Regulations and Standards for Temperature-Controlled Supply Chains / Page 4 30 Years of National Lightning Detection / Page 8 How to Preserve 18,000 Years of Artwork / Page 10
Vaisala in Brief
3 Creating Value for Customers 4 Regulations and Standards for Temperature-Controlled Supply Chains
Vaisala is a global leader in environmental and industrial measurement. Building on 75 years of experience, Vaisala contributes to a better quality of life by providing a comprehensive range of innovative observation and measurement products and services for chosen weather-related and industrial markets. Headquartered in Finland, Vaisala employs approximately 1,400 professionals worldwide and is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki stock exchange.
8 30 Years of National Lightning Detection 10
How to Preserve 18,000 Years of Artwork
12 Lightning Research Through the Years 17 Alert! Roadway Prone to Flooding 19 Tracks Across Europe 20
Accredited or Certified?
What regulations, standards and guidelines to take into account to make sure that the fundamental requirements of a safe supply chain for drugs and biotechnology are satisfied? Page 4
Vaisala is celebrating the 30-year anniversary of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network®. The first ever lightning strike was recorded on June 1, 1983. Page 8
Cover photo: Shutterstock / Editor-in-Chief: Sanna Nyström Publisher: Vaisala Oyj, P.O. Box 26, FI-00421 Helsinki, FINLAND Phone (int.): + 358 9 894 91 / Telefax: + 358 9 8949 2227 Internet: www.vaisala.com / Layout: Sampo Korkeila Printed in Finland by: SP-Paino / ISSN 1238-2388
Vaisala’s instruments monitor carbon dioxide in the prehistoric Lascaux cavern to preserve its 18,000 years of artwork. Page 10
Creating Value for Customers We at Vaisala have always valued opportunities to push ourselves – and our offering and services – to the next level for the benefit of our customers. This thinking is highlighted in our vision: we want to be the leading provider of operational value in the markets we operate in. This means that we strive to understand our customers’ business and use that understanding to drive our offering development so that we are able to offer products and services that are not only technologically advanced but also give our customers that little bit of extra to help them succeed in their mission. A part of it is that we provide a reliable customer experience in every contact a customer has with us, and simplify our own operations so that the service we provide is quick and efficient, whatever the circumstances. Creation of customer value is only possible if we focus on what our customers want from us and what matters to them the most. One continuous effort to keep us on the right track is our annual Customer Satisfaction Survey. This year’s survey is currently being carried out – I want to warmly thank everyone who has taken the time to respond. Every piece of feedback is truly appreciated. The Customer Satisfaction Survey gives us an objective overview on
what is expected from us and how our performance is valued. Positive feedback is always appreciated as an indicator of satisfied customers – after all, this is what we work hard for every day. But for me, the true value of the survey lies in the critical feedback, as it helps us pinpoint the areas where we need to improve our performance in order to serve our customers even better. The results will be in and the resulting actions shared during the coming fall. I’m looking forward to seeing what kind of a difference the development efforts we have implemented since last year have made.
Kjell Forsén President and CEO
Regulations and Standards for TemperatureControlled Supply Chains
Basing supply chain management firmly in the regulations, standards and guidelines of ICH and the FDA will ensure that the fundamental requirements of a safe supply chain for drugs and biotechnology are satisfied.
The two greatest risks in pharmaceutical and biotechnology supply chains are the risk of product becoming adulterated during transport and the risk of non-compliance with federal regulations, guidelines and standards. Two organizations that carry significant regulatory weight are the combined forces of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Whereas the jurisdiction of the FDA is primarily in the United States and Puerto Rico, the ICH is an international entity that involves the US, Japan and the European Union. In this article we look at the FDA regulations and ICH guidelines that address supply chain management for temperature-controlled pharmaceutical and biotechnical products, including: • ICH Guidance for Industry Q1A(R2) Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products • ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guidelines Q6A and Q6B (Test Procedures and Acceptance
Criteria for New Drugs and New Biotechnology) • FDA CFR Title 21 203.32, 203.36, 211.150 • FDA 483 observations on cold chain applications with suggested deviation offsets Moving temperature-sensitive products renders the supply chain a “cold chain” (sometimes also called “cool chain”), and products that fall under the purview of federal law and enforcement agencies further evolve the logistics process into a regulated cold chain. However, there is currently no single standard, guidance, regulator, document or arbiter with the final say on a compliant cold chain for a given region.3 Instead, manufacturers and distributors face a myriad of regulations, requirements, conferences, technical reports, guidelines and recommendations from disparate agents.
Scientific Approach to Cold Chain Management To simplify your approach to cold chain management into a principle, ask yourself what any regulatory body (and inspector) will want to
know. From a regulatory standpoint, the question always comes down to the quality and completeness of your scientific (i.e. verifiable) knowledge of a product and the environments it moves through before reaching the end user. A common introduction to many is an FDA Form 483 observation: “Your firm did not establish scientifically sound and appropriate specifications, standards, sampling plans, and test procedures designed to assure that components, product containers, in-process materials, and transport methods conform to appropriate standards of identity, strength, quality and purity.” As in all FDA-regulated applications, establishing and documenting data on your operating environments that are “scientifically sound” should be your underlying
Typical cold chain distribution
Who? Where? How? Duration? Temperature range? Excursions?
goal in compliance efforts. Cold chain quality engineers, cold chain managers, packaging engineers and other stakeholder must understand their environmental conditions and product parameters better than any inspector. After the knowledge of conditions and parameters is established comes the documentation of that knowledge, without which, it may as well not exist.
ICH Guidance The ICH publication: “Guidance for Industry: Q1A(R2) Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products”4 describes proper management of temperature excursions in shipping and short-term storage applications. For testing and acceptance criteria of closure systems for new drugs (chemical) and new biotechnology, refer to these guidances: • Q5C Quality of Biotechnological Products: Stability Testing of Biotechnological/Biological Products5 • Q6A Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Drug Substances and New Drug Products: Chemical Substances • Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Drug Substances and New
Drug Products: Biotechnological/ Biological Products While not specific to distribution applications, these guidances contain valuable criteria for creating tests that will ensure products are protected during shipping and shortterm storage. A crucial element to creating a compliant cold chain is to create tests that accurately represent the real-time, real-world shipping environment, including primary and secondary containers, transport and storage durations, seasons and climatic zones. It should be remembered that the ICH guidelines aren’t standards; rather, they are “guidance for meeting technical requirements…” and “…are intended to be used in combination with any regional requirements…”8. Quality managers, cold chain engineers, and anyone whose responsibilities include a temperature-controlled supply chain are accountable for understanding ICH recommendations. FDA inspectors often cite non-adherence to ICH9. In the Q5 guideline, under “Storage Conditions Part 6.3, Accelerated and Stress Conditions10” the ICH recommends that stress tests be performed in order to define the conditions that may occur during transportation that will affect the
product. To recommend testing, the guide is necessarily broad because of all the different types of products that might be shipped. The testing will not only determine the conditions that impact the product, but should also determine which tests are best for determining stability.
