1. WHAT IS INFORMATION SCIENCE We live in a society where knowledge and information are a dominating characteristics. Therefore there are many fields which try to deal with some or other dimension of knowledge and information, where information science is the leading one . Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. It studies the application and usage of knowledge in organisations, and the interaction between people, organizations and information systems. Information science is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but also library science, cognitive and social sciences. Information science tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. The most frequent information science topics are: Bibliometrics this is a set of quantitative methods used to study or measure texts and information and is one of the largest research areas within information science. Data modelling: is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. When data modelling, we are structuring and organizing data. Document management and engineering is a computer system used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. Groupware is software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve their goals. Such software systems as email, calendaring, text chat, belong in this category. Human-computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man-machine interaction (MMI) or computerâ€“human interaction (CHI), is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. Information architecture is the practice of structuring information (knowledge or data ) for a purpose. These are often structured according to their context in user interactions or larger databases. Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy. Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or networked databases such as the World Wide Web. Information society is a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity and is seen as the successor to industrial society. Information systems is the discipline concerned with the development, use, application and influence of information technologies. Usability engineering is concerned with the question of how to design software that is easy to use.
Give short answers to these questions Which are the prevailing characteristics of todayâ€™s society? What is information science concerned with? What other fields does information science incorporate?
Fill in the chart with a suitable adjective/noun/verb Adjective pridevnik Knowledgable characteristic Informational Scientific collective Manipulative Retrievable disseminated Applicable Interactive Achieved investigated Provided significant Creative
noun Knowledge Characteristic Information science Collection Manipulation retrieval Dissemination Application interaction Achievement Investigation provision Significance creation
verb know Characterise inform / Collect manipulate Retrieve Disseminate apply Interact achieve Investigate Provide Signify create
PERSONAL COMPUTERS, TYPES AND COMPUTER PARTS
Types of computers vary according to their size and power: Mainframe large, powerful, multi-user and multi task; Minicomputer, smaller than mainframe; Personal computer (PC): desktop, workstation, portable, laptop, notebook; Server: provides service on a network. It usually has a UPS (uninterrupted power supply) which automatically provides electricity supply to allow the server to shut itself down properly if the main supply fails. The most important part of the computer is the processor. It processes the data and controls the computer. There are two main types of memory: RAM (random access memory) holds the programme instructions and the data that is used by the processor. ROM (read only memory) holds the programme instructions and settings required to start up the computer. Combination of the processor and the memory is CPU (central processing unit). Other parts, connected to the CPU are known as peripherals. These include input devices, output devices, storage devices and communication devices. Input devices include: keyboards, scanners, barcode readers, microphones, etc. Output devices include monitors, printers, plotters, loudspeakers and headphones. Storage devices include magnetic tape, diskettes, hard disks, CD- roms, CD disks. A common communication device is modem used for converting digital signals to analogue signals and vice versa to allow a computer to be connected to the ordinary telephone system. A set of connectors used for carrying signals between the different parts of a computer is known as a bus. When comparing computers the power of the computer is important. This is mainly determined by the speed and capacity (size) of each part of the computer. Speed is measured in hertz (Hz), capacity is measured in bytes (B) where 1 byte = 8 bits (binary digits) = 1 character. Communication is provided between application programmes (wordprocessors, drawing programmes, etc.) and the computer hardware (physical components of a computer system) by a set of programmes known as the operating system e.g. Microsoft Windows.
Say whether the following statements are true or false true Types of computers are determined by their brand names Notebook is a personal computer Server is normally equipped with a UPS UPS does not run the computer Processor also controls the computer RAM and ROM are computer parts CPU is combination of the processor and the memory Keyboard is an input device Headphones are a storage device CD ROM is an output device Modem connects a computer to telephone Speed and capacity determine the power of the computer Expressions in column A and definitions in column B are wrong. Join them correctly. A other parts, connected to the CPU is a part of input device
peripherals barcode reader an output device plotter is a storage device hard disk is a modem for converting digital communication signals into analogue ones and vice device versa measure of speed Hertz measure of capacity byte bus a set of connectors used for carrying signals between the different parts of a computer application programme operating
X X X X X x x x x x x
system physical components of a hardware computer system a set of programmes which provide wordprocessor communication between application programmes and computer hardware
3. COMPUTER SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, AND APPLICATIONS PROGRAMMES Software is the word used to refer to programmes, i.e. sets of computer instructions written in a computer language and data that is input, processed and output by a computer system. Application programmes are programmes that allow the user to do various types of work on a computer e.g. wordprocessors, databases. A set of related application programmes is referred to as a package. Some most common application programmes are the following: Wordprocessors for creating and editing texts Spreadsheets for performing calculations using formulae Databases for storing data so that it can be easily searched and sorted Graphics for drawing Games for playing fast action games Accounts for keeping business accounts Payroll for calculating salaries email for sending electronic mail messages PIM Personal Information Manager for keeping track of appointments, address book, tasks list. Some application programmes, such as wordprocessors, spreadsheets and databases, are commonly referred to as office programmes because they are commonly used in a typical office. Office packages such as Microsoft Office are sets of interrelated office programmes. Computer hardware includes: PC common name for an IBM compatible personal computer Network computers connected together Server a powerful computer that stores and allows access to data files on a network Printer with the help of a photosensitive drum it deposits toner powder on the paper CD â€“ROM a compact disk for storing large amount of data
Fill in the Missing Words Sets of computer instructions written in a computer language and data that is input, processed and output by a computer system is called software. Application programmes allow the user to do various types of work on a computer. A set of related application programmes is referred to as a package. Word processors allows creating and editing texts. Calculations are performed with the help of spreadsheets. Data is stored in databases. Graphics is used for games. Accounts are used for keeping business accounts. PIM is our personal information manager. Payroll is used for calculating salaries.
Fill the gaps with the words given the square Packages
hardware referred stores
Application programmes, such as wordprocessors, spreadsheets and databases, are commonly referred to as office programmes because they are commonly used in a typical office. Office packages such as Microsoft Office are sets of interrelated office programmes. Basic computer hardware is PC, network, server, printer, CD ROM. Server is a powerful computer that stores and allows access to data files on a network. CD â€“ROM is a compact disk for storing large amount of data.
4. THE ALMIGHTY INTERNET
The internet is the connection of networks across the world. Various services are made available on internet such as : email (electronic mail) which allows sending and receiving text messages
IRC (Internet Relay Chat) which enables chatting to other users using text messages in real time (immediately while users are logged on to the system) FTP (file transfer protocol) makes possible copying files between computers on a network. Copying files from a server computer to a client computer is known as downloading and copying from a client to a server is uploading. Telnet (telephone network) permits logging on to your local server from across a network communications systems at a distance e.g. from another country. Users communicate mostly in written form, however there is also video and audio conferencing which permit speech as well.Most computer mediated communication (CMC) is asynchronous, i.e. participants are not on line at the same time and there are delays between messages. On the other hand synchronous CMC is on line almost at the same time. An ASP (application service provider) can rent applications to users, the ASP provides the software, manages the hardware and provides storage place, security tools and physical links to customers. The user can be provided remote access to a wide variety of programmes, not only email but advanced packages, complex business applications, expensive specialist tools, e-commerce, etc. In this way users are given more flexibility, they donâ€™t have to upgrade existing programmes or deal with viruses. The only requirement the user has to fulfil is having a broadband network connection or a leased line and dependence on the ASP to provide a secure, reliable, readily available service. Say whether the following statements are true or false
Rather few services are available on internet IRC stands for internet relay chat IRC permits chatting in real time FTP allows copying files Downloading means copying files from a server computer to another server Uploading means copying files from a client to server computer Telnet allows logging on to your local server only locally Network communication is only written one Internet allows video and audio conferencing Video and audio conferencing does not permit speech
True False x x x x x
x x x x x
Expressions in column A and definitions in column B are wrong. Join them correctly.
A stands for computer mediated communication means that participants are not on line at the same time is a typical case of synchronous communication is a typical case of asynchronous communication stands for application service provider stands for file transfer protocol install newer versions of programmes means that participants are on line at the same time connect to a network system account, normally using a password
B CMC asynchronous mobile phone IRC ASP FTP upgrade synchronous log on
means moving from webpage to webpage programmes that can reproduce themselves and are written with the purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual way connection with a high signal capacity a cable connection that is rented for use in a communication system
broadband leased line
5.THE FABULOUS WWW The World Wide Web (or www or the Web) is a service on the internet. It consists of sets of linked documents known as webpages which can be viewed using a programme called browser. The links on a webpage contain the web address of the webpage that will be displayed if the user clicks on the link. When a user clicks on a link, the browser programme contacts a server computer known as DNS (Domain Name System) server to look up the IP (Internet Protocol) of the remote Web server computer. The DNS has a stored table of names and addresses of nodes (a network terminal or point where a computer is connected to a network) on the internet. The request for the linked page is then sent to a computer or electronic device known as a router that uses the internet address obtained form the DNS server to route the request. The message requesting the webpage is divided into small sections called packets and each separate data packet is passed from router to router until they all reach the remote Web server where they are put back together again. The remote Web server sends the requested webpage back to the browser computer that made the request in a similar way using the IP address of the browser computer to determine the best available route for the each packet. When the packets arrive at the browser computer, they are combined and the requested webpage is displayed in the browser. Most users connect to the internet, using a modem, through a server and router owned by an ISP (internet service provider). To attract users to connect through their system, ISPs offer various options including: an unlimited number of email addresses with filtering of email to remove junk mail, unlimited webspace for setting up your own website and virus checking facilities Give short answers to these questions What is a webpage? A set of linked documents on a web network Which programme allows viewing webpages? browser What happens when a user clicks on the link? Program connects the server to the searched webpage What does DNS stand for? Domain name server What does abbreviation IP mean? Internet protocol What is a node? Network terminal or point where a computer is connected to a network. What does a router do? It routes the requested addresses. Where does the remote web server send the requested webpage? Back to server computer What happens when packets arrive at the browser computer? They are combined and the requested webpage is displayed in the browser. Which device is used to connect to internet? A modem What does ISP mean? Internet service protocol
Fill in the chart with a suitable adjective/ noun/verb adjective consisting viewable browsing contained displayed/ing linked/ing stored requested/ing route (step) divided
noun consistence view browser container display link storage request router division
verb consist view browse contain display link store request route divide
separated/ing determinated/ing available comined/ing/able owned attractive connected/ing various
separation determination availability combination ownership, owner attraction connection variety, variousness
separate determine / combine own attract connect vary
In the short term computers are certainly going to become more powerful and they’ll also get cheaper and consequently much more commonly available. They will be integrated with other devices. Flat panel screens will certainly replace cathode ray tube monitors almost completely because they take up less space and use less power. They look better as well. There’s likely to be devices used for security, biometric devices for scanning your eye or taking your fingerprints. They’ll be used instead of passwords. Colour laser printers are becoming cheaper, so more printing will be done in colour. The shape and design of computers are likely to change and become much more varied because motherboards can now be constructed in a more flexible form. On the software side, companies are trying hard to improve voice control, so you’ll be able to talk to your computer to control it without using a keyboard. There is great development in media centre computers. This type of computer makes it easy to record video, play DVDs, listen to music and watch TV. The sale of software will change too. Instead of buying individual packages, people may rent the components they need – wordprocessors or whatever – and connect to them over the internet. Service provider will make different components available and users will be charged a fee for the ones they use. In the long term they won’t be able to make computers any more powerful using electronics, so other methods may come in for the data signals in the computer. Perhaps laser light or even quantum methods will be used. Computers will probably be integrated more with TV systems and with telephony and become much more communication devices. It is likely that much smaller devices will be made, probably built into clothing so that you can walk about wearing a computer which will allow you to communicate wherever you go. At home our fridges, cookers and other devices almost certainly will be computer controlled. In the longer term there may even be devices implanted into our bodies to help people with disabilities. Computers might be implanted into human brain. We might not call them computers in the future, but they’ll be everywhere.
Fill in the missing words In the future computers will be available to most users. They will be integrated with other devices. Ray tube monitors have been replaced by (plat) flat panel screen. There will be better devices used for security, biometric devices for scanning your eye or taking your fingerprints. Since colour laser printers have become cheaper, more printing is done in colour. The shape and design of computers have changed and become much more varied because motherboard can now be constructed in a more flexible form. On the software side, companies are trying hard to improve voice control, so you’ll be able to talk to your computer to control it without using a keyboard. Fill the gaps with the words given the square integrated
Media centre computers have developed tremendously. In this filed it is now possible to rent the components instead of buying individual packages, people can simply connect to them over the internet. Service provider makes different components available and users are charged a fee for the use. The most recent methods being used are laser light or even quantum methods will be used. Computers are already integrated with TV systems and with telephony and have become communication devices. At the latest Cebit Fair very small computers, built into a suit have been exhibited. We could see a user walking around in the suit and communicating via his computer in any situation. Most recent home appliances are already computer controlled. A great deal of optimism brings the fact that computer like devices have already been implanted into disabled bodies to help people to be mobile again. Researches are being carried out about implanting them into human brain.
