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Made By: Sofia Molina R Valeria Briones


Authors of Guatemala


MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS “Known as: Guatemalan diplomat and author, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967„ Miguel Angel Asturias Rosales (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet, novelist, playwright, journalist anddiplomat. Asturias helped establish Latin American literature's contribution to mainstream Western culture, and at the same time drew attention to the importance of indigenous cultures, especially those of his native Guatemala. Asturias was born and raised in Guatemala though he lived a significant part of his adult life abroad. He first lived in Paris in the 1920s where he studied anthropology and Indian mythology. Some scholars view him as the first Latin American novelist to show how the study of anthropology and linguistics could affect the writing of literature. While in Paris, Asturias also associated with the Surrealist movement, and he is credited with introducing many features of modernist style into Latin American letters. In this way, he is an important precursor of the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s. One of Asturias' most famous novels, El Señor Presidente, describes life under a ruthless dictator. Asturias' very public opposition to dictatorial rule led to him spending much of his later life in exile, both in South America and in Europe. The book that is sometimes described as his masterpiece,Hombres de maíz (Men of Maize), is a defense of Mayan culture and customs. Asturias combined his extensive knowledge of Mayan beliefs with his political convictions, channeling them into a life of commitment and solidarity. His work is often identified with the social and moral aspirations of the Guatemalan people. After decades of exile and marginalization, Asturias finally received broad recognition in the 1960s. In 1966, he won the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize. The following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, only the second Latin American to receive this honor. Asturias spent his final years in Madrid, where he died at the age of 74. He is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. "If you write novels merely to entertain – then burn them! This might be the message delivered with evangelical fervour since if you do not burn them they will anyway be erased from the memory of the people where a poet or novelist should aspire to remain. Just consider how many writers there have been who – down the ages – have written novels to entertain! And who remembers them now?" (in Nobel Lecture, 1967)


FACTS * He wrote: El Señor Presidente, Hombres de maíz, Leyendas de Guatemala, Mulata de tal. *Profound interest in the Indian culture and a prose style inspired by surrealism give his writings a special character. a year after the rise to power of the Guatemalan dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera. The figure of the dictator was to exert an important influence on his life. The dictatorship forced--for political reasons--the relocation of his family to the small town of Salamá, where Asturias came into close contact with the descendants of the Maya Indians. It thus made him keenly aware of political and social issues from an early age, and it provided him with a model for the dominant presence in his most celebrated novel, Mr. President (1946).

Write by: Issis Valeria Briones Claderon


Augusto Monterroso He was born on December 21 of 1921, in Tegucigalpa that is the capital of Honduras. Son of the Guatemalan Vicente Monterroso and the Honduran Amelia Bonilla. His childhood and adolescence was in Guatemala, it was the principal place where he was formed for begin a writer because he was in the dictatorship of Jorge Ubico, in there he started to think like he think and respond to the moment of the present like he did. He started to publish his work from 1959, that year was when his first work come out, it was the first edition of " Obras completas (y otros cuentos)" in english mean Works (and others stories), in this history's it started to watch the fundamental features of his narrative. He was one of a lot of writers that reached the remotest corners of the world, like Japan where his works come to television series. His friends or partners call him "Tito" he was a big writers of tales and fables, he died on 7 of February of 2003 of a cardiac arrest. He was married with the writer Bárbara Jacobs. Some of his works are: • • • • • • • • • • •

Obras completas (y otros cuentos) (1959) La oveja negra y demás fábulas (1969) Movimiento perpetuo (tales stories and aphorisms, 1972) Lo demás es silencio (novel, 1978) Viaje al centro de la fábula (interviews, 1981) La palabra mágica (stories and trials, 1983) La letra e: fragmentos de un diario (1987) Los buscadores de oro (autobiography, 1993) La vaca (trials, 1998) Pájaros de Hispanoamérica (anthology, 2002) Literatura y vida (stories and trials, 2004)

Some facts of him: o He write the most shorter story in the world called "El Dinosaurio" (The dinosaur). o He founded the newspaper The Spectator, along with a group of other writers. o He was arrested by rebel activities and exiled to Mexico City in 1944

Write by: Sofia Molina Ramirez


Sources ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣

http://www.evi.com/q/facts_about__augusto_monterroso http://dbpedia.org/page/Augusto_Monterroso http://www.literaturaguatemalteca.org/monterroso.htm http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_Monterroso

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http://www.bookrags.m/biography/miguel-angel-asturias/ http://kirjasto.sci.fi/asturias.htm http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1967/asturias-facts.html http://www.thelatinoauthor.com/countries/guatemala/literature/ http://www.ranker.com/review/miguel-%C3%A1ngel-asturias/1583484


Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs, was an American inventor. He was born on February 24 1955, in Los Altos California. He studied as an undergraduate: physics, literature, and poetry, at Reed College, Oregon, an interesting combination of subjects. He went to Reed College, but then he left the university. Jobs and Steve Wozniak met in 1971, and in 1976 they invented theApple computer. The history of the iPhone line of phones begins with Steve Jobs'direction that Apple Inc. engineers investigate touchs creens and a tablet computer,which later came to fruition with the iPad. Also,many have noted the device's similarities to Apple's previoustouch-screen portable device, the iPhone is nearly all screen. Through Apple, he was widely recognized as a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer revolution, and for his influential career in the computer and consumer electronics fields, transforming "one industry after another,from computers and smartphones to music and movies. He bought "The Graphics Group" from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for ten million dollars. The company was later renamed Pixar. His first job in pixar were really awesome because he become a high-end graphic hardware developer, but that goal was not well achieved, and Pixar become a really good make animated flims. In 2006 Disney bought Pixar.

Write by: Sofia Molina Ramirez


Gabriele Knecht Fashion designer Gabriele Knecht realized something that clothes makers were neglecting in their clothing designs—that our arms come out of our sides in a slightly forward direction, and we work them in front of our bodies. Knecht’s patented Forward Sleeve design is based on this observation. It lets the arms move freely without shifting the whole garment and allows clothes to drape gracefully on the body. Gabriele Knecht was born in Germany in 1938 and came to America when she was 10 years old. She studied fashion design, and in 1960, received a bachelor of fine arts degree from Washington University in St. Louis. Knecht also took courses in physics, cosmology, and other areas of science that may seem unrelated to the fashion industry. Her broadened knowledge, however, helped her understand shapes and methods of pattern design. In 10 years she filled 20 notebooks with sketches, analyzed all the angles that sleeves can take, and made 300 experimental patterns and garments. Although Gabriele Knecht had been a successful designer for several New York companies, she felt she had more creative potential. Struggling to start her own business, Knecht met a buyer from Saks Fifth Avenue department store who liked Knecht’s designs. Soon she was creating them exclusively for the store, and they sold well. In 1984, Gabriele Knecht received the first annual More Award for the best new designer of women’s fashions

Sources: http://inventors.about.com/od/ijstartinventors/p/Steve-Jobs.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs http://www.theguardian.com/technology/stevejobs Write by: Issis Valeria Briones Claderon


Important Religious People


John Paul II Pope John Paul II was born Karol J贸zef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland. He was ordained in 1946, became the bishop of Ombi in 1958, and became the archbishop of Krakow in 1964. He was made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1967, and in 1978 became the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. He was a vocal advocate for human rights and used his influence to effect political change. He was born Karol J贸zef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland. His life was mainly marked by the death of his mother at 9 years old and his older brother when he was 12. John Paul was athletic, he like to swimming and skiing. When he was in the university in 1938 and he have an interest of theater and poetry. The school nest year was closed by the Nazi's. Wanting to become a priest, John Paul began studying at a secret seminary run by the archbishop of Krakow. After World War II ended, he finished his religious studies at a Krakow seminary and was ordained in 1946. In 1978 John Paul made history because he becoming the firs non-Italian pope. s the leader of the Catholic Church, he traveled the world, visiting more than 100 countries to spread his message of faith and peace. But he was close to home when he faced the greatest threat to his life. In 1981, an assassin shot John Paul twice in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. Fortunately, he was able to recover from his injuries and later forgave his attacker. John Paul II died on April 2, 2005, at the age of 84, at his Vatican City residence. More than 3 million people waited in line to say good-bye to their beloved religious leader at St. Peter's Basilica before his funeral on April 8.

Sources: http://www.biography.com/people/john-paul-ii-9355652?page=2 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/pope/etc/bio.html

Write by: Sofia Molina Ramirez


MOTHER TERESA!! The Blessed sed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C. commonly known ass Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was an Albanian born, Indian Roman Catholic Religious Sister. Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; children's and family counseling programmes; orphanages; and schools. Members of the order must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty rty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor". Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible poss sainthood, giving her the title "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta". A second miracle credited to her intercession is required before she can be recognised as a saint by the Catholic Church. Admired and respected by many, she has also been accused of failing to provide medical care or painkillers, misusing charitable money, and maintaining positive relationships ationships with dictators. On 10 September 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" while travelling by train to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. "I was to leave the cconvent onvent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith."[23] As one author later noted, "Though no one knew it at the time, Si Sister ster Teresa had just become Mother Teresa". She began her missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple white cotton sari decorated with a blue border. Mother Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent a few mont months in Patna to receive a basic medical training in the Holy Family Hospital and then ventured out into the slums. Initially she started a school in Motijhil (Calcutta); soon she started tending to the needs of the destitute and starving. In the beginning of 1949 she was joined in her effort by a group


of young women and laid the foundations to create a new religious community helping the "poorest among the poor". Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister, who expressed his appreciation. Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulties. She had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months. She wrote in her diary: Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then the comfort of Loreto [her former order] came to tempt me. 'You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again,' the Tempter kept on saying ... Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.

