after times of earthquakes. By enhancing recovery and response, rituals become therefore more than ever an essential component of human interaction that strengthens community ties and supports social network. If it is commonly believed that disaster throws societies into a chaos and widespread panic, the reality is often elsewhere. Amid devastation, in a time when the normal order is suspended and most of the systems are failing, the resilient capacity of the communities then naturally arises. As Rebecca Solnit writes in her book “ Paradise build in Hell”, “human beings reset themselves to something altruistic, communitarian and imaginative after a disaster, that we revert to something that we already know how to do”. Ritual is a way to sanctify certain spaces and driving evil spirit away of the city which can helps in alleviating grieves but also organizes group reaction in the face of disaster. But beyond the notion of belief, procession routes can also be seen as a visual surveillance upon the status of open areas spread all over tissue. In that sense, rituals are vital in order to keep wide open spaces, and by giving them a meaning, it avoids haphazard encroachment on public areas. It is no coincidence then that evacuation routes often overlap with procession routes and function as a network of short segments of roads and rhythm with a series of nodes used firstly as convergence points, but that holds the capacity to then be used as medical assistance center, temporary schools, etc. Those spaces become “breathing areas” (Knottnernus, 2011) that ensure safe spots, inscribed in the collective memory, to which people will instinctively converged in times of earthquakes.

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Cycles of religious occupations along the infrastructure

Chaitya Constructing the Charriot Feasting Chautara

Temporary temple of the god carried in the charriot: Bungadyo Charriot in construction

shops

Blessing the Kumari Every twelve year, the charriot of Macchindranath - rain deity - is pulled from Bungamati to Patan and back. Considered as a religious duty, every member of the local community will participate to the construction of the charriot and the maintanance of the road.

Celebrating Another important actor of religious activites is the Kumari. Every decade a girl with specific requirements is chosen in a certain cast and becomes Kumari, a living goddess and the presonification of Tajelu. On certain occasion she would appear on her throne and receive blessing and greeting from the population.

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Evolution of the path From the settlement to the city - North South axis roads became the attractor of the main processes of developement and economic activities

view point

chautara resting place

chaitya

new development

commercial corridor

photo summer 2015

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Within the fields Most of those path have remained as they are which sometimes make them only accessible for pedestrian

resting point

transport by foot

electrification

most of the transport by foot

mud path photo summer 2015

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Rural paths

Urban paths

Main connectors - North South Infrastructure 172


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From a walking community to motorized movement Air qualitiy and fuel consumption in the Valley Mountain-enclosed cities as Kathmandu that is growing rapidly often experience severe air pollution issues. Indeed, in such situation, the air cycle relies greatly on mountains that blocks the circulation of horizontal winds which would otherwise dispersed the locally emitted emissions. This situation is even more exacerbated during the driest month of the years, when the average rainfall drops under 1mm which provokes temperature inversion and a thick layer of fog stationing above the Valley. Along with the traffic rush hours, the Kathmandu Valley suffers from peak hours of pollution that come as a combination between the natural ventilation processes and the timing of the emissions.

During night time, the cooling of the Valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rim mountains generates a descending flow of dense cold air that flow underneath the less cold and lift it together with the pollutants it contains.

During the day, especially in the morning, mountain slopes are heating and the elevated pollutants mix down again and are entrained in a growing mixed layer above the Valley.

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The sources of the air pollution in Kathmandu are multiple but a big share of the reasons is due to vehicular emissions that participate for about 38% of the Valley’s emission (Bajracharya, 2016). Indeed, for the last decade the number of vehicles in Kathmandu Valley has almost tripled and such amount represents now an average of 66% (Bajracharya, 2016) of the total amount of vehicles registered in Nepal. Because the country doesn’t have its own sources of petroleum, a huge amount of money earned from remittances and export earnings is spent in order to import the necessary fuel. With the increasing demand of carburant, such kind of economy won’t allow the use of fuel on a long term. In addition, the repeated economic blockades imposed on Nepal have generated a real fuel crisis and its last episode of September 2015 has halted more than 75% of the vehicular movement in the country.

public transport 27,6 % car 4,2%

walking 41 %

motorbike 26 %

Despite the growing number of motorbikes, it seems that almost half of the Valley’s inhabitants are on foot for most of their daily journey. The landscape is indeed traversed by a myriad of small paths, shortcutting the main infrastructural axis, and providing a variety of paths for children coming back from schools or for the farmers leaving their fields to go home. The street pattern of the ancient settlement itself has been conceived with certain narrowness with a pedestrian network that extends within the surrounding landscape. Travel mode share in the Kathmandu Valley - 2012 (source: MoPIT/JICA 2012)

bike 1,5%

The transport sector in Nepal consumes the big majority of the total petroleum fuel import and the big majority goes to the vehicles in the Kathmandu Valley. The capital region thus holds the majority of vehicles with a particularly marked growth of small vehicles like motorbikes. (source: adapted from KHANAL Prashanta, 2014) 175


Public transportation in the Kathmandu Valley

Evolution through time and arise of electric transportation

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Public transportation network and travel time In Nepal, public transport emerged out of local initiatives at the beginning of the 1950’s while mass transportation and state regulation came only a few years later. The increasing privatization of public transport produced a revenue model based on the quantity of people carried by the bus and ultimately led to dangerous practices in order to maximize profits. The recent economic blockade exacerbated this model where the scarcity of fuel forced an extreme overloading of the vehicles in order to still be profitable, which hence led to many accidents. For the past years, the motorization of Kathmandu’s population has increased by an average of 12% a year (CBS, DoTM 2013) while the number of its public transport has remained the same. Indeed, people tend to prefer private vehicles due to a poor quality of the public transportation in the Valley. Consequently, more and more spaces formerly allocated for pedestrian use and soft mobility systems are reclaimed for private vehicles and trucks, and the diversity of such spaces is lost, overcome by a strict rationalization of flows. However the economic situation, and particularly the blockade of 1989, has pushed the government and engineers to come up with alternative ways of transportation and several attempts have been made in that sense to lastingly implement electric transportation in the Valley. With the closure of the trolley buses, a new project arises with the aim of replacing the Vikram Tempos, then considered as the most polluting vehicles in the Valley, by battery alimented vehicles. After years of lobbying from NGOs and the support of the government, more than 600 electric “Safa Tempos” are now in use in the Kathmandu Valley. However the emergence and development of micro and minibuses is considerably lowering the business potential of a promising electric vehicle industry.

Number of operating vehicles in the Kathmandu Valley (source: MoPIT/JICA 2012) 178


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Public transportation map and time travelling. As it stands now, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no direct route linking settlements located on different valleys, for that you systematically have to go up north to reach the Ring Road and then down again.

Sahja Yatayat

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Bhaisepati

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Problem statement Research questions

During the last decades, new driving forces have been produced by a process of economic globalization. The landscape is being progressively transformed and cultural and social practices are evolving. Nowadays, the Valley acts as an extended economic region, moving away from the agriculture-based model to an urban economy. Local authorities have then heavily invested in the construction of urban infrastructures that could support the needs of the emergent urban population. Roads, particularly, have been extensively developed as their renovation and construction is a major factor of “modernization”. As such the traditional religious belief system and its relation to landscape are under economic and social pressure, and spaces are under an unavoidable process of partial secularization. Today the risk is that the collectively used urban space and infrastructure loses its actuality as a locus of exchange and communication, and those historic urban spaces will only be preserved as iconic and isolated open-air museums. With the capacity of directing and organizing normal life, an integrated design of open spaces could contribute to strengthen social networks and enhance the capacity to cope with social uncertainty (earthquakes, economic shortage…) as ultimate goal. With the recent event of last April, one can only assume that changes will happen even faster as it was the case in the short aftermath of the 1934’s earthquake. Indeed, the Rana government of the time took the opportunity of the existing destruction to restructure ancient core into a more fitting idea of a modern city.

Siddhipur

Therefore, how can we propose alternative ways of moving within the territory with an infrastructural project that supports the construction of social practices in relation to social and ecological landscape and becomes a vehicle of discontinuity in a changing society? Can the constructions of linear infrastructure activate cultural dynamics that support local identities and still integrate the diverse – often conflicting – scales involved without one being subjected to the other?

Harisiddhi

Thaiba

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182 Rice fields surrounded by urbanization in Godavari valley


EXPLORATION OF urban Patterns & PATCHES

sheeba Amir

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Khokana

Bungamati

184 Aerial view of Kathmandu Valley, source: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley, Erwin Schneider


introduction Kathmandu Valley is the political and administrative center of Nepal. It is also important as a city with architectural and cultural heritage. Valley serves as tourist hub and strategic location for economic activities. As a place of opportunity, it witnesses a high population and urbanization growth. Traditional urban system was based on the relationship of natural, social and economical aspects. Habitation was on higher lands, which is less suitable for agriculture, while productive lower lands were used for agriculture, representing an interplay of landscape and settlement defined the structure of the valley. The valley is urbanizing fast, driven by accessibility to public services, economic opportunities and fast growing land market. Agriculture and farmlands, historical source of valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosperity, are being lost to this haphazard urbanization. Continuous decrease of productive landscape also questions the self-sufficiency of food for the valley. In the absence of strong urban planning systems and spatial plans the valley is growing in a sprawl. With not enough provision by government and unaffordability of private sector housing, the owner built housing still remains the most popular housing option. The resultant urbanism disregards landscape potential and lacks spatial quality. In this homogeneous urban growth, there is no room for qualitative public space. Along with over consumption of natural resources, haphazard urban growth is also a threat for environment in the valley. The vulnerability to natural disasters such as earthquake, further adds to the problem. Development and disaster are interrelated. The development failure and absence of urban infrastructure further aggravates the impact of the disasters and delays the recovery process. A reading of the territory reveals that growth prospects pose major challenges for the Kathmandu valley. Considering this situation the thesis tries to formulate answers to the following questions.

Research questions What are the logics which define the structure of traditional settlements? What are the trends of current urbanization, considering the market forces and continuous population growth? What are the new housing typologies to accommodate new lifestyles and needs? Can the inherent logics of traditional settlements be inter-weaved with present challenges to prepare the future grounds for urban growth? What are the alternative design approaches which accommodate landscape qualities and aspiration for the modernity along with platforms for future urban growth of the valley? How can public spaces along with supporting infrastructure be enhanced and implemented to strengthen community resilience? 185


Khokana

Bungamati

Locating traditional settlements 186


Inhabiting the Valley 1.Traditional Settlements The Kathmandu valley is a composition of elevated plains or plateaus and low lands or the valley. The traditional settlements are carefully embeded in this landscape composition. The geography of the site plays an important role in defining the social-cultural dynamics of the valley. The intrinsic logics of the valley defined by landscape are used in defining unique identity of traditional settlements. Geographically almost all the traditional settlements are located on the elevated plains, carefully following the topography. The elevated lands because of their geographical condition do not have high waters and is only suitable for rain-fed agriculture system. The valley or the low lands on the other hand have capacity to support year round irrigated agriculture. The occupation of elevated lands for habitation and low lands for agriculture solely relates to these logics. While the settlements had in invert orientation, centred around the house of God, there was also a natural equivalent position within the landscape for the Gods, located outside the settlement. Important temple complexes are located outside the cities. Through socioculture practices, the relationship of settlement and nature were reminded to the people, which further highlighted the importance of protecting these ecological places. Ecologically important areas like forests, water sources and hills were defined as the sacred places of Gods to ensure the protection of these places.

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View of the Kathmandu Valley, showing the settlements located on high lands ‘tar’ surrounded by agriculture fields in lower land Source: HOSKEN Fran P., “The Kathmandu Valley Towns: A Record of Life and Change in Nepal

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View of the Newari settlement ‘Khokana’, showing roofs of houses and temple, Source: HOSKEN Fran P., “The Kathmandu Valley Towns: A Record of Life and Change in Nepal

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2. Planned Housing Initiatives Land pooling as planning instrument Planned housing development of Kathmandu valley witnessed a continuous evolution with initial site and services schemes by government in 1970, land pooling projects in 1980 and private developer housing in 2000. Initial site & services programme by government faced strong resistance from landowners, who expected more compensation. Learning from the unpopularity of site and services, government used land pooling or land readjustment as a tool for housing development in the valley. Land pooling in Nepal is beased on a collaboration between public authorities and land owners to provide basic infrastructure with readjustment of plots. The scheme involves providing serviced plots, where the infrastructure development cost is shared by all land owners. Land pooling schemes are preferred by land owners and government both, as the land development costs are lower as compared to other models of housing development and there is no financial burden on government. Until 2003, 11 land pooling projects have been developed in Kathmandu valley on total land of 240 ha. However in comparison to the housing demand within the valley, these development projects are insufficient. Land speculation contributes significantly towards the housing shortage, as people with financial accessibilty buy the plot for investment to obtain future benefits. While the valley faces a continuous shortage of housing supply, many plots due to land spectulation and high land prices remain vacant for a long time. In conclusion, only a marginal population receives the benefits from public sector initiatives, leaving the majority at the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;periphery of the development circleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Kamal Vinayak 1991-1996 7.3 Ha/205 Plots

Gongabu 1988-1996 14 Ha/406 plots

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Dallu 1991-2003 20 Ha/691 Plots

Sainbu 1991-2003 22.5 Ha /760 plots

Lubhu 1993-1996 13.5 Ha/243 Plots

Bagmati Phant 1992-2001

Sinamangal 1995-2003 36 Ha/1070 Plots

Gopikrishna 1995-2002

Liwali 1995-1998 34 Ha/770 Plots

Nayabazar 1995-2003 44 Ha/1569 Plots

Sinchitar 1996-2003 27 Ha/920 Ha


3. Private Sector Initiatives The centralized nature of government policies lead to a concentrated development of housing projects within the valley leading to an urban growth of 6% per annum (Shreshta, 2010). To meet the housing shortage government encouraged the involvement of private sector in housing development. Apartment ownership act 1997 provided legal framework for the sales and management of multilevel buildings and facilitate the entry of private sector in housing market.

Land Development Cooperatives Private developers are new actors in housing developmentt, whihc came in light after Apartment Ownership act of 1997. Role of land development cooperatives/ land brokers is to provide sericed land for the housing construction. Land brokers buy large amount of agriculture land from the farmers and develop plots with basic infrastructure like roads and electricity. Land brokers supply highest percentage of plots for housing in kathmandu Valley.