TRADITIONAL PUBLISHIG VERSUS ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING
Various persons have given their views about the issue:
Peter, a telecommunications engineer: ‘I need information quickly, it’s a vital part of my life. Every technology book in my specialism is out of date before it gets printed, so I don’t buy technical books. I go straight to the research groups who publish on the Web. Electronic books make good sense to me. Publishing something like a laser printer manual is just a waste of paper. What we need is an electronic version available anywhere and updated regularly.’ Anne, a writer: ‘What I like about it is the fact that my books are available all over the world. It is possible to get them in countries where English language books are hard to get. It doesn’t matter if you live in Beijing or Buenos Aires, people can read my books anywhere.’
George, an e-publisher: ‘It’s much cheaper to publish electronically than to print. It means we can take risks. We can publish book a traditional publisher wouldn’t publish because they have a smaller readership. By 2025 electronic publishing will have caught up with traditional publishing.’
Edward, a developer of an ebook reader: ‘Our reader is the size of a paperback. It holds about 200 books at a time. You can download books over the internet in a few minutes and you can read for twenty hours before recharging the battery. There’s a back light so you can read in any conditions. The print size can be adjusted to any size you like. I’m confident it will replace all the throw away books we read when we travel, technical books that are out of date as soon as they are printed. It’s just right for schools. Children have to carry far too many books. An ebook can hold about 150,000 pages of text, so you could have all of your schoolbooks for a year in a paper-sized package.’
Mandy, a keen reader: ‘I don’t like reading off a computer screen. I like the look and the feel of books and the fact that you can take them anywhere and who’s going to steal a paperback? Paper lasts from 50 to 500 years. Most electronic storage media are obsolete in ten to twenty years. Magnetic tape stretches, CDs delaminate. Printed books are still the best way to preserve knowledge. Give short answers to these questions Name two advantages of a technical book in electronic version updates, cheaper What is the main advantage of a book available in e-version? Updates, availability Which type of publishing is currently still prevailing? Traditional printing, putting edition Are there any good points in e-books for school goers? Lighter, capacity Name three disadvantages of an e-book. Bad way of reading (for eyes), computer, access to internet What are you in favour of? Both, but prefer books Justify your decision with three good arguments. Better enjoyment in reading, re-reading, will always be there
Fill in the chart with a suitable adjective/noun/verb
Adjective Various Viewable Informational Informational Reearchable Publishable Electronic Updated Risky Traditional Developed/ing Readable Adjusted Confident Replaceable Packed Stretchable Delaminated Preserved
noun variety viewer information information research publisher electronics update risk tradition development reader adjustment confidence replacement package stretch delamination preserver
verb vary view inform inform research publish / update risk / develop read adjust confide replace pack stretch delaminate preserve
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SECURITY
There are a variety of security measures that cam be used to protect hardware and software including: - Controlling physical access to hardware and software. - Backing up data and programmes, i.e. storing a copy of files on a storage device to keep them safe. - Implementing network controls such as: *using passwords *installing firewall, a combination of hardware and software used to control the data going into and out of network, used to prevent unauthorised access to the network by hackers. *encrypting data, i.e. protecting data by putting it in a form only authorised users can understand) *installing a callback system, i.e. a system that automatically disconnects a telephone line after receiving a call and then dials the telephone number of the system that made the call, to reconnect the line. It is used in remote access systems to make sure that connections can only be made from permitted telephone numbers). *Using signature verification or biometric security devices (security devices that measure some aspect of a living being e.g. a fingerprint reader or an eye scanner). - Separating and rotating the computing functions carried out by employees and carrying out periodic audits of the system, i.e. observing and recording events on the network systematically. - Protecting against natural disasters by installing UPS devices (uninterrupted power supplies), i.e. battery backup systems that automatically provide power to a computer when the normal electricity source fails) and surge protectors, i.e. electronic devices that protect equipment from damage due to a sudden surge in a power supply. - Protecting against viruses by using antivirus programmes (computer programmes or set of programmes used to detect, identify and remove viruses from a computer system) and ensuring that all software is free of viruses before it is installed. Particular care must be taken when using public domain software, i.e. free software and shareware, i.e. software that is free to try but must be paid if it is used after the trial period.
Say whether the following statements are true or false
It is rather difficult to protect PC hardware and software Back up means storing files and keeping them safe Firewall is the wall against fire Firewall prevents hackers from unauthorised access to the network Callback system allows making connections only from permitted telephone numbers Fingerprint reader is a biometric security device Auditing means carefully observing and recording events on the network UPS devices are used to provide constant electricity source Antivirus programmes are the only computer protection Before installing software it should be checked by antivirus programme Shareware is free programme
x x x x
x x x
Expressions in column A and definitions in column B are wrong. Join them correctly.
A password encrypting callback system biometric security devices UPS devices
B a secret code used to control access to a network system protecting data by putting it in a form only authorised users can understand a system that automatically disconnects a telephone line after receiving a call and then dials the telephone number of the system that made the call, to reconnect the line security devices that measure some aspect of a living being e.g. a fingerprint reader or an eye scanner devices which provide uninterrupted power supply
antivirus programmes public domain software shareware
computer programmes or set of programmes used to detect, identify and remove viruses from a computer system free software software that is free to try bust must be paid if it is used after the trial period
Let’s read an interview (I) with Nick (N) and Andrew (A) who were arrested for hacking into a large company. They got into CEO’s personal files and left a very rude message. Now they are computer security experts who use their skills to make cyber space safer. I: Nick, what exactly is hacking’? N: ‘Hacking is getting into computer systems. There are various ways of doing it. You can get in by trying to guess somebody’s password. Or you find a bug in a computer system that will allow people with certain passwords to get in where somebody shouldn’t . I: ‘What has to be done to get into someone else’s system’? N: The first thing you do is to phone someone who uses the system and say that that you are testing a new system and that you need his password so that he can be included in the trial. People are so trusting and quite often they just hand it over. If that doesn’t work then you find out by trying to connect to it over the internet. And normally that’s not desperately difficult. Once you connect to the computer it will ask you to log on and type an ID and password. At the simplest level you try typing ‘guest’ or ‘demo’ or ‘help’ and see what it gives you.’ I: ‘How can companies avoid being hacked into’? N:‘First you install firewalls to restrict access to a network. You can have a callback system to make sure remote clients are who they say they are. Having really secure passwords helps. Never use a common name or a dictionary word or anything short. Check the system regularly using event logs to find failed access attempts. I: ‘And you Andrew, how did you get into this business in the first place’? A:‘I was a computer freak, a young anorak. I got into computers already at school. I: ‘And how did you manage to get into the company’s files?’ A: ‘I guessed some passwords and because of various very silly mistakes the operators of the system made I managed to get right into the system at the highest level’. I: And managed to get into CEO’s personal files.’ A: ‘Yes, what happened there was that I got into part of the system that said: ‘Please, enter your ID’ and then underneath that on the same screen told you what the ID was.’ I:‘Did you feel terribly excited?’ A:Yes, absolutely. People usually hack for money, for criminal or political purposes, they want to expose something. But I hacked because I was challenged and found it tremendously exciting. I never thought about the legal side of it.’ I:‘How did they track you down?’ A:‘We really never tried to cover my tracks, we even boasted around. That got us known to the police and the computer crime unit. I:How interesting having in mind the fact that you ended up helping companies to avoid people like you.
Fill in the missing words Hackers are persons who try getting into computer_ systems. There are various ways of doing it. You can get in by trying to guess somebody’s password. Or you find a bug in a computer system that will allow people with certain passwords to get in where somebody shouldn’t. You can try phoning someone who uses the system and say that you are testing a new system and that you need his password so that he can be included in the trial. People are so trusting and quite often they just hand it over. If that doesn’t work then you find out by trying to connect to it over the internet. And normally that’s not desperately difficult. Once you connect to the computer it will ask you to log on and type an ID and password.
Fill the gaps with the words given the square hacks provider
remote firewalls logs
Companies avoid being hacked into by installing firewalls to restrict access to a network. You can have a callback system to make sure remote clients are who they say they are. Passwords should really be secure, never a common name or a dictionary word or anything short. The system should be checked regularly using event logs to find failed access attempts. However the fact is that about 75% of all hacks into computers are done by current staff who are simply using the privileges they are given. Hacking is also the reason why quite
some people are reluctant to use credit card numbers on the internet. But using a credit card on the internet is no more dangerous than giving your credit card number down the phone or even worse, throwing the receipt away having even your signature.
10. INTRODUCTION OF A COMPANY
Good morning ladies and gentlemen, I would like to welcome you all to Metra. My name is Mike Kelly and I am the Vice-President responsible for production at Metra. In this short presentation I’d like to give you an overview of the structure and activities of the company. In particular, I’ve divided my talk into three main parts: first, the current organisation, second the key personnel and their functional responsibilities; and finally our major activities. I’ll be using some charts to highlight the key information and I aim to speak for about 15 minutes. If you have any questions I’ll be happy to answer them at the end of my talk. Right. First, let’s take a look at the current structure of the company. If you look at the chart here you can see that the organisation is headed by Luc Hammonds, our current President. He is supported by four vicepresidents. As you can see, the organisation is divided into four key functional departments and each vice president is assisted by a team of staffers. First we have Paul Duke who is in charge of Research and Development here at our headquarters. Next we have Robert Lee who is responsible for marketing. Next along is the Vice-president for production, namely myself. And my name is Mike Kelly. And finally we have Sally Brown who takes care of corporate finance. The four vice-presidents report directly to Mr Luc Hammonds. Moving on, some five years ago we introduced geographic division in order to bring together in one unit all the activities performed in one region. So, each division is like a separate business unit in certain aspects, but is not truly a separate enterprise because each divisional head must report to HQ. Complete the missing sentences The organisations is headed by Luc Hammonds. Four vice presidents report directly to Luc Hammonds. The President is supported by four vice-presidents. I am the Vice President responsible for production at Metra. Paul Duke is in charge of research and development. Sally Brown takes care of corporate finance. The organisation is divided into four key departments. Rewrite the following sentences using the prompts as shown in example 1. Paul is in charge of research and development (responsible). Paul is responsible for research and development. 2. He is assisted by a research team (supported). He is supported by a research team. 3. Mike is responsible for laboratories (in charge of).Mike is in charge of laboratories. 4. Mike is under Paul (report to).Mike reports to Paul. 5. The research team is divided into scientists and engineers (split). The research team splits into scientists and engineers. 6. Susanne takes care of finance (in charge of).Susanne is in charge of finance.
Complete the following sentences using one of these words: Department, team, division, section The company has four operating divisions Marketing strategy is decided in the marketing department The marketing department is divided into three sections There are five of us who work together as a team
JOBS AND DIVISIONS EXERCISE
Put department, division, team (several options possible) Accounts Research and development (R&D) Human Resources (HR) or Personnel Sales Marketing
Administration Technical Engineering Advertising Design Distribution Production Consumer services I I I I
am am am am
an accountant I work in the accounts department. a designer. I work in the planning department. an engineer. I work in the production department. a factory worker. I work in the production department too.
Can you continue in the same way 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
I I I I I
am am am am am
a manager. I work in the department. an office worker. I work in the office. a researcher. I work in the research and development department. a saleswoman/salesman/salesperson, I work in the sales department. a secretary. I work in the administration
Can you finish the sentences An accountant works in the accounts department A an engineer works in the department. A researcher works in the research and development department A sales assistant works in the sales department/shop A bookkeeper works in the accounts department A cashier works in the sales department/shop A PA- personal assistance, for general director An auditor (revizor)- sales/marketing/law/accounts department A PR – Public relation Officer, works in the PR/ customer services A CEO - Chief Executive Officer/ Managing Director A Member of the Board is a member of the board A Deputy Director is a member of the board A doorman works at the door 11. HISTORY OF A COMPANY
Selfridges department store, Oxford Street, London Selfridges is a department store which was established over 85 years ago. It is based in Oxford street in London and is London’s second largest department store after Harrods, with 150,000 m2 retail space. In the 1990s the store experienced some problems with its image because people thought it was old fashioned. To solve the problem Selfridges invested 50 million GBP to re-establish the business as one of the capital’s main shopping attractions. They decided to offer a wide choice of products to attract more customers. They built a huge central “atrium” or entrance hall, and a series of new stores. Some of the stores are re-designed and others, such as Children’s World, have their own restaurant.
