Page 1

—portfolio 2018

Vanessa Abram

ARCHITECTURE? IS WHAT

Vanessa Abram is a designer and researcher dedicated to architecture as a field of inquiry, exploration and debate. Her work is interested in the many ways architecture can become a medium to reflect and explore challenges facing contemporary society. Since 2016, Vanessa has worked as Researcher in the Director’s office of the Canadian Centre for Architecture (CCA). In this position, she has contributed to the research and production of exhibitions, publications, and articles, including the exhibitions It’s All Happening So Fast: A Counter-history of the Modern Canadian Environment—a reflection on our often conflicting ideas about human relationships to environment—and Architecture as Storyboard—exploring the intersections between film and architecture with a focus on 1960s and 1970s Italy—, and essays, lectures, and interviews investigating the work of architects such as Cedric Price, Gordon Matta-Clark, and Alvaro Siza; as well as longer-term thematic research that continues to define areas of interest for the CCA. Prior to her work at the Canadian Centre for Architecture, Vanessa received her M.Arch from the University of Toronto along with the OAA Architectural Guild Medal awarded to the highest ranking graduating student. Among other awards, she recieved the Paul Oberman Student Endowment Fund, supporting her thesis research in Japan throughout the summer of 2015. She worked as an architectural designer at OFIS arhitekti in 2014 and as a visiting researcher at the City Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand in 2013.


Vanessa Abram —portfolio 2018


10

Dufferin Commons Community Center, 2014

12

Public Residuals Essay Brief, 2014

14

Manufactured Ruin Memorial, 2016

16

Variations on the Continuous Conveyor Belt City Book, 2016

18

Johannesburg Lines Essay Brief, 2013

20

Arvo Pärt Center Competition Entry Center for the Arts, 2014

21

Alpine Shelter, 2014

22 It’s All Happening So Fast: A Counter History of the Modern Canadian Environment Exhibition, 2016 24

Some sketches

Contents

Glebe Library and Art Gallery, 2010

PROFESSIONAL

8

EDUCATIONAL

Curriculum Vitae

ABOUT

6


Vanessa Abram is a designer and researcher dedicated to architecture as a field of inquiry, exploration and debate. Her work is interested in the many ways architecture can become a medium to reflect and explore challenges facing contemporary society.

Education Masters of Architecture (M. Arch) University of Toronto, Awarded June 2016, Dean’s Honour List Bachelor of Architectural Studies (BAS) Carleton University, Awarded May 2012, Dean’s Honour’s List Studies Abroad: Istanbul Technical University, 2011 Awards + Honours AIA Henry Adams Medal and Certificate, 2016, Awarded to the highest ranking graduating student OAA Architectural Guild Medal, 2016, Awarded to the highest ranking graduating student Paul Oberman Graduate Student Endowment Fund, 2015, Awarded to a student in the Master of Architecture or Master of Urban design program with a proposed plan of travel demonstrating interest in how the historic urban form is being transformed to meet contemporary demands of society, $6,000 Alfred P. Tilbe Memorial Fellowship in Professional Practice, 2015, Awarded annually to a student who has achieved excellence in professional practice, $1,320 Eric Ross Arthur Scholarship, 2015, Awarded to the student with the highest academic standing in the third year of the Master of Architecture Programme, $2,655 Ontario Association of Architects’ Scholarship, 2014, 2015, Awarded to a student completing the Second or Third year of the Master of Architecture Programme, $4,000 Diamond & Schmitt Architects / Ontario Graduate Scholarship, 2014-2015, Awarded to students in graduate studies demonstrating academic excellence, $15,000 Page and Steele Architects Planners Scholarship, 2015, Awarded to a student demonstrating potential for leadership in the practice of architecture and concluding the third year of the Master of Architecture Programme, $2,170 Paul Oberman Graduate Student Endowment Fund, 2015, awarded to a student in the Master of Architecture or Master of Urban design program with a proposed plan of travel demonstrating interest in how the historic urban form is being transformed to meet contemporary demands of society, $6,000 6

John H. and Myrna Daniels Scholars at University of Toronto, 2013-2016, Awarded annually to a student with merit and financial need, $20,000 University Medal in Architectural Studies at Carleton University, 2012, Awarded annually to the graduating student in the B.A.S. Program with the highest academic standing OAA Guild Medal at Carleton University, 2012, Awarded annually to the graduating student in the B.A.S. Program with the highest grade-point average in recognition of outstanding promise in the practice of architecture Nicholas C. Scolozzi Scholarship in Architecture at Carleton University, 2012, Awarded to a student who excels in the Fourth Year design studio, $600 Ontario Association of Architects Award at Carleton University, 2011, Awarded annually, on the recommendation of the Director of the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, to a deserving student enrolled in the Fourth Year of the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, $1,200 OAA Award at Carleton University, 2010, Awarded annually, on the recommendation of the Director of the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, to a deserving student in the Third Year of the Azrieli School of Architecture & Urbanism, $1,200 William and Jean Teron Scholarship Award at Carleton University, 2010, Awarded annually, when merited to an exceptional student selected by the Teron Scholarship Committee based on excellence in a design studio project, $3,500 Michael Russell Coote Memorial Award at Carleton University, 2009, Awarded annually, on the recommendation of the Director of the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism to a promising student who has successfully completed First Year in the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, $860 Sprott Scholarship, 2008; A.D. Dunton Scholarship, 2009; Claude Bissell Scholarship, 2010, M M MacOdrum Scholarship, 2011 at Carleton University, Entrance Scholarship awarded for academic excellence in secondary school, based on a grade point average between 95% - 100%, $16,000


Design Skills

Work Experience

Some Interests

Critical thinking

Canadian Centre for Architecture 2016-2018 Researcher, Office of the Director Work involved research and production of exhibitions, publications, articles, and lectures, including the exhibition It’s All Happening So Fast: A Counterhistory of the Modern Canadian Environment—a reflection on our often conflicting ideas about human relationships to environment—and Architecture as Storyboard—exploring the intersections between film and architecture with a focus on 1960s and 1970s Italy—, and essays, lectures, and interviews investigating the work of architects such as Cedric Price, Gordon Matta-Clark, and Alvaro Siza; as well as longer-term thematic research that continues to define areas of interest for the CCA.