Upcoming housing, Kantipur Colony, being constructed in Nakkhu river valley

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Private Housing Developers The valley is going through a real estate boom, which is evident with presence of multiple private developers. First apartment housing in Kathmandu Valley developed by private development company was Kathmandu Residency in 2000. Since then many private real estate companies have been registered. However, these housing options are limited to higher income group as the poor cannot afford to find housing in such colonies. For higher income citizens investment in real estate is a way to secure their money earned many times through working abroad. Many times targeted at non resident Nepali community, housing companies organize expositions abroad in countries like USA and Australia as part of the marketing strategy. With land purchase becoming preferred investment choice, housing prices are continuously rising. The real estate boom has led to speculation in land market, leading to inflated housing and land prices. Purchased as part of investment, many times these apartments remain unoccupied. Rural landowners are selling their productive land to obtain maximum benefits and real estate companies are making profit by taking advantage of inflated housing prices.

192 Vinayak Colony, Bhaisepati, Lalitpur


3.Self- built Housing Apart from government and private sector, owner built house is the main system for housing provision. Unavailability of government housing and unaffordability of private developers housing has pushed the owner-built housing in the valley. These independent houses are seen standing in the agriculture farms without any infrastructure provision. The availability of credit through several organization providing loans to individuals has also lead to rise in construction activities in the valley. The self-build houses follow an incremental process, growing with the increase in income and family size.

Self Built houses around Bhaisepati, Lalitpur

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Urban Tissue & Housing Typologies Study area - 400X400M

1.Traditional Settlement Bungamati

194 Built profile of Bungamati, with agricultural terraces in its surrounding

Nakkhu River

Ekantakuna Tkb Road

Bungamati

Bungamati is a traditional Newari town. The town has compact built form, narrow streets and houses built around courtyards/ squares. These squares follow an hierarchy and have religious and social importance. Town is surrounded by agriculture land. The dwelling units are placed in clusters, with people of same caste living in same clusters. Most of the houses are owned by residents who belong to middle or lower-middle class families.


Aerial view - 2015, source: Google earth

Urban Tissue and open spaces

Evolution of urban tissue 2003-2015

Traditional Newari houses in Bungamati, modified over time to accommodate additional level

Section through Machindranath temple square, with temple (destroyed during eathquake) surrounded by traditional houses 195


2. Site & Services Program Sainbu housing development - (1991-2003)

196 Individual villas of Sainbu Housing development, unbuilt plot areas in left are used for agriculture and as play ground by locals

Ekantakuna Tkb Road

Sainbu Housing

Agriculture fields

Bagmati River

Sainbu is one of the initial site & services project with an area of 22.5 ha was initiated by local government for the government officials. Its proximity to the Kathmandu city, pollution free surrounding environment and landscape views made it a suitable choice for housing. However, government could not realize this development plan, due to administrative and financial complications. Later, the developed area was made available to housing market. The area is developed with large housing plots and commercial amenities. Residence owners are international organization employees, foreign expats and other higher income group citizens. This scheme represent institutional housing in Kathmandu designed in the form of geometrical layouts, larger plot sizes and low density (Adhikari, 1998).


Aerial view - 2015, source: Google earth

Urban Tissue and open spaces

Evolution of urban tissue 2003-2015

Villas in Sainbu Housing development, enclosed with boundary walls and entrance gate

Facades of independent villas 197


3.Private Gated Development Civil Homes III, Thecho (2003 - 2014) Civil Homes is a housing development by a private company based in Kathmandu. The land prior development was agriculture land, bought in cheaper price by the developer from multiple owners. The project is one of the largest development of individual housing in the country. Most of the

198View of civil homes showing individual villas with private gardens and boundary walls, source: civilhomes.com

Civil Homes

Satdobato Tkb Road

Agriculture fields

Nakkhu river

house owners are migrants and belong to higher income group.


Aerial view - 2015, source: Google earth

Urban Tissue and open spaces

Evolution of urban tissue 2003-2015

Identical Villas of Civil Homes, enclosed with boundary walls and entrance gate

Facades of independent villas 199


Public spaces-Culture & Community resilience 1. public spaces

in Traditional settlements The religious rituals and congregational nature of people guided the development of public spaces in traditional Newar settlements. (Tewri, S.). The extended family system, on the other hand, characterized family and neighborhood scale courtyards. These squares follow a hierarchy based on their socio-cultural importance and functions. The hierarchy of squares is expressed visually by the size of space and by the scale and importance of temple located in the square. Typologies of squares are defined by location and their accessibility, shape and size, varying degree of enclosure and presence of other urban elements within the square. Squares are used all day for different activities like worshiping, socializing and for drying spices and grains. With the facades of the shop opening on the streets and with plinth spaces used for sitting, streets also stay active for most time of the day.

Machindranath temple square, before earthquake, being used by local people for drying crops, Source: Binod Maharjan 200

Pati at Ganesha temple, Bungamati. Patis are traditional resting places, also called sattal & mandap. Patis are usually placed along temple squares and important routes to provide shelter


Community-driven redevelopment - The inhabitants of Bungamati are collectively taking up the tasks for reconstruction of the village after the earthquake.

Embedded crafts - Woodcarving, as well as tin moulding, are the main crafts and economic activities in Bungamati and will have a crucial role in the redevelopment 201


Public space and activities in traditional settlements All squares have religious elements within them, worshiping around these elements is part of everyday life, as well as of religious festivals. Along with squares patis and petis are also important elements of public realm. The interplay of various social, religious and commercial activities create vibrant public spaces, which are active throughout the day. Public spaces also provide a platform to the activities like crop drying and festivals during different seasons throughout the year.

Activity Map showing intensity of usage of public space in Bungamati 202


Public space functions

The matrix highlight use of public spaces in everyday activities along with additional layer after earthquake in Bungamati. 203


Traditional Settlements & Kitchen Gardens Kitchen gardens constitute as important component of Newari houses. In the traditional typology of the built form, houses had vacant spaces at the back of the house, which was used for vegetable gardens and other utility functions. The vegetable gardens provide environmental, social as well as material benefits. They help in moderating climate, air quality improvement, rainwater infiltration to maintain groundwater levels and local food production. While the sacred trees were planted in the public squares, backyard gardens includes mainly vegetable and fruit plants along with flowers and herbs. With the growing size of family over time, land holding gets divided among the brothers. The space of kitchen garden gets occupied to accommodate new houses. The gardens in traditional settlements are getting built over to make new houses with growing population of the town. These kitchen gardens contribute towards the resilient nature of traditional settlements with provision of food and as essential open spaces for the refuge in events like earthquake. The population growth in traditional settlement is leading to the continuous growth of new buildings to occupy gardens and agriculture fields, which further leads to loss of spatial character and quality open spaces in the urban fabric ( Jigyasu, 2001). These spaces are part of rural ecology and help in mitigation of natural hazards. Loss of such spaces in new and old settlements due to growing urbanization and market forces, leads to growing vulnerability of settlements.

Kitchen gardens as part of traditional Newari houses, Bungamati 204


Views of various Kitchen gardens in Bungamati, along with vegetables, planting fruits and herbs are also part of the gardens

205


2. Public spaces in site & services

Houses in Bhaisepati village

Unbuilt plot area used for playground & farming

Central road

3. Public spaces in PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT Park & pool at the backside of housing

206

Pool area as community space

Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s park


SAINBU housing development

Independent villas in housing development

The area allocated for public spaces in the form of community hall has not been developed in case of Sainbu. There is no provision for dedicated open space for public activities. Commercial development in form of restaurant and coffee shops, suitable to the lifestyle of foreign diplomats and higher income social class serve the purpose of public space. People from nearby villages use unbuilt empty plots as public space. There is no space allocated for open public spaces in development plan.

Development plan Sainbu housing area

of

CIVIL HOMES III - THECHO

Entrance park

The public space structure as compared to traditional town is absent in new developments. In case of civil homes, public spaces are provided in the form of small parks or sometimes in amenities like gymnasium or meeting room. Residual space designated as park for public space in Civil Homes III. Two more parks are planned in the center of the housing which seem relatively small compared to the large amount of built area. Maximum area is given to built in order to achieve high profit, without giving any thoughts to integration of public spaces within housing.

Plan for housing developed drawn based on information available on civil homes web-page (www.civilhomes. com) 207


Public space & Community resilience The rapid urbanization in the absence of proper planning is leading to a continuous urban sprawl and developments with no provision of qualitative public spaces. Open public spaces play an important role for earthquake preparedness. While this feature is integral part of traditional settlements, new form of urban development, lacks these crucial urban resource. Nepal and Kathmandu valley has history of catastrophic earthquakes leading to much damage. With continuously decreasing open public spaces, vulnerability to natural risks is increasing in cities. Other than everyday use for social and recreational activities, the role of public space at the time of natural disasters is well acknowledged. During the earthquake of 2015, open public spaces of Bungamati were used for immediate evacuation and for accommodating shelters for families whose houses were damaged in earthquake. These public spaces also played an important role the recovery process by bringing together the community at various stages. Workshops are events were organised in public squares, where collective decision were taken by community towards rebuilding. The flexibility and multi functional nature of public spaces to accommodate and adjust according to various situations contribute towards the social and spatial quality of a settlement. While designing new settlements a network of public spaces should be provided, which could structure the new development, while providing social, recreational and other practical functions for the settlement. Bungamati shelter location map, Source: summer studio Kathmandu

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Bungamati play-field post earthquake, transformed to accommodate temporary shelters

Art exhibition by Kathmandu University students titled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Vernacular sense & essence of Bungamati to motivate community towards rebuilding to restore the traditional essence of town

Procession by students passing through the streets of Bungamati to encourage people to recover from disaster

Pati in Bungamati, used as a resting and socializing place, transformed as a shelter space, post-earthquake

209


Trends of urban expansion Challenges & risks The valley is urbanizing fast, driven by accessibility to public services, economic opportunities and fast growing land market. Growing urbanization has led to the land use transformation from agriculture to built and from forest to agriculture, leading to loss of prime agricultural land. Agriculture and farmlands, historical source of valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosperity, are being lost to this haphazard urbanization. In between 1980 to 2000, agriculture land decreased by one-third. The fragmentation of cultivable land and its conversion into built area is the current trend of urbanization. The valley is to a large extent evolving spontaneously in dispersion without an identity. The absence of affordable housing options within the city leads to urban sprawl on the periphery of the city. Owner built informal housing development still remains main system of obtaining a house. Most of the area is consumed for residential and mixed functions. The growing urbanization is also putting continuous pressure on infrastructure of the valley. The growing congestion on existing mobility infrastructure is pushing towards planning of new mobility corridors, in this case, a new ring road. Which would further alter the structure of the territory. The flow of capital through remittance is also influencing the process of urbanization reflected in the form of new housing developments.

View of Bungamati, Continuously growing urban sprawl is taking over the agriculture land around the settlement 210


Trends of urbanization in Kathmandu Valley

211


212


The resultant urbanism disregards landscape potential and lacks spatial quality. In this homogeneous urban growth, there is no room for qualitative public space. the pattern of urban growth, with a shift from traditional settlement, is also transforming public space planning and usage in modern neighborhood. In unplanned growth of the valley, the public space disappear, which has a negative influence of social and cultural life of citizens. Along with over consumption of natural resources, haphazard urban growth is also a threat for environment in the valley. The vulnerability to natural disasters such as earthquake, further adds to the problem. Development and disaster are interrelated. The development failure and absence of urban infrastructure further aggravates the impact of the disasters and delays the recovery process. An excessive exploitation of natural resources to a large extent contributes towards unsustainable aspects of urban developments

213


POSITIONING THE FRAMEWORK Waterscapes

The system of valleys as important natural elements needs to be protected from haphazard urban growth. To support the production system of the valley and to ensure an ecological and sustainable urban development, its essential to preserve natural water flows.

soil fertility index

For a resilient system, settlements should be self sufficient in food production. To understand productivity potential, soil conditions of the site are analyzed, to follow the inherent logics of preserving most fertile grounds and building on more stable grounds.

Soil fertility High Low 214

TO PRESERVE FROM URBAN GROWTH


TO ORGANIZE NEW URBANIZATION

Topography

Based on the traditional system of landscape logics, higher grounds / plateaus are identified, which are less fertile and more stable, thus more suitable for building settlements. The natural slopes can further be utilized to make use of gravity for water supply, grey water treatment and for storm-water

Slope angles

location & connectivity

In selection of possible building locations, proximity to main infrastructure corridors, existing urban centers, primary-secondary nodes and existing facilities like temples, educational institutes and commerce are identified, which could provide support to the future urbanization.

Traditional settlements

Distance

Temples 215


216


CONCLUSION The growing urbanization is leading to a loss of agriculture land and forest. New development lack identity and compromise on public space to obtain maximum financial benefits. Lack of public space in new neighborhoods has negative implications on quality of life for the residents. The absence of spaces for social interaction leads to reduced sense of community. Provision of easily accessible open public spaces with additional sustainable community uses is an important task which needs to be considered by the stakeholders for the new and upcoming neighborhoods in Kathmandu Valley.

Potential and possibilities

The analysis tries to find an answer which elements should be preserved from the continuous urban growth and what are the possible building platforms, which can accommodate the new growth. The slope analysis classifies location based on more flat plateaus, soil analysis identifies locations based on land suitability for agriculture, hydrology map reveals the location of micro and macro valley as a composition of fragile areas which should be preserved and proximity map reveals potential location for densification based on existing facilities and infrastructure. Each analysis reveals four possible locations to accommodate future urban growth based on a specific scenario. An overlap of different scenarios provides possible locations, which can be envisioned as dense building platforms embedded in the system of valleys with minimized impact on the surrounding landscape.

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Resource region urbanism Ashim Kumar Manna

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220 1. KHOKANA, Highlighting the position of the traditional settlement and its rich agricultural farms within Bagmati valley.