Answer to the following questions: Who is the London store’s main competitor? Harrods What problem did the store have? Old fashioned image What strategy did they use to solve the problem? Invested 50 million GBP/wide choice of products What new features does the store offer? Series of new stores, restaurants Replace the words in bold with the words given below:
Selfridges is a department store which was founded over 85 years ago. It is based in Oxford street in London and is London’s second largest department store after Harrods, with 150,000 m2 retail space. In the 1990s the store experienced some problems with its image because people thought it was old fashioned. To solve the
problem Selfridges invested 50 million GBP to re-establish the business as one of the capital’s main shopping attractions. They decided to offer a wide choice of products to attract more customers. They built a huge central “atrium” or entrance hall, and a series of new stores.
12. ADVERTISEMENT FOR FINANCE MANAGER Granada Film Granada Film, part of the Granada Media Group, produces and co-finances a broad range of films for the UK and international markets. Due to expansion we are looking for a Finance Manager with film finance experience, good communications skills and the ability to work under pressure. The successful applicant will report to the Controller of Finance and will form an integral part of a closely knit team. Please apply in writing enclosing full CV to: Alison Johns Personnel Department LWT, The London TC Centre Upper Ground London SE1 9LT. Regrettably we cannot reply to all applicants, however shortlisted candidates will be contacted within 4 weeks of the closing date.
You have read the advertisement. Now complete the gaps in the text below: Granada film wants to recruit a Finance manager. Granada film is part of the Granada Media Group. The company produces and co-finances films. They want someone with the following: finance experience, good communication skills and the ability to work under pressure. S/he will join the finance team and report to the Controller of Finance. To apply, send an application and a CV to the Personnel Department.
Read the advertisement once again and fill in the missing gaps: Granada Film, part of the Granada Media Group, produces and co-finances a broad range of films for the UK and international markets. Due to expansion they are looking for a Finance Manager with the film finance experience, good communications skills and the ability to work under pressure.
Personal Dept adressee
The London Upper Grownd London SE1 9 LT
ulica pošta telefon mail kraj, datum
Subject: Application for the post of finance manager Dear Sir/Madam, I refer to your advertisement published in the newspaper daily post on 20 may where you are looking for a finance Manager. Due to the fact that I have a great deal of experience in the field I would be most pleased to be faced with new challenges, stated in the description. From the enclosed Curriculum Vitae it can be seen that I finished secondary school for unvsing. Should the facts stated in my CV meet your requirements, I would be pleased to come for an interview where I could represent myself in more detail. Yours faithfully, ime priimek Signature Print name and surname Attached: CV and copies of my education and training
CURRICULUM VITAE Name and surname ime in priimek PERSONAL DATA Place and date of birth: Maribor 3. 12. 1975 Nationality: Slovenian Address and telephone: Naslov in telefon EDUCATION 2002 secondary school for unvsing ON THE JOB TRAINING EMPLOYMENTambulance Currently 1999-2003 KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS English, German Foreign languages Computers knowledge: office, design in Photoshop, audio editing in reason, PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Team worker Good organiser Like working with people Reliable, loyal and dedicated to work Able to quickly adapt to changes Tolerant and understanding Kind and positive
HOBBIES AND INTERESTS Downhill, painting Maribor, October 2009
Fill in the gaps in the two letters
Dear Mrs Benett With reference to your offer Nr 55 of 2 November 2006 I would like you to change number of ordered items to 1000 pieces. I would be grateful if you could confirm the changed quantity and dispatch the goods promptly. Thank you for your assistance/help Sincerely yours/ Your sincerely podpis Sandra James Head of Import Division Dear Sir/Madam With reference to your offer Nr 55 of 2 October 2006 and our order Nr 110 of 26 October 2006 I would like you to increase number of ordered items to 1000 pieces. I would be grateful if you could confirm the changed quantity and dispatch the goods promptly/ as soon as possible Thank you for your assistance. Yours faithfully/ faithfully yours podpis Sandra James Head of Import Division
13. DIALOGUES Fill in the missing parts of dialogues Introductions A. Good morning. Let me introduce myself. My name is Peter Brown. B. Good morning Mr Brown. Pleased to meet you. And I am Mary Robinson, personal assistant to the general manager Mr Sanders A. Nice to meet you too. Is Mr Sanders in his office/available? B. Yes, he is expecting you. Let me take you to his office. A. Thank you. That’s very kind of you. A: Hi Erik, Let me introduce you to my partner Andrew. B. Pleased to meet you. A. Pleased to meet you too. B. What about a drink at the Red Lion B&C. That would be great/nice // What a good idea.
Telephone survey A. B. C. A. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A.
Hello. I’m calling from CATI surveys. We’re doing research into tiredness at work. Do you have time to answer a few questions? Will it take long? Only a couple of minutes. Ok, let it be. How many hours a week do you work? Forty Do you work shifts? No, I work normal office hours. When do you feel at best during the day? After lunch. When do you feel at your worst? About an hour after I get to work. I feel exhausted. Can you tell me what you do for lunch. How long do you take for lunch? An hour. I think it’s important to have a good break. Where do you usually have your lunch break?/spend your lunch break?
B. A. B. A. B.
Well, I usually go to my health club for lunchtime and have a snack at the cafe there – soup and a salad, or a sandwich. Do you drink wine or beer with lunch? No, because if I do, I feel sleepy in the afternoon. Do you drink tea or coffee? I never drink tea. I don’t like it. I have two cups of coffee for breakfast, two more when I get to work and a coffee after lunch. I don’t drink coffee later in the day, because it keeps me awake at night and I feel even more exhausted the next morning.
Hotel booking May: Good morning. This is May Kiles speaking. Could I reserve a single room from 5th to 9th May, please. Receptionist: Good morning Ms Kiles. Yes you can reserve a room for that period. The price for one night is 120 EUR, breakfast included. Can you confirm your reservation in writing, please, you can send us an e mail or fax, whatever you prefer. May: Could I please have your fax number? Do you need anything else? Receptionist: Of course, it is 386 1 443 7002. As a guarantee we would also need your credit card number. May: Ok, you will receive my fax today. _Are there any recreational facilities? Receptionist: Yes, there is a swimming pool, a sauna and a health club. May: Is that pay per use? / Do I have to pay extra for these activities? Receptionist: No, everything is included in the price. Business trip Is that Amy? B: Hello, Peter. A: I am just calling to check if you are coming to the conference. B: Yes I am, (Peter) A: And when exactly are you arriving? B: I am arriving on Tuesday, 15. A: And how long are you staying? B: I am planning to stay for three days. A: Where are you staying? B: I’m staying at Renaissance. A. Are you giving a presentation at the conference? B: Yes I am (Peter). A: Very interesting. Are you joining us at dinner? B: Of course I am. A: I am looking forward to seeing you at the conference. Polite conversation A: Good morning B: Good morning, Mrs Brown, which floor? A: Fifth please. B: And how are you? A: Very well, and you? B. Very well, too. It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it. A: Indeed it is, very warm and nice B: Yes, it is – particularly for this time of the year. It’s a shame we have to be at work. And how’s your new job? A: Fine, thank you. I am enjoying it a lot. B: I’m pleased to hear that. I think this is my floor now. Goodbye. Have a nice day. A: Yes, you too. Invitations A. Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? B. That would be nice/lovely, thank you. What time? A. 6.30. We can pick you up at your hotel. B. Please do. Where shall we go? A. How about a very nice Chinese restaurant near here? B. Chinese is great./ Very good. / Yes please. A. Would you like to go to the opera tonight? I’ve got some tickets. B. I am sorry I can’t. I have to work. A. No problem, may be next time you come. B. I hope so too Would like to know more A. Excuse me, sir. May I ask you a few questions about your time here, in Slovenia B. Sure A: Where are you from?
B: Bangalore, India,. I’m here on vacation, I am doing a tour of Europe. A: What did you like best about Slovenia B: I liked most your delicious food and excellent wine and of course the beautiful nature. I really liked the mountains. A. Where there any problems? B: As a matter of fact there was. It took us ages before we could find a vegetarian restaurant. Luckily local people were really friendly and helpful Back from a business trip A: Hi, Amy, it’s Peter here. How are you? B: Hi Pter, I’m fine, only a little tired. A: When did you get home? B: I got home at 11 pm. A: How was the meeting with Gasoil? B: Oh, it was very long and tiring, but it was successful and we got the contract. A: Did you do sightseeing? B: A little, I visited the Kremlin and walked along the Red Square. A Did you go to a restaurant for dinner? B: Yes, they invited us to a fantastic restaurant called Café Pushkin. A. Where did you stay? B. I stayed at the hotel Rossia. A. Did you had any time for shopping? B: No, I only had time to buy a few souvenirs. A Did you sent any postcards? B Yes, of course, I sent one to you too.
A new job Paul has just got o job at Metra. Here he is checking what are the company rules: A. What is the working time? B. Well, we have flexible working time. You have to be here between 10.00 a.m. and 5.00 p.m. It is a forty hour week, but you can choose to start early or finish late. A. Where can I smoke/ Is there a smoking area? B. You can smoke in the smokers’ lounge on the second floor. You are not allowed to smoke anywhere else for safety reasons. A. Is there a dress code? B. You must be smart but not too formal. You don’t have to wear a tie for example. A. Do I have to work on weekends? B. You don’t have to work at weekends, in fact you aren’t allowed to come into the building at the weekend for security reasons. A. How much holidays do I get? A:You have four weeks per year, but you have to take two of them at Christmas since we are closed at that time. You can take the other days when you want.
1. PRESENT SIMPLE Form: NegativeAffirmative Negative Interrogative controlled Interrogative I eat I don’t Do I eat? Don’t I eat? eat You eat You don’t Do you eat? Don’t you eat? eat He/she/it He/she/it Does Doesn’t eats doesn’t he/she/it? he/she/it eat? eat Do not = don’t Used with adverbs: ALWAYS, NEVER, SOMETIMES, OFTEN, RARELY, EVERY DAY, ON MONDAYS, Used to express present habits, repeated actions, facts, general truth. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Form: Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negativecontrolled Interrogative I am eating I’m not Am I eating? Am I not eating eating?
You are eating
You aren’t eating He/she/it is He/she/it eating isn’t eating Is not = isn’t; are not
Are you eating? Is he/she/it eating?
Aren’t you eating? Isn’t he/she/it eating
Used with adverbs: NOW, AT THE MOMENT, TODAY, THIS WEEK Used to express an activity going on at the moment of speaking or an activity happening for a limited period.
State verbs never used in continuous form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
verbs expressing mental activity: UNDERSTAND, KNOW, BELIEVE, THINK, MEAN verbs of the five senses: SEE, SMELL, TASTE, HEAR, FEEL verbs of emotion: LOVE, LIKE, DISLIKE, HATE, WANT, WISH verbs of possession: HAVE, OWN, BELONG certain other verbs: COST, CONTAIN, NEED, DEPEND, CONSIST, SEEM
Insert correct form of Present Simple or Present Continuous
My youngest son always runs to school because he never gets up on time This is my boss Frank. We are discussing his business trip. He is complaining about his agenda. 1. Look at that man. He is trying (try) to break into the car. Let’s call the police. 2. My best friend lives (live) in the area and knows (know) people there quite well. 3. What does your father do (do)? He is (be) a pharmacist and works (work) for a big multinational company. 4. I never take (take) coffee with sugar, for me it tastes (taste) awful. 5. Where do you usually do (do) your shopping? I always go (go) to one of the big shopping centres where I get (get) everything I need. 6. Why are you making (make) such a noise? Please, be quiet, I am studying (study) for my mathematics exam. 7. How often does he check (check) his incoming mail? He reads (read) it every two hours. 8. Where are you going (go)? I am having (have) a meeting with my future boss. 9. Why is he driving (drive) so fast? He usually doesn’t drive (not drive) like a maniac. 10. What do you think (think) about your new teacher. I dislike (dislike) her very much indeed. 11. Do you hear (hear) the noise in the neighbouring room? Yes, this must be that young couple who quarrels (quarrel) so very often. 12. I see (see) that you are wearing (wear) a very elegant dress. What’s the occasion? I am having (have) an interview for a job and I want (want) to look smart and elegant. 13. She doesn’t like (not like) him because he always talks (talk) only about his job and nothing else. 14. This pie tastes (taste) delicious. How do you make (make) it. 15. She loves (love) her family so much that you can’t expect her to do that now. 16. He does not want (not want) to help me though he knows (know) what kind of troubles I have. 17. I see (see) you have (have) a new car. 18. Don’t disturb her right now. She is having (have) a rest after a tiring day at her office. 19. My sister is having (have) an interview for a new job and she really wishes (wish) toget it. 20. I am seeing (see) a dentist in the afternoon, the pain is so awful that I really can’t stand it any longer. 21. Mother knows (know) what is happening (happen) with you these days. 22. This book belongs (belong) to my sister and she does not want (not want) to lend it to anyone. 23. Which ingredients does this recipe contain (contain)? 24. Do you believe (believe) what he is saying (say) right now? No, I do not believe (not believe) him a word, he is a professional liar. 25. I am chatting (chat) with my colleagues right now, we are making (make) plans for our travel to Mexico. 26. How much does it costs (cost) to come by taxi? I do not wish (not wish) to be late for the meeting. 27. Who does she living (live) with? She does not discuss (not discuss) her private life with people she does not know (not know) really well. 28. My sister is coming (come) back from her long stay in America. I am looking forward to (look forward to) her return. 29. She does not want (not want) you to go there, how do you usually succeed (succeed) in persuading her? 30. What time are you leaving (leave) tomorrow. Shall I take you to the airport or is your chauffeur comming (come) to pick you up?