- New relationships between pubilc and private space - Spaces for collective living - Politics of participatory design - Architecture’s relationship to environment - Temporary architectures - Designing for libraries and archives - Designing for cemeteries - Designing for storage spaces in general - Autobiographies - Feminist science fiction - Music, specifically cello, as a form of mental health

Elementary knowledge of GIS software, ArchMap 10, Revit Architecture Experience in research, writing, photography, graphic design, and model-making

**References available upon request

University of Toronto, 2015, Researcher Work involved travel to Detroit and Hiroshima to study processes of destruction and/or regeneration through research in city archives and planning departments. OFIS Arhitekti, Ljubljana, 2014, Junior Designer Responsibilities included design drawings, working drawings, and coordination for competition entries for projects ranging from small residential construction to large multi-use buildings: - Competition Entry for the Arvo Pärt Centre, Laulasmaa, Estonia - Competition Entry for a Culture and Education Complex, Butovo Park, Russia - Alpine Shelter, Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, Working Drawings - Preparation for Harvard GSD Option Studio, Housing in Extreme Climates - Hotel AS, Ljubljana, Design Drawings University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2013, Visiting Researcher Project involved research—through site visits and the use of GIS mapping and datasets—on contemporary open space along historical lines of segregation that defined racially homogenous group areas in Johanessburg prior to the dissolution of the apartheid government in 1994. G. Wilson Construction, Vancouver, BC, 2010, Project Assistant Responsibilities included material estimation, site reviews and deficiency lists, coordinating project showcases, and residential landscape design

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Curriculum Vitae

Advanced knowledge of AutoCAD, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe In Design, Adobe Illustrator, Rhinoceros 3D, Google Sketchup Pro


1:100 Sectional Model Ground Floor Plan

2nd Floor Plan

3rd Floor Plan

Roof Plan

8


Roof Section 2

North Elevation

Section 1 9

Glebe Library + Art Gallery, Spring 2010

West Elevation

Reading Alcove

Site Plan

The experience of space is often overpowered by vision, which leads to the neglect of other senses. Where the visual sense is muted, smell, sound and tactile experience can become more prominent in our peception of environments. The ground floor of this Ottawa library and art gallery remains in shadow, demanding new and different interpretations of what media can be kept on display. The buidling filters light from above in a similar way to the thinning layers of a forest’s canopy. Columns grow from the ground floor where light is limited and split into a widening space, opening up the upper stories to light as one ascends. Daylight increases in the ascending floors, entering through frosted glass facades as well as through openings in the center of the columns.


n

Floor Pla Ground

This Toronto community centre is articulated by a series of episodes along a central walkway, which passes from a high-traffic road through a market space, to a community hall, athletic facilities, and finally an open park. A large wall delineates this walkway and forms the core into which program spaces are plugged. The south-facing wall absorbs energy from the sun to power services, is a source of natural ventilation and diffuse sunlight, and an icon for the building. The modules on each side of the wall are materially differentiated: the service and utility spaces to the northwest in concrete, and the more frequently used community spaces to the southeast in wood. The timber roof structure is a celebrated arched system braced by purlins that contribute to acoustic absorption and play with light. Detail Drawing a. Solar Wall: 150 mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 12 mm Dimple Board, Trilaminate Membrane: Moisture, Air and Vapour Barrier, 150 mm Rigid Insulation, Trilaminate Membrane, 200 mm Cast-in-Place Concrete b. Roof: Standing Seam Zinc Roofing, Polypropylene Fiber Mat w/ Moisture Barrier, 200mm Rigid Insulation on Thermally Broken Clips, Moisture Barrier Membrane, 150mm Cast-in-Place Concrete Vault c. Foundation Wall: Damproofing, 150 mm Cast-inPlace Concrete, 12 mm Dimple Board Trilaminate Membrane: Moisture, Air and Vapour Barrier, 150 mm Rigid Insulation, Trilaminate Membrane, 200 mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 50mm Rigid Insulation d. Roof: Standing Seam Zinc Roofing Polypropylene Fiber Mat w/ Moisture Barrier, 200mm Rigid Insulation on Thermally Broken Clips, Moisture Barrier Membrane, 50mm Wood Decking

e. Concrete Wall: 150mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 12mm Dimple Board, Trilaminate Membrane: Moisture, Air and Vapour Barrier, 150 mm Rigid Insulation, Trilaminate Membrane, 150 mm Cast-inPlace Concrete f. Operable Wall Insert: Fibre Cement Board on Insulated Core, on Motorized Drive

upper left | model detail of south module lower left | model detail of north module right | enclosure details a. Solar Wall: 150 mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 12 mm Dimple Board, Trilaminate Membrane: Moisture, Air and Vapour Barrier, 150 mm Rigid Insulation, Trilaminate Membrane, 200 mm Cast-inPlace Concrete b. Roof: Standing Seam Zinc Roofing, Polypropylene Fiber Mat w/ Moisture Barrier, 200mm Rigid Insulation on Thermally Broken Clips, Moisture Barrier Membrane, 150mm Cast-in-Place Concrete Vault c. Foundation Wall: Damproofing, 150 mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 12 mm Dimple

a.

b.

Board Trilaminate Membrane Air and Vapour Barrier, 150 m Insulation, Trilaminate Mem mm Cast-in-Place Concrete, 5 Insulation

d. Roof: Standing Seam Zinc Polypropylene Fiber Mat w/ Barrier, 200mm Rigid Insulat Thermally Broken Clips, Moi Membrane, 50mm Wood Dec

e. Concrete Wall: 150mm Cas Place Concrete, 12mm Dimpl Trilaminate Membrane: Mois Vapour Barrier, 150 mm Rigi Trilaminate Membrane, 150 m Place Concrete

Vignettes

f. Operable Wall Insert Fibre Board on Insulated Core, on Drive

d.

e. f.

c.