Resource region urbanism Kathmandu valley has been growing significantly on its location, capacity and its role a center to manage resources. It became a trade key center between India, Nepal and Tibet, supporting the valley inhabitants. The valley agriculture has significantly flourished over the understanding of soil conditions supported by an indigenous water system. These interaction between production and managing resources were greatly responsible for the development of the territory, economic activities and the social-cultural systems and most important public spaces within the Kathmandu valley. Resource management and agriculture is a key employment sector in Nepal, and it contributes a lot within the valleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development over years. Growth of population and urban expansion, in the wake of reoccurring earthquakes. This study focuses on the existing balance between production and consumption of resources on the fringes of the city, where there is a slow transition towards resource practices directed towards urban consumption. The landscape within Kathmandu is under tremendous pressure, which already is unable to produce enough to preserve the farming practices and give way for soil extraction for fertile lands to feed the urbanization. Currently the city depends too much upon neighboring regions and countries for its food and energy needs. The growing city also produces huge amount of waste which finds its way within the landscape. The role of the fringe becomes more important as it preserves the landscape, with farmlands managed by the traditional settlement of predominantly farming communities and crafts. The study tries to identify the existing system of resource flows, linkages and gaps between them and their capacities to develop future scenarios which allow optimization for resources use utilizing the existing enterprises and infrastructure to fill the gaps in a sustainable way.

7 2 9 1

8 6

10 5 4

3 IMAGE LOCATIONS

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4. Local school play an important role within the traditional settlements.

2. Incomplete energy infrastructure projects leads to lack of renewable energy within the valley.

5. Farmer-craftsmen, engaged in crafts in between the planting and harvesting.

3. Commercial scale vegetable farming, seasonal migrant familes come due to lack of employent and low turnover from farming.

6. Water dichotomy, waste less production of mushrooms next to a water bottling plant.

222


7. Occupation of the productive land for housing, transition from multi crop subsitence farming to commercial farming.

8. Occupation of the productive land for housing, transition from multi crop subsitence farming to commercial farming.

9. Occupation of the productive land for housing, transition from multi crop subsitence farming to commercial farming.

10. Self urbanization is speeding soil extraction and land claimation for housing. 223


border

Traditional Settlements

Crafts/Specialization

Seeds, Fertilizers, Food

Human waste Impact on upscaling

Househo

Vegetable farming Livestock

Nutrient loss Water loss

Farming

Compost Soil extraction Energy shortage

loss of agriculture land

Energy

Brick Kilns

Fertilizers

Specialized Markets

Imports

Landfill

Landscape Water pollution Open Space

Service sector, Transportation

Waste

Food RESOURCE FLUXES IN KATHMANDU,

City

Adapted from Resource flows in the traditional farming system, DANIDA

Waste

2015

Time 224 CYCLIC TO LINEAR, Understanding changes over time


RESOURCE FLUXES CO2 Emissions Dry season irrigation water diversion

old energy

Carbon Fuels

Increased carbon fuels

Fluxes within the resource system can be understood as the metabolic connection between the processes, flows of water, food, energy and people. These fluxes are constructed over the physical relations between landscape and humans over time. Diagrammatically it enables us to conceptualize the linkages between different natural and human actions, and the impact on the environment. This study conceptualizes the flows as in and out, differentiates the cyclic versus linear flows, the interdependence and the borders of the resource system. The resource system highlights the importance of landscape, traditional villages and specialized markets as equally important to the urbanization of the valley. It also highlights the problematics of environmental degradation, deposition of chemicals, loss of top soil, increase in carbon emissions and creation of linear systems.

CO2, SO2 Emissions Wasted heat

Population increase

Urbanization

Future?

SPECIALIZED VILLAGES, Strategic socio-economic relations with the city.

225


Food Production

Industries & Transportation

Households

Reuse

in agric

ulture

ENERGY

WATER

Building Construction

FOOD Landscape pollution

WASTE RESOURCE FLOW DIAGRAM, diagramtically adapted by author from information based on - Food, Source: SAMARTH, UK Aid(2015). Water.Source: . Energy: Rajbhandari & Nakami (2014) Waste, Source: Alam, R. (2008)

Constructing the specific material flows (Energy, Fuel, Water, food and Waste) allows us to study the urban functioning of Kathmandu. The geographical position of Kathmandu valley highlights its vulnerabilities due to significant dependence upon outside regions for energy, food and waste disposal. 97% energy, 80% of food is imported from outside the valley. Approximately 50% of fuel and 10 % of food is imported from other countries. By following specific flows, it is possible to understand the 226

functioning of the system and its weaknesses. It can be concluded that the high external dependence operates in an ineffcient manner, and given the position of the valley is subjected to the long distance relationship between material and user thorugh road transport, which is further subjected to the risk of earthquakes, political blockades. Most of the internal flow are subjected to vulnerabilities due to urbanization, lack of water and climate change impacts..


Valley

Outside Valley

International

Renewables

RESOURCE Flows in KATHMANDU VALLEY

National electricity Chineseborder

Imported carbon fuels Imported coal

Indian border

The border blockade in 2015, after the earthquake, created an energy, fuel, medicines and foreing produced essential items shortage within Kathmandu. Essential activities such as cooking, heating, and transportation, impacting households and disaster recovery were impacted due to high dependence on imported fuels. The blockade put immense pressure upon the existing electricity grid, which is strained due to its limited capacity. These challenges highlight the need in shift towards prioritizing creation of sustainable and accessible renewable energy. Such needs will promote localism, innovation and also support long terms development visions of the valley.

100%

To landfill

sites

ecylin

for r

rted

Expo

Blockade & Earthquakes

Earthquakes

Imp

orte

d fo

od

g

Future water project

2015 BORDER BLOCADE, Source: http://indianexpress.com/

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Bungamati 228 CAPTION, this is a caption


DEFINING A PRODUCTIVE FRAME

The periphery of south Kathmandu is predominately agricultural with significant population engaged in agriculture or related activates. It is the second most important employment/self-employment sector and now is characterized by fertilizer intensive and labour intensive farming methods. (Rijal, Bansal and Grover,1991). The figures of the valley, carved out as a result of hydro-geological actions over centuries along with soil condition plays an important role. The cultivation land is divided into two distinct categories, Khet – irrigated fields and bari – rain fed. Paddy is cultivated in Khet land during the wet season by flooding method of irrigation. During the dry season furrowing method of cultivation controls both the water availability and requirement to grow wheat, oil seeds and other vegetables. Bari land is cultivated for maize in wet season and other coarse grains during dry season. The local ‘jyapoo’ farmers of Kathmandu have mastered the knowledge of land conditions for cultivations. (Refer).Presence of Khet land is abundant downstream, near the confluence of the rivers and streams, or where water canals and irrigation channels over clay soil created the perfect cultivation conditions over years. Over decades significant part of downstream khet land had been consumed by urbanization. Urbanization has aggravated the loss of irrigated land, and also increased the loss of top soil by brick industries. Most of the khet lands present during 1950’s have been lost to the urbanization along the ring road and suburban Kathmandu. The investigation of the southern periphery defines by the river valleys of Bagmati, Nakkhu, Kodhku khola and Godavari rivers. How can we identify conditions for more efficient resource managements? Can resource management create synergies between urbanization and landscape? How can we utilize the position of the resource landscape to create connected and shorter links by utilizing potential and wasted capacities?

LEGEND

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The frame in question and its productive potential is threatened by urbanization and future mobility projects. These uncontrolled, mushrooming practices threaten the natural resources and induce generic sprawl. The project frame presents the suitable conditions to study and test strategies related to efficient resource management. The intended strategies should allow preservation of both quality and quantity of the landscape within Kathmandu valley.

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230 Indentification of key typologies related to the productive activities within the landscape.

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RESOURCE FOOTPRINTS Household/Settlement

Farming plots

The aim of the feildwork was based upon identifying the building blocks/ printplates/typologies related to production and resources. These printplates are identified as household(settlements - crafts), subsitence based farms, small scale animal and vegetable farms, commericial farming and brick kilns. These printplates are engaging themselves over the base layer of the valley landscape, they become the producer, processor and the consumer of resources.

Family based animal/ vegetable farming

Commercial enterprises for vegetables

Brick Kilns

231


rainfed farming slopes outside hokhana

TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS

SAND TRACKs and fish farming along nakkhu river

232 CAPTION, this is a caption


1 subsitence farming 0.26 ha/family/ family managed Jan

0.9625 tonnes cereals/family 0.576 tonnes vegetables/family 9-10 Months crop rotation 2,85,500 ltrs water/family/year 1.155 tonnes crop residue/family as biomass used for animal feed, or rest is burnt on feilds.

0.25 ha/family 1 Household/5 inhabitants 4500-6000 Inhabitants/settlements 1.560 tonnes cereals, 0.525 tonnes vegetables 0.400 tonnes Fruits, 120 Kg meat /290 ltr milk/ 40 kg fish 2 kg biodegradable waste/ 0.3 kg compost 200 ltrs waste water, 5 kg human waste/ 2 m3 biogas/ 2 kW energy

Jul

Crop waste Paddy

Wheat

Intermediate crops

Water requirement Subsitence farming cycles

Jan

6-8 ha/settlement

Jul

Chicken

Pig

Fish

Chicken Waste

0.6 ha/unit

Meat production cycles 233


Brick Factories within agriculture fields

farming cooperatives in the valley

stone and gravel quarries upstream of nakkhu river

234 CAPTION, this is a caption


Cooperative farming 10 ha, commercial Enterprise 50-300 seasonal labourers 15-50 thousand bricks/day/6 months

Jan

Yearly operation 0.75 ltr water/brick (2 kg weight) 1 ton coal/10000 bricks

10 ha/unit Cooperative farming 4 ha/ 5 to 30 shareholding owners 30 seasonal workers

Jul

Water

Coal

Wasted heat

13 tonnes/ha vegetables 3.85 tonnes/ha cereals Yearly operation 4,80,000 ltr/Ha/year

Brick produced Brick cycle

2.6 tonnes waste/ha/year Jan

4 ha/unit

Jul

Winter

Summer

Rainy

Tomatoes/High value crops

Vegetable farming cycle 235


feb

mar

apr

may

jun

jul

aug

sep

oct

paddy

*

*

tomatoes chillies

main crops

nov

*

*

*

*

dec

wheat + maize

*

400

*

watercress spinach

300

coriander + lettuce

* * potato

* *

onions mustard & oil seeds + turnip

*

*

*

garlic cauliflower + cabbage brinjal

*

*

monsoon

500

rainfall

jan

200

100

radish + carrots potato 0 MM

harvesting time * timelines, Multicrop accentuaed by the availablity of rainwater during the monsoon period.

livestock growing

jan

feb

mar

apr

jun

jul

aug

chicken

chicken pig buffalo

buffalo

may

sep

oct

nov

dec

chicken pig

sheep

goat

pig

chicken

duck

meat consumption milk consumption WET, Kharif (Monsoon) crop of paddy being cultivation over the trerraced feilds of Khokhana ready to be harvested in late October

DRY, The trerraced feilds of Khokhana rafter the harvesting of the rabi (winter). The ground is being prepared for cultivating vegetables crop, whihc require less water. Source: Spring Studio Nepal, 2016. 236


RESOURCE RHYTHMS The resource framework of the landscape are the basis of interaction among the natural and human resources, revealing many sociocultural rhythms of life within the valley based upon collective action of its citizens. We try to draw few relations between the interplay of natural and process of socio-economic activities. The aim is to show how people create meanings associated around collective action related to availability of resources and productivity. The existing contextual mapping of various patterns which are effected or caused by the availability of water in a period of one year. These will help us enable to understand the various rhythms generated by the water structures. The availability of water generates factors which integrating religion daily life and collective practices. The position of the valley and its topographical conditions creates a significant climatic conditions, in which rainfall is concentrated over a certain part of the year. This concentrated rainy season, impacts the availability of water, which create other patterns related to agricultural production, festivals and community collaborations. Kathmandu valley significantly depends upon rains for agriculture, the main economic activity of its inhabitants. The above figure illustrates how the presence of water results in planting of various crops depended upon their water and climatic needs. The rain water is brought to the fields extensively by the use of water channels during the monsoon season. However traditional man made ponds become the source of water during the dry season and period of rains for irrigation. Various community level activities are organized to clean the channels conduits and ponds before the arrival of the rainy season. SOCIAL RHYTHMS OF WATER AND AGRICULTURE. The relationship between water availability and cropping and harvesting, is celebrated through various festivals, along specific public spaces and it varying order of participation ranging from family to community. Adapted from Bungamati, 1968.

237


Bungamati 238 THE PRODUCTIVE STRUTURE, flows of production, processing and consumption of various products cultivated or extracted form the landscape, highlighting the dynamic role of traditional settlements.


PRODUCTIVE SPATIAL STRUCTURE

The Bagmati, Nakkhu and Godavri river frame produces many products. Each product is based upon its availabilty and location of raw materials, processing methods, scale of operation including impact of social structure upon productivity. These products have individual, over-lapping or isolated cycles. Yet each drawing upon the capacity of the natural and human resources potential of the study frame. The following study is an approach to reveal the production structure, its relationship to the landscape. Careful analysis highlights in similarities and difference in structural relations of resource flows. The position of the existing spatial structure becomes crucial in planning strategies leading to the objective of efficient use of resources within the landscape.

produce

periphery

settlement

local markets

city

internationa

metal crafts wood crafts weaving edible oil timber

produce

periphery

settlement

local markets

city

international

metal crafts produce wood crafts

periphery

settlement

local markets

city

international

periphery

settlement

local markets

city

international

weaving/carpets LEGEND produce staple crops

edible oil agriculture metal crafts seasonal wood crafts metal crafts poultry / cattle weaving/carpets timbercrafts wood fish farming edible oil weaving/carpets

pig farming edible oil timber timber

staple crops seasonal agriculture poultry / cattle staple crops fish farming

farming cooperatives seasonal agriculture pig farming staple crops poultry / cattle

seasonal agriculture brick manufacturing fish farming sand & /rock poultry cattle pig farming fish farming pig farming

farming cooperatives brick manufacturing sand & rock farming cooperatives farming cooperatives brick manufacturing Legend raw materials/scale sand & rock brick manufacturing Legend raw materials/scale sand & rock

0 100

500m

1km

processesing + waste

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

processesing + waste

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

Legend

raw materials/scale

processesing + waste

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

Legend

raw materials/scale

processesing + waste

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

239


staple crops seasonal agriculture poultry / cattle fish farming pig farming

processing

materials

finished products

farming cooperatives brick manufacturing

sand & rock Farmlands produce

produce

periphery

metal crafts wood crafts weaving metal crafts wood ediblecrafts oil weaving edible timberoil Legend timber

periphery Local rice mill settlement

raw materials/scale

Household local markets

city

Food imports into local markets international

local markets

city

international

settlement

processesing + waste

materials

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

finished products

processing

staple crops seasonal agriculture staple crops poultry cattle seasonal/ agriculture fish farming pig farming poultry / cattle fish farming pig farming

Imported Materials

Household industries/crafts

City/International markets

farming cooperatives brick manufacturing farming cooperatives sand & rock brick manufacturing materials sand & rock

Legend

raw materials/scale

processesing + waste

FarmLegend soil

raw materials/scale

processesing + waste Farm brick kilns

240 CAPTION, this is a caption

finished products

processing

finished product

market

byproducts / waste

finished Cityproduct markets

market

byproductssite / waste Construction


Part of processing raw materials or unfinished products, raw material and markets located within the study perimeter. Low value products, produced for household consumption and local markets in case of livestock. Requires technical upscalling as effciency greatly dependent upon rainfed water system, land efficiency due to seasonal crop rotation. Under threat due to urbanization, increasing land prices, loss of top soil, increase of food imports from outside the valley. Workforce provided by individual farming houseghols, occasionally labourers.