31. She has (have) a dog which never barks (bark), he is such a friendly creature. 32. Nowadays it is getting (get) hotter and hotter in summer. Do you believe (believe) that the earth is warming up really (warm up)? 33. The flight from Ljubljana to London lasts (last) two hours and it does not cost (not cost) as much as it used to. Present Simple and Continuous 1. Do you have (have) traffic wardens in your country? No, I don’t think (not think) so. You don’t see (not see) them in my town anyway. What exactly does a traffic warden do (do)? He walks (walk) up and down the street and if a car is staying (stay) too long at a parking place or parks (park) in a no-parking area he sticks (stick) a parking ticket to the windscreen. 2. Look, he is putting (put) a ticket on Tom's car. Tom will be furious when he sees (see) it. He hates (hate) getting parking tickets. 3. I won’t (want) to bay a fur coat. Do you have (have) any nice coats for about 2000 €. I'm afraid we are just closing (close) madam. It's 7,55, and we always close (close) at 8,00 sharp on Fridays as Mr. Jones, the manager doesn’t wont (not want) to miss his favourite TV programme. 4. It is a Friday and the Brown family are at home. Mrs. Brown is listening (listen) to a concert on TV. Mr. Brown is reading (read) a paper. Gorge is doing (do) his homework and Ann is playing (play) computer games 5. Mr. Brown always reads (read) his newspapers in the evenings. Mrs. Brown sometimes watches (watch) TV but she doesn’t watch (not watch) it tonight. 6. Mr. Black often goes (go) to the theatre, but his wife doesn’t go (not go) very often. He likes (like) all sorts of plays. She prefers (prefer) comedies. 7. Tonight they are watching (watch) a very modern comedy. They enjoy (enjoy) it, but they don’t understand (not understand) some of the jokes. 8. What is happening (happen) in your class? Does The teacher give (give) lectures every day? No. He is giving (give) one lectures a week, and on the other days he is showing (show) films and discussing (discuss) books with us. 9. Why is that man standing (stand) in the middle of the road? He is trying (try) to get across. He is waiting (wait) for a gap in the traffic. Why doest he uses (not use) the subway? Lots of people don’t bother (not bother) to use the subway. They prefes (prefer) to risk their lives crossing here. 10. You are wearing (wear) a new coat, aren't you? Yes, do you like (like) it? The color suits (suit) you, but it doesn’t fit (not fit) you very well. It's much too big. 11. All guides here are speaking (speak) at least three foreign languages, because a lot of foreign visitors come (come) every summer. 12. Paul is taking (take) a party of French tourists round now and tomorrow an American party is coming (come). 13. Englishmen very seldom talk (talk) on the underground. They prefer (prefer) to read their newspapers. 14. Those two men in the corner are talking (talk), but they are not speaking (not talk) English. 15. Jones and Co. are having (have) a sale at the moment. Shall we look in on our way home? I'd love to, but I’m afraid I won't have time. I meeting (meet) Tom at 5,30. Do you often go (go) out with Tom ? 16. I usually go (go) by train, but this weekend I am going (go) by bus. It takes (take) longer but it cost (cost) less. 17. Ann on telephone: are you doing (do) anything at the moment, Sally? Sally: Yes, I am packing (pack), I am cathing (catch) a plane to NY in three hours time. Ann: Lucky girl! How long are you staying (stay) in NY? 18. Do you going (go) out tonight? No, I am staying (stay) at home. The neighbors are coming (come) in to watch TV. Do you invite (invite) the neighbors often? No, but they invite (invite) themselves whenever there is a good program . 19. I am just going (go) out to get an evening newspaper. But it _____(pour). Why don’t you wait (not wait) for the rain to stop. 20. Tom gets (get) up very early, but he washes (wash) and gets (get) his breakfast so quietly that I don’t hear (not hear) a thing. But I hear (hear) him driving away from house because his car makes (make) a lot of noise. 21. My brother gets (get) up very early too. But he makes (make) such a lot of noise that he wakes (wake) everybody up. He sings (sing) in his bath and drops (drop) things in the kitchen and plays (play) the radio very loudly. Why don’t you ask (not ask) him to be a bit quieter? I mention (mention) it every night, but it doesn’t do (not do) any good. He says (say) that he doesn’t make (not make) a sound, and I think (think) that he really believes (believe) it. 22. Do you see (see) that man at the corner? He keeps (keep) stopping people and asking questions .do you think (think) he is asking (ask) for directions? No, I expect (expect) he is making (make) a survey. How do you make (make) a survey? You stop (stop) people and ask (ask) them questions and write (write) the answers on a report sheet. 23. In most countries a child starts (start) school at six and stays (stay) for about five years in a primary school. Then he moves (move) to a secondary school. At 17 or 18 he takes (take) an exam. If he does (do) well in this exam he can go on to university if he wishes (wish). 24. My daughter never calls (call) to me, so I never know (know) what she is doing (do). Does your son keep (keep) in touch with you?
Yes I hear (hear) from him every week. He seems (seem) to like sending messages
2. PAST SIMPLE Form: Affirmative
Interrogative controlled Did I eat?
I didn’t eat You ate You didn’t Did you eat? eat He/she/it He/she/it Did he/she/it? ate didn’t eat Did not = didn’t
NegativeInterrogative Didn’t I eat? Didn’t you eat? Didn’t he/she/it eat?
Used with adverbs: YESTERDAY, LAST NIGHT, A WEEK AGO, IN JANUARY, ON MONDAY, Used to express past activity which happened at a definite period of time in the past. PAST CONTINUOUS Form: Affirmative I was eating You were eating He/she/it was eating
Negative I wasn’t eating You weren’t eating He/she/it wasn’t eating
Was not = wasn’t;
Interrogative controlled Was I eating? Were you eating? Was he/she/it eating?
NegativeInterrogative Was I not eating Weren’t you eating? Wasn’t he/she/it eating
were not = weren’t
Used with adverbs: ALL DAY YESTERDAY, FROM EIGHT TO TEN, WHEN, WHILE Used to express an activity going on for a longer period of time in the past, or an activity in progress and interrupted by another activity. It is also used for descriptions.
The wedding ceremony began, the bride was wearing an elegant white wedding dress and was smiling happily. It seemed to be an unforgettable day for all.
Insert correct form of Past Simple or Past Continuous 1. While I was reading (read) the mail, I found (find) this piece of information. 2. She was driving (drive) on the motorway when she saw (see) her best friend in the car which was overtaking (overtake) her. 3. They fell (fall) in love while they were celebrating (celebrate) Peter’ birthday. 4. I was looking for (look for) the lease contract when I came across (come across) these important documents. 5. He was walking (walk) aimlessly around town when he met (meet) his friends who told (tell) him the great news. 6. He was queuing up (queue up) for the bus and was making (make) plans for that day when all of a sudden he got (get) a heart attack. 7. We were drinking (drink) our coffee at the coffee shop when a bomb exploded (explode) in the neighboring shop. 8. He was playing (play) the piano while she was reading (read) a book. Suddenly the door opened (open) and their two sons ended (end) that short moment of peace. 9. When she was having (have) that job at the factory she met (meet) completely different people.
10. She was doing (do) her morning exercises when police who were investigating (investigate) a murder case burst (burst) into her house. 11. Police caught (catch) him while he was trying (try) to break into a house. 12. The children were playing (play) happily in the garden while their mother was preparing (prepare) dinner. 13. We were waiting (wait) for the open air theatre show to begin when it began (begin) to rain. 14. Participants were listening (listen) to the lecturer. Some were taking (take) notes while others were just carefully following (follow) his presentation. 15. I was tidying (tidy) the flat all day and did (do) most of the chores which was a good excuse to go out in the evening. 16. Slowly the snow was getting (get) thicker and thicker and little birds had (have) practically no chance to find any food. 17. The artist was painting (paint) his portrait and (was) thinking (think) about his miserable life. 18. I was trying (try) hard to explain the situation, but he showed (show) no interest at all. 19. He was following (follow) her all the morning but still was not (not be able to) find out who she really was. 20. The burglars broke (break) into their house while they were away (be away) on holidays and took (take) all their jewellery.
Past Simple or Continuous 1. Peter and Ann decided (decide) to redecorate their sitting-room themselves. They chose (choose) cream paint for woodwork and apricot for the walls. When John looked in (look in) to see how they were getting (get), Ann was mixing (mix) the paint, and Peter washed (wash) down walls. They were (be) glad to see John and ____(ask) if he was doing (do) anything special that day. He hastily replied (reply) he was going (go) to the theatre and went (go) away at once , because he knew(know) they were looking (look) for someone to help them. They began (begin) painting, but found (find) the walls were (be) too wet. While they were waiting (wait) for the walls to dry, Ann remembered (remember) she had (have) a phone call to make. Peter started (start) painting while she was telephoning (telephone), and did (do) a whole wall before Ann came (come) back. He grumbled(grumble) that she was always telephoning (telephone). Ann retorted (retort) that Peter was always complaining (complain).They were working (work) in silence for some time. Just as they started (start) the third wall, the doorbell rang (ring). It was (be) friend of Peter's who wanted (want) to know if Peter paws playing (play) golf following weekend. He stayed (stay) talking to Peter in the hall while Ann went (go) on painting. At last he left (leave). Peter returned (return), expecting Ann to say something about friends who came (come) and wasted (waste) valuable time talking about golf. But Ann nobly said (say) nothing. Than Peter thought (think) he would do the ceiling. He was just climbing (climb) the step ladder when doorbell just (ring) again . Ann said (say) she got (get) tired of interruptions but went (go) and opened (open) the door. It was (be) the postman with the letter from her aunt Mary, saying she was coming (come) to spend a weekend with them and was arriving (arrive) that evening at 6,30. 2. He was sitting (sit) on the bank fishing when he saw (see) a man's hat floating down the river . It seemed (seem) strangely familiar. 3. It was snowing (snow) heavily when he woke (wake) up. He remembered (remember) that Jack was coming (come) for lunch and decided (decide) to go down the station to meet him in case he lost (lose) his way in the snowy lanes. 4. When I reached (reach) the street I realised (realise) that I didnâ€™t know (not know) the number of Tom's house. I was wondering (wonder) what to do about it when Tom himself tapped (tap) me on the shoulder. 5. As the goalkeeper was running (run) forward to seize that ball a bottle struck (strike) him on the shoulder. 6. I looked through/was looking (look) through the classroom window. A geometry lesson went (go) on. The teacher was drawing (draw) diagrams on a blackboard . Most of the boys were listening (listen) to the teacher but a few were whispering (whisper) to each other, and Tom was reading (read) a history book. Tom hated (hate) mathematics; he was always reading (read) history during his mathematics lesson. 7. Everyone was reading (read) quietly when suddenly the door burst (burst) open and a complete stranger rushed (rush) in. 8. I went (go) to Jack's house but I didnâ€™t find (not find). His mother said (say) that she didnâ€™t know (not know) what he was doing (do) but thought (think) he probably was playing (play) football. 9. This used to be a station and all London trains stopped (stop) here. But two years ago they closed (close) the station and gave (give) us a bus service instead. 10.She promised (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I saw (see) her talking with policeman and from the expression on his face I am sure she told/was telling (tell) him about it. 11. I picked (pick) up the receiver and dialled,(dial) a number . To my surprise I found (find) myself listening to an extraordinary conversation. Two man were planning (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister.