10

1:50

1


11

Dufferin Commons, Spring 2014

In collaboration with Meaghan Burke / Contribution: Design Development, Drawings, 1 to 250 Model, 1 to 10 Model, Vignettes

1: 10 Detail Model

Northwest Elevation


Finch Ave W (O)

Kennard Ave (E)

Downsview Airport (O) Clanton Park Rd (E)

Wilson Ave (E) Billy Bishop Way (W) Baycrest Ave (E) Ranee Ave (W) Edengarth Court (W) Lawrence Ave W (E) Lawrence Ave W (W) Dell Park Ave (E) Elway Court (W) Coldstream Ave (W) Glengrove Ave W (E)

Allen Road

Viewmount Ave (W) Romar Crescent (W) Viewmount Ave (E) Aldburn Rd (O) Aldburn Rd (O) Whitmore Avenue (W)

Toronto Public Residuals The relationship between open and built-up space that is integral to classical urban planning very often weakens at moments when planning regulation and urban design yield to exceptional market and real estate forces. This project studies the state of public open space in Toronto’s suburbs along the Allen Expressway, where more traditional object-void relationships were overlooked throughout the intitial planning of the suburbs themselves and also with the juxtaposition of the highway. Within this context, this project identifies three lines of inquiry that investigate the forms of exisitng public

open space. First, it analyzes how the deviation from a tight urban grid has affected accessibility and produced a kind of ‘backyard treatment’ of open space. Second, it considers the impact of laissezfaire planning on open space. Because development within the selected site followed planning strategies prioritizing built-up space, or the omnipotence of the highway, open space acquired a leftover quality, filling pre-defined areas, and no longer possessing the autonomy in design that it held in the classical city. Finally, the project explored the functionality of the resulting open space that has assumed the character 12

of void, or Solà-Morales’ idea of terrain vague. Although the sites along Allen Road have fallen victim to the modernist legacy of zoning and supposed mono-functionality, many have also adopted new, hybridized forms that challenge their programmatic definition. These hybridized forms, off-ramp parks, one-sided streets, cul-de-sacs severed in half, etc., are more often than not, a direct product of the abrupt change in scale from regional highway to local street fabric along the Allen. The highway was not planned in cross-section, and as a result, hard boundaries between itself and local surroundings depreciate both scales, compressing


Left to Right Whitmore Avenue (W) Aldburn Rd (O) Viewmount Ave (E) Romar Crescent (W)

Viewmount Ave (W) Glengrove Ave W (E) Coldstream Ave (W) Elway Court (W)

Dell Park Ave (E) Lawrence Ave W (W) Lawrence Ave W (E) Edengarth Court (W)

Ranee Ave (W) Baycrest Ave (E) Billy Bishop Way (W) Wilson Ave (E)

space at claustrophobic edges for the local context, and causing the proliferation of the monotonous section for the regional context. The resulting open space is at once residual, hidden beneath the shadow of the sound barrier, and ambiguous, made uncertain due to its uncharacteristically hard edge. The linear city imposed by the highway has determined the impossibility of overlap or blurring of urban programs across scales, but resulted in unusual edge conditions that disrupt the expected functionality of open space. (Presented at the symposium, After Empirical Urbanism, University of Toronto, 1 March 2015.)

The Plaza of the Classical City anchor piazza walls

anchor

field

anchor

edge circulation

anchor

13

Public Residuals, 2014

Clanton Park Rd (E) Downsview Airport (O) Kennard Ave (E) Finch Ave W (O)


1:250 Model | Roof from Above

tru nd S

1:25

0 Mo

14

de

oof a l|R

fro cture

m Be

low

Site Plan 1: 2000


of foreclosure and demolition of inner city blight continue a trajectory initiated by white flight and a racist real estate market. This thesis is an memorial to the destruction of Detroit that expands to fill a block in the inner city suburbs, one currently surrounded by vacancy. The purpose of the memorial is to document the destruction of the postwar city, collapsing the time it took for an entire city block to empty, in an effort to realize Detroit’s destruction in a greater entirety. The demolition of Detroit’s urban centre has targeted the inner city’s vacant middle class housing stock. Regions designated for demolition expand outwards at a measured pace, matched by the city’s continuous

15

decentralized growth, rendering Detroit a perpetual city-on-the-move. The growth in the broader Michigan area can be understood as fueling demolition at the city centre. Although this process has created entirely new cities, the underlying fear and structural racism remains the same.

Manufactured Ruin, Fall 2016

Gradual demolition across Detroit’s inner city is approaching a degree of erasure to rival the material absence of postwar cities. A city that was thriving in 1945 with wartime production now sits vacant and plagued by ruin, similar to the leftovers of destruction wrought by WWII, destruction that was itself a product of the American military industrial complex and the growth of cities like Detroit. Detroit’s demolition, however, is perceived very differently in public consciousness; a slow process of decay renders its condition seemingly inevitable despite active measures of erasure. The city remains in a state of amnesia as slowness disguises an active withdrawal and deliberate exodus. Processes


“The city moves with its 8 million inhabitants through hills and valleys. The Grand factory is the head of the city, it exploits the land and the underground materials of the territory it crosses and extracts all that it requires for the construction of the city. It devours(slukar) useless nature at its front end and emits sections of completely formed city, ready for use, from its back. Speed is 1 foot and 2,5 inches per hour. Lang, 2003:156-158

veyer

ous Con

Continu

, 1971

erstudio

y, Sup Belt Cit

Hiroshima 1:1000 model

Detroit 1:1000 model

16


Variations on the Continuous Conveyer Belt City, Summer 2016

Variations on the Continuous Conveyer Belt City tells two stories of destruction in two different cities—narratives that intertwine through the perverse dependency between wartime production and destruction. Whereas erasure of Hiroshima took only an instant, and the destruction of Detroit half a century, both processes began in 1945. In Hiroshima, an extraordinary scale of tragedy and destruction was followed by extraordinary recovery. Despite the many proposals to move the city elsewhere, Hiroshima was rebuilt from its ashes, in the same location, with an alternative identity as a ‘Peace Memorial City’. The successive activities of Hiroshima’s City Restoration Bureau, the War Damage Reconstruction Plan (1946), and the Peace Memorial City Construction Law (1949) were instated amongst public desire to create a new city radically different from what had existed before. In the decades following Detroit’s wartime economic surge, demolition initiatives in the city cleared as many as fifteen blocks at once, benefiting from economies of scale and concentrated material output for recycling and reuse. While current-day Hiroshima has been entirely rebuilt and expanded far beyond its 1945 limits, Detroit’s center remains in its state of chronic decay, even if it’s metropolitan region continues to grow.