Diffused structure

Part of processing raw materials or unfinished products, raw material and markets located within the study perimeter. Low value products, produced for household consumption and local markets in case of livestock. Requires technical upscalling as effciency greatly dependent upon rainfed water system, land efficiency due to seasonal crop rotation. Under threat due to urbanization, increasing land prices, loss of top soil, increase of food imports from outside the valley. Workforce provided by individual farming houseghols, occasionally labourers.

Concentrated armatures,

Origin of materials and procesing within the study preimetes, flow of finished products to local and city level markets. High value product, significant impact on the transformation of primary agricultural land. Brick and sand quarry are threat to both the environment and landscape of the valley. Workforce provided by migrant labourers. Base upon significantly shifting pattern of land consumption.

Strong origin and desitnation 241


Bungamati 242 CAPTION, this is a caption


LANDSCAPE IMPACT& ISSUES The impact due to resource extration is increase daily due to demands for the growing city. The irrigated lands are getting significntly, impacted by the soil extraction for bricks. The loss of irrigation is coupled with water extraction of ground water. by the commercial vegetable farming enterprises. They reducing productivity of farm lands and climate change imapct is also leading the farmers to opt for fertilizer based practices for farming. the existing productiion practices are simultaneously remove soil fertility and also depositing chemicals within the landscape. Post earthquake rebuilding frenzy has already accelerated the brick making and construction industries, whihc further threatnes the landscape qualities. - Currently extensive urbanisation, climate change (availability of water), high dependence upon food imports has put a lot of stress on the valley urbanization. Climate change and urbanization impact in reduction in agricultural land and agriculturally dependent practices. - Counter movement to low agricultural production such as improvised green houses, farming cooperatives and small scale solar pumps are small scale initiative towards better resource management. - Low availability of energy throughout the valley has resulted in stunted growth of Medium and small scale industrial activities due to power shortage. The valley unique shape cuts itself from any potentially any medium or large hydro power project. It relies on water and power extraction from outside the valley. - Management of water/waste water and municipal waste is significant issues, at city scale the largest landfill sites are located along the watershed or water source, or north of the city.- Resource consumption + Recovery process in within a disaster prone landscape (recurring).

LEGEND

0 100

500m

1km

243


Soil extraction during dry season, removes top soil and disrupts irrigation and topography of the land, leading to cyclical reduction of farm yield.

Location of water extraction commercial farm lands within highly productive flood plain lands. 244


Lack of institutional support and finances lead to badly managed small farmers, meat producers.

Adaptation to climate change, solar powered water heaters.

WET, Kharif (Monsoon) crop of paddy being cultivation over the terraced fields of Khokhana ready to be harvested in late October

Lack of irrigated water leading to direct use of household waste water for cultivation.

Ground water extraction for residential, commercial and construction use.

Undeveloped plotted allotments, loss of top soil and productivity. 245


10 tonnes

Bungamati

35 m

21 mt

18 kWh

18 k

9 kWh

18 kWh 18 kWh

9 kWh

30 kWh 246


Resource potentials - wasted capacities? Careful spatial analysis of the territory reveals that the landscape has many â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;leftoversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; whihc could provide to be useful in various meaningul ways. The eixsiting multicrop farming practices leads to the availablity of straw/ crop residue all along the year. Produce related waste from commercial, coperatives and animal farms. The waste and waste water potential of the traditional, un-sewered settlements. Residual heat of the brick kilns. The transport and logistical network is also hald utilized as it functions betwee producer consumer relationship.

mt

Research questions - Can a combined resource recovery process become a tool for future growth and urbanization in the valley? - Can resource consumptions & impact, Resource production has potential for upscaling.? Can it promote in post earthquake, post blockade scenarios?

30 kWh

- How can the existing spatial structure be utlizied or modified to create more usefule resouce cycles and capacitties in communities?

9 kWh

- How can system thinking of urban processes provide for more efficient use of available and wasted resources, and if it can mitigate chalenges of production and urbanization changes?

45 kWh

kWh 9 kWh

LEGEND Waste water - 100,000 ltr/day Human Waste - 1ton/day Solid waste - 1ton/day Solid waster collection Dumping site Composting - 1ton/day 9kWh Heat/day 50 Workers

9 kWh

50 Workers - migrants Crop Waste -1/1.2 tonne/season Farm Waste - 2.4 tonnes/season

9 kWh 0 100

500m

1km

247


_ of water

_ of infrastructure 248


PROBLEMATICS and potentials

_ of urbanization

10 tonnes

35 mt

21 mt 30 kWh

9 kWh

18 kWh

45 kWh

18 kWh 9 kWh

9 kWh

18 kWh 18 kWh

9 kWh 9 kWh

30 kWh

9 kWh

_ of resources 249


250 CAPTION, this is a caption


PROBLEM STATEMENT The area under focus lies in south of Kathmandu Valley, framed by three important rivers- Bagmati, Nakkhu, Godavari and three movement corridors Ekantakuna, Satdobato-Tikabhairab, Satdobato-Godavari road. The study frame is witnessing fast urbanisation with new housing developments coming along the mobility infrastructure and brick kilns dotting the landscape to feed the demand of new constructions. Post-earthquake rebuilding and new proposed infrastructure projects will lead to further restructuring of the landscape. These scenarios present a need to address these transformations to find an alternate future for the territory. The frame is explored with four themes water, infrastructure, urban patterns and resources to get a complete understanding of the territory. An understanding of different constituents of the territory will provide insights into how its structure can be enhanced and canalised to support future growth.

What can we think as strategies in adaptation and mitigation concepts framed in terms of a transforming landscape? What if we imagine buffers zones where landscape provides the tools of healing, protecting and preparing the territory for future challenges guided by water? Can new infrastructure play a multi-functional role to the city, along with supporting the growth of the city, where simultaneity of exchange, celebration, communication and community can coexist at multiple scale? Can we imagine new alternatives settlements, which integrate lessons learnt from traditional settlements and accommodate the changing needs of the valley, providing settlement preparedness toward the increasing environmental risks which this region is facing? Can the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;localâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; resource system be enhanced, play an important role during the periods of scarcity? In the context of a climate change scenarios. How can new patterns of resource consumption be imagined with interdependent economies, efficient resource utilization?

0 100

500m

1km

251


CHAPTER 4 design investigations The design investigation aims at exalting the potential for the Southern region as a carrying structure for new developments in the Kathmandu Valley. Together with a landscape urbanism approach and a re-interpretation of traditional practices, we envision setting alternative strategies that would prepare this sensitive territory for current and future challenges. We consider the recent earthquake of April 2015 as a momentum of change and an opportunity to reshape the landscape through four distinct and complementary projects. The vision focuses on the concept of equilibrium, an ecological perspective, and comes as a reflection of how future conditions of urbanization can be envisioned as a dialectic process between tradition and new development.


Bungamati

Khokana

2 1

254 COLLECTIVE Strategies

3


DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS To address at regional scale we contemplate different scenarios about the possibilities the southern fringe of Kathmandu can hold. In future We have tackled spatial questions regarding the accommodation of coming urbanization, water scarcity, mobility infrastructure, and resources needs. and wasted resources These are the key conditions that are currently putting this territory under enormous environmental pressure. As reaction to the masterplan, we have explored alternative scenarios integrating environmental issues where landscape is the backbone and carrier for development. Collectively the landscape (elements) provides the main structuring devices, pursuing more resilient systems that have the capacity to adapt and respond to the challenges of this sensitive region. Landscape urbanism strategies enhance and reactivate the existing natural systems, creating momentum for modernization, food security and energy production. Restorative cycles for water and resources work hand in hand along with dense new urbanization, along a more topographically and landscape embedded east west network. By identifying right conditions, we envision that urbanization in close relationship with existing settlements, and preventing sprawls in agricultural lands. This renewed conditions provides for better agriculture, new markets, shorted resource cycles provide socio-economic opportunities to the expanding population.

4 Reactivation of the water system

Inserting resource hubs

Improving the landscape figure

0 100

500m

1km

Reactivation of the local market

Densification of urban patterns

Enhancing the system of valleys

255


SECTION 1 across Bungamati and proposed new settlement

SECTION 2 across the proposed densification around the new water park 256 STRATEGIC SECTION, Highlighting the collective design strategies


0

50

100 M

257


SECTION 3 across Harisiddhi, highlighting its emergence as multimodal node with new markets and access to clean energy.

SECTION 4 across Nagdaha lake, as a new regional desitination complimented by densifiation and clean transportation. 258 STRATEGIC SECTION, Highlighting the collective design strategies


0

50

100 M

259


260


hold, recharge and increase water urbanism strategies Valentina Amaya

261


262

Valley 1300m New crops

Valley +1300m New forest

Clay layer

Existent forest

Recharge area

New land

New irrigation system

Cleaning machines

irrigated

Existent rivers and branches Storm water retention ponds


Water urbanism design investigations This design exercise explores a robust landscape structure to strength the synergies between the available natural and artificial rationalities and the current needs of water in its multiple ways. Each strategy is closely attached to the geological condition of this territory, understanding the permeability and productivity character of soils in order to give context response water urbanism strategies. Afforestation and installation of the right vegetation is proposed in the river fronts, aiming to restore broken ecologies and reactivate the alluvial plains and soils, returning the self-cleaning capacity of rivers and floodplains. The agricultural modernization is a comprehensive strategy to â&#x20AC;&#x153;increase water resourcesâ&#x20AC;? by reevaluating waste water as a resource. Cleaning machines are soft water infrastructures that allows a cyclic interaction between the human occupation and the surrounding agricultural areas giving as a result a more complex irrigation system that can well function during the driest months of the year. Cut and fill operations target to reintroduce new and less water dependent crops which as well diversifies economies and enhances the existing cooperatives of the region. The protection of recharge areas envision the introduction of public amenities to avoid the expansion of residential urbanization. Urban voids can be transformed in permeable public spaces, where at the same time water cycles are secured allowing rainwater (1500mm annually) to infiltrate the aquifers. Then, a storm water park is envisioned to provide areas for biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreational uses. The impermeability characteristic of clay soils can provide the advantage to hold and store storm water in the monsoon season to later be used in the driest months of the year.

0 100

Enhanced canals

500m

1km

Enhanced ponds

263


1

4

2

3

264

Valley 1300m

Valley +1300m

Clay layer

Recharge area

Section strategic projects


addressing diverse terrains of water 1 Water & River / Slope

2 Water & Settlement

5

3 Water & Productive landscapes

4 Water & Recharge area

5 Water & Clay soil

0 100

500m

1km

265


STRATEGIC WATER DESIGN OPERATIONS Toolbox The water urbanism proposal emphasizes on a series of strategic operations that work as a toolbox to address the particular needs of every case study and its context. Based on previous analysis on topography, soil permeability, hydrology conditions and relationship with public space, multiple tolls can be applied to restructure the water system. Taking the existing situation as the initial approach for design, was possible to identify trends of lineal cycles, systems with high external dependency and urbanization practices that leads to pollution and encroachment of water bodies and recharge areas. Strategic design operations aim to shift current conditions towards the restoration of the broken floodplain ecologies, the provision of dynamic waterfronts by exalting the cultural identity and their essential role in emergency situations. Increasing water resources through the revaluation of waste water cycles and its constant source availability during the year. The cut and fill operations to introduce wetland ecologies to facilitate recharge process and catchment areas for storm water runoff. As such, the role of forest is exalted as a mediator to reinforce the mentioned operations and introduce other complementary effects for a comprehensive approach. Afforestation strategies ambition to repair the interrelated roles of watershed and forest management in landslide risk reduction. Urban forestry is a tool that contributes to spatial richness and thermal comfort. Agroforestry programs can diversify economies, and the correct species plantation in polluted areas can catalyze phytoremediation processes. The intertwining of water and landscape maximizes the opportunity of connecting, increasing and repairing the water eco/logics. The restructure of the water system can establish better practices for the future development of this region.