Regulations by US Food & Drug Administration Three key regulations from the FDA that address cold chain are: 1. 21 CFR 203.32 “Prescription Drug Marketing – Drug sample storage and handling requirements.” • This subpart (D--Samples) contains two parts that stipulate that (a) “Storage and handling conditions” not adversely affect the drug and (b) manufacturers, distributors of record, and their representatives comply with all compendial and labeling requirements.13 2. 21 CFR 203.36 “Fulfillment houses, shipping and mailing services, comarketing agreements, and third-party recordkeeping” looks at “comarketing agreements” with any third party involved in shipping and storing drug samples. This section states that the manufacturer or distributor is responsible for record keeping and
documentation and must comply with the Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) and amendments. The PDMA document contains recommendations relating to 21 CFR Parts 203 and 205 and outlines how to document drug products that pass from manufacturers to Authorized Distributor of Record (ADR) and provisions regarding pedigrees.14 3. 21 CFR 211.150 of Subpart H: Holding and Distribution - “Distribution procedures” states that these products must be shipped within: “…appropriate temperatures and under appropriate conditions in accordance with requirements, if any, in the labeling of such drugs, or with requirements in the current edition of an official compendium, such as the United States Pharmacopeia/ National Formulary (USP/NF).” • “(2) Appropriate manual, electromechanical, or electronic temperature and humidity recording equipment, devices, and/or logs shall be utilized to document proper storage of prescription drugs.” • (3) The recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (f) of this section shall be followed for all stored drugs. –– “(f) Recordkeeping” states that drug distributors must maintain records and inventories that show receipt and distribution or “other disposition” of prescription drugs. These records must include the source of the drugs, the address of the location that the drugs were shipped from, the identity and quantity, and the dates of receipt/distribution/other disposition. Records must be kept and accessible for inspection for 3 years after the date of their creation.15 The regulations reveal what one expects: documentation is key to compliance with federal regulations. Unfortunately, the supply chain has
many links; each requires thorough records and many stakeholders can contribute to a document portfolio of a given product in the chain. When setting up a cold chain management system that complies with federal regulations, you’ll need to create or obtain detailed records of stability data, geographical data (including climatic zones), shipping and storage durations at each point in the journey, and contingency procedures for delays, out-of-specification conditions or other unexpected events.
Conclusion The success of a supply chain depends on and is measured by its ability to deliver products that can serve their ultimate purpose with the end user. In pharmaceutical supply chains, this means that a product must arrive unadulterated and with its efficacy fully intact. In the context of a successful supply chain, organizations that enforce regulations and create quality standards act not only as arbiters, but as partners in quality. With globalization and emerging markets, many countries look to ICH and the FDA for guidance in approaches to improving supply chain control and performance. It follows that basing your regulatory compliance firmly in the regulations, standards and guidelines of these two organizations will ensure that the fundamental requirements of a safe supply chain for drugs and biotechnology are satisfied.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/coldchain
1 Oversees documentation 2 From: “ICH and FDA: A Valuable Cooperative” by Corrine Knight and Annette Dunn, http://www. CodaCorpUSA.com/blog or http://blog.CodaCorpUSA.com/2010 3 “Preserving the Cool Chain,” Mary Simpson, Edith Penxten, Elie Dechesne, http://www.pharmaceuticaloutsourcing.com/pdf/POD001_054E_BristolMyers.pdf, retrieved 5/22/2012 4 http://www.fda.gov/downloads/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm128204.pdf, retrieved 6/25/2012 5 ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline: Quality of Biotechnical Products: Stability Testing of Biotechnical/Biological Products Q5C http://www. ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/ Guidelines/Quality/Q5C/Step4/Q5C_Guideline.pdf, retrieved 5/23/2012 6 The full name of ICH is the “International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use” Source: http://www.ich.org/about/ faqs.html, retrieved May 22, 2012 7 Guidance for Industry Q1A(R2) Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products http://www. fda.gov/downloads/regulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm128204.pdf 8 See ICH Work Products, “Are the ICH Guidelines ‘standards’?” http://www.ich.org/about/faqs.html, retrieved 5/22/2012 9 http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/ WarningLetters/2007/ucm076496.htm 10 Q5 – Stability Testing of Biotechnical/Biological products 11 Page 8, Q5– Stability Testing of Biotechnical/Biological products 12 Page 9 Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/ Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/ Quality/Q1A_R2/Step4/Q1A_R2__Guideline.pdf 13 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/ cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=203, retrieved 5/22/2012 14 A drug pedigree is a statement of origin that identifies each prior sale, purchase, or trade of a drug, including the date of those transactions and the names and addresses of all parties to them. See CPG Sec. 160.900 Prescription Drug Marketing Act – Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203 http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/ ucm073857.htm, retrieved 6/14/2012 15 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/ cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=205.50, retrieved 5/22/2012 16 http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/ OfficeofGlobalRegulatoryOperationsandPolicy/ ORA/ORAElectronicReadingRoom/default.htm, obtained through the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act at the FDA electronic reading room, accessed 5/22/2012 17 Parenteral Drug Association’s “Technical Report No. 39 Revised 2007 Guidance for TemperaureControlled Medicinal Products: Maintaining the Quality of Temperature-Sensitive Medicinal Products through the Transportation Environment” covers the methods of qualifying the cold chain applications. 18 “IPEC-Americas Certificate of Analysis Guide for Bulk Pharmaceutical Excipients” (Glossary, Page 17) offers a definition of ‘acceptance criteria’ that can be extrapolated to aid in understanding acceptance criteria use in SOPs for pharmaceutical manufacturing processes; “The specifications and acceptance/rejection limits, such as acceptable quality level and unacceptable quality level, with an associated sampling plan that are necessary for making a decision to accept or reject a lot or batch of raw materials, intermediate, packaging material or excipient.“ It is important to note that acceptance criteria as defined by the IPEC carries an inherent definition of rejection criteria – that is, all that is outside of a minimum or maximum limitation. 19 “Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals – A compendium of guidelines and related materials” WHO, Page 17 http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s14136e/s14136e.pdf, retrieved 5/28/2012 20 See also: “Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals” WHO, Page 27: Section 7. Contract production and analysis
Suggested solutions for maintaining a GDP-compliant cold chain and avoiding deviations like the ones excerpted below from FDA Form 483s16 (issued on observations directly related to cold chain management).
Form 483 Excerpt
“Standard operating procedures do not describe how kits are packaged or labeled to ensure that temperature specifications are maintained during shipment.”
The problem here could be that the SOP lacked the appropriate information even though a package and labeling performance qualification study was done, or the study wasn’t done at all. Proper shipping validation would produce a document outlining standard packaging and labeling configuration. SOPs ensure that kits are packaged in the validated configuration and labeled with the applicable temperature specification. Primary packaging should be qualified in the Identification of Requirements process (See: TR3917 process flow) and included in a Functional Requirements document. Include the packaging summary created for the Functional Requirements in the shipping SOP.
“No records are available to ensure that products are shipped and maintained within their storage temperature requirements.”
No record available could mean: 1. 2.
They monitored but no records were kept, or the records were lost. If the latter, this is a record storage and retention issue. Or, They don’t monitor and had no records.
What’s required is a monitoring program of some sort; however, it must be proceduralized to make sure records are reviewed and maintained. “The standard operating procedure lacks acceptance criteria for the storage and movement of material between two sites.”
This may just be a poor SOP. They might not have had the specifications, but that would have shown up in the Form 483. More likely is that the SOP was just poorly written and/or not well reviewed. Three elements of acceptance criteria are: 1. 2. 3.
“Temperature specifications are not defined for the shipment of packaged, temperature monitored bulk products and filled vials to and from the filling contractor.”