17


From 1948 to 1994, the apartheid government of South Africa was dependent on the contributions of architects, planners, and designers for the construction of segregated cities and reinforcement of racist policies. The Group Areas Act (1950) was a unique component of modernization in South Africa for its marked structures of segregation, but some design tactics were more subdued in their racist implications. Some scholarship suggests that the architects of apartheid drew upon international precedent as means of legitimation; projects sought to align themselves with a global discourse and precedents such as Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City, and even Lewis Mumford’s reconciliation of regional cultures, to name a few examples. This study first analyzes South Africa’s urbanization under apartheid to understand how geographical discrimination restrained access to economic, social, cultural, and intellectual capital. It studies the structure of group areas and the lines between them, most often built up in the form of industrial corridors. These industrial corridors defined inter-racial interaction in terms of class bound, employer-employee relationships integral to systems of racial hierarchy. Few buffer zones where left as purely open space that would in turn allow for racially homogenous areas to grow towards each other. By means of photography, mapping, and conversations, this project worked to represent how historical buffers of racial segregation as well as newly emerging understandings of residual space influence the contemporary spatial organization of Gauteng along the edges of previous Group Areas. (City Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, 2013) Open space buffer zones defined by the 1973 Group Areas in Gauteng

1

1 km

2

1 km

3

2 km

4

1 km

5

1 km

6

1 km

7

1 km

8

1 km

9

1 km

10

1 km

11

1 km

12

1 km

13

1 km

14

1 km

15

1 km

19

1 km

600m

600m

16

1 km

17

1 km

18

1 km

21

1 km

22

1 km

23

1 km

1973 Open Space Buffer Zones

18


Case 1—The Mamelodi--Eerstaerust border previously divided a black area from a coloured area. It was an open space buffer that was not fully planned to prevent future integration. A cemetery divides the norhern areas of the two communities, but a new development to the south has nearly bridged the lower half of this buffer zone.

Case 17—The Diepkloof Zones – Diepkloof Extensions border is inside a previous Black Group Area. Heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic separates the Extensions (upper class areas) from the Zones (lower class areas). Small shops and pedestrian traffic encourage cross-border movement between the Zones and Extensions, predominantly as a result of students living in the Zones and attending schools in the Extensions.

Case 18 —The Sophiatown – Westbury border divided a White Area from a Coloured Area after the Sophiatown removals were completed in 1963. The two areas are currently separated by a fourlane road bordered by industrial programs on either side. Sidewalks along the highway are narrow and few programs warrant pedestrian movement along this high-traffic vehicular corridor. The majority of pedestrian traffic is concentrated in the early morning and afternoon as a result of primary and high school students moving across the border.

Growth spanning previous open space buffer zones defined by the 1973 Group Areas in Gauteng Clayville