Write by: Issis Valeria Briones Claderon


Painters


Georgia O'Keeffe Her complete name is Georgia Totto O'Keeffe born on November 15, 1887 in Sin Prairie, Wisconsin, U.S.A. was an American artist. Her first attention was New York in the art community in 1916, she made some largeformats paintings of enlarged blossoms and she presented them as a very close up as if seen trough a magnifying lens, and a lot of New York buildings. They where exhibited at 291 and they were 10. -->Her fist solo show at 291 was in April 1917, New York. In 1938, the agency N. W. Ayer & Son approached O'Keeffe about creating two paintings for the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (now Dole Food Company) to use in their advertising. She was 51 years old, and her career seemed to be stalling. In Hawaii the most productive and vivid period was on Maui because she was given complete freedom to explore and paint, she painted flowers, landscape, and traditional Hawaiian fishooks. Between 1929 and 1949 she spent part of nearly every year working in New Mexico. She collected rocks and bones from the desert floor and made them and the distinctive architectural and landscape forms of the area subjects in her work. She also went on several camping trips with friends, visiting important sites in the Southwest. In 1932 she have a nervous breakdown and she was unable to complete a Radio City Music Hall mural project that had fallen behind schedule. She was hospitalized in early 1933 and did not paint again until January 1934. In 1962, O'Keeffe was elected to the fifty-member American Academy of Arts and Letters. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1966. In the fall of 1970, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted the Georgia O'Keeffe Retrospective Exhibition, the first retrospective exhibition of her work in New York since 1946, the year Stieglitz died. This exhibit did much to revive her public career.


In 1976, she wrote a book about her art and allowed a film to be made about her in 1977. On January 10, 1977, President Gerald R. Ford presented O'Keeffe with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor awarded to American citizens. In 1985, she was awarded the National Medal of Arts. In 1972, O'Keeffe's eyesight was compromised by macular degeneration, leading to the loss of central vision and leaving her with only peripheral vision. She stopped oil painting without assistance in 1972, but continued working in pencil and charcoal until 1984. O'Keeffe became increasingly frail in her late 90s. She moved to Santa Fe in 1984, where she died on March 6, 1986, at the age of 98. In accordance with her wishes, her body was cremated and her ashes were scattered to the wind at the top of Pedernal Mountain, over her beloved "faraway". Some works are: Sky Above Clouds IV 1965, Cow's Skull: Red, White, and Blue 1931, Yellow Hickory Leaves with Daisy 1928, Blue and Green Music 1921, Red Hills with Flowers 1937, Cow's Skull with Calico Roses 1931.

Write by: Sofia Molina Ramirez


Sandro Botticelli Botticelli, Sandro c.1444–1510, Florentine painter of the Renaissance, whose real name was Alessandro di Mariano Filipepiälĕssänˈdrō dē märēäˈnō fēlēpāˈpē. He was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi, whose delicate coloring can be seen in such early works as the Adoration of the Kings (National Gall., London) and Chigi Madonna (Gardner Mus., Boston). Elements of the more vigorous style of Pollaiuolo and Verrocchio soon entered his paintings, e.g., Fortitude (Uffizi), St. Augustine(Ognissanti), and Portrait of a Young Man (Uffizi). He was one of the greatest colorists in Florence and a master of the rhythmic line. He became a favorite painter of the Medici, whose portraits he included, in addition to a self-portrait, among the splendid figures in the Adoration of the Magi (Uffizi). In 1481 Pope Sixtus IV asked him to help decorate the Sistine Chapel. After painting three biblical frescoes he returned to Florence, where he reached the height of his popularity. Through the Medici he came into contact with the Neoplatonic circle and was influenced by the ideas of Ficino and Poliziano. His mythological allegories, Spring, Birth of Venus, Mars and Venus, and Pallas Subduing a Centaur, allude, in general, to the triumph of love and reason over brutal instinct. Probably in the 1490s he drew the visionary illustrations for the Divine Comedy. He painted a set of frescoes for the Villa Tornabuoni (Louvre) and created a series of radiant Madonnas, including the Magnificat and the Madonna of the Pomegranate(Uffizi). From Alberti's description, he re-created the famous lost work of antiquity, The Calumny of Apelles. Religious passion is evident in the Nativity (National Gall., London), Last Communion of St. Jerome (Metropolitan Mus.) and Pietà (Fogg Mus., Cambridge). In the 19th cent. the Pre-Raphaelites rediscovered him. Supported by Ruskin, they admired what they considered to be the extreme refinement and poignancy of his conceptions.


See studies by H. P. Horne (1908), L. Venturi (1949, repr. 1961), G. C. Argan (tr. by J. Emmons, 1957), and L. D. and H. Ettlinger (1985).

Write by: Issis Vale Briones Clader


Biography