They define the ways that SOP users confirm that the transport and holding processes are functioning as intended. They identify the objective results of a process; they must take into account the product specifications, and process flow requirements. Acceptance criteria must be measureable and verifiable.18
They need to get the specifications defined and included in a shipping SOP. A copy of the batch record, stability statement, and/or a Certificate of Analysis (COA) should provide a history of the conditions pertinent to the quality of the final product.19 Contracts should also contain handling instructions for all bulk and finished products. 20
“Bulk material intended for refrigerated storage is left at ambient conditions for several days before shipping.”
What’s required is either an SOP, or a way to make sure the existing SOP is followed. A simple solution may be installing a validated storage environment because one is lacking in the loading/shipping area.
“The shipment by truck of finished vials from one site to another is not yet validated.”
A gap in qualifying the entire flow of transportation indicates a lack of identifying the transportation process and performing the necessary qualifications outlined in PDA TR39.17
Melanie Scott / Meteorologist / Vaisala / St. Louis, MO, USA
30 Years of National Lightning Detection Vaisala is celebrating the 30-year anniversary of the U.S. National Lightning Detection NetworkÂŽ. Since the first lightning strike was recorded on June 1, 1983 the NLDN has become the most accurate, reliable and scientifically validated lightning detection network in the United States. Starting from its early days where researchers and agencies partnered together to create the first lightning networks, the history of the U.S. National Lightning Detection NetworkÂŽ (NLDN) has been a unique combination of scientific discovery,
inter-organizational cooperation and technological development. Over the years, the data generated by the network has helped advance meteorological and scientific understanding of lightning and severe storms. Agencies such as
Map uses the NLDN data to display recent lightning activity across the continental U.S. Each symbol represents one recorded lightning event.
the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS), major utility companies, and airports use the data to help improve meteorological forecasting of storm activity; protect critical power, utility and communications infrastructure from lightning damage; and enable the issuing of safety warnings and educating the public about the dangers of lightning.
History of Scientific Discovery Pennsylvania, 41.8949 latitude, -75.7814 longitude. June 1, 1983 at 00:04:47 Z. This was the earliest lightning location data recorded and archived by the NLDN, which was then only a regional network in the Northeast United States operated by the State University of New York at Albany. In the 15 years leading up to this point, many firsts were achieved in lightning sensing technology by the NLDN pioneers. Research and experiments in networking the sensors and processing the data, for example, would continue, and more firsts were yet to come. For example, the NLDN was the first to use CBAND technology in the 1980s to send data from remote sensor locations to customers via a network center. In 1987, the network began using very small aperture terminal satellite communication technology (VSAT), and was again a pioneer in its adoption. In 1989, the NLDN was the first lightning detection network to reach complete coverage across the continental United States. During the first year of coast-to-coast coverage, the
total number of recorded flashes was 13.4 million.
The 1990s: Significant Performance Improvements With the expansion of the network and the establishment of a dedicated data center, real-time and historic NLDN lightning data were made commercially available in 1991, marking the beginning of application-specific software development. In 1992, the performance of the network was significantly improved when the first lightning sensor to combine Magnetic Direction Finding and Time of Arrival detection technologies in one sensor was released. This was a breakthrough in achieving better lightning location accuracy. In 1995, the first major networkwide upgrade was completed. Specifications included improved location accuracy, real-time delivery of flash and stroke data, improved detection efficiency for strokes with peak current above 5 kA, and long-term network reliability. Thanks to the upgrade, the NLDN was now able to capture and report lightning flashes and individual strokes within a flash, giving users detailed information about latitude, longitude, peak current and stroke time for each detected stroke. According to validation studies, the advancement increased flash detection efficiency to 80-90% with median stroke location accuracy of 500 meters. In 1998, the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN), owned by Environment Canada, was integrated with the NLDN. The integration represented another big step forward, providing a comprehensive view of lightning and storm activity across country borders and on a continental scale.
The 2000s: Further Advancements in Sensing Technology Real-time and historic NLDN lightning data was made available online in several application-specific formats during the year 2000. Online access gave users quick and easy access to the data when and where they need it. The network was again upgraded in 2003 with a new sensor equipped with several improvements that increased sensitivity and improved detection of cloud lightning discharges. Independent validation studies following the upgrade have verified detection efficiencies of 92% and 76%, respectively, for flash and stroke detection, and a median location accuracy error of less than 500 meters. As a result of the upgrade, the NLDN started to report the occurrence and frequency of cloud lightning discharges on a limited basis. The continued algorithm and sensing technology improvements
have led to more accurate data that can be used to investigate how cloud lightning differs from cloud-to-ground lightning and how it can be used to predict severe weather. The latest upgrade, currently ongoing, includes deploying new digital technology sensors with improved software that enhance cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning detection further. In addition, the median location accuracy of the NLDN will improve from about 300 m to about 150 m in the interior of the network. Throughout its 30-year history, continuous innovation, scientific research, and technological advancements in sensing technology have driven the development of the National Lightning Detection NetworkÂŽ. The work continues today, making sure that the NLDN keeps setting the bar as the most accurate, efficient and reliable lightning detection network in the United States.
For a detailed historic timeline, interesting lightning statistics, customer stories and more go to www.vaisala.com/nldn30. 190/2013â€‚9
The Unicorn Panel in the Hall of th Bulls. Photograph N. Aujoulat ©MCC-CNP
Jean-Francois Bore / Inside Sales Engineer / Vaisala / Bonn, Germany
How to Preserve 18,000 Years of Artwork Discovered in 1940, the painted cavern of Lascaux in the Southwestern France’s Dordogne region is the most famous ornamental prehistoric cave of the world. The cave consists of a large amount of images of animals such as bisons, aurochs, deers, horses, lions, and rhinos as well as monumental hunting scenes and different objects and signs. The cave, along with other prehistoric sites in the Vézère valley, was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.
Fragile Environment Vulnerable to Changes in Ambient Conditions The Lascaux cave was discovered in an exceptional state of conservation. During thousands of years the natural convection air movements in the cavern helped preserve the state of the images. After the cave was
discovered, it was opened to public – against the advice of scientists who wanted to allow entry only to a very restricted number of people in order not to disturb the stable and fragile environment. After the grand opening in July 14, 1948, thousands of people visited the cave complex, despite the fact that the first signs of black and white fungal spots became noticeable already in 1949. In the 60’s, a number of problems became evident due to up to 1,800 daily visitors in the summer time because of the release of CO2 from the visitors’ breathing, the presence of artificial lighting and changes in air circulation. The main problem was that all this had begun to damage the pigment of the prehistoric paintings. In 1958 the first air monitoring system was installed, but it couldn’t stop the spreading of mold. The site was closed to the public in 1963.
Monitoring carbon dioxide in the harsh environment of the prehistoric ‘sistene chapels’ of Dordogne, France.
Nowadays the cavern is open only to scientists who work hard to maintain its good ambient conditions. In 1983, authorities opened LASCAUX II, a replica of the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery that the
Thierry Simon of PTS Mesures, holding the Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT520.
public can visit 200 meters from the original.
Simon, referring to the Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT520 multiparameter sensor.
Air Monitoring System Protects Cave’s Environment
Why Measure CO2 — and Weather Parameters?