12. I met (meet) Paul at the university. We were (be) both in the same year. He was studying (study) law, but he wasn’t (not be) very interested in it and spent (spend) most of his time practising the flute. 13. The train just was just starting/started (start) when the door opened (open) and two panting passengers leapt (leap) in. 14. What were you doing (do) between 9,00 an 10,00 yesterday? said (say) the detective. I was cleaning (clean) my house; said Mrs Jones. I always clean my house on Saturday mornings. 15. They were building (build) that bridge when I was (be) here last year. They haven't finished it yet. 16. The dentists waiting room was full of people. Some were reading (read) magazines, others were just turning (turn) over pages. A woman was knitting (knit), a child was playing (play) with a toy car. Suddenly the door opened (open) and the nurse said (say):'Next, please' 17. The house next to yours was (be) full of policemen and police dogs yesterday. I heard (hear) that they were looking (look) for drugs. did they find (find) any? Yes, I believe one of dogs discovered (discover) some cannabis . 18. A traffic warden was just sticking (stick) a parking ticket to my windscreen when I came (come) back to the car. I was trying/tried (try) to persuade him to tear it up but refused (refuse). 19. Ann works in the branch where the big robbery took (take) place. She was actually working (work) there at the time of the raid. 20. When Ann said (say) that she coming (come) to see me the next day, I was wondering/wondered (wonder) what flowers she would bring. She always brings flowers. 21. While I was wondering (wonder) to buy the dress or not, someone else came (come) and bought (buy) it.
3. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Form: Affirmative
I have eaten You have eaten
I haven’t eaten You haven’t eaten He/she/it He/she/it has eaten hasn’t eaten Have not = haven’t
Interrogative controlled Have I eaten? Have you eaten?
NegativeInterrogative Haven’t I eaten? Haven’t you eaten?
has he/she/it eaten?
Hasn’t he/she/it eaten?
Has not = hasn’t
Used with adverbs: JUST, ALREADY, EVER, NEVER, YET, RECENTLY, LATELY, FOR, SINCE Used to express past activity which began in the past and still continues or has just finished and we are interested in its result, experience. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Form: Affirmative I have been eating You have been eating
I haven’t been eating You haven’t been eating He/she/it He/she/it has been hasn’t eating been eating Has not = hasn’t;
Interrogative controlled Have I been eating?
NegativeInterrogative Haven’t I been eating
Have you been eating?
Haven’t you been eating?
Has he/she/it been eating?
Hasn’t he/she/it bee eating
have not = haven’t
Used with adverbs: FOR, SINCE, ALL DAY, FOR AGES Used to express an activity which began in the past and is still continuing or has just finished and we wish to emphasise its duration and result.
Insert correct form of Present Perfect Simple or Continuous
1. I have been waiting (wait) for your reply since morning. Have you made (make) up your mind yet? 2. He has been working (work) for that company since 1990 and never had (never have) any regrets for choosing it. 3. She has been studying (study) the sales figures since morning and she hasn’t come (not come) to a conclusion yet. 4. I feel really tired. I have been cleaning (clean) the house since early morning and have done (do) only half of it. 5. I have been thinking (think) about your proposal for the last three days and have just found the solution (find the solution). 6. The children have been playing (play) happily in the garden since breakfast and haven’t quarrelled (not quarrel) even once. 7. She has been studying (study) at university for the last two years and hasn’t passed (not pass) even one examination yet. 8. Have you received (receive) any news yet? No, I have been waiting (wait) impatiently since morning and nothing has arrived (arrive) yet. 9. I have had (have) this car since 1990. Everybody else in the family has been using (use) it but me. 10. How long have you been playing (play) golf? Oh. Since my return from Scotland 10 years ago. I have never (regret) regretted picking up such an interesting sport. 11. Have you bought (buy) everything for tonight’s party. No, I have been making (make) a list for the last hour and I haven’t even gone (not even go) to the supermarket yet. 12. How long has she been living (live) here? She has been (be) in the area since her graduation. 13. Have you heard (hear) the latest news? The new motorway has (just) been opened (be opened) and three accidents have already happened (happen) due to some construction mistakes. 14. You have been (be) in the bathroom for ages. Haven’t you made up (not make up) yet? All others have been waiting (wait) for our turn for half an hour. 15. Have you been using (use) my car again? No, not me, I haven’t been (not be) out since yesterday. 16. Let’s go somewhere out. The sun has been shining (shine) since morning and the wind has stopped (stop). 17. I have been working (work) in my garden for three hours, just look at all those beautiful flowers. 18. I think you exaggerate with that car. You have been polishing (polish) it for hours! 19. I have been going (go) to that library since my schooldays and have never, had (have) any bad experience. 20. Have you found (find) the keys yet? No, even though I have been looking for (look for) them everywhere in the house. 21. We have been driving (drive) along the street but are still unable to find the address.
Present Perfect Simple or Continuous Management has been fighting/has fought (fight) hard for the company’s market share since the arrival of Chinese competition. They have never even thought (think) of dismissing employees. R&D team has just managed (manage) to come with a brilliant solution for their new product. They have been working (work) really hard on it for several months He has just got (get) a post of accountant which he been looking (look for) since graduation. have you applied (apply) for the position of a sales manager yet? No, I haven’t had (not have) time yet, I have been studying (study) hard for my English test since Monday. We have never had (have) such an experience before, this is the first time this has happen (happen) to us. has she told (tell) you the great news yet? No, we haven’t seen (not see) each other since last lectures. He has just spoken (speak) to the manager. I have never met (meet) such a charming person as you are before. How long have you been working (work) on this project? has she found, (find) a new job yet? No, even though she has been sending (send) applications for ages. This is the most stupid thing I have ever done (do), oh, I feel so ashamed. How long have you been waiting (wait) for her? Don’t you think she has forgotten (forget) about your meeting? I can’t find his address. I have been looking/have looked (look) everywhere, it has simply vanished (vanish) in the thin air. You have been sending (send) private mails since you arrived to work.
4. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
I had eaten You had eaten
I hadn’t eaten You hadn’t eaten He/she/it He/she/it had eaten hadn’t eaten Had not = hadn’t
Interrogative controlled Had I eaten?
NegativeInterrogative Hadn’t I eaten? Hadn’t you eaten?
Had you eaten? Had he/she/it eaten?
Hadn’t he/she/it eaten?
Used with adverbs: BEFORE AFTER, AS SOON AS, WHEN, BY THE TIME Used to express past activity which happened before another activity in the past.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Form: Affirmative I had been eating You had been eating He/she/it had been eating
Negative I hadn’t been eating You hadn’t been eating He/she/it hadn’t been eating
Interrogative controlled Had I been eating?
NegativeInterrogative Hadn’t I been eating
Had you been eating?
Hadn’t you been eating?
Had he/she/it been eating?
Hadn’t he/she/it been eating
Used with adverbs: BEFORE, AFTER, AS SOON AS, WHEN, BY THE TIME Used to express past activity which happened before another activity in the past and we want to emphasise its duration.
before she finally me called me.
Exercises: Insert the correct form of Past Perfect Simple/ Continuous or Past Simple/Continuous as done in this example After I had saved (save) enough money I bought (buy) the car of my dreams. We had been walking (walk) for ten hours before we finally reached (reach) the top of the mountain. We had been dancing (dance) all night and really felt (feel) tired next day. He had (have) a stomach ache after he had eaten (eat) all those mushrooms. No wonder you had (have) a hangover yesterday. You had been drinking (drink) really excessively. The crowd had been waiting (wait) impatiently for two hours before the concert started (start). He felt (feel) really relieved after he had told (tell) the truth to his family. We had been trying (try) to reach you all day before we learnt (learn) about your departure for Greece. By the time she realised (realise) what kind of crook he really was (be) she had given (give) him all her savings as an investment in his new company. The man had been driving (drive) without licence for twenty years before the police finally caught (catch) him. As soon as she had gathered (gather) all necessary information, she made (make) a decision. After he had taken (take) that medicine he recovered (recover) almost miraculously. By the time the new government had made ( make) any remarkable changes there were already (be) new elections. Immediately after she had heard (hear) his voice, she put (put) receiver down. After she had got (get) enough practice she started (start) her own business.
Though he had been working (work) on that project for a very long time the commission didn’t approve (not approve) it. After she had really let (let) him down, he made (make) up his mind to leave her for good. The committee members had been studying (study) my application really thoroughly before they finally approved (approve) it. After they had broken (break) into the house without being noticed they realised (realise) that all the rest was (be) a piece of cake. The teacher had been explaining/had explained (explain) the subject really hard before she made (make) her class write a test. The artist had been living (live) in poverty for a very long time before he finally made (make) a breakthrough and became (become) famous and rich. She had prepared (prepare) carefully every detail before she made (make) the project public. 5. WILL FUTURE Form: Affirmative I will eat You will eat He/she/it will eat
Interrogative controlled I won’t eat Will I eat? You won’t Will you eat? eat He/she/it Will he/she/it? won’t eat
NegativeInterrogative Won’t I eat? Won’t you eat? Won’t he/she/it eat?
Will not = won’t Used with adverbs: TOMORROW, SOON, NEXT MONTH, Used to express an immediate intention which is not planned in advance or a future prediction.
GOING TO FUTURE Form: Affirmative I am going to eat You are going to eat He/she/it is going to eat
Negative I’m not going to eat You aren’t going to eat He/she/it isn’t going to eat
Is not = isn’t;
Interrogative controlled Am I going to eat?
NegativeInterrogative Am I not going to eat
Are you going to eat?
Aren’t you going to eat
Is he/she/it going to eat?
Isn’t he/she/it going to eat?
are not = aren’t
Used with adverbs: VERY SOON, SHORTLY, THIS WEEK Used to express an intention, thought or plan, thought before or certainty about an action which is going to happen very soon.
1. This is the car people will drive in the following decades. 2. I am going to spend my vacation in Jamaica.
Exercises: Insert the correct form of Will Future or Going to Future Next summer I will go (go) to Australia. There I am going to hire (hire) a van and I am going to travel (travel) al over the continent. Next week you will see (see) the sights of the biggest continent in the world. Yes, and I will (send) you a postcard, I promise from each town I will visit (visit). I will not buy (not buy) any stupid souvenirs, just the things which are really Australian. I am going to visit (visit) the famous Sydney opera which I have always admired. I hope it will be (be) possible to meet the Aborigins and learn about their
culture and history.How long are you going to stay (you stay) there? Three weeks, the distances are so long, you can't do it in less than that. What shall I buy for Tom's birthday? Let's get him a watch he has always wished. Tomorrow I am free and I will look (look) around the shops. Oh, I will join (join) you and we will have (have) a look together. I hope we will finish (finish) our lunch by 4 because then I will see (see) my dentist. He is going to pull (pull) out one of my bad teeth. Already now am scared. Jenny is going to move (move) to her new flat next week. We all are going to help (all, help) her because we know how busy she will be (be). She has hired a professional company and they will do (do) all the work themselves. Oh, I didn't know that, I will go (go) and help her, I am sure she will be pleased (be) pleased. China is going to organize (organise) the next Olympic games. The games will start (start) with a special ceremony where all the participants will come (come). The telephone is ringing, but I will not answer (not answer) it. You are all pale. Sit down and i will bring (bring) you some water. I have bought lots of food because I am going to have (have) a party tonight. We are going to celebrate (celebrate) my birthday. I expect 20 friends will come (come) ad hope that we will stay (stay) till the next day. We are late. I will call (call) a taxi because I do not want to miss the plane. Somebody is at the door. Will you open (open) it for me, please. If it is my friend tell him to wait because I will be (be) ready in a minute. Look at all the black clouds in the sky! It is going to rain (rain) any minute. I am so sorry, but I have forgotten my purse. Donâ€™t worry. I will pay (pay) the bill. She has gone to the beauty parlour because she is going to have (have) a completely new look. I expect they will not get lost (not get lost) on the way back.
6. PASSIVE VOICE
Tense Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Will Future
Active Our secretary writes reports Our secretary is writing reports Our secretary wrote reports Our secretary was writing reports Our secretary has written reports Our secretary has been writing reports Our secretary had written reports Our secretary had been writing reports Our secretary will write reports
Passive Reports are written by our secretary Reports are being Written by our secretary Reports were written by our secretary Reports were being written by our secretary Reports have been written by our secretary /
To be am/is/are am being /is being/ are being was/were was being/ were being have been/ has been
Reports had been written by our secretary /
Going to Future
Our secretary is going to write reports
Reports will be written by our secretary Reports are going to be written by our secretary
Our secretary should write reports
Reports should be written by our secretary
am doing to be/ is going to be, are going to be should be
Turn into Passive Voice She has drawn portraits of several famous people. Portraits of several famous people have been drawn.
