Issue #4 | December 2012 | DNV KEMA Global Staff Magazine
transponder The Norwegian Energy Experience
Making Microgrids Work, Together
Controlling the Lawless Seas
How has Norway dealt with its oil wealth?
Innovating across business lines
DNVâ€™s roots in the classification of ships
Setting the Âstandards
Contents Transponder #4 02 A Kosovar comes to Germany
Transponder, the DNV KEMA Employee Magazine, is published by
06 Connected Jenna Canseco
DNV KEMA Global Marketing & Communications
Please send your comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
07 Connected Jian Zhang
via Twitter: #dnvkematransponder via InTouch: InTouch > Support Services > Marketing & Communications > Printed Materials
08 The “Electrodoctors”
With thanks to René Beeking
13 Recharging your Batteries Heather Purdy and the Flying Trapeze
Concept and design Vormgeversassociatie BV
14 Close Up Me and my Vehicle
Editorial DNV KEMA Global Marketing & Communications
Elizabeth Fryman, Jessica Hartenberger, Caroline Kamerbeek, Kayla Plante
18 Oil and Renewables The Norwegian Energy Experience
Michael Gould Associates BV Marlies Hummelen / Teksten Vormgeversassociatie BV
23 Recharging your Batteries Jan Mehlberg and the Water Rescue Service
Text Michael Gould Associates BV Marlies Hummelen / Teksten Hanne Christiansen
24 24 Hours A Day in the Life of Remko Verweijen
Photography Front cover, pages 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 26 Herman van Ommen Photography The remaining photos were taken by
26 Brand New Aline Marques, Aad van den Bos, Sophie Davidsson
DNV KEMA employees
28 Making Microgrids Work, Together
We have made every effort to comply with the legal
Print Drukkerij Kempers
requirements relating to the rights to the illustrations. Any person who is nevertheless of the opinion
33 Origins Controlling the Lawless Seas 37 DNV KEMA in Brief 38 A Fresh Perspective
that they are entitled to certain rights can contact Vormgeversassociatie (email@example.com).
From the Editor
n this issue of Transponder we once again take a close look at the people who make DNV KEMA what it is today. But we also make an excursion into the past of our new owner, describing DNV’s roots in the classification of shipping and the Norwegian energy experience – Norway’s special approach to its oil and gas wealth. In our regular feature on Joining Forces, we highlight cooperation around microgrids – a promising technology in which we have the potential to grow worldwide. Here again it’s talented, enthusiastic people in our different offices and business lines who are producing the sophisticated tools we offer to customers. As we become more global, our articles and interviews reflect many different kinds of diversity. For example, on pages 16 and 17 you can see geographically where the contributors to this issue come from. We’ve interviewed people from the laboratories (see The ”Electrodoctors” on page 8), out in the field (see 24 Hours on page 24), and behind the desk. It is inspiring to see our business from each of these angles; the “business and technical” points of view that we so often talk about. I’m personally motivated to see individuals working in teams to achieve common success. Such articles remind me why DNV KEMA is a great place to work. We enjoy our colleagues, we work on interesting stuff, and we make a difference. Finally, I’d like to refer to the refocused company strategy. We’re making a fresh start with smart choices in selected areas — ‘Focus to Grow’ enables us to make a real impact in the world of energy. In Transponder we aim to reflect those choices, making connections across borders. We will continue to share news of what’s going on around the world and focus on the people who will make the strategy a reality. Caroline Kamerbeek Global Director, Marketing & Communications
“What’s This” solution, new back cover The strange object on the back cover of the last issue was a platinum resistance thermometer, used for accurate measurement of the temperature in a particular medium. Both Gerrit Blom and Bob Harding gave the right solution, but some others came pretty close. And Craig Farrant’s scrabble calculator opens up exciting new possibilities… This was the last What’s This. We’ve chosen a new idea for our back cover, entitled: A Fresh Perspective. And that’s exactly what it’s supposed to be: your photographic impressions of DNV KEMA from an unusual, surprising angle. In a diverse company like ours, there are sure to be plenty of strange, striking, funny or wonderful pictures you can take. For inspiration take a look at the back cover of this issue and then why not give it a try yourself?
A Kosovar comes to Germany DNV KEMA is becoming a truly global company. We now have people on virtually every continent and quite a number have moved across borders to meet new challenges. We wondered how they feel about working in a totally different environment. This time we asked a Kosovar – Ardian Shala – for his impressions of working in Bonn, Germany.
Focus on: Consultant Ardian Shala Background: Electrical engineer – Power systems Relocation: Recruited in Kosovo in 2009; based in Bonn since September 2011 Current job: Designing, procuring, and deploying substation automation and protection systems, SCADA systems, smart metering, and telecommunications
ntroducing himself, Ardian explains how he came to work for DNV KEMA. “I’m nearly 31 and I joined KEMA Consulting GmbH in 2009 as a local consultant in Kosovo. The company doesn’t have a strong presence in my country, so to move to where the action is, I realised I would need to become an expat. In September 2011, I moved to the Bonn office to work in the Management & Operations Consulting (MOC) business line, and Intelligent Networks Communications (INC) service line. As I also have a background in Electricity Transmission & Distribution (ETD), I hope to be able to put my experience and skills to good use.”
Ardian graduated as an electrical engineer from the Electrotechnical Faculty at University of Prishtina in Kosovo. He’s been with (DNV) KEMA since March 2009, where he started as an associate. Before joining KEMA he was working for an electricity distribution company in Kosovo (the Kosovo Energy Corporation) as a supervisor engineer, installing and maintaining distribution substations in a medium-voltage network.
The route to DNV KEMA Ardian explains how it happened. “One day I was contacted by a KEMA associate who had heard about me from a client. We set up a meeting, where I heard about a couple of interesting projects and in 3
A Kosovar comes to Germany
particular work on an ongoing project for a Kosovar Transmission System Operator: implementing a SCADA/EMS (an automatic real-time monitoring and controlling system in an electricity transmission network) and a telecommunications project. Soon afterwards I was invited to Bonn for an interview. The interviewers decided I could do the work and I signed an associate contract with KEMA.”
Quick decision “Before I joined, I didn’t know much about KEMA. But, when I read about the role the company is playing in global energy developments, I immediately decided this is what I wanted to do. It wasn’t a difficult decision. It’s not that I didn’t like my previous work, but this was different; it offered me personal development combined with international experience. And that’s just what I was looking for. I quickly felt at home and my colleagues here in Bonn are really friendly, giving me support whenever I need it.”
“It wasn’t difficult to decide to join the company.”
Cross-border team “My work is mainly international. I prepare designs, technical specifications and tender documents for small to complex system automation projects, such as SCADA/EMS/DMS systems, Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) and power substation automation. I also provide consultancy for Factory and Site Acceptance Tests (FAT&SAT) for SCADA/EMS/DMS systems and power substation automation. I work in a team and, although there are only two of us in the Bonn office, we cooperate closely with other offices. For example, we recently worked with people in London, Arnhem, and Dresden on projects in Turkey. It’s great to get to know international colleagues.”