540m

Linksview Kilfenora

600m

Elandspoort

Roodeplaat

Tswelapele

Glen Austin

Wendywood

Industry

Kaalfontein

Lotus Gardens

Maokeng

Tembisa

Ebony Park

Kwaggasrand

Lfateng

Rabie Ridge Esangweni

Austin View

Atteridgeville Eersterust

Commercia

Tsakane Moretele View

2

640m

280m

600m

Birchleigh

Glen Erasmia Boulevard

Industry

Lotus Gardens

3

Kaalfontein

Maokeng

Tembisa

Ebony Park

Kwaggasrand

Seotloana

430m

Birch Acres

Moretele View

Industry

Industry

300m 1,040m

Bramley

Wattville

Kew

2 km

3

Langaville

Welgedacht

1 km

4

Thintwa Village

Albertsdal

Industry

Phola Park

Tsakane

1,050m

Industry

Alra Park

Vulcania

560m

560m

Othandweni

380m East Geduld

Industry Huntingdon

Fulcrum

90m

Ramakonopi East

Likule

Khumalo Moleleki

Siluma View

Thintwa Village

Albertsdal

Langaville

Welgedacht

Petersfield

Ramakonopi

Eden Park

410m

Allgate

Mackenzieville

Bakerton

560m

Mngadi

Kwenele

Everest

Sherwood Gardens

Wright Park Anzac

Sallies Village

1 km

Eden Park West

Laversburg

Gugulethu Dal Fouche

Denneoord

5

Mokoena Monise

Dunnottar

Welgedacht 150m

Kenleaf

Moseleke East

Nohlazi Sali Radebe

920m

Geluksdal New State Areas

Weltevreden

Brenthurst

Moseleke

Zuma

Thokoza

Brakpan

Mavimbela

1,070m

Industry 120m

Krugersrus

Brakpan North

Cerutiville

Industry

Greenfields

Duduza

6

7

Brakpan North

Brakpan

1 km

New State Areas

Weltevreden

8

1,050m

Industry

1 km

120m

9

Geluksdal Tsakane

1 km

Sali

10

Dunnottar

1 km

Phola Park

Alra Park

Welgedacht

Othandweni

Dal Fouche Vulcania

Denneoord

560m

Steelview

De Deur Estates

6

380m East Geduld

Wright Park

1 km

Moleleki

Cerutiville Greenfields

Duduza

Palm Ridge

Industry

1 km Roods Gardens

7

Industry

Lamont Park

8

Industry

Dickinsonville

1 km

600m

9

Lakeside Evaton North

Protea Glen

1 km

Protea South

370m

Lenasia

Dreamland Vanderbijlpark

540m 490m

600m

Rust Ter Vaal

600m 590m Steelview

600m

De Deur Estates

Protea Glen

Bonanne

Bedworth Park

Lamont

Industry

VanderbijlparkPark

Sebokeng

Industry

Tshepong

600m

Zuurfontein

Dickinsonville

12

530m

1 km Biopatong

13

Tshepiso

370m

1 km

14

15

600m 590m

Pimville

1 km

Bonanne

600m

Themb’Elihle

Industry

Sebokeng

Vanderbijlpark

Bedworth Park

Breau

Linden 1 km

13

Valeriedene Waterval Estate

Northcliff

Riverlea

Montgomery Park

Mindalore

Greymont

East Town Albertskroon

260m

Grobler Park

Whiteridge Maraisburg

Klipspruit West

Montclare

Devland

Orlando East

Westbury

Diepkloof

Olifantsveld

Aeroton

Pimville

Crosby

Brixton Langlaagte North

Riverlea 1 km

17

Olamini 470m

Klipriviersoog Estate

100m

Witpoortjie

1 km

18

Industry

Mayfair West

Waterval Estate

Northcliff

1 km

Greymont

East Town Albertskroon

Bergbron

Eldorado Park

Newlands

Orlando East

Westbury

Diepkloof

Albertville

1 km

17

Lewisham

1 km

18

Honingklip

600m

Industry

1 km

1 km

Sinoobile

Culemorg Park Helikon Park

Chancliff 600m

Kagiso Munsieville

600m Witpoortjie

Industry

Azaadville Toekomsrus

Wilbotsdal

Randpoort

21

Bootha

Lewisham

Randgate Homelake

Culemorg Park

Industry

22

Krugersdorp West

Leratong Village

1 km

Sinoobile

23

Kagiso 600m Witpoortjie

Industry

Azaadville

Honingklip Krugersdorp North

Industry

1 km

Helikon Park

600m

Dan Pienaarville Munsieville South

600m

Industry Greenhills Hectorton

1 km

600m

19

Chancliff Munsieville

600m

Dan Pienaarville Munsieville South

Toekomsrus Leratong Village

Krugersdorp West

Krugersdorp North

Wilfordon Matholesville Gourdrand

Brixton Mayfair West

Industry

Industry

Roodepoort

Roodepoort North

Witpoortjie

Crosby

Randgate Homelake

Horison Lindhaven West 600m Davidsonville

Rossmore

Coronationville

Langlaagte North

1 km

600m

Westdene

Newclare

Industry

Aeroton

Westgate Park Grobler Park

Melville

Claremont

Nasrec Bosmont

16

19

Mindalore

Sophiatown Martindale

Montclare

Devland

Hectorton

Helderkrauin

Creswell Park

Whiteridge Maraisburg

Nancefield

Greenhills

Roodepoort North Wilfordon

Montgomery Park

Quellerina

Olifantsveld

Wilbotsdal

Roodepoort West 600m Davidsonville

Matholesville Gourdrand

Valeriedene

260m

Klipspruit West

Randpoort

Horison Lindhaven

Breau

Linden

Coronationville

Industry

Industry

15

Rossmore

Newclare Bosmont

Diepkloof Power Park

Westdene

Claremont

Nasrec

Klipspruit

Mopolo South

Moroka Nancefield

600m

Melville

Sophiatown Martindale

Newlands

1 km

Westgate Park

Albertville

Bergbron

Eldorado Park

14

Helderkrauin

Quellerina

Industry 470m

Klipriviersoog Estate

Industry

Tshepong

Zuurfontein

1 km

12

Diepkloof

Power Park

Olamini

Lenasia

Dreamland

Stefano Park Vanderbijlpark

11

Eldorado Park

1,430m

600m

Rust Ter Vaal

Klipspruit

1 km

Vanderbijlpark

540m 490m

Mopolo South

Klipspruit West

The Evaton Estate

Evaton 600m

Sharpeville

Industry

Roshnee

Chiawelo

1,450m

Lakeside Estates

1 km

Dadaville

Rietfontein

Lakeside Evaton North

1 km

Protea South

Themb’Elihle

Roods Gardens Stefano Park

Industry Vanderbijlpark

Bootha

Eldorado Park

The Evaton Estate

Evaton 600m

Sharpeville

Industry

Roshnee

16

1 km

Tshepiso

Dadaville

100m

Klipspruit West

10 1,430m

Biopatong

Moroka

Chiawelo

1,450m

Lakeside Estates

530m

11

Khumalo

Siluma View

90m

Petersfield

Fulcrum

410m

Allgate

Likule

Eden Park

Mackenzieville

Bakerton

560m

Ramakonopi Ramakonopi East

Kwenele

Everest

560m

Sallies Village

Moseleke East Mokoena Monise

Mngadi

Eden Park West

Laversburg

Gugulethu

Radebe

920m

150m Brenthurst

Kenleaf

Moseleke

Zuma

1,070m

Industry

Krugersrus

Mavimbela

Nohlazi

Palm Ridge

Industry

Thokoza

1 km

Leachville Tamboville

920m

Lombardy

Glen Erasmia Boulevard

1 km

2

Atholl

Birchleigh

Laudium

1 km

1

Huntingdon

Actonville

Boksburg East

Boksburg South

Norkem Park

Industry

Naledi

Alexandra

Esselen Park

Birchleigh North

Dewald Hattingh Park

Benoni South

Industry

Isiphetweni

120m

Benoni Mackenzie Park

920m

Linbro Park

Far East Bank

620m

Sandown

Emangweni

Ethafeni

Ehlanzeni

Chloorkop

Sherwood Gardens

Mqantsa

Endulweni

Mpho Esangweni Commercia

5

Marlboro Gardens

Strathavon

Sethebe

Kleinfontein

Westdene

400m 1 km

1 km

Makulong

Igqagqa

Lfateng

Rabie Ridge

1,280m Austin View

Anzac

4

Isithame

Linksview Kilfenora

Kelvin

Tsenolong

Mamelodi Tsakane

Wendywood

Mashimong

Atteridgeville Eersterust

Kew

Tembisa

Ivory Park

Leachville

920m

Lombardy

460m

2 km

President Park

460m East Lynne

300m 1,040m

Bramley

Tswelapele

Glen Austin

1 km

Atholl

Tamboville

High income, low19 density Middle income, medium density Low income, medium density Low income, low density Open Space

Creswell Park

1 km

Johannesburg Lines, 2013

1

540m

Boksburg East

Boksburg South

Clayville

Laudium

1 km

Wattville

Esselen Park

Birchleigh North

Birch Acres

Elandspoort

Roodeplaat

Industry

120m

Norkem Park

Industry

Naledi

Actonville

Far East Bank

Alexandra

Isiphetweni

Chloorkop

Dewald Hattingh Park

Benoni South

Industry

620m

Sandown

Emangweni

Ethafeni

Ehlanzeni

Mamelodi 430m

920m

Linbro Park

Mqantsa

Endulweni

Mpho

1,280m

460m East Lynne

Igqagqa

Marlboro Gardens

Strathavon

Sethebe

Isithame

Seotloana

President Park

Mackenzie Park

Makulong

Tsenolong Mashimong

640m

280m

Benoni

400m

Tembisa

Ivory Park

Kleinfontein

Westdene

Kelvin

460m

Rietfontein


20

Arvo Pärt Center Competition, 2014

Project with OFIS Arhitekti / Contribution: Design Drawings, Physical Modeling, Photoshop Work