266


Water & Settlements

Water & Productive landscapes

Water & Recharge area

Water & Clay soil

Polluted floodplains

Encroachment of settlement ponds

Linear waste water flows

Change in land cover in recharge areas

Less water in irrigation canals in dry season

Reactivation of alluvial plains

Water as center of public space Aquifer recharge

Waste water as a resource

Insertion of wetland ecologies CUT & FILL

Storm water collection during monsoon for latter reuse

Slope stabilization

Thermal comfort in public spaces

Agroforestry

Soil and groundwater cleaning

Shadow in water surfaces to reduce evaporation

Forest role

Design operations

Existent situation

Water & River / Slope

267


This point of the valley is the downstream of Bagmati River which flows leaving Kathmandu city and entering our particular frame once crosses the Chobar Gorge. Being excessively polluted, Bagmati River is slowly losing its capacity to purify itself due the amount of waste that is being dumped. Simultaneously, the reduction of its natural edges is leading to an important productivity decline since water is not feasible for irrigation plus the extreme soil pollution of floodplains and alluvial plains. A robust afforestation strategy is proposed in the riverfronts aiming to restore broken ecologies and reactivate the alluvial plains. Being the last section of agricultural canals, this place is also the less irrigated land suffering from extreme drought situations especially during the dry period. An introduced irrigation system is envisioned to feed this agricultural lands from cleaned waste water taken from Khokana and Bungamati. Cut and fill operations for storm water collection and the introduction of less water dependent crops are actions to diversify economies and enhance the existing cooperatives of the region. 268View over Bagmati River alluvial plains


Water & River / Slope

Design operations

Bagmati River alluvial plain reactivation

Reactivation of alluvial plains

Waste water as a resource

Agroforestry

Soil and groundwater cleaning

Slope stabilization

269


Public space for existing temple

Water efficient crops in dry season

Soil cleaning

Afforestation

270

Soil cleaning


Increased productivity

New irrigation lines

Ponds for storm water collection during monsoon for latter reuse

Cleaned water to agricultural canals

Shallow aquifer recharge

Slope stabilization

Enhance existing vegetable cooperatives

240.000 L/day Reusable grey water for agriculture

0

50

100

200 m 271


Bagmati River alluvial plains reactivation phasing 0 Years Existing conditions: Polluted alluvial plains, less irrigated land, low productivity in dry season

+5 Years 2021:

Started of planting processes for slope stabilization and floodplain oxygenation

+8 Years 2024: Introduction of cleaning machines and new irrigation systems enhancing existing cooperatives

+15 Years 2031: Reactivation of alluvial plains as productive areas

272


Existing situation in agricultural fields during dry season

Sacred public spaces

Proposed view for alluvial plains activation and cooperatives productivity.

Current forest condition of Bagamti River in the frame

273


Ponds, wells and stone spouts in traditional settlements are the center elements of the public realm, at the same time these support a variety of functions of domestic, religious and even emergency situations. These water elements are the manifestation of traditions and heritage of the Newari society. However, traditional water public spaces have been slowly neglected with the introduction of modern water infrastructure. A revitalization strategy seeks to protect the important value of these public spaces, by adding more complex functions such as urban agriculture in kitchen gardens, storm water collection in courtyards and the restoration of the ponds and its public facilities as Patis, stepwells and its surrounding public areas. In earthquake vulnerable cities as Kathmandu, the role of public space is crucial at the time of emergency, in its different time-lapses. Pukhus and squares have been places for evacuation, shelter and humanitarian relief. With the conservation of traditional water management systems, settlements like Bungamati can have better preparedness at the time of emergency with better accessibility to water resources and simultaneously vibrant public spaces in the everyday life. 274 Dyo Pukhu Bungamati


Water & traditional settlements

Design operations

Bungamati ponds restoration

Water as center of public space Aquifer recharge

Communal kitchen gardens

Thermal comfort in public spaces

275


Shallow aquifer recharge

Roof towards ponds for recharge

Rainwater harvesting courtyards

Kitchen garden & rain garden

Street drainage to ponds

0 276

12.5

25

50m


Shallow Aquifer recharge

0

5

10

20m 277


The valley depends mostly on rain water for cultivation which is distributed by a complex network of irrigation canals â&#x20AC;&#x153;kulosâ&#x20AC;?. This traditional man-made irrigation canals work with natural logics of topography and gravity supplying water to the fields. The water sources for these kulos are either rivers, springs or fountains. Beyond the production reliance, agricultural canals are as well the domestic water supply for households located in close relationship to the canal. Despite the management and importance of these agricultural canals, the incremental water scarcity presents a challenge to irrigate fields during the driest months of the year, leading to a significant production decline and land use change. The continuous urban growth towards the south of the valley is taking place in the productive landscapes. In order to protect the agricultural land for food security, I propose the reutilization of waste water which can be cleaned by constructed wetlands that are part of the envisioned proposed water infrastructure for each settlement. The availability of waste water is constant during the year and can help this area to fulfill the irrigation needs during the dry season. Ponds for rainwater collection, insertion of new crops and new irrigation lines complement this system that can substantially upgrade the productive landscapes. 278 Bungamati and Khokana agricultural canal


Water & productive landscapes

Design operations

Increasing water sources for agricultural canals

Waste water as a resource

Storm water collection during monsoon for latter reuse

Slope stabilization

279


Increased productivity

CLEANING MACHINES

Slope stabilization Shallow Aquifer recharge

FILL CUT

40 LPD per person of reusable waste water for agriculture

Enhancing of existing agricultural canals. Increasing water sources in the dry season

0 280

12.5

Storm water collection ponds

25

Insertion of diverse crops

50m


Addressing water scarcity in the dry periods Agricultural irrigation needs

2353 mm

Calculation for irrigation needs per hectare during the year

December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

April

March

February

January

1200 mm

Based on previous analysis, has been calculated that one hectare of agricultural land on average needs 1200 mm of irrigation need per day (based on the amount of rainfall and varies depending of the type of crop). As we approach the analysis for the rainy season, (June to September) and the dry season (November to February), was possible to analyzed the effect of differences in rainfall means, and therefore also in irrigation requirement. Calculations show us that there is a need for irrigation of approximately 46 mm per day per hectare during the rainy season. However for the dry season turns out to be more than 2350 mm per day per hectare. Resulting as well the fundamental need to collect rainwater in the rainy season for later use during dry periods. Also from these analysis we can see that per inhabitant of Bungamati can be re-used approximately 40 liters of waste water per day which can irrigate agriculture. If we translate that into 6000 inhabitants, it means a water availability for agriculture of 240,000 liters per day. With this amount of water, an average of 200 hectares can be irrigated throughout the year. If we project these numbers in dry season, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seen that this amount comes to a theoretical amount of just over 100 hectares of agricultural land.

Proposed view over the last phase of waste water treatment ponds feeding the existing agricultural canals. In the background the insertion of storm water catchment ponds and new irrigation lines.

281


In the southern recharge area we identified a large void of 500 hectares of productive landscape and forest area that is currently being rapidly urbanized. This area counts with a series of existent conditions of agriculture fields, water bodies, slopes and existent forest. Without any impulse to construct this area I imagine how these soft and permeable surfaces can be protected by adding educational programs and more robust landscape features. It is therefore, how this project can demonstrate how agricultural landscape can become part of the urbanized environment by shifting an existing void towards a central public park. In order to enhance water recharge, this place is transformed in an urban storm water park where large water bodies store water, clean the soil and recharge aquifers while at the same time provide a wide public space with recreational and educational facilities. This park reveals seasonal variations where water bodies can fluctuate according to the given season. The introduced wetland ecologies are scenarios to protect biodiversity, insert new economies of aquaculture and collect storm water in deeper ponds that are catchment areas for storm water runoff during the monsoon season. This productive educational campus is a multi-functional place where a demonstration center for agroforestry, a bamboo earthquake resistant construction school and the resources school take place, combined with recreational activities for the public. The introduced network of soft paths, deck platforms over the ponds and resting areas, offer the experience for visitors to have contact with nature. This storm water park is a strategy to protect the permeable surfaces in recharge areas to allow the water cycles to be full filled. This is an essential need since many traditional water management systems and local communities still dependent of the shallow aquifer source. 282 Sacred pond in recharge area, Sunakothi Lalitpur


Water & recharge areas

Design operations

From urban void to central park

Insertion of wetland ecologies CUT & FILL

Thermal comfort in public spaces

Agroforestry

Soil and groundwater cleaning

Slope stabilization

283


Slope stabilization groundwater recharge

Enhancing existing agriculture

Network of Public spaces and soft paths resting areas

groundwater recharge

groundwater recharge

FILL

CUT

Agroforestry Insertion of wetland ecologies, promoting biodiversity and tourism

0 284

New economies 1.4 tonne fish/ ha /year

25

New program: Productive water resources forest: learning center Bamboo for reconstruction process

50

100m


Proposed view over the agricultural fields as part of the park scenography. Productive educational campus is a multifunctional place where a demonstration center for agroforestry coexist with public areas.

285


Proposed view of soft paths and deck platforms over the ponds

286


Proposed view of soft paths and public spaces

287


Clay soil is a highly water impermeable surface, which can be seen as a negative aspect for groundwater recharge and infiltration process. In Kathmandu, Brick industry is rapidly expanding and partially removing big soil surfaces to use the clay as a raw material. As a result, large sessions of soil are removed dramatically modifying the existent landscapes. In order to support the future alternative scenarios for this brick lings, these cut and fill operation can be used as a water storage surfaces to support agriculture and other economic activities in dry periods. Water ponds can be linked to agriculture canals by constructing a passage structure, this principle can create shorter cycles in the agricultural process. Wet periods are then season to store water to be supporting the lands in dry periods. An additional advantage of the clay holes is that the clay provides better food substances to plants than most other soil types and is generally rich in nutrients, which can be seen as a first step in water purification. 288 Brick industry along Nakhu River


Water & clay soil Clay soil, large storm water retention surfaces

Shadow in water surfaces to reduce evaporation

Storm water collection during monsoon for latter reuse

Soil and groundwater cleaning

289


Dry season water use

Wet season injection recharge shallow aquifer

Soil / groundwater cleaning

Shadow in water surfaces to reduce evaporation

New economies 1.4 tonne fish/ha/year

Pond linkages with Storm water colagricultural canals lection during monsoon for latter reuse

0 290

25

50

100m


291


292

Shortcutting through the fields to reach Kokhana


ADJUSTING TRAJECTORIES Isabelle Matton

293


KATHMANDU’S PERIPHERY

Outer Ring Road

proposed thread

0 0,2

1km

2km

OPEN PERSPECTIVE ON BAGMATI’S RIVERBANKS 294


Structuring a differentiated network

An East West thread as a collector of collective spaces By moving away from the former autonomous figures of urbanity to a hyper-connected territory, mobility becomes more than ever an essential concern for a region’s running. Since the opening of Nepal’s border in the fifties, the intensification of cross-border trade and mass tourism has shaped a region based on infrastructural system from which is resulting a flow-orientated territory (Berlingieri – 2014). More than ever, public authorities are aware of their infrastructural needs in order to push their economy to the next level of modernity and global inclusion. With that in mind, such projects as the Terai Fast Track or the Outer Ring Road are envisioned as a means of linkage between respectively the lower lands of Nepal and the Valley of Kathmandu and between Kathmandu itself with its periphery. As it stands now, the existing infrastructural lines have generated embryonic concentrations that gradually evolved into to linear ribbon of development. It result a strong tendency for North-South oriented movement in which everything seems to be going up North towards Patan and Kathmandu. Those corridors are strained to almost a breaking point by become the main attractors of densification and the main spots of commercial opportunities. The question is then to seek how we can integrate complexity in a revisited infrastructural network which could make people more conscious of the various functions and identities of the territory, now under the threat of an uncontrollable sprawl happening mainly along roads. Denying the generic solution of building a second ring around Kathmandu, the strategy aims to internally modernize the existing system a pathways that irrigates the landscape as a way to intertwine flows, social life, topography and landscape identities. Landscape-based strategies help to integrate urban fabrics in another condition than just their selves and allow a bigger variety of identities to be enhanced. Infrastructures, by being the space of multiple scales, have the potential to include towns and new development into their broader ecological and geographical context by shaping relationships between them. Therefore each scale is being nested in each other (Waldheim, 2006).

Roads, streets and paths are important elements that stich together towns and landscape and that act as a vehicle of exchange. Hence, they shouldn’t only be considered as the condition for economic development but as well as an element defining character and identity of the territory in which they are inscribed. In that sense, the project formulation exercise proposes an alternative strategy which purpose is to support the region’s running by firstly recognizing the potential of weak structures, the spontaneous tendencies and logics embedded in the existing structure of the region. Regarding infrastructure as a primary public space, the project aims to substitute the paradigm of space rationalization by design and openness. Particularly in the context of Kathmandu Valley, paths convey a strong collective identity and make a dynamic impression (Lynch, 1959) on its users during times of procession, rice harvesting, feasting…. The strategy is to strengthen that identified structure. Based on existing logics and the interdependency between new and old structures, the project is a way to generate opportunities for intertwining landscape, new mobility and economies as an integral part of a requalified public realm that supports urban development. The construction of a transversal thread tries to construct a system of exchanges by dispersing mobility rather than concentrating it along few North South infrastructural lines. As such the system would have the great potential to act as a vehicle of change that could define the condition of development and urbanity as it simultaneously organizes an enhanced public realm. Infrastructure, far away from being a neutral element, is a space of tension that explicit both natural and urban processes.

295


296


Strategic map: a transversal thread By moving transversally, the strategy is about reorganizing and redirecting flows and places of exchange in order to create a differentiated structure that stimulates an expanded public realm. It accommodates local specificities but still upholds an overall continuity and coherence that manage with a complex system of flows, movement and exchange (Allen 1999). It is about enhancing a system of local market based on the dominant economic activity (craft, production) of each settlements. This economy is then taking advantage of new modes of transportation using and expanding the a local public transportation service of the Safa Tempos. It has the advantage that it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to go through Kathmandu or the Ring Road to pass from on valley to another as well as it is using, as much as possible the resource of electricity to aliment the vehicles. Acting as a continuation of the North-South â&#x20AC;&#x153;transportation machineâ&#x20AC;?, the proposed thread is made out of a series of short distinct segments in an overall web which spatial coherence is given by a series of attraction points and nodes. Those pubic spaces become the articulations points between several modes of movement and hold a great range of opportunities.

temple afforestation bridge limit of the VDC (Village District Committee) new paths car traffic medium traffic (tempos,...) small traffic (motorbike,...)

M

Market Terminal Charging point Solid waste collection point Storage facility

0 100

500m

1km

297


TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS Solid waste collection is a serious issue in the settlements of the Valley since most of it is simply burned or dumped by individual which gradually degrades the surroundings. As such, taking example of the PRISM Project developed in Kirtipur among other, the strategy aims to implement an upgraded cycle of waste collection that uplift that status of informal sweepers and possibly generates new cooperatives of solid waste management.