Personal stuff “I’m engaged. My fiancé, who also comes from Kosovo, currently lives and works in Austria. Since I moved to Germany last August, I’ve been living in a small house in a suburb of Bonn, about 25 minutes from the office. In my free time I run next to the Rhine river, where there are some really nice jogging paths. On weekends I usually play football near the city centre. I’ve got to know quite a few other expats and after the game we go for a drink together. I really like life here, although of course I miss my family and friends in Kosovo. I’ve visited several cities in Germany, but Berlin impressed me most. It was just like what I’d heard and seen on television. The Brandenburg Gate was really impressive! Bonn is quite a small city, but it’s important historically (it used to be the capital and it’s the birthplace of Beethoven). It’s very lively, with universities attracting people from all over the world. Then the United Nations and Germany’s international broadcaster (Deutsche Welle) are based here.”
Language is key “In the beginning I felt a bit lost, but I’ve gained a lot of confidence and now feel part of the community here. I soon started learning German, which I think is really important. So far the projects I’ve been involved in are in English, but I want to be able to work in German as well. DNV KEMA has generously supported me in this, which I appreciate. Step by step I’m moving forward with my German. The funny thing is that I never imagined living in another country. The difference with Kosovo is really big: the lifestyle, the weather (in Kosovo the summers are always sunny and very hot, whereas in Germany it often rains), the spicy food I’m used to, and the way people interact and share ideas. When it comes to sharing professional knowledge, in Kosovo people are more hesitant than here in Germany.”
A Kosovar comes to Germany
A different way to live, a different way to work “There’s a very different work ethic here. In Kosovo most employees do not take their work seriously, especially in public companies and administration (it can take you a whole day just to get a simple document). And there’s no point trying to make an appointment in advance – you just have to improvise on the spot. In Germany it’s totally different: you can’t go anywhere without making an appointment. People are not as spontaneous and hospitable as in Kosovo, but rather very straightforward and don’t hesitate to offer help when it’s needed. Work is organised much better here than in Kosovo. We’re very flexible in my team. What’s important is to deliver quality work on schedule. How we organise our
time is up to us. I really like that. You also learn a lot more this way. Working in a team gives you a better understanding of the problems and sharing ideas helps you arrive at the best solution.”
Part of a bigger picture “I think KEMA joining with DNV was a really good move. Now we have a broader portfolio of services to offer to the energy industry. Two years ago, I followed a training course in energy efficiency (buildings and industry) and I hope to be able to work on such projects. I haven’t yet had a chance to use my ETD expertise as much as I would like, but I’m sure there will be plenty of opportunities, since the future of energy is all about smart grids. Upgrading our electricity networks is a must!” •
“To move to where the action is, I realized I would need to become an expat.”
In each issue we will introduce DNV KEMA colleagues working in different countries. They will then suggest other people to interview. Not so much a relay race as a handover to an interesting colleague.
Graeme Sharp Onno Florisson Kristie DeIuliis Jenna Canseco
Next: Miguel Rescalvo
Connected: Jenna Canseco Who Jenna Canseco, married, no children Where Oakland (CA), USA Job Senior principal consultant Education and career I completed a Bachelors and Masters degree in environmental science
and policy at Clark University, with a focus on ecology. My thesis was related to herpetology, but I ended up working in the field of energy. Many of the methods I use are the same in both fields. In 2000, I started working for Xenergy, which evolved into KEMA and now DNV KEMA. What do you do exactly? My work consists of three closely related elements: evaluating energy efficiency programs for clients, doing market research to help them understand complex markets, and planning. Right now one of my projects involves strategic work for the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). Can you tell us something about this? It’s related to the CPUC’s aim to reduce the electricity the state uses for lighting by 60-80 percent by 2020. A really huge ambition! We’re helping with baseline estimates to support this project: how many kilowatt-hours are used annually for indoor and outdoor lighting, commercial, residential, and other purposes. What do you (and what don’t you) like? It’s the variety I like most. It’s a sort of balancing act, which exposes me to so many different interests and groups of people. It really keeps me on my toes. Another good thing is working in a team of very dedicated people, who also have a great sense of fun! One small suggestion: because of our very different backgrounds, I think it would be useful to have a little more training related to research methods, to ensure that we deliver consistent, high-quality work. Free time My husband and I love traveling, and particularly scuba diving (most recently in Mexico and the Philippines), though we don’t get to do it as much as we’d like to. One of my dreams is to visit Madagascar. Given my interest in ecology, this is definitely the place to go. The diversity of ecosystems on such a small island is really amazing. Special That’s easy: the people I work with. I’ve never met a group of people who are better at supporting you when you need help, whatever the issue. Connected Since our group is scattered around theUSA, I’ve worked with colleagues in many cities, recently including colleagues from legacy DNV units. I’d like to know more about Miguel Rescalvo, from the San Francisco office. He does a lot of work in Latin America, a region I have a special love for.
In each issue we will introduce DNV KEMA colleagues working in different countries. They will then suggest other people to interview. Not so much a relay race as a handover to an interesting colleague.
Petra de Jonge
Connected: Jian Zhang Who Jian Zhang Where Beijing, China Job Senior consultant, Electricity Transmission & Distribution (ETD)
Zwanetta van Zijl Narottam Aul Jian Zhang
Next: Henning Olsen
Education and career I have a Master’s degree in electrical engineering from the LanZhou Communication University. Before I joined DNV KEMA, I worked as a technician and technical manager for the construction and electrification branches of the China Railway Engineering Bureau Group. I also have overseas project experience, for example in the Hong Kong metro C655 project and the Teheran suburban railway project. In 2011, I joined DNV KEMA because I wanted to broaden my knowledge and experience, both in technology and economics, and keep up with new developments. What do you do exactly? Most of my work is related to power supply systems. This has many facets, such as improving the reliability of the power grid, investigating power failures, power system consultancy and design, benchmarking, and asset management. What do (and don’t) you like? In my work, I face very diverse problems that I discuss with many different clients, and then I have to find the best solution for each of them. I find that very exciting and interesting! One comment: I think our Beijing office would greatly benefit from the specialized calculation software that I know is being used elsewhere in DNV KEMA. It’s like a soldier going into battle: you need the right weapons …
Can you tell us something about the project you worked on with Narottam Aul? Last year, our teams cooperated to bid for an Australian railway project. It was good to work with him on that project and to share experiences. Perhaps, with my railway traction power project experience, I can be of use to him in the future. How do you spend your free time? I like to read, jog and ride my bicycle in my free time. But frankly, the thing I like most is playing with my nine-year-old daughter! I hope one day I can travel abroad with her and show her the things her father has done for society. What’s “special” at work? Last year, my colleagues in Arnhem and I worked together for five days via email to prepare a very nice bi-lingual tender under the guidance of my manager. The schedule was so tight, but we got it done in time. It was wonderful. Connected I want to know more about Mr. Henning Olsen. I met him in Dresden last year during my training tour. He’s an expert in traction power calculation. 7
The Oil Lab team (from left to right): Marike Wellink, Analyst; Roy Verhoef, Analyst; Yvonne Helmink, Analyst; Carlton Pinedo, Analyst; Martin Seuren, Coordinator; Lenny Scholten (not in photo), Analyst. 8
Water from the tap, electricity from the socket: we take these things for granted. But a lot of work goes on behind the scenes to provide them. DNV KEMA has an impressive record in the area of testing and certification. Our laboratories play a big part in making everything run smoothly. Two lab employees tell us how this works in practice.