The ambient conditions inside the Lascaux complex are as follows: a temperature of 12-13°C, a CO2 concentration of 0.3% to 1%, and relative humidity close to saturation. ‘’In the Well of the Wizard, a low part of the cavern, we have measured up to 8 percent CO2’’ says Philippe Malaurent, one of the best technical experts of painted caves in Europe. He is an Engineer in the Bordeaux University, and has more than 30 years of experience in this research field. “In comparison, the normal CO2 concentration in the air is around 0.04%. The environment is harsh, nevertheless Vaisala’s CO2 probes perform very well,’’ he adds. Vaisala has supplied several measurement instruments in the air monitoring system used in the Lascaux complex. The metrology is done by PTS Mesures, a Marseillesbased company with long experience in metrology and monitoring systems, which has been working with Vaisala for more than 15 years. The company is one of Vaisala’s trusted local resellers. ‘’Vaisala instruments are excellent for demanding applications, and I am a huge fan of the WXT520’’ says the company’s manager Thierry
“In Dordogne, most of the caves are calcareous. The monitoring of CO2 levels is a must for us in order to closely follow the calcareo-carbonic equilibra,’’ Malaurent explains. When CO2 reacts with condensed water vapor, it produces carbonic acid, as shown in the formula CO2 + H2O <—> H2CO3. The paintings in the cave are being attacked by the combination, and they lose their color pigments. In the worst cases, the attack on the paintings’ support can lead to rock crumbling. Another cave, not far from Lascaux, named Font de Gaume is one of the last painted caves still open to the public in Europe. Here too Vaisala helps protect the paintings with three Vaisala CARBOCAP Carbon Dioxide Transmitter GMT221s operating inside and a Vaisala WXT520 outside the cavern. The entrance of the cave is sealed, and the number of visitors as well as the time they spend inside is carefully measured and recorded. “If the CO2 concentration reaches too high levels, we are forced to deny the public entry. This is of course to protect the paintings,” Malaurent says. Wind and rainfall data monitoring are not forgotten either. The Font
Vaisala CARBOCAP Carbon Dioxide Transmitter GMT221 hard at work in the cave.
de Gaume is not completely closed and tight, but has some holes in the upper parts of the cavern. This enables air communication between the inside and the outside of the cave. Wind speed and direction are recorded, because they can modify the inner parameters in the cavern. In Lascaux, the measurements done by the Vaisala WXT520 also give valuable data regarding infiltration of water through soil. Cool water can also contain more gases, therefore increasing the level of CO2.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/GMT220 www.lascaux.culture.fr www.pts-mesures.com Special thanks to the Centre des Monuments Nationaux de France and the Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles d’Aquitaine.
Melanie Scott / Meteorologist / Vaisala / St. Louis, MO, USA
Lightning Research Through the Years
Tohoku Electric Power Company and Vaisala partnered to advance lightning detection.
Research projects that span several years or even decades are common for scientists, and many times these projects have resulted in some amazing discoveries. At Vaisala, a team of scientists, engineers, meteorologists and researchers are working on research projects about a variety of weather phenomena, one of which is lightning. Vaisala scientists have been working for nearly 20 years on a Winter Lightning Research Project in Japan. While this is a long time, the outcome has been worth the wait, especially for Tohoku Electric Power Company in Japan and now other electricity companies in the region as well.
In the Beginning The history of the Winter Lightning Research Project dates back to the 1995/1996 timeframe, although researchers were studying the phenomena as early as in the 1970s. Tohoku Electric Power Company
serves a region of Japan that is plagued by winter lightning. The interesting part is that winter lightning characteristics are significantly different from “traditional” summer lightning. The technology that Tohoku was using at the time, the IMPACT sensor from Global Atmospherics Inc. (purchased by Vaisala in 2002) did not do a good job of detecting winter lightning. In fact, many papers had been written detailing the poor lightning detection efficiency of networks employed in Japan during winter, so it was a well-documented problem. Tohoku Electric Power was already involved in a project in cooperation with a local university, observing current waveforms and the discharge waveform features of lightning strikes to an isolated tower on the coast of the Sea of Japan in winter. Some important findings from that study were included in the “Winter Lightning in Japan” section of the book “Lightning Physics and Effects”, written by Dr. Vladimir A. Rakov and Dr. Martin A. Uman from University of Florida. When the system for tower observations was decommissioned, Tohoku started making observations at other locations to identify the characteristic field waveforms associated with lightning that struck transmission lines in winter. The company succeeded in this effort by using network of fast antennas with no dead time. This put Tohoku in a good position to provide data for the Winter Lightning Research Project; and thus, the venture was initiated. A proposal was created in 1996, and Global Atmospherics Inc. (now Vaisala) and Tohoku agreed to work jointly on a solution to improve winter lightning detection efficiency and location accuracy.
Developing and Executing the Plan Many researchers in Japan were anxious to see Lightning Location System (LLS) performance improved,
“Global lightning research is happening all the time at universities, private companies and government agencies. This research has produced great insight to lightning’s effects on our lives.”
1,675 strokes (green) and 594 cloud pulses (black) located by a six sensor LS network in Tohoku region during an evaluation period.
but Tohoku Electric Power was the only company to step forward with funding under the Winter Lightning Research Project. The proposed solution was the development of a Remote Programmable Sensor (RPS) whose firmware could be upgraded in the field, and whose waveform detection parameters might be adjusted in accordance with the season in an effort to improve winter lightning detection efficiency. Mr. Noriyasu Honma at Tohoku Electric Power had also been very interested in the effect of propagation time differences on LLS location accuracies in the mountainous terrain of Japan. His research indicated that the timing errors resulting from a system based on a flat earth model caused reduced location accuracy. Thus, it was important to also
study making propagation corrections to the collected data. The original planned features for the RPS were: • Field upgraded from IMPACT to RPS • Detect and report both cloud-toground and cloud discharges • Remote configuration, programming and download • 32 Bit CPU, support multiple GPS subsystems • Automatic calibration and Selftest • Zero dead time (continuous sampling) • Arbitrary waveform duration up to one second • DSP based signal processing • Flexible waveform feature extraction and selection
“Have you ever thought about lightning’s effect on the electricity grid? Electric companies do, and their help has supported the further development of lightning detection technologies.” Tohoku Electric Power Company provided an initial investment to fund the engineering expense associated with the RPS development, along with an order for nine upgrades to the RPS in November 1996. The original timeline planned for completion of the RPS in late 1999 or early 2000. However, the first generation RPS sensors were not produced until 2003. They were the Vaisala Thunderstorm CG Enhanced Lightning Sensor LS7000. The LS7000 employed low frequency, combined magnetic direction finding and timeof-arrival technology to provide the highest level of detection efficiency and most accurate location for cloudto-ground strokes. On the Tohoku side, an existing lightning central processor (APA283T) and nine IMPACT sensors were used initially for field research. During the project the lightning sensors were continually evolving, and the IMPACT sensors turned into the IMPACT-ES and then the IMPACTESP sensors, all due to enhancements made along the way. In 2002, a waveform recording device was added to the IMPACT-ESP sensors in the field, giving scientists more substantial data to review. Then in 2003, four Vaisala LS7000s were purchased along with a new central processor (the LP2000). Two more LS7001s (the next generation of LS sensors) were added in 2008.