LOCAL WASTE MANAGEMENT From the fields to the markets, goods are mainly transported by foot on the back of a bike. By improving the local pathways, a condition emerges that allows goods to be more efficiently transported from the productive area to the selling place. More importantly, storage places have to be provided as they can allow cooperatives and local farmers to store goods for a longer period of time. 298


Cycles of mobility moving people - goods and waste

LOCAL PUBLIC TRANSORTATION The development of electric vehicles in the Kathmandu Valley has a long story. From the trolley buses to the electric rickshaw, there has been a constant concern of the public authorities to generate systems of mobility that doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t rely exclusively on imported petroleum fuel. However, as it stands now, the Safa Tempos are mainly circulating in cities and sporadically reaching few points outside of those urban centers. It is then about extending the lines of the Safa Tempo, as a local transportation system, in order to connect the various settlement of the study in a more direct way. 299


CAR

Cars maximum speed: 80 km/h

180-200 cm Tractors imported from China

TRACTOR

goods,...

120-150

SAFA TEMPO

87

87

Electric Auto Rickshaw weight: 1000 kg maximum speed 45 km/h capacity of 10 person

180 cm

MOTORBIKE

width: 77 cm

width: 115 cm

TRICYLE

waste,...

Scooter or E-Bikes (electric) maximum speed 55 km/h E-Bikes can drive 45 km before need of a recharge. Recharge price: +/- 10 Rs

Bikes maximum speed 20 km/h used by locals to transport goods, waste,... + bike tourism

BIKE

width: 65 cm

Scooter or E-Bikes (electric) maximum speed 55 km/h E-Bikes can drive 45 km before need of a recharge. Recharge price: +/- 10 Rs

PEDESTRIAN

width: 62,5 cm

300

Pedestrian average speed of 5 km/h for short journeys


Cycles of mobility CAR Where cars are already driving the condition remains the same and, as such cars are considered where a certain residential densities doesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;nt really allow to forbid them.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION The upgrading of the path makes possible rickshaw to cross valleys and tranport transversally people and goods. The flatter path within the networ are then the one that has the capacity to accomodate such kind of flow. The system is thought that at equidistant distances, a charging point is provided.

MOTORBIKES scooters and E-bikes are more flexible to use small paths. Thus the whole network is trying to upgrade its path so former pdestrian paths are also easily reachable for bikes and motorbikes.

301


302


Imagibility of a system

A sequence of sensation within the territory By re-directing flows in a set of contextualized infrastructures, the strategy is to reveal to the traveler what is behind the road and the different gradients of urbanity throughout the region. From South to North we shift from completely open perspectives over the landscape, its forests and its fields, towards a more confined vision of the place in which the eye is stopped by an opaque façade of buildings. The more we approach the Kathmandu, the more we perceive a dense constructed line along the road without really knowing its thickness. Such growing homogeneity enables us to truly understand the logic of the territory its quality within its system of valleys. For these reasons, the perception of our surroundings is a key element in the way we understand the region. The linear nature of the proposed thread hence takes advantage of the landscape logics and creates a narrative structure that considers the stimulation of the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience as a leitmotiv to gives tools of orientation to its users. Signalling the use of what is produced in which kind of soil and who is living where, informs us what the space is standing for and will eventually create new opportunities along the thread. In order to do so, the notion of sequence and rhythm within the space of the path takes all its importance. The traveler moving along the thread would cross a variety of distinctive spaces and recognize their specificity of their setting in relation to the bigger whole. The purpose of it is multiple; it allows a sense of transition between distinctive elements as well as it enhances the image of the environment which, therefore, acquires a meaning.

303


bridge

existing housing

topography

new housing

temple pond canal river 304

forest points of desicion cooperatives


Perception from the road The long and thin nature of the thread indicates that it cross multiple conditions and distinct landscapes. The network of paths is closely tied to the surrounding landscape and consists of a sequence of highlighted vistas, enclosure and interaction beyond the path itself.

305


306


307


308


Materiality of the thread

Modes of construction - reality of the ground The strategy does not only rely on implementing new ways of moving but it simultaneously fits with the ground reality. A path as a static element in the landscape has a certain thickness and a physical presence that needs to be thought in relation to its surrounding. Indeed, the thread is by nature crossing various conditions and having tenure knowledge of those conditions shapes the way infrastructure has to be built in relation to it. The location of a path has then a direct impact of the type of pavement that is envisioned. Paving work is an extensive task to undertake and an important aspect is to understand how it could be realize. In that sense, the main actors involved in such kind of work are the local communities, the VDC (Village District Committee) and ultimately the Government for important infrastructural works. In fact, local communities could win from that process and acquire (if not already known) new skills. If trained in stone masonery they could then earn around 460 Rp per day instead of 300 Rp. After the road is constructed, the worker could be self-employed and use their newly acquired skills to build other things as new houses... Furthermore the material to construct the thread should be acquired locally as much as possible. Some of the stones can be recuperated and recycle within the settlement but the fact is that some mining industry are flourishing in the southern part of the Valley, along the Nakkhu River. It first was developed in Chappagaon but the mines are now moving towards the south to Lele. There is then an opportunity to take advantage of the flow of stone and sand moving up towards Kathmandu and to redirected for the pavement of the thread. On the other hand, the dust due to the crushing of the stones constitutes an important pollution that highly impact on the health and the environment of the immediate surroundings of the industry. However, according D.S. Prakash Rao, stone crush dust can actually be collected and become a viable alternative to river sand that is now massively extracted from the riverbank of the Nakkhy river. Indeed, if we compare strength of the two elements, the river sand has a strength of 28,1 MPa while the stone crush dust has 32,8.

309


310


A system of nodes and short segements As previously said, the proposed thread is made out of a series of short distinct segments in an overall network which spatial coherence is given by nodes or point of convergence. The crossroads of the network are becoming the points of exchange per excellence, the place people has to pass through to reach their destination, and are therefore the space where activity is the most public and accessible. From its publicity, they are endowed with a certain power of attraction, a spot that provokes memory, marked in the users imaginary. As Manuel Solà Morales writes in “Ciudades Esquinas”, the corner (crossroads) has the capacity to act as a focus of greater intensity within the system of flows and relationships that weave the urban fabric. In this project, the various crossroads of the thread act differently according to their position and context. Within the fields, the convergence of two paths often generates a resting place marked either by a tree or a pati. Those spots will become the point where people gather to eat where seed would be dried …

In this complex variety, three nodes are further detailed in order to reveal different ways of designing spaces. It is about articulating movements, crossing natural element as rivers and transparency where we make strong element of the landscape visible to the eye of the “driver”.

articulation transparency

bridge

Nodes of the network

311


ARTICULATING : Case of Chunikhel Chunikhel is a small village located 4 kilometers South of Bungamati. It is inhabitad by more less 250 people with Chetri being the dominant cast. As many other settlement in the Valley, Chunikhel has a dominant economic activity which is centered, in this case, around livestock and the production of dairies. Every households owns a cow that they consider as a pet and keep it closeby to their home. The strategy proposes to support that economic activity by centralizing more the collection of dairies and creating a market along the Ekantakuna road. At the edges of Chunikhel, two spaces are created in order to articulate the village with its fields and with the N-S directed flow. Two spaces that work at different scales. Furthermore, the project is also about enhancing lines of vegetation around the village as an enveloppe of trees defining edge of Chunikhel.

canopy of trees that limit the expansion of the road as a single line of traffic

defining the edge and articulating the village with the plateau

open structure for multiple uses

bus terminal platform of exchange

Upgrading the mill

0 312

5

10

20 m


KTM BUNGAMATI local waste management center

canopy of tree

corn fields

slope stabilization

dairy products grains collection point of solide waste

bus terminal 5 vehicles localy owned

collection point and cold storage facility

local market

planting tree fodder and grass

temple

Bio-digestor milk collection school ZOOM 0

10

20

40 m 313


BRIDGE: Case of Nakkhu River Nakkhu river is a highly designed element with a systematic construction of gabion walls along its stream. Increasingly the river is being canalized and its banks are now carrying new trends of development. The project proposes to rethink the section of the river considering the space of the floodplain as a landscape element to be preserved. As such, the road running along the river will be position on a small dike that isolate it and only allow it to be a road without carrying further encroachement. On the other hand, the only â&#x20AC;&#x153;formalâ&#x20AC;? crossing points are few suspended bridges, only accessible for pedestrian. There is hence a need to implement lower bridges that could accomodate small vehicles such a motorbikes or rickshaw.

Informal bridges along the Nakkhu river - they come as a counterpoint af the highly elevated pedestrian suspended bridges.

314


afforestation of the riverbanks

isolation of the road by the creation of a dyke

construction of ponds wetlands for fish farming

permeable pavement

Isolating the road

BUNGAMATI KOKHANA

THECHO SUNAKHOTI low wooden bridge accessible for small vehicles

recreational platform

door to door solid waste collection and trade

permeable pavement

Building the bridge

0

5

10

20 m 315


TRANSPARENCY: Case of Nagdaha lake It is common knowledge that the Valley of Kathmandu was once a lake. Myriads of myths gravitates around its disappearance and one of those legend relates the story of the god Manjusri who decides to preserve few lakes in the valley as home for the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Nagsâ&#x20AC;?, snakes in other words. The lake of Nagdaha is one of them and, as such, holds an important cultural value and numerous festivals. The project aims to strengthen the Nagadaha lake as a regional destination by make part of an improved network of pulblic transportation. But it is also about redefining the edge of the shore as a place where myriads of activities are taking places.

creation of an open forest following the water flow towards the lake

0 316

50

100

creation of viewpoint along with the bus stop

200 m


intercity road

enhancing regulated fishing activities

local path

bird watching

THAIBA

THECHO

collection point of solide waste

bus terminal for a regional destination

permeable pavement

enhancing the shore productivity

creation shadow in new public space

temple

0

5

10

20 m 317


318 View of traditional settlement on higher ground, with forest on sloping edge, Khokana, Kathmandu valley


Recomposing the valley

urbanism strategies sheeba Amir

319


Recomposing the valley Urbanism strategies

The proposal of potential densification platforms was developed through a series of research and analysis based on topography, soil type, hydrology, proximity to existing urban centers, public spaces and infrastructure to establish several locations. Following the analysis four areas were envisioned as possible locations as densification platforms, which includes existing as well as future urban growth. Design strategies for the new development emphasis on a resource conserving and collective typologies, with public spaces providing the structure for development. Resource conservation involves recycle and reuse and minimum dependence on main central system. Water flows are reorganized from a linear system to a cyclic system to minimize water consumption. Local energy and food production further minimizes external dependency to create more self sufficient development. The concept of clusters as practiced in traditional settlement becomes inspiration for the proposed collective typologies in new development. A cluster combines residential, small scale commercial, institutional plots as well as collective open space. Collective typologies are envisioned at various scales, for housing, green spaces as well as for infrastructure in contrast to present trend of individual, low density owner built house as well as grand housing projects which lack integrated outdoor spaces as well as neighborhood commerce. Existing public spaces, like existing temples, recreational facilities are recognized and integrated in new development. New public spaces take inspiration from traditional squares in their organization and integration in urban tissue. Public spaces play an important role for disaster management, they should be well equipped and flexible enough to accommodate changing needs at the time of disasters.

320


RESOURCE CONSERVATION Rain water collection

storage tanks, community ponds

Storm water collection

bio-swales, community ponds

Waste treatment & energy production

decentralized waste treatment, energy from solar panels & bio-gas

Local food production

Kitchen gardens, community farms

COLLECTIVE TYPOLOGIES Collective living

community green spaces

shared resources

PUBLIC SPACES identifying existing

well integrated new public spaces

public spaces as disaster prepardness component

321


Ekantakuna-Tikabhairab road

322

Existing forest

New forest

Existing institutions

New institutions

Satdobato-Tikabhairab road

Existing Temples

Dhapakhel road


0 100 500m 1km

Ponds and lakes

Upgrading existing institutions

New institutions

Forest on the slope

Productive landscape

NETWORK OF PUBLIC SPACES

Improved connections

Facilities and functions

New urban platforms

Shops along the street

Markets

Bus stops

Public transport

URBAN FIGURES - HARD SPINE

URBAN FIGURES - SOFT SPINE

Satdobato-Godavari road

323


324


A

Section A Landuse typology Urban

Agriculture Intensity of urban activities

Existing amenities within 400 m radius

Proposed amenities within settlement

325


strategic project

READING THE EXISTING

Context of the project The site for new development is located along ekantakuna road, and takes benefit from the proximity to more developed traditional settlements of Bungamati & Khokana. The presence of existing mobility infrastructure, plot structures and topography provides base for the design strategy. The new site developed to accommodate growing urbanization and settlers from the vicinity, is developed in a more resilient way with minimum impact on landscape, sharing and reuse of resources and minimum dependence on centralized infrastructure. Design strategy includes development of housing, institutions, public space and infrastructure in phases according to the required demand. Urban tissue & topography Khokana

Bungamati

Site Movement infrastructure

Location map 326

Field plot pattern


8

1

6 2 7

5

4 3

Aerial view of site, Source : Google earth

327


1. Entrance to the site through Ekantakuna road

2. Temple along a peepal tree along the road

3. Existing infrastructure and urban tissue

4. Existing infrastructure and individual houses

328


5. View of the canal located on right edge of the site

6. Nakkhu river on the right edge of the site with rice fields in background

7. Under-construction houses on right slope

8. Under construction institution building on right edge of the site

329


The Design Framework URBAN FIGURES - SPINES

PUBLIC SPACE STRUCTURE

Design is guides by two urban figures at its edges with specific qualities. Left edge is framed by a hard spine, which takes advantage of its extrinsic position along the mobility corridor. A market and bus stop, mixed use buildings complement the hard spine. The right edge is envisioned as a soft spine, providing social and recreational spaces. Its quality is enhanced by placing community institutions like school, temple square and soft infrastructure like herbal gardens and water treatment ponds.

Two edge spines are connected through a network of public spaces in the form of streets and squares. This system of public spaces provide structure to the successive urban growth in different phases. Streets and squares follow an hierarchy and can accommodate various social, economical functions required for the growth of the settlement in everyday life as well as in times of natural disasters.

Site area- 13.3 ha Approximate density- 62 DU/ ha (310 inh/ha) 1 DU size = 75 sq m. Average family size = 5 persons Plot for private developers- 10% (3 levels) Plots for social Housing - 20% (3 levels ) Individual residents 70% ( 1-3 levels)

330

COLLECTIVE GREEN SPACES

Collective green spaces provide structure to the hosing cluster. Green spaces vary in quality and provide multiple functions based on the sizes. Large size green spaces can accommodate playgrounds and community agriculture, to provide food and income for residents, while the smaller one can accommodate everyday parks and other social activities. Collective greens also provide space for collective infrastructure facilities like septic tank & bio gas digester.