The design of this multi-use centre in Laulasmaa, Estonia, layers the different floor levels of the building in a dialogue with the surrounding tree canopy, dividing the full height of the structure into separated tiers. The ground floor level is embedded within the terrain and behaves like a tree’s root system, stabilizing a lighter, wood frame structure above. The building’s volumes, programmed with a performance auditorium, library, chapel, and various study rooms, span between the pines of the forest, floating above ground like a series of tree houses. The uppermost volume rests just above the highest canopy and offers a lookout towards the Baltic Sea.


HOUSING IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR SNOW PROTECTION location

EXTREME WEATHER PROTECTION

MOUNTAINOUS ARCTIC TERRITORIES

TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR SNOW PROTECTION part 1

chapter 2

location

INTRODUCTION

EXTREME WEATHER PROTECTION

MOUNTAINOUS ARCTIC TERRITORIES

SNOW DRIFTING

SNOW FENCES

Snow is deposited on the lee (downwind) side of hills or in downwind depressions. Snow drifts form when the ow of wind is interrupted by obstacles or barriers. The snow is swept away in areas of high wind speeds and deposited when wind speeds drop, often some distance behind the object. Obstacles and barriers can be in the form of hedges, trees, fences, buildings, and even snow deposited from snow removal processes. After time, snow drifting will form a streamlined enclosure and will not build SNOW DRIFTING up further so long as the wind direction and ow remains the same and the surface of the snow is lower Snowsurrounding is depositedobstacles. on the lee (downwind) side of than hills or in downwind depressions. Snow drifts form when the ow of wind is interrupted by obstacles Siting or barriers. snow isminimized swept awayatin of of high Snow driftsThe are usually theareas peaks wind speeds when wind It speeds drop, exposed hillsand duedeposited to high wind speeds. is good often some distancebuildings, behind theroads, object. practice to position andObstacles parking and barriers canpoints be in the form ofsnow hedges, trees,An areas on higher to reduce drifting. fences,4-6 buildings, even snow deposited from of added feet canand drastically reduce the amount snow deposited. removal processes. time, snow drifting snow Siting on After the leeward side of hills will result form ainstreamlined enclosure anddeposited will not build will greater challenges from snow. up further so long as the wind direction and ow remains the same and the surface of the snow is lower Orientation than long surrounding obstacles. The side of the building should be parallel to

Collector Fences Fences must be arranged perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds. Winds will slow after passing the fence, causing wind-blown snow to settle before reaching the site. Most of the snow will be deposited behind the fence, so the fence should be positioned a great enough distance to avoid snow accumulation in the area surrounding the building. Fences should be positioned approximately 15 times the fence height from the building volume. A deSNOWinFENCES crease solid fence area will produce a longer and shallower the drift. Open fences with a density ratio Collector40 Fences between and 60 percent have maximum collectFences must Two be arranged to 4-6 the direcing capacity. rows of perpendicular fences between feet tionusually of the more prevailing winds. Winds slowfence. after are cost-effective than will a higher passing fence, causing snow to If spacethe is limited, a more wind-blown solid collector fence settlebebefore thebuilding site. Most the greater snow will can placedreaching before the to of cause be deposited in behind so the fence should accumulation frontthe of fence, the fence as opposed to be positioned great require enough stronger distance and to avoid behind. Solid afences moresnow exaccumulation in the area the building. pensive foundations and surrounding can result in strong winds Fences should bebehind positioned approximately 15 times keeping the area the fence clear of snow. the fence height from the building volume. A decrease solid fence area will produce a longer and BlowerinFences shallower drift.below Openthe fences a density ratio The wind the passing fencewith is accelerated between 40 and 60 percent haveismaximum and the snow behind the fence cleared upcollectto an ing capacity. Two rowsofof20fences betweenfences 4-6 feet approximate distance feet. Blower are are usually cost-effective than aaccumulation higher fence. most often more used in preventing snow If spaceridges is limited, a more solid The collector fence behind and depressions. incline of the can beshould placedbe before thetobuilding to cause greater fence similar the lee side of the depresaccumulation in front of degrees. the fence as opposed to sion, but not less that 30 behind. Solid fences require stronger and more expensive foundations and can result in strong winds Deector Fences keeping area behind clear of to snow. 8-10 feetthe high fences canthe defence ect the wind cause

the direction of prevailing winds in order to miniSitingsnow drifting. Internal corners and outside mize Snow drifts of areausually minimized the cause peaks of projections building’s envelopeat will exposed in hills dueto speeds. It is goodof changes wind owhigh and wind irregular distribution practice snow. to position buildings, roads, and parking areas on higher points to reduce snow drifting. An added 4-6 feet can drastically reduce the amount of Elevation snow deposited. Siting on the leeward of hills Although an expensive solution, snow side drifting can willprevented result in greater challenges from deposited snow. be by elevating the building on stilts above the surface of snow. The footprint of the building Orientation is usually kept clear by wind so long as no additional The long side of the the wind building should be parallel to obstacles change ow.. the direction of prevailing winds in order to minimize snow drifting. Internal corners and outside Organizing Groups of Buildings projections of a by building’s envelope willcan cause Drifting caused individual buildings accumuchanges in wind ow and irregular of late to form one large deposit whendistribution these individual snow. buildings are organized in groups. To prevent large-

scale accumulation, buildings can be organized in Elevation long rows, parallel to prevailing winds with the short Although anbuildings expensiveclose solution, snow drifting can ends of the together. be prevented by elevating the building on stilts above the surface of snow. The footprint of the building is usually kept clear by wind so long as no additional obstacles change the wind ow..