The Material Testing Lab team (from left to right): Technical Professional Frank Rasing (research, testing & inspection), Technical Specialist Stephan van Os (testing), Technical Professionals Henk van Zuilen (quality, testing & inspection), and Sander van der Weiden (quality, research, testing).
The innards of giants
“Transformer oil,” says Martin Seuren, “is like blood in a human being. It can tell you a lot about the condition of the whole entity, whether it’s healthy, a bit under the weather, or really ill.” The Oil Laboratory where Martin works is temporarily housed in the monumental building that used to be the High Voltage Lab (HVL), in Arnhem. The inner windows look out onto the gigantic testing hall. The lab itself is a showcase of modern measuring and calculating equipment, but underlying it all are traditional chemical processes that take place deep in a transformer’s innards and that can be traced in the oil.
The oil in a transformer is for cooling and electrical insulation. Some of the analyses relate to the condition of the oil itself, while others say something about the condition of the transformer. The copper wires that make up the core, for example, are wrapped in paper, which becomes worn over the years. “To check the degree of wear,” says Martin, “you used to have to take a paper sample. To do this, somebody crawled into the transformer through a manhole to take a small piece of paper from the core. It was a risky undertaking and, what’s more, you only got paper from the outside. The inside of the core couldn’t be reached.” Today, he explains, the state of the oil can be measured using chemical values in the oil. “Older paper slowly breaks down into other substances, including what are called furanic compounds. We can measure their presence in the oil. Put simply: the more furanic compounds, the more wear.”
Five people work closely together in the oil lab, with Martin as coordinator. Their work is of crucial importance, as transformer oil is vital for the functioning of a transformer and, by extension, of a power station. A large generator transformer is as big as half a house and contains as much oil as eight tanker trucks. If such a transformer breaks down, the consequences don’t bear thinking about. Here and there among the computers are trays with small bottles of oil, from light yellow through goldcolored to dark brown. Martin and his team check the oil periodically and do additional analyses if it looks like there may be something wrong. Taking such an oil sample is precision work. “There must be absolutely no external contamination,” explains Martin. “No air, moisture or other substances; even sweat from your hands can distort the picture.”
…and gas Another important tell-tale sign is gas. The presence of gases in the oil frequently points to a defect lurking somewhere and then further investigation is done on site. Although other people usually do this, Martin sometimes has to turn up himself. “Once I was called out of bed because a transformer somewhere had broken down. A lot of gas had formed suddenly and in that case a safety relay shuts the transformer down to prevent the whole thing blowing up. I had to take a sample quickly, to find out what was going on.” Apart from being a good story, this kind of event also keeps
Martin Seuren trained as a chemical analyst. He started his career in 1983 at Imko Gelria, as assistant head of the laboratory, then moved to KEMA in 1987. He worked there as a chemical analyst in a variety of areas, eventually focusing entirely on transformer oil. He’s currently coordinator of the laboratory and also represents the lab at the IEC, as a member of the Dutch Standardisation Board NEC 10.
him in touch with the reality of power stations and transformers. “Behind every bottle of oil that comes in here,” he says, “we see a transformer.”
It’s a tough life being a cable On the other side of the imposing hall, Sander van der Weiden also has to deal with crucial components. Together with three colleagues he coordinates the activities of the Material Testing Lab. At the moment the most important issue is cables. He and his team test whether the plastic sheaths and insulating materials around the cables have the durability to cope with a long life underground. “Sometimes hundreds of meters of such cable are laid in hard-to-reach places,” says Sander. “They’ve got to last as long as possible there, because it’s a very expensive job to replace them.” The client who buys the cable often requires a KEMA certificate. According to Sander, for a lot of cable producers there’s no document more valuable than a certificate from (DNV) KEMA.
Scores… As an illustration he shows a piece of cable, with the circumference and pliability of a sturdy young birch tree. In the cross-section you can see a large number of concentric layers: copper wires, a thin layer of aluminum, and various types of plastic. Sander explains, “First of all you check whether it meets the specifications. In other words, has the producer delivered what he promised? Very simply, you start by counting the copper wires: are there really 80, or maybe only 79?”
…and shrinkage Things soon become more complicated. To test how well a cable is going to last over the next thirty or forty years, you have to speed up the ageing process a lot. For example, to test the effect of heat generated by the conductor temperature (maximum around 90° C), the cable is exposed to much higher temperatures in the lab. Heating makes the plastic layers shrink. “The maximum allowed shrinkage is an important test criterion,” says Sander. On a thirty centimeter test piece, shrinkage is only a few millimeters, while on longer segments it can be up to several centimeters. Too much shrinkage causes problems if two cables are connected, as there’s a risk of water penetrating, with all the consequences you can imagine.
Close collaboration in small teams Sander and his colleagues work together on a wide range of tests. They share the results of their investigations and, if there are indications that a cable needs to be rejected, there is intensive consultation. Each team member has his own technical skills and background – chemical, or mechanical – so they complement one another very well. There’s also a lot of contact with colleagues from the High Voltage Lab (HVL), which takes care of the electrical side of testing. And of course there’s plenty of contact with clients, who sometimes witness the tests. “Then you can really feel the tension in those people: does everything look okay or is something going to be rejected?”
Sander van der Weiden studied Polymer Chemistry at the Hogere Laboratoriumschool (Higher Laboratory School). After his studies he joined KEMA in 1999, where he worked his way up to the post of coordinator of the current Material Testing Lab.
The team members in the oil lab also work very closely together, under the motto “everyone can do everything.” Martin has already been there twentyfive years, and some of his colleagues even longer. He still remembers the time when “we used a ruler to measure things.” Nowadays a computer processes all those complex measurements and calculations. A positive byproduct of this is that all the data are safely stored. “It’s a company’s memory, which we can use to do more investigations another time.” He’s proud of the lab’s good international reputation, which is underlined by membership of the IEC, among other things.
Varied and rewarding work Personally, Martin gets a lot of satisfaction from a good analysis. “Especially if you notice that something isn’t quite right and closer investigation confirms it. Then you really feel that your work makes a difference and that you’re helping people to keep the lights burning.” He makes the point that a periodic check costing a few hundred euros can prevent a disastrous problem that might cost many millions.
nature of the questions that come to the lab. “There are plenty of new stimuli and challenges here to get your teeth into. As far as variety is concerned, there’s really nothing more I could wish for in my work!” When it comes to cables, he notes that more and more is being specified and that nowadays the test standards are often set by the suppliers. He has some doubts about that; sometimes the standard is a bit too closely adapted to the capabilities of the producer…
Knowledge and independence “In the past we spent more time investigating materials,” says Sander. “We worked out ourselves how we needed to test something and what the standard for it should be. That’s also something that DNV KEMA is very good at. Luckily, that’s still a big part of my work, because, apart from cables – with their strict specifications – we also deal with other plastic products.” He sees this as a very interesting side of his work and important for the future: “We’re actively looking into new markets, where we can use both our knowledge of materials and our status as an independent lab.” •
Sander has been working in the Material Testing Lab for thirteen years now and he enjoys it a lot. He particularly likes the varied work. Over the years, the nature of his work has changed regularly, according to the
Above: cross-section of a cable. Below: oil samples.