Comparing densities (size of dwelling units vary in different developments )

New development 310 inh/ha

Bungamati 570 inh/ha

Sainbu Housing 169 inh/ha

Civil Homes 153 inh/ha


Existing urban tissue

Proposed institutions

Proposed urban tissue

Collection ponds

Bamboo forest

Herbal gardens

Existing fields

Water tank 331


School courtyard as space for childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activities

Outdoor play area

Learning about traditional herbal gardens as part of education

Existing rice fields

Section showing school & herbal gardens as institution and public space

Existing tree & chotara

Activities along bus stop

Activities outside the market

Section showing market as collection of infrastructure and public space

332

Market building with space for storage and public functions

Community green space as part of residential cluster


View showing school and herbal gardens

View showing market space and activities around

333


Shop house

Temple in community square

Institutional buildings

Bamboo forest on the sloping edge

Community pond

Path

Community pond

Section through community square and ponds as soft infrastructure and public space

Forest on edge

Section through the settlement

334

Market

Housing clusters

Community square


View showing water collection ponds along soft spine

Housing clusters

Community square

Forest on edge

335


STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

PHASE- 1

PHASE - II

PHASE - III

The first phase of development includes two spines on edges of the settlement which work as the backbone of the new development and provide collective functions. New facilities will attract the settlers and initiate the first phase of development. Phases of development follow the topography of site, with infrastructure facilities taking advantage of natural slopes.

The second phase grows around the connection between two spines and new public space structure which grows between two edges of the site. Each phase makes provision for residential as well as institutional buildings in the form of clusters, with each clusters having a central community green space.

The last phase develops with network of public spaces being complete. Since the site is developed in phases, the unbuilt area can be used for agriculture till the last phase is reached. Phasing allows installing infrastructure according to demand and collective functions further ensure conservation of resources.

336


INTERACTIVE FACADES

ACTIVE NODES

Facades along the main streets and squares are proposed to have more public oriented functions like institutional, commercial spaces and shop houses to bring more variety to the public spaces more lively.

Variation of activities in the public spaces along with community greens, different atmospheres are generated all over the development. Together they provide platforms for interactions and performance. Religious/ cultural activities

Commercial activities

Community activities

337


CLUSTER DETAILS

FLEXIBLE GRID

TYPOLOGIES

ACTORS

INDIVIDUALS

INDIVIDUAL HOUSE

RESIDENTS/ USERS

Grocery store Workshops

Health facility

Schools

Joint families

INSTITUTIONS

INSTITUTIONS/ COMMUNITY HOUSE

Single & joint families

PRIVATE DEVELOPERS 338

APARTMENTS/ VILLAS


CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT Clusters are designed to accommodate a flexible grid, with multiple possibilities for residents and institutions. A cluster here represents an integration of residential, small scale commercial, institutions and outdoor space. Collective typologies with two to three levels of living are proposed to avoid present trend of low density single residents. Housing is designed considering various family sizes and living styles. There are options for individual owners as well as for the commercial developers. Ground floors of houses can be used for commerce to accommodate workshops and stores. The cluster is intended to be as flexible as possible in order to promote ownership, self-built strategies as well as options for low-income residents.

Community green area showing nature of activities and events

339


Resource Management Resource conservation strategies include rain water collection, treatment of storm water, gray and black water to minimize pressure of ground water extraction and dependency on main supply. Decentralized waste water treatment is used for treating black water, which includes a settling tank in each household, bio-gas settler and anaerobic treatment at community level. First level cleaned water is directed for the aerobic treatment with reed bed using the site topography and finally collected at community level ponds. Bio-gas generated at community level can be reused by households for cooking, bringing down the electricity and wood fuel consumption. Collective greens are used for community gardens for fruits and vegetables for self reliance.

Solar panels for generating household level energy

Reusing water Reusing bio-gas for cooking

Bio-gas settler

Planted gravel filter

Polishing pond

Reusing water for irrigation

Bio swale along the road

Reed bed

Section A-A’

A

B’

B Section B-B’ 340

A’

Collection pond


WASTE WATER FLOWS

Redirecting waste water flows, post anaerobic treatment to the reed bed for aerobic waste water treatment, to be collected in the community ponds. Bio-gas settler and baffle reactor are placed in community open spaces, and their sizes are based on cluster size and capacity of waste intake 341


342


CONNECTING RESOURCES Ashim Kumar Manna

343


DESIGN STRATEGIES

HOUSEHOLD-FARM, COLLECTIVE GRID Utilizing the household-farm relationship. The strategy is to create smallest possible change at the house hold -farm scale. The existing system of using human/night soil waste for nutrients for the kitchen gardens can be improvised by inserting household anaerobic digester which allows to extract usable energy in form of biogas from human waste (upto 2kWh/day for a family of five), this process removes methane from environment and the leftover manure ( 0.3 kgs/ day for a family of five).

Household-farming material flows relationship

The collective position of the households within the village/settlements can be utilized to upscale the energy-nutrition flows with the farmlands. The reconstruction potential in the post earthquake scenario, can be utilized to create community level sanitation waste water treatment, coupled with anaerobic digester for community scales. The state conversion of both human and biodegradable waste allow the village to tap usable energy, and also regain manure/sludge for use in farming. The energy generated from the biogas plant along with roof top solar collection provides usable cooking energy and electricity. The additional electricity reduces energy shortage.

Improvised Household-farming -settlement relationship

344


50%

Electricity supply

Lack of energy

EXISTING CONDITION - nutrition energy flows

50%

50%

Self generation of Power

Nutrients to farms

PROPOSED CONDITION - nutrition energy flows

345


COMMERCIAL FARMING/ANIMAL FARMING The existing animal farming and commercial practices as located outside the periphery of traditional and suburban fringes. They solely focus on getting more value from their existing farm land. Their produce is directed to the local and city markets.

Production and consumption flows

Animal and vegetable farms can play an important role in managing the organic waste produce within the city. Their position along the city periphery and utilizing the market to producer links, the waste can be brought back and converted into useful animal feed, or manure for farms. Such process lead to prevention of methane emissions, at city landfills and promoting new economies which can absorb both the migrant and local population.

Reconstitution of flows

346


30%

20%

EXISTING CONDITION - Material and food produce flows

20%

PROPOSED CONDITION - Material and food produce flows

347


BRICK KILNS Unidirectional resource flows of brick industry are currently a threat to Kathmandu, It is impacting the landscape. Brick kilns also have potential to alter the landscape, the brick kilns also a temporal as they move from one site to other in 7 to 10 years. The movement of the brick kilns over the landscape can also be utilized to create usable conditions for guiding the flow of resources within Kathmandu.

The key wasted resource from the brick kilns is the wasted heat, this usable heat (mostly produced during the dry winter months) an be utilized for various process required high heat. Suitable for drying, removing moisture or incineration of crop wastes, farm waste and household biodegradable waste). It can be further used to generate electricity, produce biomass pellets or even electricity.

348


+ +

EXISTING CONDITION - Extraction and materials flows of brick industry

-

PROPOSED CONDITION - Positioning the entrepreneurial nature of the brick kilns as hybrid resource centre for both rural and suburban Kathmandu.

349


ENVISIONING A TRANSITION Envisioning a systemic approach to design by understanding the existing linear cycles and flows of resources. Exploring strategies and processes of creating shorter loops and directing resource flows into meaningful processes. The closed loops will promote resilience within the rural landscape, enabling the site to gain self sufficiency and become a strong partner to the urban areas, and not just productive hinterlands. Urban?Suburban area

Suburban/farming areas

Urban?Suburban area

Suburban/farming areas

20-25% Waste collectio

Waste deposition Waste collectio in20-25% landscape Waste deposition in landscape

aste is organic

Loss of nutrients and soil, degradation of agriculture

Climate change and water impact on dry season agriculture

Loss of nutrients and soil, degradation of agriculture

Climate change and water impact on dry season agriculture

aste is organic 40% Vegetable market waste directed to farm cooperatives 40% Vegetable market waste directed to farm cooperatives

Organic waste to suburban brick kilns.

2 Trips(5 ton vegetables) waste/week/commercial farming

Organic waste to suburban brick kilns.

2 Trips(5 ton vegetables) waste/week/commercial farming

Food and nutient security Food and nutient security

Animal farms for food and waste

40% Vegetable market waste directed to farm cooperatives 40% Vegetable market waste directed to farm cooperatives

Animal farms for food and waste

Increase in local meat production Increase in local meat production

X X X X X X

Productivity enhancement of agriculture Productivity enhancement Nutrient and waster security of agriculture Nutrient and waster security Dry season water pumping Wet season injection recharge Wet season injection recharge

350 CAPTION, this is a caption

Dry season water pumping


Traditional villages

Rural farming villages

Traditional villages

2 Trips(5Rural ton vegetables)/week/commercial farming villages farming Empty trips 2 Trips(5 ton vegetables)/week/commercial farming

on

Empty trips

on

Loss of nutrient potential

50% unavilablity of energy impacts 250/300 craftsmen/ village

Loss of nutrient potential

50% unavilablity of energy impacts 250/300 craftsmen/ village

1ton coal/10000 bricks produced ~ 900 ton coal/unit/year 1ton coal/10000 bricks produced ~ 900 ton coal/unit/year

7 kWh Energy/ Ton of coal 7 kWh Energy/ Ton of coal

Dry season water pumping Dry season water pumping

Markets Organic waste to suburban brick kilns. Markets

Crop waste to rural brick kilns. Organic waste to suburban brick kilns. Crop waste to rural brick kilns. Cooking Fuel/Carbon neutral 4kWh/SqM rooftop Solar potential/day 4kWh/SqM rooftop Solar potential/day

6-8 kWh Energy/family/day 2CuM Bio gas 50% Localized energy 6-8 kWh Energy/family/day 2CuM Bio gas 50% Localized energy

4kWh/SqM rooftop Solar potential/day

Cooking Fuel/Carbon neutral 2 Kg Bio waste/family/day 5 Kg Human waste/family/day 2 Kg Bio waste/family/day 5 Kg Human waste/family/day

200 Ton waste processing/6 Months

30% Coal Reduction

Residual energy 200 Ton waste processing/6 Months Agricultural Crop Residual energy Waste 1.2 tons/ha/season

30% Coal Reduction

4kWh/SqM rooftop Support to small Solar potential/day food processing Support to small food processing

2.4 tonnes/ha/year farmCrop loss converted Agricultural toWaste useful market products 1.2 tons/ha/season

0.3 kg Compost/family/day 0.3 kg Compost/family/day

Dry season water pumping Wet season injection recharge

2.4 tonnes/ha/year farm loss converted to useful market products

Dry season water pumping

Wet season injection recharge

351


2

352 Strategic projects for South Kathmanduâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resource management

Bungamati

Khokana

1

VILLAGE RESOURCE GRID

BRICK KILN

Other possible sites for resource recovery projects


Strategic Projects The three projects highlight the resource pooling capacities and abilities of the field conditions. The three chosen conditions/projects are test sites for the design strategies. 1. MICRO GRID - a village scale resource pooling armature between Bungamati and Khokana, based upon the collective capacities to manage organic waste, waste water and harvesting solar energy.

Suburban HYBRID RESOURCE GRID

3

2. BRICK KILN - A hybrid resource extraction center it agricultural hinterland. Utilizing the wasted potential of wasted heat and topographic manipulation to manage agricultural and farm produce waste. 3. SUBURBAN HYBRID RESOURCE GRID - A combination of energy grid principles to recover useful energy from wasted heat of brick kilns. These projects in future play retain their position within the landscape yet, provide an alternative to the existing practices or resource management within new urbanization. These will play an important role of both resource recovery and organizing the built and the landscape in the southern periphery of the city. They allows sharing and producing energy, managing waste and structured intensification within the landscape.

0 100

500m

1km

353


Bungamati

Khokana 354 DESIGN PLAN and VIEW


VILLAGE GRID 1

The armature between the villages of Bungamati and Khokhana presents a strong spatial element., Connecting the two villages in landscape and socioeconomic networks. It connects most of the important public spaces, the waste water outfall of the two villages and the key social and educational institution. One finds many crafts/small workshops along this armature. The location along the tourist routes and possibility of space expansion has seen relocation along it. The space becomes a collector and generator

Aerial view of the armature, highlighting the up gradation and production along the armature. Temporary shelters structures re qualified as poly houses for growing food.

VIEW of the central waste collection and processing areas

The project looks into the capacity The enables the twin villages to create capacity building through resource pooling. Solid waste, waste water and energy production and consumption are they key elements which will become the strong starting resources. The nature and position of the armature allows to thinking beyond its social and spatial capacities. The micro grid allows resource pooling and distribution for energy (solar+biogas), extracting valuable nutrients from human waste as manure for agriculture and promote agriculture and crafts by the providing the required energy. It incorporates the existing small scale infrastructure, with investment from participants and subsidies from renewable energy projects to supply the energy collected from the community bio gas digester and roof top solar harvesting. Solar harvesting through rooftop collection is proposed for the production units and institutions. The surplus energy can be transfered to the micro-energy grid, benefiting the small scale commercial enterprises along the armature. It will promote upscaling and new economies along the armature.

355


Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4 356 SEQUENCING THE ARMATURE


1

2

3

4

Indication of the sections

Detail of public space at night

357


358 DESIGN PLAN and VIEW


BRICK KILN - A hybrid resource extraction centre Twin site of two brick kilns, south of Bungamati can be utilized as resource extraction hubs. Each brick kiln produces enough heat to process biomass/ bio waste between 1.5 to 1 tons/hour. The agricultural waste produced can be easily converted into biomass briquettes, which provides ready to use energy for locals. The proximity of many commercial vegetable farms can be utilized to convert the produce waste into useful products. The brick kiln can also utilize its position in recharging the shallow aquifer during wet season through clay ponds, and pump the shallow aquifer during dry season use, cutting dependencies upon water from irrigation channels. The Developing such economic cycles and sharing process allows the near by settlements of Khuipu and Chunikhel to engage in entrepreneurial activities, and generate additional incomes to offset food costs, enabling food security in a way.