I cleaned my car yesterday. My car was cleaned yesterday. They grow mostly wine in this region. Mostly wine is grown in this region. She has already mentioned the problem. You must correct your mistakes. Your mistakes must be corrected She has visited all her potential buyers. All her potential buyers have been visited. Nobody chose your products. Your products werenÂ´t chosen. She organises such meetings every month Such meetings are organised every month. No one wanted them. They werenÂ´t wanted. She exports her products to foreign countries. Her products are exported to foreign countries. Their company developed really good software programmes last year Really good software programmes were developed last year (by their company) We visit her regularly every year. . She is visited regularly every year. The teacher is explaining the problem to him. The problem is being explained to him/He is being explained the problem. They received no information at all. No information was received at all/ Information wasn`t received at all. My new neighbours tell me all the news of the neighbourhood. I am told all the news of the neighbourhood./All the news of the neighbourhood is told to me. She has invited several famous people. Several famous people have been invited. He was repairing our bikes all day. Our bikes were being repaired all day. They make best rum of sugar cane. Best rum is made of sugar cane. They promised her a promotion. A She was promised a promotion/ A promotion was promised to her. You can repeat it several times. It can be repeated several times. We paid all the bills before going on holiday. All the bills were paid before going on holiday. Nobody understands your remarks. Your remarks aren`t understood. They make delicious cakes here. Delicious cakes are made here. No one was helping him with that difficult task. He wasn`t being helped with that the difficult task. You must put empty bottles in that container. Empty bottles must be put in that container. Farmers have grown very good wine in that region since Roman times. Very good wine has been grown in that region since Roman times. She bought her new flat five years ago. Her new flat was bought five years ago. Doctor operated the injured man five hours ago. The injured man was operated five hour ago, I regularly send messages to my customers. Messages are regularly sent to my customers. Our new neighbours invited us to a house warming party. We were invited to a house warming party. She was translating the letter for a very long time. The letter was being translated for a very long time. They are repairing that road right now. The road is being repaired right now. He was helping the injured men. The injured men were being helped. She will show us the city.We will be shown the city/The city will be shown to us. She bought a new coat because it was reduced for 50%. A new coat was bought because it was reduced for 50%. Beer has made you sleepy. You have been made sleepy (by beer). His sister will buy this new car. This new car will be bought. He was opening the tin with a knife. The tin was being opened with a knife. She teaches him how to play golf. He is taught how to play golf. She was driving him crazy. He was being driven crazy. We wrote them a postcard. A postcard was written to them./They were written a postcard. She brought golf equipment. Golf equipment was brought. The management has turned down my application. My application has been turned down. We are studying your proposal. Your proposal is being studied. She usually sends items in special boxes. Items are usually sent in special boxes. Local people were repairing the damaged road all week. The damaged road was being repaired all week. He wrote you all the details of the future business with that company. All the details of the future business with that company were written to you/You were written all the details of the future business with that company. His wife sometimes took his car. His car was sometimes taken (by his wife). We never write them postcards. Postcards are never written to them/They are never written postcards He began his usual routine. His usual routine was begun. Somebody has broken into his computer His computer has been broken into. They stole all important data about his clients. All important data about his clients were stolen. I have heard a scream in the street. A scream has been heard in the street. Someone will steal your phone if you leave it there. Your phone will be stolen if you leave it there She drew a portrait of him. A portrait of him was drown. I am cleaning your shoes. Your shoes are being cleaned. You have corrected the mistake The mistake has been corrected.. She will visit us We will be visited. Authorised auditor has checked our reports. Our reports have been checked are by authorised auditors.
7. ACTIVE OR PASSIVE
He was arrested and his photograph was taken. Most of our coffee is imported (import). She has been teaching (teach) at that school for ten years. My car was repaired (repair) a week ago. Those parcels must be sent (must/send) this very moment. She always complains (complain) about her neighbours. She has just been received (receive) by the Mayor. He usually keeps (keep) all his money in the bank. We expect that medicine against cancer will be found (find) soon. Heavy traffic is forbidden (forbid) on the roads at weekends. Last time we met (meet) him he was working (work) at the bank. The robber was caught (catch) last night while he was trying (try) to get into a villa. My brother always (repair) repairs his car himself .This car will be sold (sell) next week for more than we expected. No wine has been bought (buy) because our guest are against it. All the meal was eaten (eat) since we were really hungry. The contract is written (write) in English and should be translated (should/translate). Which present did you buy (buy) for his last anniversary? He usually returns (return) too late to call you. His parents have been invited (invite) to see his new flat next Sunday. Our flat is currently being decorated (decoreate).He helped (help) me while I was a child. On Sundays no mail is delievered (deliver) to our homes. I have already been prepairing (prepare) everything for the party. Very good wine is produced (produce) in France every year. They are building (build) a new house at the moment. The patient was operated (operate) a week ago. Letters were being sent (send) all last week. We have just invited (invite) our new neighbours too. She has been waiting (wait) for you since noon. This bottle should be kept (should/keep) in the fridge. I hope next year we will spend (spend) some time in Cuba. Computers are used (use) in offices instead of typewriters. His mistakes are being corrected (correct) right now. The thief was arrested (arrest) last night. She was studying (study) all days last week. This car has just been chosen. (choose) by the boss. I have bought everything because I am having (have) a party tonight. I think you should eat (should/eat) less. Mary usually writes (write) Christmas cards herself. Right now miss universe is being chosen (choose). Last night we came (come) too late to call you. Presents were being delievered (deliver) all last month. They have just bought (buy) a new flat. The new program has already been installed (install). I am visiting (visit) them this weekend. Cameras must be declared (must/declare) at the customs. These machines are usually imported (import) from Italy. If he had the best sales results he would be (be) promoted.
8. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Zero Conditional Future Conditional Present Conditional Past Conditional
If clause If you prepare a good project, Če pripravite dober projet, If you prepare a good project, Če boste pripravili dober project, If you prepared a good project, Če bi pripravili dober project If you had prepared a good project, Če bi bili pripravili dober project
Main Clause you get funds dobite sredstva you will get funds boste dobili sredstva you would get funds bi dobili sredstva you would have got funds bi bili dobili sredstva
Insert the correct form of conditional clause We won't go out unless it stops (stop) raining. If you could (can) do it, it would be very nice. It would have been (be) better if they had had it. I will give it to her if she really wants (want) it. If my parents don’t (do not) object (not object) I will go with you. I would have done it if it had been (be) possible. If the sun didn’t shine, we would (stay) at home. He will steal it if you do not give (not give) it to him. She would have brought you this if she had gone (go) to town. I would do it if I wanted (want) it. We won't go out unless you ask (ask) us nicely. If you had been (be) there, it would have been better. She will buy (buy) it if they have it. I would stay if she really wanted (want) it. If my wife didn’t (did not) (not object) I would go with you. She would certainly have done it if it had been (be) possible. If the sun doesn’t shine tomorrow, we will (stay) at home. He would give it to you if you asked (ask) him nicely. She would have bought this if she had had (have) enough money.
He will help you if he comes (come) home early. If she had done it, she would be sorry (be) sorry now. We would have helped you if you had told (tell) us about it. If he had done it, the manager would have been (be) mad about him. They would have come (come) too late if they had taken a taxi. If I don’t (do not) check (not check) my mail at weekends, I won’t know what has happened. They will miss the opportunity if they don’t (do not) decide (not decide) immediately. If he had any money, he would have paid (pay) the bill. If he drank less, he wouldn’t (would not) be (not be) depressed. If they hadn’t invited all regional buyers, the conference wouldn’t have been (not be) such a big success. If she wrote (write) down details, she wouldn’t forget important things. If he chooses (choose) last minute trip, he will pay half of the price. She will know all the details if she studies (study) carefully. If he left the company a year ago, he wouldn’t be offered (not be offered) a good job abroad. If he liked (like), he would join us. If the system had collapsed, the damage would have been (be) catastrophic. If my computer doesn’t (does not) work (not work) I won’t be able to send you my mail. If she practised really hard, she would succeed (succeed). If the company builds (build) new business premises, they will expand their business. If our company did business with all European countries, we would have to (have to) speak English most of the time. If she is (be) busy she won’t be able to come. If they went on vacation, they would feel (feel) much better. She will help you if she stays (stay) at home. If she had needed your assistance, she would have asked (ask) you. If he were badly injured, he would not have gone (not go) skiing. If the sales figures do not increase (not increase), the employees will have to work overtime. If company's revenue does not increase (not increase) many workers will be made redundant
Fill in the missing parts of conditional clauses
If your conditions are competitive, we (place) will place an order. If I had more time, I (do) would do a course in business English. If we had known more about their culture, negotiating (be) would have been easier. If you (customize) customize your CV, your chances of getting a job will be better. We (cancel) will cancel our order if you don't deliver the goods by Friday. If Brittany (speak) spoke better English, she would apply for a job abroad. If you (tell) had told me about the problem, I would have helped you. I (let) would let you know if I weren't satisfied. If you execute the order carelessly, they (place not) won’t (will not) place another order with you in the future. If I were you, I (worry / not) wouldn’t worry about the presentation. If I had more time, I (come) would come to your party. If you had read the instructions you would (would) have known (know) what to do. If you hadn't lost our flight tickets, we (be) would be on our way to the Caribbean now. If you (have) have a / are having dinner right now, I'll come back later. If we (set) had set off earlier, we wouldn't be in this traffic jam now. What would you do if they accused (accuse) you of murder? If I hadn't eaten that much, I (feel / not) wouldn’t feel so sick now. We would take another route if they (close / not) didn’t (did not) close the road. She only (sing) sings if she's in a good mood. If she were sensible, she (not/ask) wouldn’t asked that question, by which she offended him so much.
9. DIRECT QUESTIONS
Make questions for underlined words 1. She usually drives so slowly. How does she usually drive? 2. He has been working for that company since 2000. Since when OR How long has he been working? 3. She wanted to speak to you. Who did she want to speak to? 4. They were really studying very hard for the English test. How were they rally studying? 5 She never writes to us. Who does she never write to? 6. His wife sometimes took his car. What did his wife sometimes take? 7. We will never write them postcards. What will we never write them? 8. She was showing us the city. What was she showing us? 9. She bought a new coat because it was reduced for 50%. Why did she buy a new coat?
10. Beer made you sleepy. Who did beer make sleepy? 11. We won't go out as it is raining. Why won`t we go out? 12. They have had it since Christmas. How long have they had it? 13. I gave it to her because she really wanted it. Why did I give it to her? 14. Her parents have objected to her choice. What have her parents objected to? 15. They will do it as soon as it is possible. When will they do it? 16. We usually stay at home for Christmas. Where do we usually stay for Christmas? 16. He stole your idea. What did he steal? 17. I have brought you this invoice for signature. What have I brought you for signature? 19. I wanted it. What did you want? 20. We have asked you nicely. How have we asked you? You have been my neighbour for twenty years. How long have you been my neighbour? 21. She buys them when they are reduced. When does she buy them? 22. He will stay because of her. Why will he stay? 23. His wife would like to go with you. Who would his wife like to go with? 25. They have promoted her because of her good work. Why have they promoted her? 26. The project was prepared in due time When was the project prepared? 27. Auditors have just sent their report. What have auditors just sent? 28. They used all possible delaying tactics for not paying the bill. What did they use for not paying the bill? 29. The management decided to convene a meeting. What did the management decide to convene? 30. Future plans will be presented at the annual conference. When will future plans be presented? 31. Balance sheet shows all basic facts. What does balance sheet show? 32. Our PR can be regularly contacted by mail. How can our PR be regularly contacted? 33. We have sent out all invitations. What have we sent out? 34. We couldnâ€™t reach him yesterday. When could`t we reach him? 35. Gross profit has dropped for 30 %. How much has gross profit dropped? Make questions for underlined words 1. They run a small family hotel. What do they run? 2. Their customers paid in due date. When did their customers pay? 3. They have just used the delaying tactics. What have they just used? 4. Company credit cards will significantly improve payment discipline. What will company credit cards will significantly improve? 5. Big companies pay within 90 days. When do big companies pay? 6. They should solve this problem. What should they solve? 7. We now owe you 5.000 EUR How much do we now owe you? 8. The company will charge you penal interest. What will the company charge? 9. She often makes mistakes in her invoice Where does she often make mistakes? 10. Our accounting department is moving this week. When is our accounting department moving? 11. I have a serious cash flow problem What do you have? 12. This company has a terrible reputation. What reputation does this company have? 13. Many companies give their employees corporate cards. Who do many companies give corporate cards to? 14. The hotel has to submit invoice to the company. What does the hotel have to submit to the company)? 15. The company often borrows money What does the company often borrow? 16. We have found a good interest rate. What interest rate have you? 17. The bonds fell drastically on local market. How (much) did the bonds fall on local market? 18. Investors chose your bank. What/Who did investors choose? 19. He bought shares in a public company. Where did he buy shares? 20. I Would like to become a shareholder at your company. Where would you like to become a shareholder? 21. Our company has just published financial results. What has our company has just published? 22. Annual report includes also profit and loss accounts. What does annual report also include? 23. Public companies have to publish annual reports. What do public companies have to publish?