One concrete example of the project’s results: The Vaisala Thunderstorm CG Enhanced Lightning Sensor LS7001. It detects low frequency signals using magnetic direction finding combined with time-ofarrival technology to deliver double the detection accuracy of high peak current winter lightning discharges compared to earlier sensors.
While the enhancements made to the lightning sensors were good, there was still more to be done. Tohoku had its own waveform (Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse, or LEMP) recording equipment, which was invaluable in the development and verification of the current lightning sensor’s waveform processing capability. Transmission line fault locators were also used to provide insight about the timing and location of faults, which could then be linked to a possible lightning event. Tohoku is one of those rare places in the world where there are multiple observation systems detecting the same events. Mr. Honma was the main researcher at Tohoku, but he was supported by assistants throughout the project to collect and study data. In addition, four or five Sankosha engineers participated at various times during the life of the project. Sankosha is a local engineering company in Japan and their role was to support both Tohoku and Vaisala with installations and maintenance of all of the sensors and central processors. Sankosha engineers helped Mr. Honma collect, analyze and reprocess data, while also functioning as a liaison between Vaisala and Tohoku, sometimes providing support for writing portions of project-related papers. Tohoku, Sankosha and Vaisala all knew the Winter Lightning Research Project would take years of research and development, and as the project progressed each year, all parties maintained their commitment to the project. Although progress in the research was minimal for quite a few years, the project agreement continued to be renewed throughout the early 2000s.
In January 2009, Mr. Honma wrote a letter to Vaisala emphasizing that Tohoku’s commitment to the project remained strong, accepting revised conditions of the project agreement, ordering two more lightning sensors, and pledging to submit additional LEMP waveforms correlated with lightning events detected by the LLS. Progress increased dramatically after Mr. Honma’s letter. His commitment and vision for better lightning detection inspired everyone involved in the project. The past few years have seen the development of waveform processing capability in the sensor, improved onset correction techniques and the application of propagation corrections in the processor. The final item in the project is the design and testing of effective classification parameters for “Ground to Cloud” (GC or Upward) lightning. Tohoku Electric Power is anxious to see the waveform classification parameters completed, and they have the waveform recording equipment required for verification. Thus, research and enhancements to lightning detection capabilities continue.
Results The main objective of the Winter Lightning Research Project was to improve winter lightning detection efficiency and location accuracy. Was it achieved? The short answer is “Yes,” but many other positive outcomes were achieved during the research period as well. First, the elimination of dead time leading to continuous sampling may have been the most significant result of the project as it caused a dramatic improvement in detection efficiency. Earlier, a lightning sensor might be busy processing small-signal, minor lightning events and miss damaging, large-amplitude strikes because some amount of time was required for the sensor to return to the state where it could process signals again. This is no longer true. Second, the ability to detect events with more complicated
lightning waveforms has resulted in a dramatic increase in winter lightning detection efficiency. Third, the implementation of improved onset corrections enabled better timing, hence improving location accuracy. And fourth, propagation corrections now instituted in the Vaisala Total Lightning Processor TLP have also improved location accuracy. Today, when propagation corrections are applied to data in the processor, location accuracy can be improved to the 150-300 meter range. In addition, other significant advancements were realized. The sensor can now “replay” waveforms in order to evaluate performance, and sensor improvements can be made remotely by uploading software over a network, for example. The Winter Lightning Research Project has had a dramatic effect on the lightning detection market in Japan, and the improvements in detection efficiency and the expected improvements in location accuracy (once propagation corrections have been implemented) are viewed as very important by local electric power companies. Of the nine electric power companies in Japan, all but two now have upgraded lightning sensors that include the improvements that came from this project,
and the remaining two are working toward it. Franklin Japan Corporation, owner and operator of the Japan Lightning Detection Network (JLDN) has also started to upgrade its network of 30 sensors.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/lightning
Vaisala lightning sensor in Tohoku, Japan.
Credits and Papers As with any research, papers were written and presented throughout the project. Specifically, papers on the Winter Lightning Research Project were presented at the International Lightning Detection Conference (ILDC) in 2010, and at the International Symposium on Winter Lightning in Sapporo, Japan in 2011. In addition, a paper on “Improved Detection of Winter Lightning in the Tohoku Region of Japan using Vaisala’s LS700x Technology” was subsequently published in the IEEJ Journal. Along with Mr. Honma and Vaisala, Dr. Kenneth L. Cummins, Professor at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Alburt E. Pifer, Consultant for Vaisala Inc., have been key players throughout their involvement in the Winter Lightning Research Project. Both Dr. Cummins and Dr. Pifer worked for Vaisala during the early research period, providing their expertise on lightning science and creative solutions to enhance lightning detection capabilities. Critical product development work was carried out by Dr. Martin Murphy and Tim Rogers of Vaisala Inc., and Michael Pezze, formerly of Vaisala Inc.
Alert! Roadway Prone to Flooding When most people think of weather impacting the roads we travel it is almost always about the problems caused by snow and ice. However, one of the largest ways weather can impact our road network is by causing roads to flood. Flooding is an especially dangerous condition because it is quick to impact the roadway, and the results can be tragic. Besides accidents related to snow and ice, high water kills more motorists than any other weather event including lightning, tornadoes, or hurricanes.
Dangerous Effects of High Water It’s a typical summer day, and the weather forecast is calling for a chance of thunderstorms, which seems very unthreatening at the start of the day. If these thunderstorms do occur, and produce heavy rain, and people are not warned, it could have dire consequences. Why is flooding such a problem? Flooding is quick, usually impacting a roadway within hours of the rain, giving few chances for a warning message to reach each and every motorist. A flooded road can look
very unassuming, especially if the driver knows the road. It may appear that the water is only inches above the road, but the water could be hiding a washed out road surface below. It only takes a small amount of water to move what a driver thinks is a heavy vehicle off the road.
Manual or Automatic? The good news about most flood prone locations is they are almost always repeat offenders, meaning that when heavy rains fall, these locations almost always flood. The methods to notify drivers before they reach the flood location are almost as many as the number of locations. The key to successfully protecting motorists is a reliable method of warning drivers of the location. Also, option to monitor water levels remotely makes road maintenance operators’ lives easier as physical monitoring is not necessary and the team can focus on other
Flooded roadways are the second leading cause of weather related fatalities. A flood detection system that is both reliable and cost effective is the key to keeping motorists safe.
issues that can occur during heavy rains. Some of the more traditional methods of notifying motorists include a static sign that simply says, “Road Subject to Flooding.” These types of signs have little impact because drivers become accustomed to them, and the sign loses its effectiveness. The next type of notification involves someone driving to the site and placing a temporary sign, turning on a flashing beacon, or closing a road closure gate to notify motorists. This method is better, but relies heavily on placing and removing the warning message in a timely manner. If this is not done quickly problems can occur, and the public can lose faith in the system. The final method is relying on technology to automate the notification process by alerting road maintenance to take action, alerting vehicles approaching the site about conditions, or notifying both. Auto-
Automation removes much of the human error that can occur when flooding happens. 190/2013 17
mation is a superior method because it removes much of the human error that can occur when flooding happens, and clears the notification once the flooding has subsided.