359


360 DESIGN PLAN and VIEW


Suburban resource pooling grid The wasted heat energy produced by the brick kilns (25,000 MJ/10000 bricks) proves to be high potential within the Godavari river valley. The high clay content soil is location for more than 10 brick kilns. The design strategy adopts the principles of the an extended armature along these brick kilns. This suburban location of the resource pooling grid presents the opportunities which meet the long term objectives needed by the expansion of the city. It aims to intensify the use of landscape and preserve key figures which are vital to the natural processes within the landscape. The resource armature plays an important role in systematically structuring and intensifying the landscape and promoting intensification or commercial farming and subsequent densification through resource recovery from wasted resources, process urban waste/wasted products and processes. Suburban brick kilns can will be useful in dealing with waste, as their heat capacities can be utilized for incineration, drying and biomass energy production. The energy generated by these kilns can be transferred to the near by vegetable farms, which can utilize this energy for cold storage or food processing. The existing transportation system of both brick and vegetable farming can be utilized for connecting the system to the city.

361


SECTIONS

PHASE 0 Brick kiln and the housing activities are located along the existing pathways. The excavation of the soil is currently done at 1500 metric ton/ropani (0.05 ha)/season. The existing practice is to do equivalent excavation over the site.

PHASE 1 By the identification of the valley and low lands, increasing the intensity of excavation within the valleys. This process allows creation of difference in terrace profile.

PHASE 2 Condition of the alternate terraces, Terraces for urbanization, terraces for high value production and terraces for preserved farming and water flow.

362 CAPTION, this is a caption


SCULPTING THE TERRITORY OVER TIME Along with the resource recovery strategy, the idea is to also organize the urbanization using the brick kilns as potential resource recovery centres. The phasing of armatures is aimed to archive the dual goals of the design strategy, where the soil excavation results in print plates or plinths at various levels. The occupation of these plinths can be urbanization, for dry or high value crop farming, or for growing paddy based upon the level. The deepest plinths will hold water, suitable for paddy and water based cultivation. Over course of time, soil excavation ponds can be converted into water based economies.

BRICK KILN AS ORGANIZER, soil extraction as a structuring principle. Proposed view of the desired urbanization.

363


Overlooking the bagmati valley, one sees the transition towards modernization.


CHAPTER 5 scenarios As a collective strategy, we understand the frame study as a dynamic and ever-changing region, not only because of the fast urbanization but also because of external pressure such as landscape risks. As such we are foreseeing a flexible and evolving project that has the means of accommodate future and unpredictable scenarios.


366 Along roads and paths Slope Preservation Soil Sleaning 8

Public realm Wetlands 8

8

8

Productive

Citrus Alnus Maxima Nepalensis Citrus Maxima Alnus nepalensis Citrus Maxima Alnus Indian grass Nepalensis Alnus Nepalensis Citrus Maxima Alnus Alnus nepalensis Nepalensis Indian grass Alnus

Lapsi Tree Populus

Syzygium cumini Lapsi Tree Populus Willow tree Populus Lapsi Tree

Alnus Alnus Nepalensis Nepalensis Chickpea Plant Chickpea Plant Alnus Nepalensis Chickpea Indian grass Plant

Populus Populus Medicinal Plants Medicinal Plants Populus Medicinal Willow tree Plants

Indian grass

Maxima Alnus Chickpea Nepalensis Plant Alnus Nepalensis

Alnus Nepalensis Indian grass Citrus

Willow tree

Populus Medicinal Plants Populus

Willow tree Lapsi Tree

Populus

Willow tree

Syzygium Populus cumini Willow tree Populus

Lapsi Tree

Nepalensis Indian grass

Alnus nepalensis

Syzygium cumini

Syzygium cumini

Alnus Citrus nepalensis Maxima Alnus nepalensis

Syzygium Lapsi Tree cumini

Flowering Iris grass Crop

Indian grass

Flowering Crop

Flowering Crop

Indian grass Butea Minor

Iris grass

Iris grass Prunus Persica Indian grass Flowering Crop Indian grass

Butea Minor

Iris grass

Iris grass Indian grass

Prunus Persica Rukh Kamal Butea Minor

Butea Minor

Butea Minor Iris grass

Prunus Persica

Rukh Kamal

Prunus Persica

Prunus Butea Minor Persica

Rukh Kamal

Rukh Kamal Prunus Persica Rukh Kamal

Fragrant Bay Tree Kiwi Pteris Orchard Vittata

Kiwi Orchard

Pteris Vittata Fragrant Bay Fragrant Tree Bay Tree Kiwi Orchard

Fragrant Bay Tree Pteris Pyrus Vittata Pashia Fragrant Bay Kiwi Tree Orchard Fragrant Bay Tree

Pteris Vittata

Pyrus Pashia Jacaranda Fragrant Bay Mimosifolia Tree Pteris Bay Fragrant Vittata Tree

Fragrant Bay Tree

Fragrant Pteris Bay Tree Vittata

Jacaranda Mimosifolia Pyrus Pashia

Pyrus Fragrant PashiaBay Tree Pyrus Pashia

Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Jacaranda Pyrus Mimosifolia Pashia Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Bamboo Brassica Juncea

Willow tree

Bamboo

Bamboo

Brassica Juncea Willow tree Bamboo

Willow tree

Willow tree Bamboo

Brassica Neem Tree Juncea

Bamboo

Brassica Juncea

Brassica Willow tree Juncea

Bamboo Bamboo

Neem Tree

Bamboo

Bamboo Brassica Juncea

Neem Tree

Bamboo

Neem Tree

Neem Tree Bamboo

Bamboo

Bamboo

Bamboo Neem Tree

Napier Grass Broom Scirpus Grass

Broom Grass

Napier Broom Grass Grass Broom Grass

Scirpus

Broom Grass Scirpus Jacaranda Mimosifolia Napier Broom Grass Grass Napier Grass

Grass Scirpus

Jacaranda Mimosifolia Broom Broom Grass Grass Scirpus Napier

Broom Grass

Broom Scirpus Grass

Broom Grass Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Jacaranda Mimosifolia Broom Grass Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Broom Grass

Broom Jacaranda Grass Mimosifolia Broom Grass

Garlic Lotus

Iris grass

Garlic

Iris grass Napier Grass Garlic

Lotus

Iris grass

Alba Iris grass Garlic

Napier Grass Lotus Lawsonia

Lotus

Lawsonia Alba Camellia Napier Sinensis Grass Lotus Iris grass

Napier Grass

Napier Lotus Grass

Camellia Sinensis Lawsonia Alba

Lawsonia Napier Alba Grass Lawsonia Alba

Camellia Sinensis

Camellia Lawsonia Sinensis Alba Camellia Sinensis

Cardamom

Cardamom

Saiba Grass Babyio Cardamom

Cardamom

Saiba Grass Babyio Camellia Sinensis

Camellia Sinensis Cardamom Saiba Grass Babyio

Saiba Grass Babyio

Saiba Grass Babyio

Camellia Sinensis

Cardamom

Camellia Saiba Grass Sinensis Babyio Camellia Sinensis

Cardamom

Cardamom Camellia Sinensis Cardamom


AFFORESTRATION STRATEGY Forest has played a fundamental role in the historical trajectory of Kathmandu. As well, strongly associated with religious and cultural meanings, forest is an element constantly present around the main temples as well in cultural related places of the valley. Beyond its cultural significance, there are interrelated and important roles of watershed and forest management in landslide risk reduction. On the other hand. The significant productive functions of most of trees species, shade provision in public spaces as are the People trees, environmental and biodiversity conservation, among others. The exponential urban growth and energy needs of the valley towards the agricultural and forest areas, are dramatically reducing the forest cover, especially in the southern region, increasing the landslide hazard and disturbing ecological cycles and landscape systems. Afforestation strategies are envisioned in the different themes of this project, aiming to massively recover the broken ecologies and make robust landscape figures that can protect this territory. The introduction of a variety of appropriate tree species simultaneously intent to host new economies with agroforestry programs, inducing processes of phytoremediation, while restoring the intensive relationship between settlements and nature and reinstalls the forest as a self-renewable resource that can embed and support new types of sustainable economy. Forest has played a fundamental role in the historical trajectory of Kathmandu. As well, strongly associated with religious and cultural meanings, forest is an element constantly present around the main temples as well in cultural related places of the valley.

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Alnus nepalensis

Rukh Kamal

Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Bamboo

Broom Grass

Camellia Sinensis

Cardamom

Lapsi Tree

Citrus Maxima

Prunus Persica

Pyrus Pashia

Neem Tree

Jacaranda Mimosifolia

Lawsonia Alba

Camellia Sinensis

Populus

Alnus Nepalensis

Butea Minor

Fragrant Bay Tree

Bamboo

Broom Grass

Napier Grass

Saiba Grass Babyio

Willow tree

Indian grass

Iris grass

Pteris Vittata

Brassica Juncea

Scirpus

Lotus

Populus

Alnus Nepalensis

Indian grass

Fragrant Bay Tree

Willow tree

Napier Grass

Iris grass

Medicinal Plants

Chickpea Plant

Flowering Crop

Kiwi Orchard

Bamboo

Broom Grass

Garlic

Legend

Syzygium cumini

8

368 Inventory of possible tree/plant species which are implemented within the afforestation strategy.

Cardamom


Forest as edge of traditional settlements. View towards Bungamati edge.

Forest at the edge of temples, Karyabinayak temple.

Forest supporting public spaces,

Forest in picnic areas

Forest along Nakhu River.

Bamboo forest in Bungamati

369


SHELTER

School Grounds

Institutions/Hospitals

Public Squares

WATER

Traditional Source/ Hiti

Ponds/ Lakes

Canals & rivers

Vegetable Farms

Local Markets/Storage

FOOD SECURITY

Community Gardens

ACCESSIBILITY

Resource Centers

Emergency Evacuation

370 Public spaces with adaptive and inherent facilities, supporting everyday life as well during disaster scenarios

Reconstruction


RESILIENT ASPECT OF PUBLIC SPACES Public spaces are the sites for social interactions, communication places for public concern and decision making. Public spaces are defined by as places of simultaneity, a stage for performance and as test for reality (Madanipour, 2003). The flexibility of public spaces to accommodate various changing activities and their inclusiveness for different activities and actors could be a parameter to define its quality. Along with provision of a social interaction platform, the contribution of public spaces at the time of disaster is well recognized. A network of open spaces as part of urban resilience is progressively being recognized. Well designed and integrated public spaces not only contribute towards quality of everyday life but also play an important role in disaster recovery. Provision of public spaces and its related infrastructure is crucial for disaster preparedness. Public spaces like public squares, patis in traditional settlements are well equipped with services like water, shelter to provide relief during disaster. Proposal includes a network of public spaces with varying capacity to hold various functions at the time of disaster. These spaces are proposed to be well integrated within the urban tissue and equipped with supporting infrastructure like water supply, shelter, vegetable gardens to immediate and long term recovery. Spaces are designed to be flexible to accommodate changes in needs for everyday uses as well as postdisaster functions like providing access to shelter, food and security.

371


Ponds mark the entrance of traditional Newar settlements. Along with providing water access for the settlements, they are important spaces for community interactions. At the time of disaster, access to basic facilities like water is essential. Ponds in this scenario become crucial spaces with water provision and as well as community spaces. Patis are the public pavilions which are used for community gathering in settlements and for shelter by the travellers along the important roads. In disaster scenarios, patis become potential spaces for supporting communities as shelter and communication spaces.

Pond as center element for pulblic life

372


Emergency spot for humaniatrian relief with secondary source water availability and pati as temporary shelter

373


Courtyards and kitchen gardens are important part of traditional houses. The food grown are used for local consumption, making the settlements self-sufficient and less resource consumptive. In disaster scenarios, selfsufficiency in food becomes crucial. Courtyards can be used for shelters, organising community meetings, distribution of food and storage of essential supplies like water, medicine and food.

Kitchen garden for local consumption.

374


Emergency organization at the community level Access of drinking water and food availability/production on site.

375


Localised energy grid makes settlement less dependent on central grid. Provision of power further helps in growth of economy with workshops and small industries using localised energy hubs. At the time of disaster, the public spaces like markets can be used to provide shelter and information further supported by energy hubs as crucial infrastructure. At the time of disaster they can provide facilities like emergency lighting, charging of devices and other emergency facilities.

Local energy grid that support existing economies.

376


Renewable energy

Information displays

Emergency Charging lighting device points

Temporary shelter

Drinking water

Health First aid

Electricity

Temporary shelter

Emergency vehicles accessibility

Emergency hub with infrastructure accessibility that support prepareness for community relief

377


STAKEHOLDERS The proposed strategies have been divided in categories based on capacity building and execution requirements. For each category a list of stakeholders has been identified, to mobilize the proposals. Residents and local community initiatives like Guthi, farmer managed associations and cooperatives, local unions are the first actors to be present in all strategies. Along with them other stakeholders are chosen from various backgrounds and positions to initiate a collaboration. Main stakeholders include national and municipality level government, local village development committees, local and national institutions, NGOs, INGOs.

Central Govt.

Community groups Environmental care organizations

Proposal

Local unions

Inhabitants

NGOs / INGOs

VDC

Learning institutions

Kathmandu district

379


Khokhana

Bagmati River

380 CAPTION, this is a caption

Bungamati

Nakkhu River

Kodku River


CONCLUSION From the analysis to the design strategies, this investigation proposes an alternative way to create new developments with objectives set to enhance the capacity of the landscape and bringing forward its structuring features. The proposal emphasizes on providing inhabitants the tools to empower and create an interdependent system.

Godavari River

The water, resource and mobility cycles that have been introduced are trying to build further dynamic relationships between new urban development and its immediate environment. It is about avoiding the generic metropolitan sprawl and taking advantage of the ground reality to support local economies and new developments. The proposal of open public spaces integrated within the development becomes a story of articulating social dynamics of exchange and coexistence that takes inspiration from vernavular tradition of community and collectiveness. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It (disasters) demonstrates what is possible or, perhaps more accurately, latent: the resiliency and generosity of those around us and their ability to improvise another kind of society [â&#x20AC;Ś]Civil society is what succeeds, not only in an emotional demonstration of altruism and mutual aid but also in a practical mustering of creativity and resources to meet the challenges. Only this dispersed force of countless people making countless decisions is adequate to a major crisis.â&#x20AC;? Rebecca Solnit (2009).

381


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