HOUSING IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

FORMAL SOLUTIONS part 1

chapter 2

INTRODUCTION

EXTREME WEATHER PROTECTION

Organizing Groups of Buildings Drifting caused by individual buildings can accumulate to form one large deposit when these individual MOUNTAINOUS ARCTIC TERRITORIES buildings are organized in groups. To prevent largescale accumulation, buildings can be organized in long rows, parallel to prevailing winds with the short ends of the buildings close together.

part 1

chapter 2

location

INTRODUCTION

EXTREME WEATHER PROTECTION

MOUNTAINOUS ARCTIC TERRITORIES

accelerated winds behind the fence and the eroBlower sion of Fences snow. In the case of changing winds, the The wind passing the fence is accelerated positioning of debelow ector fences should be such that and the the fence is cleared up to snow an they do snow not actbehind as collector fences and deposit approximate distance of 20 feet. Blower fences are close to the building. most often used in preventing snow accumulation behind ridges and depressions. The incline of the fence should be similar to the lee side of the depression, but not less that 30 degrees.

© Andrej Gregoric

Deector Fences 8-10 feet high fences can deect the wind to cause accelerated winds behind the fence and the erosion of snow. In the case of changing winds, the positioning of deector fences should be such that they do not act as collector fences and deposit snow close to the building.

location

HOUSING IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

FORMAL SOLUTIONS

the less efficient way

the less efficient way

POSITIONING THE BUILDING

WEDGE FORMS

The walls facing a descending avalanche must be constructed in the correct form and with adequate strength to resist the applied force of an avalanche. The larger the surface of the resisting wall, the larger the pressure this wall will be exposed to in the event of an avalanche. Therefore, it is convenient to position the building in a way so as to minimize the length of the impact surface. Acute angles or curved forms are also capable of splitting the course of a descending avalanche and reducing the THE applied force. When a wall is POSITIONING BUILDING perpendicular to the avalanche direction, it must bear walls the entire force ofavalanche this avalanche, while The facingkinetic a descending must be orientating the wallscorrect differently theadequate required constructed in the formlessens and with strength resistance. strength of to resist the applied force of an avalanche.

Structures with strength equal to the kinetic energy of avalanches such as dams, walls, galleries, and deecting walls can deviate, divide, or channel a moving avalanche. Protective spurs or wedges can be built against isolated structures (buildings or pylons) or constructed in their immediate vicinity. These defense structures divide avalanches and alter the avalanche track to avoid the building. A strong stone wedge on the hill-ward side of a house is a traditional avalanche proong method with a long history. The angle formed on the up-slope side of WEDGE FORMS the wedge should not be greater than 60 degrees and the sides must be of equal sufcient to energy prevent Structures with strength to thelength kinetic snow from eddying and engul ng the protected of avalanches such as dams, walls, galleries, and structure. de ecting walls can deviate, divide, or channel a

The larger the surface of the resisting wall, the larger the pressure this wall will be exposed to in the event of an avalanche. Therefore, it is convenient to position the building in a way so as to minimize the length of the impact surface. Acute angles or curved forms are also capable of splitting the course of a descending avalanche and reducing the applied force. When a wall is perpendicular to the avalanche direction, it must bear the entire kinetic force of this avalanche, while orientating the walls differently lessens the required strength of resistance.

the less efficient way

moving avalanche. Protective spurs or wedges can DEVIATING be built againstWALLS isolated structures (buildings or pylons) or constructed in their immediate vicinity. Deviating wallsstructures are intended to change the direction These defense divide avalanches and alter of an avalanche or stop it from in a the avalanche track to avoid the spreading building. Aout strong certainwedge direction. Their efcacy depends not only stone on the hill-ward side of a house is a on their height,avalanche but also proo on theng gradient the aslope traditional methodofwith long and the The angleangle of deviation. history. formed on the up-slope side of Deviating dams walls mostthan effective when the wedge shouldornot beare greater 60 degrees theythe are sides used must to raise sidescient of a length gully thus and bethe of suf to prevent increasing height,and andengul stopping the protected avalanche snow fromits eddying ng the from leaving its channel. The effectiveness of walls structure. or dams is also dependent on the angle of deviation which should not exceed 30 degrees. The lesser the DEVIATING WALLS angle, the easier the deviation of the avalanche and the smallerwalls the load on the structure. Deviating are intended to change the direction

of an avalanche or stop it from spreading out in a PARTIALLY BELOW-GRADE CONSTRUCTION certain direction. Their efcacy depends not only on their height, but also on the gradient of the slope Another long-established and the angle of deviation.method for protecting living spaces from is toeffective build houses Deviating dams or avalanches walls are most whenthat are embedded thethe hillside. In asemi-subterranean they are used tointo raise sides of gully thus construction, roofs are atavalanche or follow the increasing its height, andtraditionally stopping the sloping angle its of channel. the terrain, the avalanche from leaving Theallowing effectiveness of walls to  ow over the building without damaging the or dams is also dependent on the angle of deviation house. should The roof the wall structure must be the which notand exceed 30 degrees. The lesser reinforced in order bear theofweight of the snow. angle, the easier theto deviation the avalanche and Thissmaller partially model can be the thebelow-grade load on thebuilding structure. reinterpreted in various ways in contemporary design. PARTIALLY BELOW-GRADE CONSTRUCTION

the less efficient way

Another long-established method for protecting living spaces from avalanches is to build houses that are embedded into the hillside. In semi-subterranean construction, roofs are traditionally at or follow the sloping angle of the terrain, allowing the avalanche to ow over the building without damaging the house. The roof and the wall structure must be reinforced in order to bear the weight of the snow. This partially below-grade building model can be reinterpreted in various ways in contemporary design.