Simple â€“ but Stateof-the-Art Vaisala has a flood detection system for many flood notification applications. The site consists of a small footprint weather data logger that collects the data, a radar based water level sensor, and flashing beacons at the roadside to warn motorists. Simple, yet robust, the system monitors the possibility of flood occurrence, and helps keep motorists informed and safe. The small size of the system makes it unassuming in urban areas, while the ability to be powered with solar panels and use wireless communication means it works well in rural remote locations as well. The low cost weather station provides a perfect platform for a low total life cycle cost solution, which is usually a must for a flood detection system. The detection of the water occurs with a radar based sensor that monitors the water level of a dry wash, stream, or river. The product uses pulsed radar principle to determine the water level without making direct
contact with the water. It is insensitive to mud, drift material, weeds and aggressive substances such as sewage and brackish water. The installation above the water means that both installation and maintenance costs are kept low. During installation the current water level and an alarm threshold are set, so that notification can be sent to the flashing beacons when the water rises to the critical level, and turned off as soon as the water has receded. Road maintenance operators can, of course, access the site remotely to monitor water levels so that no onsite inspection is required, allowing the team to focus on other challenges likely caused by the heavy rain.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/roads
A flooded road can look very Âunassuming, especially if the driver knows the road. But it only takes a small amount of water to move a vehicle off the road.
Flood System near Dallas, TX in USA.
Sanna Nyström / Editor-in-Chief / Vaisala / Helsinki, Finland
Tracks Across Europe Following the success of previous year’s tour across America, this winter Vaisala’s mobile road weather technology took Europe by storm. A year ago Vaisala took its new Condition Patrol mobile road weather technology on the road, demonstrating its functionality to customers in a hands-on way across the United States. This past winter the tour – and the Condition Patrol – landed in Europe. Kicked off in the end of October at the 2012 ITS World Congress in Vienna, Austria, the Tracks Across Europe tour traveled through 20 European countries that are especially prone to snow and ice before ending at the Vaisala Headquarters in Helsinki, Finland in March. Along the way it demonstrated how the
mobility of Vaisala’s Condition Patrol system allows road maintenance crews to gather weather data along their entire network of roads in real time, which has never before been possible. The mobile sensing equipment of the Vaisala Condition Patrol system are installed on vehicles that then patrol a network of roads collecting weather information along the way. The mobility of the system – it can be attached to any vehicle – makes it a perfect complement to fixed road weather stations, providing those in charge of road maintenance information to make better decisions, reduce costs, protect the environment, and reduce the likelihood of traffic crashes.
5 Vehicles, 5 Months, Countless Observations The Tracks Across Europe tour used multiple vehicles to cover as many countries and different weather climates as possible. During the five months on the road, countless demonstrations and workshops were arranged from Romania to the UK
and from Scandinavia to Italy, Spain and Portugal. The multiple vehicle approach also helped to highlight the flexibility of the system’s installation on any vehicle with a roof rack. Each vehicle was equipped with the same weather monitoring sensors: one on the back using a laser pointed at the road surface to measure if the road is dry, wet, or icy; an infrared sensor near the front monitoring the temperature of the pavement; and a final sensor, located near the infrared sensor, monitoring the air temperature and amount of moisture in the air. Based on the observations, the system determines the condition of the road and calculates the level of friction, that is, how slippery the roadway is. Based on all the information, the system provides recommendations about treatment options that help the road maintenance decision maker to determine what actions need to be taken to ensure the road remains safe.
Further information: http://mobiletour.vaisala.com www.vaisala.com/roads
Accredited or Certified? Vaisala’s customers requiring accredited calibration services are scattered across a wide variety of industries, but they have one common requirement: to follow strict quality policies. Here are answers to the seven questions about accreditation they most frequently ask us.
Vaisala has a long history of systematically developing its measurement and calibration systems. Even in the company’s early years, self-made production equipment and related measurement technologies were externally verified. The early work resulted in the foundation of the cutting-edge Measurement Standards Laboratory in Helsinki, Finland in 1978 that received accreditation as one of the first laboratories in Finland to apply for third-party recognition. Since its foundation, the Measurement Standards Laboratory has helped maintain and improve the traceability and accuracy of Vaisala products. What’s more, it has also created unique opportunities for Vaisala to develop highly accurate and reliable measurement products
and systems. In 2001, accredited calibration services for selected humidity, temperature, and pressure products were introduced, and the offering has since been expanded with an additional dew point parameter. The following addresses the seven most frequently asked questions about calibration.
What is laboratory accreditation? Accreditation is formal third-party recognition by an authoritative body of a laboratory’s competence, both to work to specified standards and to carry out specific tasks that are defined in the scope of the accreditation. The laboratory’s management and quality systems are assessed during the accreditation process, as
is the laboratory’s technical competence to carry out the specific tasks. The main standard used for accrediting calibration and testing laboratories globally is the ISO/IEC 17025: General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.
What is the difference between accredited and certified laboratories? Although the terms accreditation and certification are sometimes used interchangeably and both terms address the issue of quality management systems, they are not synonymous. Accreditation is formal thirdparty recognition by an authoritative body, verifying that a laboratory has an acceptable quality management system in place and can properly perform tasks according to the accreditation scope. Certification is written assurance by a third party that a product, process, or service conforms to specified requirements. For example, Vaisala can certify a laboratory to carry out calibration services for Vaisala products.
Who are the accreditation bodies? There are many accreditation bodies providing accreditation services worldwide. Accreditation bodies are usually either members of multilateral recognition agreements or have mutual recognition arrangements signed by international organizations, such as the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC), the International Accreditation Forum Inc. (IAF), and the European co-operation for Accreditation
Helsinki Vancouver Boston
Vaisala’s accredited laboratories for instrument calibrations.
(EA). Accredited laboratories may use these arrangements to reduce the need to get accredited in multiple countries.
How is accreditation achieved and maintained? Accreditation is achieved after an audit of the laboratory’s quality and management systems is conducted by an individual or team of assessors. The assessors, typically experts in the calibration industry or representatives of national laboratories, also ensure that the laboratory is technically competent to carry out the measurements included in the accreditation scope. To maintain accreditation, laboratories are periodically re-evaluated by the accreditation body to ensure their continued compliance with requirements, and to check that their standard of operation is being maintained.
What is the difference between traceable and accredited calibration? Traceable means that the result of a measurement can be related to
stated references of either national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons. An accredited calibration service provider is one that has been approved by an accreditation body. During the accreditation process, the laboratory needs to prove the traceability of their measurements to a national or international standard.
instrument calibrations that are recognized by all major international accreditation organizations. Customers all over the world are served from the following locations: Helsinki, Finland; Tokyo, Japan; Boston, United States; Vancouver, Canada; and São Paulo, Brazil.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/calibration
Who needs accredited calibrations? Accredited calibration is typically required when formal third-party recognition is expected, for example when instruments are used as reference standards, or to meet various demands from different authorities. Accreditation provides the customer with an assurance of highquality service, as the laboratory has been assessed to be technically competent to conduct their tasks by an external assessor.