10. INDIRECT, POLITE QUESTIONS
I wonder who knows the answer start with: Can you tell me, could you tell me, I wonder, I am wondering, Iâ€™d like to know, I am interested
Why have you done it yourself? I`d like to know why you have done it yourself.
Does the sun shine in summer? Can you tell me if the sun shines in summer. Did you give it to him just because he asked nicely? I wonder if you gave it to him just because he asked nicely. What have you bought for that money? Can you tell me what you have bought for that money. When will he help you? Could you tell me when he will help you. Why has she done that? Can you tell me why she has done that. Have they ever helped in such a situation? Can you tell me if they have ever helped in such a situation. Was the manager really mad about him? I`d like to know if the manager was really mad about him. Why haven’t they taken a taxi? I would like to know why they haven`t taken a taxi. When was she promoted? Can you tell me when she was promoted. Does he regularly check his mail at weekends. Can you tell me if he regularly checks his mail at weekends. Why did they miss this great opportunity. Can you tell me why they missed this great opportunity. Have you ever regretted taking this job? I wonder if you have ever regretted taking this job. Why didn’t he pay the bill? Can you tell me why he didn`t pay the bill. How long has he been drinking so heavily? I wonder how long he has been drinking so heavily. How many regional buyers have you visited? I wonder how many regional buyers you have visited. Does she always write down all the details? Can you tell me if she always writes down all the details. What has she forgotten? I wonder what she has forgotten. Does she forget important things? Can you tell me if she forgets important things. Where did you choose that last minute trip? Can you tell me where you chose that last minute trip. Does she really know all the details? Can you tell me if she really knows all the details. Why has he left the company? Can you tell me why he has left the company. Does he like travelling? I Wonder if he likes traveling. When did the system collapse? Could you tell me when the systems collapsed.
Put direct questions into indirect, polite ones, Does your company often borrow money? I’d like to know of your company often borrows money. What interest rate did you find? Can you tell me what interest rate you found. Are the rates variable? I wonder whether (if) the rates are variable. Why has it fallen on local market? Could you tell me why it has fallen on local market. Have investors chosen your bank? Do you mind telling if investors have chosen your bank. Why did you buy shares in a public company? I am wondering why you bought shares in a public company. Would you like to become a shareholder. We are interested if you would like to become a shareholder. Why does our company have to publish financial results? I’d like to know why does our company has to publish financial results. Where did they do this? Can you tell me where they did this. Does their annual report include also profit and loss accounts? I am wondering whether their annual report includes also profit and loss accounts. Why do public companies publish annual reports? I wonder why public companies publish annual reports. What is total profit? Could you tell me what total profit is. Is my computer being repaired right now? I am wondering if my computer is being repaired right now. Did her boss really complain about her work at the last meeting ? We would like to know if her boss really complained about her work at the last meeting, 15. Why do they keep these documents in a safe? I’d like to know why they keep these documents in a safe. When did they build their new premises? Can you tell me when they built their new premises. Why hasn’t CEO’s letter been written yet? I wonder why CEO’s letter hasn’t been written yet. Who will you invite to the meeting next December? Could you tell me who you invite to the meeting next December. Did the accountant prepare balance in due time?. I am wondering if the accountant prepared balance in due time. Does the new candidate have to choose this? We would like to know if the new candidate has to choose this. Why did they promote only him last year? I’d like to know why they promoted only him last year. Did you carefully weigh up your investment? Can you tell me if you carefully weighed up your investment. What opportunities does this fair offer? I wonder what opportunities this fair offers
11. MODAL VERBS Obligation: Must, Have to, Should Ability: Can, Could, Should Possibility: May, Might
I can’t get a dialling tone on my phone. It may be because there’s a fault in the phone, or it could be in the phone line, or I might not have plugged the phone in. So I check the plug, but it’s in the socket, so it can’t be that. The phone company says the line is OK, so the phone ought to/should work, but it doesn’t. The fault must be somewhere in the phone itself.
HAVE/HAS TO affirmative
Present Have to/ has to DO/DOES… have to Don’t/doesn’t have to
Past had to
Future Will have to
DID…...have to Didn’t have to
Will…..have to Won’t have to
12. PISNI IZPIT vzorec
Give SHORT answers
Say whether sentences A log on
B connect to a network system account, normally using a password means moving from webpage to webpage
Hackers are persons who try to get into guess somebody’s
computer systems. This can be sometimes done simply by trying to
Complete the following sentences hardware stores Basic computer hardware is PC, network, server, printer, CD ROM. Server is a powerful computer that stores and allows access to data files.
Complete missing parts of the dialogue A. What do you do? B. I write articles and reports about fashion industry. A. How do you work/design? B. I talk to people from the fashion industry and fashion world and of course, I closely follow the market. A. Where do you get information? B. Well, there are some good internet sites which give a lot of information and I attend all important fashion events. A. Was there any fashion even recently? B. It was the Milano Fashion Show last week. Put in the correct Present Simple or Continuous Usually she doesn’t discuss (not discuss) the possibility of outsourcing some technical staff. Usually our factory team does (do) everything itself, but at the moment they are testing (test) the newly developed vehicle.
Put in the correct Past Simple or Continuous While the manager
was studying (study) the balance sheet he found out
(achieve) outstanding results
(find out) that the company
Put in the correct Present Perfect Simple or Continuous He
has been working (work) for DHL since 1990 and has never had (have) any regrets joining them. been (be) among nice, hardworking colleagues..
Since the very first day he had
Turn into passive The management has turned down my application. My application has been turned down (by the management) We are studying your proposal. Your proposal is being studied
Put sentences in Active or Passive We were My car
discussing (discuss) about your problem at the last meeting. will be repaired (repair) tomorrow.
Complete the missing gaps in conditional clauses If my parents let (let) me, I will go with you.
would be (be) possible. If the sun had shined (shine), we wouldn’t have stayed at home.
I will certainly do it if it
Make questions for underlined words They promoted her because she had the best sales results.Why did they promote her? She never checks her mail at weekends. She never checks her mail at weekends. They will regret this opportunity.What will they regret? Put direct questions into indirect, polite ones Why does she have to drive so slowly? How come does she drives so slowly? Has he really been working for that company? Could it be that he really works for that company? She wanted to speak to you. Who did she want to speak to? Additional Grammar Exercises for Part II of the test
Put in the correct Present Simple or Continuous Does your friend knows (know) English well enough to work for that multinational company? Can you believe (believe) that now he has (have) a new car again? The management of the company had (have) an interview with accountant who wished (wish) to leave them. Who do these keys belong (belong) to? The employee didn’t want (not want) to cooperate in the project and his supervisor didn’t know (not know) how to persuade him. Does it cost (cost) much to change departure date?
Put in the correct Past Simple or Continuous
While the sales manager was giving (give) his presentation, all local representatives were thinking (think) about their future business. I ran into (run into) him while I was visiting (visit) a trade fair. He admits (admit) that he stole (steal) company documents. Local management fought (fight) hard to get a bigger market share. The police found (find) her while she was driving (drive) a stolen car. The president wasn’t able (not be able to) to thoroughly explain the situation.
Put in the correct Present Perfect Simple or Continuous She never regretted (never/regret) leaving that company. I have been waiting (wait) for your reply since yesterday. He has (have) his present job since 2000 and was (be) promoted twice already. How long do you actually live (live) in your new house? We have just finished (finish) the project, however they still haven’t pay (not pay) us for the work done. How long have you been (be) the sales manager? Oh, haven’t you heard (not hear) the latest news? I have just left (leave). He was working (work) on this problem for a week and still wasn’t able (not be) able to finish it.
Turn into passive Our company exports products to many foreign countries. Products are exported to many foreign countries The management has turned down my application. My application has been turned down (by the management) The supervisor was revising your document. Your document was revised You should repeat it several times. It should have been repeated several times We have to pay the bill. The bill must be payed Nobody understands me. I am not understood He always helps her. She is always helped
She may translate the letter for you. The letter will be translated (for you) The management had to study your proposal. Your proposal had to be studied Burglars have just broken into their villa. Their villa had just been broken into I can check the sales figures. The sales figures can be checked We are studying your proposal. Your proposal is being studied
Put sentences in Active or Passive Our software is being upgraded (upgrade) right now. The boss will present (present) our work at the following meeting. You should have kept (should/keep) these documents in a safe. Company’s premises were built (build) last year. Programmers had been written (write) all last week. Our accountant had just finished (finish) annual plan. Only a few candidates will be invited (invite) for the interview. These goods were exhibited (exhibit) at the last fair. She has been working (work) for the new government since the day it has been elected (elect). Price list is not prepared (not prepare) yet.
Complete the missing gaps in conditional clauses She will certainly do it if it would be (be) possible. If he returned on time, he …would have helped (help) you. If she hadit (do), she would certainly have regretted it. The manager would be mad about him if he has done (do) that. If I had checked the mail on time, I would (have) known (known) what had happened. If he had (have) any money, he will certainly pay the bill. If our company invites all regional buyers, the conference could be (be) a big success. If you wrote (write) down my instructions, you wouldn’t have difficulties now. If they had chosen (choose) our products, they would pay half of the price. She would have given you all the details if she knew (know) them. If she is (be) busy she won’t be able to come. If you had studied (study) the contract, you would have understood his reaction.
Make questions for underlined words They can be accommodated in a small family hotel.Where can they be accommodated? This customer always pays in due date. When does this customer always pay? This company always used all delaying tactics possible. What does this company always use? Big companies should really pay in due time. What time should big companies always pay? He now owes you 5.000 EUR. How much does he own you now? We have to charge you penal interest. What do we have to charge you? She made a stupid mistakes in her invoice. Where did she made a stupid mistake? Our accounting department has to charge you this service. What does our accounting department have to charge you? We had serious cash flow problems. What did we had? This company has a terrible reputation. What kind of reputation does this company have? The hotel had to submit invoice directly to the company. Where did the hotel had to submit the invoice?
Put direct questions into indirect, polite ones manjka 1. Why did your company have to borrow money? 2. What is the interest rate? 3. Have rates been variable? 4. Why did it fall on local market? 5. Which investor did you choose? 6. Am I allowed to buy shares in a public company? 7. When did you become our shareholder. 8. Do they have to publish financial results? 9. Where did they publish their reports? 10. What is gross profit? 11. Why do we have to keep these documents in a safe? 12. Did CEO write his letter? 11. MODAL VERBS Obligation: Must, Have to, Should Ability: Can, Could, Should Possibility: May, Might HAVE/HAS TO affirmative interrogative
Present Have to/has to DO/DOES… have to
Past had to DID…...have to
Future Will have to Will…..have to
Don’t/doesn’t have to
Didn’t have to Won’t have to
I can’t get a dialling tone on my phone. It may be because there’s a fault in the phone, or it could be in the phone line, or I might not have plugged the phone in. So I check the plug, but it’s in the socket, so it can’t be that. The phone company says the line is OK, so the phone ought to/should work, but it doesn’t. The fault must be somewhere in the phone itself.