RECHARGING YOUR BATTERIES
WHAT DO YOU
DO IN YOUR
Heather Purdy practicing her art. Stills from a video by DNV.
Heather Purdy and the Flying Trapeze
s a child, Heather Purdy’s favorite part of the circus was always the flying trapeze. But it was only when she saw an interesting offer on Groupon that she decided to finally try it for herself. This was only a few months ago. Now she’s taking lessons once a week and getting really hooked…
So can you fly yet? I’ve been working on the basics for a long time: climb on the platform and grab the bar. That’s a lot more difficult than it looks! The hard part is to stay on the platform. The bar is very heavy and you have to lean out. It takes very strong muscles. Right now I’m learning to swing; you have to learn how to swing higher, and you can work on tricks, like turning upside down over the bar, or you can let go of the bar and grab someone else. That takes a lot of practice. We both have to get to a certain point in the air at exactly the same time.
How dangerous is it?
Do you need to be in good condition or extremely agile? Not really, it’s something a lot of people can do. In our group of eight, there’s a big range of ages and we’re all at very different levels. When I see someone experienced on the swing, I just think, Oh man, I want to be able to do that! It’s very stimulating. And people are really supportive with help and advice.
Do you ever share it with your colleagues? Yes! I sometimes even ask them what they would like to do in the circus. It’s not an everyday question, but it’s really fun to ask. Most people have some idea or picture in their minds. I’ve heard beautiful stories, some of them very unexpected.
So what’s your advice to colleagues who feel inspired?
What do you like about it?
Flying trapeze is more about timing than strength. You need a good teacher and basically you should just listen to your teacher and practice. If you’re serious about it, finding a circus school that offers flying trapeze lessons is the best way to go. Anyone can try it, but be careful – the feeling of flying can be addictive.
It’s physical; I feel I’m getting stronger. It’s also a bit scary, but not really dangerous. And it’s all about technique. You have to work hard, but then you really notice you’re improving.
Heather Purdy has worked for DNV since 2008. She’s now a consultant in solar energy in San Ramon (CA), U.S.A.
If you don’t make the catch, you’ll fall into the net. Basically, you fall into the net every time, until you’re good enough to return to the platform after a swing. We also wear safety belts and cables that are held by someone on the ground.
Me and my Vehicle How do we get to work each day (and back home again)? Walking, biking, motorcycling, sailing, or driving â€“ we use all kinds of modes of transport. Once again the examples span the world.
Tomas Kocab, Technical Services Professional, TIC, on his motorbike. Location: Prague, Czech Republic
Anat Razon, Senior Engineer (Left), Smitty Ovitt, Principal Consultant (center), and Erika Brosz, Solar Engineer (right), all from CES, ride their bikes to work. Location: Seattle (WA), U.S.A.
Sjaak van der Schraaf, Business Line Manager, TIC, drives an electric car. Location: Arnhem, the Netherlands
Britt Candell, Energy Analyst, SUS (left) and Stephanie Yang, Analyst, SUS (right) waiting for a Bay Area Rapid Transit BART train to come in (photo: Eddie Rohilla). Location: Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Viktorija Namavira, Consultant, MOC, on her way to work, using the subway. Location: London, United Kingdom
Leo Akkerman, Regional Director, CES, APAC, loves taking the tuk tuk to work: it’s efficient, fast, comfortable – and cheap! Location: Bangalore, India
Ole Andreas Flagstad, Principal Engineer (left) and Rafi-ud-Din Khawaja, Group Leader Industrial Gases (right), both from ACS, on their bikes. Location: Høvik, Norway
Andrea Traber, Director, SUS, and her biodiesel car (photo: Eddie Rohilla). Location: Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Kristin Raabe-Ødegaard, Principal Consultant, RES, on her bike, with her daughter on a kicker bike. Location: Høvik, Norway
Middle picture, from left to right: Washington Pinheiro, Senior Consultant, MOC, Sandra Abreu, Marketing Manager Latin America, Suzana Ebara, Consultant, MOC, Aline Marques, Consultant, ETD, and Josiah Ives, Sustainability Project Manager, SUS, on their way to work by bus and ferry. Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Anat Razon Seattle (WA), U.S.A.
Martin Seuren Arnhem, The Netherlands
Smitty Ovitt Seattle (WA), U.S.A.
Sander van der Weiden Arnhem, The Netherlands
Erika Brosz Seattle (WA), U.S.A.
Sjaak van der Schraaf, Arnhem, The Netherlands Remko 足Verweijen Arnhem, The Netherlands Aad van den Bos Arnhem, The Netherlands
27 Heather Purdy San Ramon (CA), U.S.A.
Andrea Ranger (Burlington (MA), U.S.A.)
Viktorija 足Namavira London, United Kingdom
Ralph Masiello Chalfont (PA), U.S.A Jenna Canseco Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Britt Candell Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Stephanie Yang Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Sudipta Lahiri Chalfont (PA), U.S.A
Farnaz Farzan Chalfont (PA), U.S.A
Ardian Shala Bonn, Germany
Kevin Sullivan Raleigh (NC), U.S.A.
Andrea Traber Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
15/28 James Hansell Oakland (CA), U.S.A.
Washington Pinheiro Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Suzana Ebara Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Sandra Abreu Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 16
27 Josiah Ives Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Aline Marques Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Ole Andreas Flagstad Høvik, Norway
Mette Vågnes Eriksen Høvik, Norway
18 Anne Kvam Høvik, Norway
Rafi-ud-Din Khawaja Høvik, Norway
15 Kristin RaabeØdegaard Høvik, Norway
Magnus Ebbesen Høvik, Norway
18 Sophie Davidsson Høvik, Norway
Jan Mehlberg Dresden, Germany Jian Zhang Beijing, China
23 Tomas Kocab Prague, Czech Republic
Leo Akkerman Bangalore, India
Sanjay C. Kuttan Singapore
Oil and Renewables The Norwegian Energy Experience At the end of the 1950s, few people believed there were undiscovered oil reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf. Three of our colleagues in Norway – Anne Kvam, Mette Vågnes Eriksen, and Magnus Ebbesen – explain how the country came to be one of the world’s largest oil nations and how renewable energy has always played an important role.
Oil and Renewables – The Norwegian Energy Experience
Small country, huge wealth In the morning of 23 December, 1969 – ten years after the Dutch gas find in Groningen sent international companies rushing to the North Sea in search of undiscovered resources – Norwegians woke up to the announcement that a giant oil field had been found in Ekofisk off the coast of Stavanger. This was the beginning of an oil adventure which, through a gradual nationalization of the petroleum industry, would turn out to fund Norway’s much-admired welfare system – giving Norwegians some of the highest living standards in the world.
Long-term investment It may sound similar to a lottery-millionaire story, but the Norwegian energy history is unique for several reasons – perhaps mostly in the way resources have been managed. Anne Kvam thinks success can be traced back through a history of bold political decisions and stringent long-term investments.