Who provides accredited calibration services? There are accredited laboratories all over the world. Vaisala has five accredited laboratories for specific
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New Wireless Temperature and Humidity Transmitter Features Fastest, Simplest Installation Ever Recently launched wireless version of Vaisala’s Continuous Monitoring System allows secure monitoring, alarming and reporting of temperature, relative humidity, CO2, differential pressure, contacts and other critical parameters in life science applications. The Vaisala HUMICAP® Wireless Humidity and Temperature Transmitter HMT140 uses Wi-Fi to connect to any existing network. “The wireless system is simple to set up, because it disposes of the two most common problems with implementing a new monitoring system or even scaling up from an existing one: the need to overhaul networks and install extra access points,” Product Manager Jon Aldous says. “With the Vaisala HMT140, the sensor, memory, power and transmitter are all within a compact enclosure, making the system much
easier and cost-effective to install and manage. With wireless networking quickly becoming the preferred mode of connectivity, this solution is a timely addition to our existing connectivity options.” The built-in transmitter communicates directly with the user’s existing network, eliminating the need to purchase and install extra transmitters when installing a new sensor. Nor is there any need to install and maintain a dedicated network, which significantly reduces the costs of installation when compared to other similar systems. The on-board memory provides point-of-measurement recording so that data remains protected from loss in case of a power failure or network downtime. The Vaisala HUMICAP® Wireless Humidity and Temperature Transmitter HMT140 can be used in
warehouses, freezer and cryogenic farms, laboratories, blood banks and many other life science applications. It has an IP65 rated enclosure, which makes it optimal for cleanroom environments. The Vaisala Continuous Monitoring System ensures that GxP environments and processes are properly monitored, continuously alarmed and supported by secure, 21 Part 11-compliant reports. With its real-time trending and multi-stage alarming capabilities, the CMS helps facilities avoid costs associated with ruined or adulterated products from out-of-specification conditions by quickly alerting personnel when condition trends indicate possible malfunction.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/HMT140
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New Family of Humidity and Temperature Transmitters for HVAC Applications Vaisala INTERCAP® Humidity and Temperature Transmitter Series HMDW80 is a complete set for collecting the basic humidity and temperature information needed for a variety of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning applications. Combining top quality with affordable price, the new transmitters are optimized for reliable operation and easy installation with very little maintenance. The excellent
stability of the INTERCAP® sensor ensures reliable measurement with minimal maintenance, and if needed, the sensor can be easily exchanged on location with practically no downtime at all. The versatile Vaisala HMDW80 series includes basic transmitters for walls and ventilation ducts, IP65classified instruments for wash-down areas and other humid spaces as well as transmitters with a radiation
shield for outdoor use. The series also contains transmitters that measure temperature only as well as transmitters with an optional display, and also provides calculated humidity parameters of dew point, wet bulb and enthalpy in addition to the direct output parameters.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/HMDW80
Instruments Catalog Available Vaisala’s industrial product catalog was again published during the winter. The catalog presents Vaisala’s instruments for measuring humidity, temperature, dew point, moisture in oil, carbon dioxide, pressure and different weather parameters for a wide range of industrial applications from
compressed air and power transmission to metrology and HVAC. In addition, the catalog introduces the proprietary sensor technologies on which Vaisala’s products are built, such as HUMICAP® for relative humidity and BAROCAP® for pressure measurement.
Download your copy at www.vaisala.com/industrialcatalog 190/2013 23
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Vaisala Increased Its CDP Standing The pressure for companies to report on their risk management and aversion concerning climate change is clearly increasing. One group of stakeholders pushing companies forward is the international financial community. An increasing amount of investors monitor companies’ economic, social and governance performance as well as risk management practices concerning the effects and opportunities of climate change. To bring much needed knowledge on the effects of climate change on businesses, the Carbon Disclosure
Project (CDP) collects greenhouse gas emissions data and risk assessments from companies to form an extensive database for investors. This information is used for instance as a criteria in financial indices, company evaluations, and portfolios limited to responsible investments. Vaisala has been responding to the CDP investor questionnaire for three consecutive years. This time around we also responded to the Supply Chain questionnaire for the first time as this was requested by one of our longstanding customers.
Vaisala received a score of 74 points, which showed clear improvement to previous years and was higher than the Nordic average of 69 points. We believe that increasing our transparency towards our stakeholders by reporting on our sustainability policies and actual data serves us, our customers and investors in the long run.
More information about the CDP, see http://www.cdproject.net/
2012 Annual Report, Financial Statements and Corporate Responsibility Report Available Vaisala’s annual reports were published in March and remain available for ordering. Printed copies of the Corporate Responsibility Report and the Financial Statements can be ordered at www.vaisala.com/publications.
Both are also available as PDFs on Vaisala’s website. The online Annual Report is available at www.vaisala.com/annualreport. The online version of the Corporate Responsibility Report can be accessed at www.vaisala.com/ sustainability.
te Corpora bility si Respon 12 20 rt Repo
Financ ia Statem l ents 2012
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Series of Lightning Webinars Vaisala organizes a series of educational webinars about the various aspects of lightning as a phenomenon and the intricacies of its detection. Webinar topics range from general lightning related information to specific technological or application related issues. The next webinar will take place on August 27, and it will discuss the uses of lightning data in energy and
transmission system applications. Later topics are meteorological applications of lightning data and lightning safety; cloud lightning discharges and their detection; and applications of lightning data in defense. All earlier webinars are available as recordings. The webinars are directed to all professionals who deal with lightning sensitive equipment or environments
Save the Date! 2014 ILDC/ ILMC in Tucson, AZ Vaisala is pleased to announce the dates and location of the 2014 ILDC/ ILMC. Join us 18-19 March 2014 for the 23rd International Lightning Detection Conference (ILDC) and 20-21 March 2014 for the 5th International Lightning Meteorology Conference (ILMC). Both conferences will be held in Tucson, Arizona in the United States. The ILDC/ILMC is a scientific conference focused on lightning. Organized every other year, the conference provides a forum for global
discussion of lightning physics, research findings, lightning network performance and innovations in lightning technology. Topics range from global to local lightning detection, and the impact of real-time uses of lightning data on society, such as electric power distribution and transmission and telecommunications performance.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/events
like airports, energy industry, meteorological services, and the insurance sector whether they are in need of lightning detection data, responsible for safety issues or just interested in lightning and its detection in general. Speakers include both Vaisala’s own scientists as well as outside experts.
ontinues c s ie r e s The ut 2013 througho ates and ils, d – for deta n go to registratio ala.com/ www.vais ebinars. lightningw
2014 C M L I / C D IL -21 March 18A Z, USA , n o s c u T 190/2013 25
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AMS Editor’s Award 2012 to Evan Ruzanski Every year, the Council of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) gives various awards to individuals for their outstanding achievement in meteorology or contribution to the Society. Last year the AMS Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology Editor’s Award was given to Vaisala’s Evan Ruzanski.
The award recognized Dr. Ruzanski’s outstanding contribution, as a referee, to maintain high quality of the journal by providing insightful, high quality, and prompt reviews of many papers. Dr. Ruzanski is known for his excellence in radar technology both within Vaisala and the scientific community.