Translate the following sentences using modal verbs Vstopnice lahko kupite tukaj. You can buy tickets here. Ti moraš nositi očala. You have to/must wear glasses Njej ni treba plavati.She doesn’t have to swim. Tukaj ne smete piti.You mustn’t drink here. Ni ti treba čakati nas. You don’t have to wait for us. Tukaj lahko plavate. You can swim here Jaz moram to narediti. I have to/must do it. Njemu ni treba prit. He doesn’t have to come. Vi ne smete voziti tako hitro. You mustn’t drive so fast. Ni nam treba narediti naloge. We don’t have to do our homework. Ona lahko plava v slabem vremenu. She can swim in bad weather. Ti moraš poslušati. You must listen. Ni vam treba priti danes. We don’t have to come today. Ne smeš vpiti. You mustn’t shout. Ni ti treba povedati. You don’t have to tell. Some more sentences to translate for your homework Vi morate več brati in pisati. You must read and write more. Ne smeš kaditi v tej sobi. You mustn’t smoke in this room. Ni ti treba vsega znati, toda moraš se naučiti osnovnih časov. You don’t have to know everything, but you must/have to learn basic tenses. Moral sem voziti po levi. I had to drive on the left. Kdaj je morala ona plačate te račune? When did she have to pay these bills? Zakaj smo morali mi to narediti? Why did we have to do it? Ti bi moral jesti več zelenjave. You should eat more vegetables. Ne bi smel piti toliko piva. You shouldn’t drink so much beer. Zakaj bomo morali priti tudi mi na sestanek? Why will we also have to come to the meeting? Ne smeš piti tega, je strup. You mustn’t drink it, it is poison. Ni se ji treba več učiti. She doesn’t have top study any more. Ne bo vam treba več to poslušati. You won’t have to listen to this any more. Ne smeš voziti tako hitro. You mustn’t drive so fast. Ti bi moral gledati prometne znake. You should look at traffic signs. Ni mi bilo treba potovati sami. I didn’t have to travel alone. Ne bi smela nositi te obleke. You shouldn’t wear this dress. Zakaj sem morala jaz več plačati? Why did I have to pay more? Ne bom mogla priti tako zgodaj. I won’t be able to come so soon. Ni mu treba vsega narediti sam. He doesn’t have to do everything alone. Moral bi iti k zdravniku, le on ti lahko pomaga. You should go to the doctor, only he can help you. Ne smeš napisati vsega, kar on govori. You mustn’t write everything he says. Ali moram tudi jaz priti z njimi? Do I have to come with them too? Insert the correct modal verb 1. You mustn’t cross the street when there is red light, you must wait till the green light is on. You should/must leave your car at the car park, you mustn’t/shouldn’t park it on the pavement. 2. Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the post office, please. No, I can’t because I am not from here. You should ask somebody else. You can also ask a policeman. But I can tell you where you can have good lunch. You can go to the pub over there pub which is really good. 3. Children, you mustn’t make such a noise, grandpa is sleeping. You must/should go out in the garden. 4. On Sundays I can, stay in bed till 12 because I don’t have to go to school. 5.Sorry, but I can’t come right now, I am terribly busy studying for the exam, and I think you should do the same, and I don’t think you can learn everything in one hour. I hope next week we will be able to meet and discuss about the situation. 6. Last week I had to ork really hard, my parents were away and I had to (make) lunch and all the jobs around the house. Ok, it is true that I didn’t have to do (do) exactly all the work that is done by parent but I was pretty occupied.
7. Tell me, how old were you when you could read? I learnt to read when I was 7, however I couldn’t to read a newspaper then, I could not even understand it. 8. Don’t bother about the test, there are always things you don’t have to know, and even if you know something perfectly, you still can’t know everything. 9. I am afraid I can’t help you with that problem, however you don’t have worry about it, it is not so difficult as it may seem. 10. When I was a child I had to obey my parents, now I have to listen to my teacher and I really hope that once I am independent I will be able to do it my way. 11 Why did/do you you have to pay so much for that? In principle this service should be free of charge! 12. Whenever he goes on holiday he really enjoys it because he knows he can sleep as long as he wishes, he doesn’t have to follow instructions of his boss, there is nothing that would bother him. 13.Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the station? Well, you should take the first on the right and after 50 metres you are there. 14. I think you shouldn’t smoke so many cigarettes, this is really bad for your health. 15. When I become independent I won’t have to listen to anyone, I will be able to do whatever I will want to. 16. Why do you always have to do all the work yourself? I think you should tell also others what they are supposed to do. MODAL VERBS WITH PERFECT INFINITIVE Translate these sentences using modals+ perfect infinitive 1. Ne bi ti bilo treba poslati vseh dokumentov. You needn’t have sent all documents. 2. Moral bi bil povedati o tem dogodku. You should have told about this event. 3. Lahko bi bili končali poročilo v ponedeljek. You could have finished report on Monday. 4.To ni mogel biti moj brat, ker je on trenutno v Ameriki. This can’t have been my brother, he is in America at the moment. 5. Morda je bil pozabil na naš dogovor. He may have forgotten about our agreement. 6. Ni ji bilo treba pisato o tem, sedaj imamo pa težave. She needn’t have written about this, now we have difficulties. 7. Gotovo ste bili zelo utrujeni, ker ste hodili toliko časa. You must have been very tired as you were walking such a long time. 8. Morala bi te vprašati za dovoljenje, ne bi bila smela storiti po svoje. I should have asked you for permission, I shouldn’t have done it my way. 9. Lahko bi bil povzročil nesrečo. You could have caused an accident. 10. Morda pa je bil prebral vse o tem podjetju. You should have read all about the company. 11. Ni je mogel razumeti, saj ne govori slovensko. He can’t have understood her as he doesn’t speak Slovenian. 12. Ne bi ti bilo treba kupiti toliko stvati, saj jih ne boš potrebovala. You needn’t have bought so many things as you won’t need them. 13. Gotovo so bili zelo presenečeni, ko so vas srečali. They must have been very surprised when they met. . 14. Morala bi ti bila omeniti ta problem. She should have mentioned the problem to you. 15. Lahko bi nas bili povabili. You could have invited us. 16. Morda so se bili izgubili na letališču. They may have got lost at the airport. 17. Peter tega ni mogel narediti, ker ga ni bilo v službi. Peter can’t have done that as he was not in the office. 18. Ne bi mu bilo treba priti. He needn’t have come. 19. Gotovo ste že bili kupili njihove izdelke. You must have bout their products already. 20. Ne bi mu bila smela lagati. He needn’t have lied. 21. Lahko bi se bili preje prepričali. You could have made sure before. 22. Morda so bili pozabili na naš dogovor. They may have forgotten about our agreement. 23. Ona gotovo ni mogla storiti tega sama. She can’t have done it herself. 24. Ne bi ti bilo treba delati toliko. You needn’t have worked so much. 25. Gotovo so se že srečali. They must have met before. 26. Morali bi bili prevesti tisto pismo. You should have translated that letter. 27. Morda je bil prišel že prejšnji teden. He may have come already previous week. 28. Ona ni mogla tega naročiti, saj ne pozna dobavitelja. She can’t have ordered that as she doesn’t know the supplier. 29. Ne bi ti bilo treba vstati tako zgodaj. You needn’t have got up so early. Insert correct modal verb+perfecr infinitive to express certainty and probability for the past I saw your sister in the theatre last night. You can’t have seen (see) her as she is in Australia right now. Nobody has been in that house for a month. - Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper basket. Somebody must be (be) here quite recently. Our next door neighbours were making a terrible noise. They quarrelling. (quarrel) again. He says that when he was walking across the park he was attacked by wolves. He can’t have been attacked (attack) by wolves). There are no wolves in the park. He may/must have seen(see) some Alsatian dogs.
I am sure somebody must have stayed (stay) at that place as the fridge is still full of fresh vegetables. George was in a strange mood yesterday. He may not have felt (feel) very well. She must have been (be) very pretty when she was young as she was Miss America in 1958. I heard you singing last night in your flat. You can’t have heard (hear) me since I was not at home. Peter is late for the meeting. He may have missed (miss) his bus or he might have forgotten (forget) all bout the meeting. He can’t be/have been (be) involved in this political affair, he is far too honest, they must have framed (frame) him to discredit his authority and respect he has among his voters. The manager can’t have mentioned (mention) the current situation as he himself told us not to talk about it publicly. They must have been. (be) here before as they know all the details, they …………………. (learn) only from the literature available. She must have panicked (panic) when the accident happened, that's why she left without stopping. Somebody must have betrayed (betray) you, the police knew every single detail of your movements. Susan is all red around her eyes. She must have been crying (cry). He may have forgotten (forget) about our agreement or does not want to remenber it, everything is possible with him.
Rewrite these sentences using modal verbs 1. Perhaps she didn´t want to help you. She must have been angry with you. 2. He never comes. Perhaps he does not like our company. He may not like our company. 3. I am sure he told her everything. He must have told her everything. 4. Why is she crying? Perhaps she is unhappy. She may be unhappy. 5. No, I am certain it wasn´t my brother because he is in the States. It can’t have been Susan. 6. He didn´t send me any message. He may/might/could/must have forgotten 7. What is this noise about? It must be the neighbours 8. Why doesn´t she look at us? She may not see us. 9. Perhaps she never dares to talk about her troubles. She may not dare to talk about her troubles. 10. She is smiling all the time. She must be very happy. 11. Peter didn´t arrive. Perhaps the plane was delayed. The plane may have been delayed. 12. I am sure it was the dog who broke the vase. The dog can’t have broken the vase. 13. Why are they laughing so loudly? Perhaps they have just heard a good joke. They may have just heard a good joke. 14. I am sure this isn´t her brother. She has only one sister. This can’t be her brother. She has only one sister. This 15. He never comes with his girlfriend. He may not want to 16. I am certain that he was not happy there. He can’t have been happy there.
Carry on with the same type of exercise for your homework Perhaps she doesn't know what to do. She May not know what to do. She didn't turn up. Perhaps she forgot about the meeting. She may have forgotten about the meeting. I am certain he she was dating Peter when she was a student. She must have dated Peter when she was a student. Why is the police interrogating him. Perhaps he is involved in the robbery. He may be in the robbery. No, I am sure it isn't Mary's letter. She is at home. It can’t be Mary's letter. She is at home. She didn't answer my phone call. She may have gone out. What is going on? They have been shouting for an hour. They may be quarrelling Why didn't she buy the food? She may not have enough money. How did the boy know everything about us? Somebody must have told them. She is in a bad mood today. Somebody may have upset her. Perhaps she didn't tell the teacher about our problem. She may not have told the teacher about our problem.. She hasn't called. Perhaps she did while I was at the meeting She may have done it I was at the meeting. I am sure she was with Peter when I called them. She must have been Peter when I called them. Why is she so happy? Perhaps she passed the test. She may have passed the test. I am sure it isn't the boss. He is in America. It can’t be the boss. He is in America. They didn't invite us to their party last night. They could have invited us to party last night.
14. IRREGULAR VERBS Nedoločnik Be
Past tense was
Past participle been
(be)come Begin Bite Blow Break bring build buy can catch choose cost cut dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead lean leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell
(be)came began bit blew broke brought built bought could caught chose cost cut dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led leant left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold
(be)come begun bitten blown broken brought built bought / caught chosen cost cut dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hid(den) hit held hurt kept known laid led leant left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold
(postati)priti začeti ugrizniti pihati zlomiti prinesti graditi kupiti lahko-možno ujeti izbrati stati,veljati rezati kopati storiti vleči,risati piti voziti jesti pasti hraniti čutiti bojevati se najti leteti pozabiti odpustiti zmrzniti dobiti dati iti zrasti viseti-obesiti imeti slišati skriti udariti,zadeti držati raniti ohraniti vedeti položiti voditi nagniti se-sloneti oditi posoditi pustiti ležati prižgati-razsvetiti izgubiti narediti pomeniti srečati plačati-povrniti položiti brati jahati zvoniti Dvignitise-vsta(ja)ti teči reči videti prodati
send set shake shine shoot shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend stand steal stick swim swing take teach tell think throw understand wake wear win wind
sent set shook shone shot shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spent stood stole stuck swam swung took taught told thought threw understood woke wore won wound
sent set shaken shone shot shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spent stood stolen stuck swum swung taken taught told thought thrown understood woken worn won wound
poslati postaviti tresti sijati streljati zapreti peti potopiti (se) sedeti spati drseti govoriti izdati,porabiti stati krasti nasaditi plavati sugati se vzeti uÄ?iti povedati misliti vreÄ?i razumeti zbuditi se nositi zmagati naviti
Iz testa Wich are the main types of computers? - Mainframe large -minicoputer - perosnal computer - server What kind of services are aviable on the internet? E- mail, IRC, FTP, TELNET Nam a few advantaes of electronic publishing quick updates, much cheoplen, smoll size Expressions in column A and definitions in column B are wrong. Join them correctly.
A peripherales Hertz Bus
ASP Broadband Shareware CEO CV Headquartes encrypting
B Other parts connected to the CPU Measure of speed A set of connectors used for carrying signals between different parts of a computer Sands for application service provider Connection with a high signal capacity Software that is free to try but must be paid if it is used after the trial period Managing director Written record of your education and employment Head office Protecting data by putting it in a form only authorized users can understand