“With a population that only recently hit five million, Norway sits on enormous national wealth proportional to its size,” says Anne Kvam, a newly appointed principal sustainability consultant at DNV KEMA Norway. She explains that much of Norway’s welfare has come courtesy of the Government Pension Fund – Global (nationally dubbed the Oil Fund), which was established by Parliament in 1990 with the purpose of countering the disruptive effects of declining incomes and fluctuating oil prices.
“During the time when oil started returning profits, we had brave, farsighted politicians, who dared to make the decision that this capital should be invested long-term so it would benefit future generations,” she says. “I think there’s something quite admirable about the way they managed to create broad political consensus on this spending principle, and on the idea that ethical investments would ensure sustained capital gain.”
A robust model
“The surplus generated by the petroleum sector – mainly from taxes on companies, but also payments for exploration licenses, the State’s Direct Financial Interest, and dividends from partly state-owned Statoil – is invested in the fund. The idea is to replace national wealth from oil and gas in the ground with equity and bonds in international markets,” she says.
This principle gave way to the budgetary rule introduced by the Prime Minister, Jens Stoltenberg in 2001, which allows a maximum of four percent of the fund’s value to be allocated to the annual state budget.
For the past four years Anne Kvam was working as global head of Ownership Policies at Norges Bank Investment Management (NBIM, which is part of the Norwegian Central Bank operating under the Ministry of Finance), heading up a department exercising the active ownership of the Fund’s portfolio, which comprises about 1% of global shares spread across 8,000 companies around the world. “An interesting thing about the fund is that we only invest in international markets – never at home,” she adds. “One reason for this is that we want to spread the risk, but also to protect the national economy and avoid it becoming overheated.” 20
“It’s been a successful strategy so far,” she says. ”Since the first transaction of 2 billion NOK (approximately $35 million) was made in 1996, the fund has grown at an extraordinary pace. Now, 16 years later, it holds around 3,600 billion NOK ($630 billion).”
As Anne Kvam points out, the strategy has proved robust – even in times of financial hardship, Norway is one of the few Western industrialized countries that has emerged from the financial crisis relatively unscathed, with record-low unemployment and a healthy banking sector. “The fact that this model is so firmly anchored in political processes makes it resilient to unpredictable changes in the markets,” she says. “Being a small, homogenous society with a narrow political spectrum has probably made it easier to incorporate these values into the administration of our natural resources. That’s also one of the reasons I wanted to work for DNV KEMA – it demonstrates the same focus on putting safety and integrity before profit.”
Oil and Renewables – The Norwegian Energy Experience
Grassroots traditions An egalitarian social democratic tradition may have helped invest Norway’s petroleum resources wisely, but – perhaps contrary to popular belief – it was not the oil discovery that first fuelled economic growth. “Norwegians owe everything to the development of hydropower plants more than 100 years ago,” says department head for Sustainability Risk Management at DNV in Norway, Mette Vågnes Eriksen, who has spent most of her career working in the energy industry. ”Before hydropower, we were a rather poor agricultural and fishing nation that would never have stood a chance of keeping up with the industrial revolution that followed in the 20th century.” Mette Eriksen explains that hydropower plants were bought by the government and developed in the districts where resources were located. “Because Norway had strong local governance and no nobility to seize the profits, the income generated from water resources was distributed evenly back into the districts. This created prosperous local communities, who reinvested in expansion of the industry.”
“I think this is an important part of Norwegian energy history: that our wealth development began at grassroots level – not from above,” she emphasises. “This probably fostered the egalitarian culture, which in turn informed our welfare model. That model survived two world wars so, when oil was discovered and Norway’s economic growth started picking up speed, the same investment principles were applied.”
A political market As Anne Kvam explains, political commitment to longterm investment has made Norway a key player in the petroleum industry: It’s the world’s 7th and 2nd largest exporter of oil and gas, respectively, and the 14th and 6th largest producer of each energy source. However, as Mette Eriksen points out, the Norwegian energy mix itself looks quite different, ”One of the unique characteristics of the Norwegian situation is that more or less 100% of our electricity market is renewable – in other words, none of our oil and gas production forms a part of our power supply.”
(foto: Hanne Christiansen)
(foto: Hanne Christiansen)
Mette Vågnes Eriksen
Oil and Renewables – The Norwegian Energy Experience
“Prices are set by the price of hydropower production, which is quite separate from oil and gas prices – although in an integrated European market, Norwegian electricity prices fluctuate with supply and demand across countries,” she says. “Interestingly, we had early deregulation yet the big market players are publicly owned. That says something about how energy is politics and politics is energy.”
Democratic processes “Because we have access to cheap energy and an efficient welfare system, we have developed a very diligent, democratic approach to issues related to expansion of the energy market,” Eriksen says. She points out the so-called “Monster mast” debate, which raged last year over proposals to build overhead power lines in Hardanger, a scenic and touristic region. “There are few countries where projects involving potentially enormous export income are stopped due to aesthetic and environmental concerns,” Mette Eriksen says. “In Norway, you won’t get far with a good technical solution unless it’s been approved by the grassroots.”
“Norway has become a world leader in research and development of technical solutions for the petroleum industry,” he says. “There’s a huge amount of expertise and knowledge from this field that can be applied to the renewable sector.”
Opportunities for DNV KEMA “It would be great to see Norway become an equally successful exporter of technology for offshore wind power,” Magnus Ebbesen says. “With DNV KEMA’s ability to deliver large teams with competences from a broad range of industries, we have the potential to come up with some great solutions for investing in renewable energy.” As to Norway’s own energy mix, Mette Eriksen agrees, stating, “There’s huge potential to increase energy effectiveness and expand wind and hydropower production to cover both domestic demand and even include export, but this requires a commitment to developing new technology,” she says. “Perhaps we take for granted the energy security we have in this country today, but the fact is we have unlimited access to renewable, flexible energy sources that will outlive our oil reserves.”
The future is renewable Although renewables already cover domestic energy consumption, Norway still faces the challenge of improving its carbon footprint and meeting international emission targets. Many believe this can only happen by using energy-related experience to further develop renewable solutions. Magnus Ebbesen, a renewable energy consultant at DNV KEMA Norway, is one of them. He thinks the country would benefit from shifting its focus from the continuing success of the petroleum industry toward a stronger commitment to making renewable energy a cost-effective alternative to oil and gas.
The Norwegian experience offers valuable lessons about sustainable investment. In its combined expertise, DNV KEMA has opportunities to help create continued energy security for future generations – both in Norway and around the world. •
RECHARGING YOUR BATTERIES
WHAT DO YOU
DO IN YOUR
Large training exercise on evacuating a paddle steamer after an explosion in the machine room.
Jan Mehlberg and the Water Rescue Service
hen he was 13, Jan Mehlberg started swimming and followed a course in life-saving. Since then he’s been an active volunteer, over the last few years with the Studentische Wasserwacht Dresden (Student Lifeguard) of the German Red Cross on Baltic Sea beaches, local lakes, or special events. This summer he was involved in a spectacular rescue in Warnemünde, in which he and his fellow lifeguards spent two hours saving seven people from rough seas.
into account. For river rescues we wear special equipment and we’re secured with a rope.
Does a rescue effort like that happen often?