Vaisala HM40 – Compact, Versatile, Hand-Held Vaisala HUMICAP® Hand-Held Humidity and Temperature Meter HM40 is now available as both standard and remote probe models. The remote probe alternative further increases the meter’s versatility by enabling convenient measurements in ducts and other difficult-to-reach or confined places. Other features, including an interchangeble Vaisala HMP113 measurement probe, make the Vaisala HM40 an ideal spot-checking tool for a wide range of portable humidity measurement needs from construction sites and HVAC applications to laboratories and cleanrooms. Compact, simple and easy to use, the Vaisala HM40 provides reliable measurement results in various environmental conditions. Its humidity measurement is of the same Vaisala HUMICAP® sensor technology that landed on Mars last summer on board the Curiosity Rover, which speaks for the sensor’s excellence
in terms of long-term stability and its ability to cope with chemical interference. In addition to a wide measurement range for relative humidity and temperature, the Vaisala HUMICAP® Hand-Held Humidity and Temperature Meter HM40 provides calculated quantities for five other humidity parameters. Its user interface was designed to be as simple and intuitive to use as possible with 10 different language choices and a possibility to modify settings to suit individual needs. Large graphic display and robust push buttons increase the usability further, making operating the device easy in any conditions.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/ HM40
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Vaisala HMP155 with a Warmed Probe Option for Meteorological Measurements Vaisala’s patented warmed probe measuring technique ensures reliable humidity measurement in high humidity conditions where fast changes in ambient temperature and dew formation can cause serious errors in the relative humidity measurement. The probe head, that incorporates the humidity and temperature sensors, is warmed above the ambient temperature by an integral heater element. This prevents formation of dew or frost on the humidity sensor and thus prevents
super-saturated conditions where conventional sensors become ‘blind’ due to moisture sublimation on the sensor element. Application areas for the Vaisala HUMICAP® Humidity and Temperature Probe HMP155 with a warmed probe are meteorological sites with a risk of high humidity conditions, such as coastal and maritime environments, tropical areas, and high altitudes.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/HMP155 Vaisala HMP155 with an additional temperature probe and optional Stevenson screen installation kit.
ICLP 2012 Young Scientist Award to Amitabh Nag The 2012 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP) awarded Vaisala’s Amitabh Nag with a Young Scientist Award. ICLP is considered the most prestigious scientific conference in the field of physics of lightning discharges and lightning protection. The Young Scientist Awards are given every two years at the ICLP for scientists under the age of 35 who have delivered an oral or poster presentation of high quality at the conference, and have made notable contributions in the field of lightning research and lightning protection. Dr. Amitabh Nag was awarded for his paper regarding NLDN estimate of peak current for positive flashes, and for his contributions as a session organizer and chairman. The winning paper was co-authored by Dr. Vladimir A. Rakov and Dr. Kenneth L. Cummings.
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Latest Version of Vaisala Continuous Monitoring System Software Fully Supported in 6 Languages
monitoring, alarming, Reporting
As the heart of the Vaisala Continuous Monitoring System (CMS), viewLinc software provides alarming, real-time trending, and 21 CFR Part 11-compliant records for critical parameters in life science environments. Together with Vaisala’s sensing technology, the user-friendly software helps highly demanding controlled environments in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries meet regulatory requirements and ensure against product loss or adulteration. The latest build of the viewLinc software, version 4.1, offers an optimized mobile interface for remote monitoring and alarm management. Along with the location-based and new time-zone specific reporting,
viewLinc is localized for five new languages. “Like its predecessors, Vaisala viewLinc 4.1 is easily deployed for monitoring temperature, relative With non-disruptive installation pressure, on humidity, CO2, differential level, door switches, more,” says existing networks and via PoE, Wi-Fi JonorAldous, Vaisala’s Life Science Ethernet connectivity, viewLinc Product Manager. “But for 4.1 we significantly reduces total cost of localized the software, the IQ/OQ, ownership. Secure browser-based andaccessibility all the user documentation allows users to in remotely German, Chinese accessFrench, a wide Swedish, range of applications and– Japanese. Users cansite now from a local single togenermultiatefacility reportsinstallations. based on theThe timesystem zone of theprovides reportingalarming location and or the monitorreporting ingthat location, which makes the system can be easily configured and truly global in function.” automated. Vaisala’s variety of Other key features Vaisala sensor options meetofand exceed viewLinc 4.1standards include a greatly industry for accuracy and enhanced user interface that is easier
to navigate, more customization
controlled environments, applications capabilitiescritical in historical reports, and live multiple-channel trend display for enhanced reporting. The improved user interface facilitates reliability, extra assurance easy access toproviding product data in a more familiarcalibration Windows-type navigabetween intervals. tion. In addition, it shows data by Ideal for GxP/FDA-regulated location, which allows users to applications and environments easily find their loggers, swap out that contain high-value products, devices, and report data by location. viewLinc is flexible, fully validatable, With theeasy mobile interface, users can and to deploy. Using Vaisala's acknowledge and pause alarms,and view industry-best data loggers livesensing trends on any monitored location devices, environmental under their control, and view trend data are recorded and monitored dataininreal-time, real-time.then backed up with
triple redundancy so that no data Further is lostinformation: during catastrophic failures. www.vaisala.com/viewLinc
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Ultrasonic Wind Sensor Webinars Continue in September Vaisala is conducting a webinar series on using ultrasonic wind sensors for wind energy applications. The sessions discuss ultrasonic wind sensor technology in general, how it compares to mechanical wind sensor technology, and what practical appli-
cations there are for using ultrasonic sensors in the field. The third webinar in the series, “Incorporating Ultrasonic Wind Sensors into Existing Weather Networks” will take place on 18 September, and the fourth, “Best Practices
for Cold Climate Wind Monitoring” on 19 November. Two earlier sessions are available as recordings.
Further information: www.vaisala.com/webinars
Non-Weather Road Transportation Product Lines Divested Vaisala’s non-weather road transportation product lines have been divested to M.H.Corbin, Inc. M.H.Corbin is a well-established US-based distributor with offices in Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York. The company is a long-lasting distributor of all Vaisala’s road offering including the divested product lines. “We are especially pleased that M.H. Corbin continues to serve our
customers. They are experienced and knowledgeable about the business and the products in question. This will ensure that the customers are well taken care of in the future”, stated Antero Järvinen, Director of Vaisala’s Roads and Rail business. The decision was made to allow Vaisala to focus on road weather product offering, development of decision support systems, and related services. The divested
product lines are: a distance measuring instrument which measures the exact linear distance travelled by a vehicle; a portable traffic data analyzer, which provides data such as the number of vehicles, speed of the vehicles and length classifications for short-term studies; and highway advisory radio systems which provide real-time information to motorists via AM radio signal.
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Upcoming Events Industry Events
National Conference of Standards Laboratories (NCSL)
Planning for the Storm (Road Weather)
Nashville, TN, USA
Best Practices in Humidity Measurement August 21
Russian “ROAD-2013” Exhibition
Energy and Transmission System Applications of Lightning Data
Cold Comfort 2013
Building Your Plan (Road Weather)
Analitica Latin America
How to Validate Your Monitoring System Software
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Incorporating Ultrasonic Wind Sensors into Existing Weather Networks
Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data and Lightning Safety
Sioux Falls, SD, USA Helsinki, Finland
National Harbor, MD, USA
Mesurexpovision Paris, France
AABB/CTTXPO Denver, CO; USA
ITS World Congress 2013 Tokyo, Japan
Euro TechCon 2013 Glasgow, UK
ISPE Annual Meeting Washington, DC; USA
Calibration of the Humidity Instrument September 25
How to Choose a Hygrometer October 16
Friction vs Freeze Point (Road Weather) October 22
Cloud Lightning Discharges and Their Detection, Total Lightning October 29
Maintaining a GMP system November 7
Dew Point in Compressed Air November 13
Best Practices for Cold Climate Wind Monitoring
Applications of Lightning Data in Defense
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