© Janez Martincic

21

Alpine Shelter, 2014

Resulting Project: Alpine Shelter Skuta, Skuta, Slovenia; Designed by OFIS Arhitekti, in collaboration with AKT II, Frederick Kim, Katie MacDonald, and Erin Pellegrino

chapter 2

Project with OFIS Arhitekti / Contribution: Studio Brief, Research Framework, Sample Design and Sample Working Drawings

The risk of extreme weather in alpine environments requires sensitive design strategies that respond to severe cold and irregular loads from strong winds, heavy snowfalls, and avalanches. Housing, in particular, must achieve levels of self-sufficiency in order to decrease dependency on external infrastructure networks that can be severed during periods of the harshest weather. In these contexts, architecture is faced with challenges of scarcity, inaccessibility, and demands for self-sufficiency; it must account for the difficulty in transportation of materials to remote locations as well as conditions often hostile to on-site work. The studio brief proposed a territory of study spanning from vernacular building traditions to contemporary innovations in building technologies as tools to consider in building housing for alpine regions.

part 1

INTRODUCTION

HOUSING IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS


IT’S ALL HAPPENING SO FAST —A Counter-History of the Modern Canadian Environment 22

In an age of unprecedented human impact on the planet, certain countries stand out for their privileged positions and the complexity of their relationships with the land. Stories about Canada closely follow the discovery and appropriation of vast and varied natural resources as well as changing ideas of the proper relationship between people and their environment. Presenting case studies from the last five decades of human intervention in the Canadian landscape, It’s All Happening So Fast explores Canadians’ often conflicted and conflicting views of what we call the “natural” environment. Among the materials included are selections from CCA, Library and Archives Canada, McCord Museum, Arkitektur- och Designcentrum Stockholm, and works by Douglas Coupland. Gallery Texts A Few Acres of Snow —The Canadian North was once perceived as untameable wilderness but it is now understood to be one of the most fragile regions in the world. Strategies for claiming, occupying, and exploiting this “last frontier” have had disastrous immediate and long-term impacts on the environment and its human inhabitants. Indigenous communities have been repeatedly relocated to new towns like Resolute Bay, Nunavut, due to the industrialization and militarization of northern territory. Traditional patterns of life have been transformed by the seasonal influx of transient workers, large-scale mining operations, the long-range transport of pollutants, and climate change. […] The Arctic frontier has shifted from one separating humans from uncontrolled nature to one separating nature from the slow violence of human disturbance. […]

Stories of an Obsession—Canada’s economic dependency upon its natural resources has generated impressive infrastructural undertakings. Since 1945, large-scale port, pipeline, and railway infrastructures for the transportation of oil and natural gas have continued to expand outwards, especially from Alberta’s tar sands. […] Guided by intentions similar to those behind the St. Lawrence Seaway project, large-scale development strategies have affected not only northern territories and areas of resource wealth but also southernmost settlements and the vast territories in between. […] Almost the Perfect Place to Live—Emerging from the horrors of nuclear warfare, nuclear power generation in Canada internalized anxieties of progress more deeply than most of modernity’s projects. The invisible catastrophes of Canada’s radioactive history have had dire consequences for environmental and human health. Among them is the 1952 National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor meltdown at Ontario’s Chalk River Laboratories, the first significant nuclear accident in the world. Chalk River Laboratories first opened in 1945 and, in 1944, the town of Deep River, Ontario, was designed to house workers and their families. The history of Deep River connects the facets of everyday life in the town to exceptional technological achievement integral to the modern idea of progress. […] Fictions of the Ordinary—Since the postwar growth of industrial production, patterns of everyday life and consumption have threatened the most basic of life necessities, including water. In the 1960s and 1970s, the use of domestic soaps with high phosphate content led to giant algae blooms that caused oxygen levels to dramatically decline in the Great Lakes. The shores of these lakes contained significantly higher levels of pollution near urban industrial centres. At a moment of increasing public awareness of the pollution of major waterways, Pollution Probe, a university environmental group, staged a “funeral” for the Don River in Toronto to draw attention to the contamination of the river by both industry and individual consumers. […] Canada is often portrayed as a country with a huge surplus of fresh water and strong policies of clean water protection, yet the country’s attitude towards this valuable resource has often been careless and destructive. […] A Crisis of Overconfidence— During the sixteenth century, fish were so abundant on the Atlantic coast that boats had difficulty moving and they could almost be caught by hand. Five centuries later, the cod industry continued to draw boats from all over the world to the North Atlantic, where overfishing ultimately led to the catastrophic cod collapse in the early 1990s. […] Different Kinds of Clouds— Throughout this past century, the long-range transport of industrial pollutants has produced a new kind of colonization of the Canadian landscape, extending human influence over a much greater territory. The resulting environmental transformation has


Curated by Mirko Zardini, with Vanessa Abram, Lev Bratishenko, Louise Désy, and Anna Renken; Exhibition design by Kuehn Malvezzi; Graphic design by Pitis e Associati

Since 1534— Since Jacques Cartier’s first explorations of Canada in 1534, images of lush and wild landscapes have been embedded in perceptions of the Canadian environment. The “new world” offered an abundant supply of natural resources—old growth forests, fish, minerals, and furs—that had already been grossly depleted in European countries. The utilitarian attitudes towards the environment central to early European exploration continue in many ways to define the country today. For as long as reliable trade statistics have existed, Canada has held the world’s largest forest product trade balance. […]

The accompanying publication, edited by Lev Bratishenko and Mirko Zardini, assembles 15 case studies that reframe Canada’s relationship to environemnt since 1945. Grounding these cases are conversations about cultural myths and the legal environment, changing ideas of natural resources and environmental risk, indigenous engagement with environmentalism and development, and the impacts of the environmentalist movement. Featured are 26 contributions and texts by Taiaiake Alfred, Elisa Birnbaum, David R. Boyd, Douglas Coupland, Bill Darnell, Margo Pfeiff, John Ralston Saul, David Suzuki, Charles Wilkins and Mirko Zardini, among others.

Photography by Michel Boulet © Canadian Centre for Architecture 23

It’s All Happening So Fast, 2016

had dire impacts on plant and animal life as well as on human health. The Trail Smelter dispute (1926–1934) led to the first significant cross-border pollution settlement in the world when pollutants from the smelter in Canada were found to have caused damage to crops and livestock in the US. Half a century later, In the 1970s, Inco erected a Superstack in an effort to deliberately disperse its industrial emissions beyond the Sudbury area in Ontario. […]


Buenos Aires Sarajevo

Gauteng

Toronto Buenos Aires

Can Tho


Gaborone

Split

Maputo

Some sketches

Mbabane

25


Vanessa Abram —portfolio 2018


WHAT

IS

ARCHITECTURE?

Vanessa Abram Portfolio 2018  
Vanessa Abram Portfolio 2018  
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