In Warnemünde we had to resuscitate a woman. At first it looked like we’d been successful, but she died two days later.
No, and in fact I’ve only experienced that kind of thing once before, in 2003. Usually we just warn people away from spots where it’s dangerous to swim.
What do you really like about being a lifeguard? Working with my colleagues and the opportunity to help other people. And if I get the chance, I like swimming in the sea. But unfortunately we can’t do that in Dresden…
What has made the greatest impression on you?
What does your work usually involve?
Doesn’t that make you think twice about carrying on?
Two of us sit together in a small watchtower on the beach and we keep a lookout. We provide a lot of first aid, for example for bee stings and heart problems. And of course we look for children who have wandered off and got lost.
No. After all, we were able to save the lives of six people. That brings home to me again just how crucial the rescue service is. In fact, I think I’m even more motivated now!
So you have to be able to do a lot more than just swimming?
What advice do you have for colleagues who might like to do the same thing?
Yes, there’s a year-long training course. You don’t just learn to swim well, but also how to get someone out of the water. And you get a lot of first aid training. In addition, you can specialise. For example, I’m also a river lifeguard.
Just do it! Go to your local Red Cross and sign up. You must be able to swim fairly well, but the rest you learn. And we need people with a lot of different skills; there’s always something you can do.
What’s the difference between a river and the sea? The water flows quite fast in rivers or during a flood. Usually you can’t swim against the current, which you’ve got to take
After a graduation project in Arnhem, Jan Mehlberg started working for (DNV) KEMA in 2010 as a consultant in Cleaner Energy Services (CES) in Dresden, Germany. 23
A Day in the Life of…
Do you want to share a day in your life? If so, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Remko Verweijen Inspector / Supervisor Structural and Civil Engineering in Arnhem, the Netherlands. With (DNV) KEMA since 2007.
06:00 a.m. Time to get up I normally get up between five and six o’clock, depending on where I have to go. Today I’m on home turf in Arnhem, so the alarm clock is set for 06:00. The rest of the family is still asleep. The children (my eightyear-old daughter and five-year-old son) are on their summer holidays so they can have a nice lie-in. I work my way through my regular morning ritual and have a relaxed breakfast and a quick look at the newspaper. 06:50 a.m. Leaving home I set off toward Arnhems Buiten, the business park where DNV KEMA’s offices are located. But today isn’t an office day for me, as I’m scheduled to inspect grid operator TenneT’s transmission tower. It’s a maintenance inspection to check the state of the concrete construction and the existing coating system on the tower surface. Work starts today following a few weeks of preparation. During the drive I go over the process in my mind one more time. Is there anything we’ve overlooked? As I cross the Rhine on the Nelson Mandela Bridge, I can already see the tower rising up above the landscape. 07:15 a.m. I arrive on site I’m in good time, as we’ve arranged to meet the others involved at 07:30. The people from Skyworks, the company responsible for the access facilities, drive onto the site at the same time as I do. 07:45 a.m. Running through the work After registering with reception, we start with a cup of coffee and the kick-off meeting. We go through all aspects of the work one last time, including the safety plan, working at heights, the antennas that are in situ, the disaster plan, etc. The weather is an extra worry as rain and thunderstorms have been forecast. Due to these conditions, we have to consider the approach carefully, and also decide how to deal with the circumstances. Including how to get down in time in the event of an approaching storm or strong winds. 09:00 a.m. The access facilities are set up We’ll be suspended from the first platform in a floating bridge, around 80 metres above the ground. We have a four-meter floating bridge at our disposal, which we’ll suspend four times so that we can inspect a total of five sections, each four metres wide. 09:30 a.m. Antenna safety check Once again, we go through the antennas
that we want to have disconnected during our inspection, so that we can pass them safely. We have measuring equipment with us so we can check whether they are dis connected before we go past. 10:15 a.m. Final check I put my safety equipment through a final check. We also have to take inspection equipment up with us. All inspection material in the floating bridge is carefully secured, to make sure nothing falls down – an additional safety measure on top of the cordoned-off safety zone around the tower. 12:00 p.m. The access facility is ready for use Together we go over the installation to make sure that everything has been done in line with safety procedures. We decide to have lunch before starting the inspection. 12:40 p.m. First ascent Alongside a Skyworks employee, I start the first ascent with all the inspection equipment on board. For the first few metres you must once again get accustomed to hanging from a couple of steel cables. 12:55 p.m. Enjoying the view We’re now hanging under the first platform, 80 metres up. During the ascent, I had a good overall look at the concrete and at the coating. Now I get a chance to enjoy the view a bit. 13:15 p.m. Getting a rough picture While we descend, I carry out a visual inspection and take various measurements. This combination should ultimately give a good picture of the quality of the concrete and of the coating. 14:15 p.m. The first inspection’s done Four more to go. The suspension system is moved to the next location. 15:00 p.m. The floating bridge is ready for the second section to be inspected Because the weather conditions are better than expected, we decide to inspect an additional third section today, as worse weather is anticipated tomorrow. As we’ll be working a bit longer today, I start the second inspection. 16:30 p.m. We’re back down on the ground again The floating bridge can now be moved to the third location. Once again, 80 metres of steel cable have to be hauled up four times in order to lower the floating bridge again
to the new position. The client comes to ask whether he should try to find something for us to eat from the canteen. It’s an offer we can’t refuse, as we won’t make it home for dinner. I phone home to say that they shouldn’t count on me. 17:30 p.m. Everything’s ready for the third inspection It turns out that the canteen can’t provide any hot meals at such short notice but a lunch pack is an option, which we gratefully accept. 17:45 p.m. Start of the last inspection for today The weather is still favorable and above the treetops we hang in the lovely evening sunshine. 18:15 p.m. A crack in the concrete Under the platform, at a height of 80 metres, I spot a substantial crack in the concrete. It’s a triangular area of damage measuring around 150 x 300 mm. This could present a danger for people in the surrounding area in the near future. Because of the risk of falling material, we’re not allowed to hack away at the concrete structure. A stone falling from a height of 80 metres can do considerable damage, let alone a chunk of concrete 150 x 300 mm. 19:00 p.m. The third section has been checked We discuss the cracked concrete with the client, and decide to take extra safety precautions tomorrow in order to remove the piece safely. 19:30 p.m. Everything has been tidied away and the access facilities are safely stowed. We leave the site and head for home. 20:00 p.m. Home again The children are playing in the garden. It’s still warm (27°C). I drink a cup of coffee with my wife and we talk about the day. I also listen to what the children have to tell me and we play together a bit longer in the garden. 21:15 p.m. Rinsing off the grime Together, we put the children to bed. First they have to take a shower – not a bad idea after a day spent playing outdoors. 22:00 p.m. Time to call it a day The temperature is still pleasant and we spend the rest of the evening together on the patio. Around 23:30 we make moves to go to bed. I’ll be starting early again tomorrow.
In this column three of our newest colleagues introduce themselves.
Aad van den Bos
Consultant in Electricity Transmission
CFO at DNV KEMA in Arnhem,
A Swedish consultant working in
& Distribution (ETD) in Rio de Janeiro,
the Netherlands, since June 2012.
Project Risk Management (MOC)
Brazil, since May 2012.
Partner, children? No partner, no children. Where do you live? Niterói City. What are your main tasks? I do research on topics related to projects that I’m working on (currently there are three: SOMA Energisa, CPFL Wind Solar, and LIGHT) and I prepare reports and presentations, have meetings with clients, ensure there’s happiness in the office, remind my colleagues when it’s snack time, and give our foreign consultants a warm welcome! What kind of work did you do before joining DNV KEMA? I worked as an engineer at Ampla, a utility that delivers energy to 66 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. What were your first impressions? Wonderful… I’m very happy with my new work. What were your expectations of DNV KEMA? Expectations were high, because I had heard good things about the company. In terms of the work and the environment, my expectations were fulfilled and even exceeded, because I discovered you can also make good friends here! What do you find particularly interesting about your work? It’s amazing how much we learn every day. Is there anything you had to get used to? I’m still finding out which are the best restaurants for lunch, but it’s fun looking for them! Is there anything you hope to develop in your new job? I hope to be able to speak many languages and get to know personally all the people with whom I exchange e-mails and phone calls.
in Oslo, Norway since March 2012.
Partner, children? I’m happily married to Yvonne. This year we’ll celebrate our 35th wedding anniversary. Where do you live? We have an old cottage in the countryside in the province of Zeeland, close to the sea. During the week I stay in an apartment in Driel, close to Arnhem. What are you main tasks? I’m responsible for the financial management of the company. What kind of work did you do prior to joining DNV KEMA? I worked for DNV in international financial management positions in Benelux, Italy, and Greece. What were your first impressions? The positive attitude of KEMA staff toward the merger with DNV. What were your expectations of DNV KEMA? I thought KEMA mainly had a foothold in the Benelux. I’m impressed with the achievements in other European countries and the USA, and our potential to grow in areas like APAC. What do you find particularly interesting about your work? Playing an active role in supporting and achieving DNV KEMA’s strategy. Is there anything you had to get used to? After 30 years at DNV I’d built up a very valuable network. Being new in DNV KEMA I missed that in the beginning, but step by step I am building up my new network. Is there anything you hope to develop in your new job? At DNV, there’s a shift in the financial management of the company; away from the traditional fixed annual budgets to dynamic forecasting, a more future-oriented approach. As a first step we’d like to introduce dynamic forecasting at DNV KEMA early in 2013.
Partner, children? I have a boyfriend. Where do you live? In Oslo. What are your main tasks? Developing models and performing quantitative uncertainty analyses. What kind of work did you do prior to DNV KEMA? I was a Master’s student at Lund Technical University in Sweden, studying risk management and safety engineering. Before I became an employee I was writing my thesis for DNV. The topic was how theories of uncertainty analysis can be used to improve corporate CO2 management. What were your first impressions? Exciting! It will be interesting and challenging to work within the energy market. What were your expectations of DNV KEMA? I hoped to be able to work together and exchange experiences with colleagues from other parts of DNV KEMA. The organisation is still fairly new and I have great faith that such opportunities will arise. What do you find particularly interesting about your work? Every project that I’ve been working on during my short time in DNV KEMA has been different and, even though I do almost the same thing in each project, I’m faced with new challenges every day. Is there anything you have to get used to? We mostly write our reports in Norwegian and it is more different from Swedish than you might think. Is there anything you hope to develop in your new job? It’s my first job since graduating and I will try to learn as much as possible from my colleagues and do my best to contribute with new thoughts and ideas.
Making Microgrids Work, Together
The core team meeting in the Chalfont office. From left to right: Sudipta Lahiri, Andrea Traber, Walter Levesque, Andrea Ranger, Farnaz Farzan, Kris Brandt.
Making Microgrids Work, Together
About a year ago, (DNV) KEMA leadership and key personnel gathered in Tamaya, New Mexico, for a planning session, where microgrids were identified as a future priority for DNV KEMA. Based on market-driven, distributed energy resources, microgrids provide a bottom-up solution to the power needs of a company, institution, or community. This is a great field to get involved in. Right now, the main focus is in the U.S., with close cooperation between people from several business lines and numerous offices. But, in the future, there will be a large market for this concept around the globe, and teamwork will continue to be essential to capture maximum market share.
n the past year, Ralph Masiello and Andrea Traber built up a microgrids team across several business lines. “Two very different parts of the company – the Sustainable Use Services, energy efficiency/ buildings practice, and Management & Operations Consulting (MOC) practice – came together across the U.S. to get microgrids launched,” Ralph says. “When you start planning a microgrid you need to forecast the load and so you have to look at energy efficiency and demand response. And this is not a static situation; every time the technology changes, you need to look at it again. For example, MOC’s Markets & Regulations (MAR) team deals with issues, like selling power back to the grid and providing ancillary services.” Conventional and renewable distributed resources, energy storage, and T&D infrastructure and switchgear are all critical elements as well. But it was definitely a team effort. The team currently includes business developers Kristina Brandt and Walter
Levesque, working alongside consultant analysts Sudipta Lahiri, Farnaz Farzan, and James Hansell from MOC. Then there’s Rick Fioravanti, Jessica Harrison, and Mike Kleinberg from Electricity Transmission & Distribution (ETD), and Andrea Traber, Andrea Ranger, and Joe Lopes from Sustainable Use (SUS). The core team – Kristina, Walter, Sudipta, Farnaz, Andrea Traber and Andrea Ranger – met in the Chalfont office (see photo) to develop an action plan for this exciting technology. Andrea Ranger describes one project. “The Air Force Academy Campus has asked us to calculate and characterise loads and demand response in a dynamic building model as input for the design of a microgrid.” In another initiative, Andrea Traber and Kevin Sullivan, business director, MOC, are talking to CPS Energy, the municipal utility of San Antonio, Texas (the second largest in the U.S.) about the potential for microgrids within public utilities, replacing aging coalfired generation with 400 MW of PV solar power. 29
Making Microgrids Work, Together
What exactly are microgrids? Kevin says, “microgrid is the term we use in the U.S., but PowerMatching City in the Netherlands and the Smart Energy Collective in Germany are based on similar principles. In fact, I often use PowerMatching City as a reference when talking to potential clients in the U.S. So what is a microgrid? Essentially it is the realtime integration of distributed energy resources, with both the supply and demand side working in concert with multiple electrical loads in a single, autonomous grid, either in parallel to or ‘islanded’ from the existing utility power grid. In my view, this is where the action will be in the energy business in the years ahead.” Ralph describes the main principle. “In the energy industry the key asset is the load, and the ownership, management, and optimization of the load in real time is essential to a sustainable energy future. We expect microgrids will increasingly be adopted by utilities in the years ahead, but also by ‘self-optimising customers’ in places like California; and there are
A schematic diagram of linked microgrids.
great prospects for using them to provide reliable power for military bases and university campuses, and even for ships. Capacity is expected to nearly triple, reaching 1.2 GW in 2018, and microgrids may well deliver as much as 50 GW worldwide over the next decade.” Andrea Traber comments, “We have very good interaction with our DNV colleagues in the solar group in San Ramon, California. I expect to see more cooperation with them, because microgrids make it possible to integrate and manage variable energy sources. The implementation of smart grids, which require the deployment of large-scale advanced metering infrastructure, can be held up. By contrast, microgrids deliver immediate benefits. In California, zero net energy goals for new buildings are another powerful incentive. Utilities are exploring ways to gain real-time visibility of these microgrids within their distribution grids in order to ensure reliability and our modelling tools help give them that visibility.”
Making Microgrids Work, Together
Models, tools and games DNV KEMA consultants Sudipta Lahiri and Farnaz Farzan have PhDs in power engineering. Sudipta works on control of microgrids, and Farnaz on optimization. Both are involved in creating and refining the Microgrid Optimization tool. “We’re relatively new to the company and we feel really lucky to work on a project like this, with great mentors like Ralph and Andrea. In fact we never feel we are working – it’s so much fun. The great thing is we’re creating stuff that is not available anywhere else; it’s absolutely leading edge.” They explain the need for sophisticated modelling, stating, “Ensuring a sustainable energy supply requires a risk-managed investment plan and real-time command and control of all distributed energy assets, both on the supply side and on the demand side. In response to this need we’ve developed microgrid model simulations, which allow facility operators and real estate developers to see how such a grid would
“This is a wonderful way
work and calculate the costs in advance. We also developed a powerful laptop game for the 2012 Utility of the Future Conference at the request of Americas COO Hugo van Nispen. Teams compete to build the best microgrid. They aim to pick the best combination of components and can then see the future return on investment and environmental impacts.” Andrea Ranger of SUS adds, “This is a wonderful way to engage clients and start conversations. It gets people thinking and planning and it’s positioned us as a leader in this marketplace. We used a ‘gamification’ strategy to simplify complex decision-making and simultaneously educate users and markets. We have since used this as a marketing tool with state regulatory groups, utilities and system operators, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense, as well as at various conferences. Once they understand that ‘under the hood’ there are state-ofthe-art analytics and useful tools, it opens the door to proposals and engagements.”
to engage clients and start conversations.” Andrea Traber
Making Microgrids Work, Together
The Microgrid Optimization model was designed for consulting purposes – to generate business. For example, a consulting version of the tool was presented to the New York Power Authority for use in a feasibility study looking at the potential of microgrids. A team of people across the U.S. were involved in developing and testing the software. Analyst James Hansell, based in Oakland California, describes his role. “I developed the front-end visuals for the microgrid tool and ensured that the simulation results were realistic. I also designed and balanced the microgrid game. DNV KEMA’s support and commitment to innovation turned a difficult project into a motivating collaboration with people across the country. Working with colleagues in MOC, SUS-KSI, and SUS-C allowed us to create a powerful tool that leverages our diversity of expertise.” A road show demonstrated the software across DNV KEMA offices in the U.S., from Chalfont to Burlington, Minneapolis, Raleigh, Fairfax, Oakland, and San Diego.
Exploring global markets together The team work closely with colleagues in SUS to introduce these tools to customers. Andrea Traber agrees that the U.S. is currently the best market for microgrids. “Areas with dispersed populations in remote areas, such as the Amazon jungle, are also ideal. However, the Asia Pacific region is likely to lead the world in terms of total microgrid vendor revenues in the long term. Together with a major customer, Duke Energy, we are discussing developing microgrids in China. Having demonstrated our capability in the U.S., we’re working with colleagues in the DNV KEMA Beijing office on identifying prospects. Microgrids are ideal for the planned electrification of remote rural areas in China, India, and Indonesia.”
The Asian perspective Sanjay C. Kuttan, managing director, DNV’s Clean Technology Centre (CTC), in Singapore says, “It’s early days yet for joint industry projects, but we are working with colleagues in the U.S. on making proposals that would demonstrate thought leadership in this area. On a personal level, within the new DNV KEMA, we have and continue to build good strong contacts
with a common objective to make collaboration a success for all. An added advantage in this integration is that engineers speak the same language, wherever they are in the world.” “Microgrids come into their own in remote locations and where electricity supply is privately owned. In Asia, grids are owned by government monopolies and electricity is often subsidised. However, where there are gaps in the infrastructure, for example, in mining operation facilities, which have both the need and the resources to fund microgrids, I see plenty of potential. I look forward to exploring this market, together with our colleagues in the U.S.” “One area of expertise that we can bring to the table is the use of LNG in microgrids. In remote locations and islands that are not served by centralised electricity or gas networks, LNG-based distributed power and mini/micro-grids can provide a cost-competitive and environmentally attractive alternative. LNG-based distributed power can be part of systems that also use renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, biomass, and mini-hydro.” The CTC, though primarily focused on Asia Pacific, has a global remit. Sanjay describes the potential for synergy stating, “The availability of legacy KEMA people and know-how as part of DNV KEMA Energy & Sustainability presents an exciting opportunity to create more value. We are only limited by our imagination and boldness to bring this expertise and professionalism to new areas that will have an impact on the industry and fulfil DNV’s purpose of safeguarding life, property, and the environment. We must all step out of our comfort zone to create a paradigm shift that will open up opportunities to deliver innovative ideas and service delivery to customers. Collaboration on microgrids is a great example of doing just that.” •
Controlling the Lawless Seas The fully rigged ship Protector, which was built in Arendal in 1864, was one of the first ships to be classified by Det norske Veritas.
Classification is the process of ordering into classes according to specific criteria. Setting standards and criteria, then testing against those criteria is in the DNA of both DNV and KEMA. This is true whether it’s about ships, electricity, or new forms of energy. This time Origins takes a closer look at DNV’s roots in the classification of ships. Regulations through the millennia In prehistoric times, people were already taking to the sea in small boats and discovering distant, unknown shores. Maritime law, too, has a long history – the oldest known examples date back thousands of years. As early as around 2,500 BC, ships from the islands of Crete and Rhodes were already undergoing inspections. On Rhodes there was the rule that if part of a load had to be jettisoned to save a ship, the loss was borne by both the ship owner and the trader. This principle, which still applies under maritime law, is known as the law of “general average.” In the Middle Ages, major port cities such as Venice and Genoa in Italy, and the Hanseatic towns and cities along the northern European coast, laid down
rules governing the maximum draft of ships. This was to protect crews from ship owners who weren’t too particular about the dangers of overloading.
Interests and risks At that time, however, risk prevention was hardly an issue. A safe sea journey lay in the hands of God, or of the gods. In any case, humans had little influence over storms and other causes of shipwrecks. Much legis lation was designed mainly to protect the financial interests of ship owners and traders, and to define the relationships between them. The industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries brought huge technical changes to shipping. The introduction of the steel steamship, which was faster 33
and not dependent on wind, allowed more intensive international trade. The risks also increased significantly. In the winter of 1820, more than 2,000 ships sank in the North Sea alone, taking roughly 20,000 lives. Although the interests of free trade continued to dominate, such developments gradually led to stricter regulation and, ultimately, to the creation of the first classification societies.
What is classification? Ship classification is about seaworthiness. When is a ship fit to sail on the sea or on a river? How high, deep, wide, and long must it be, and which criteria must its construction and equipment satisfy in order to withstand the force of the waves? How much cargo may it carry and how should this be stowed? A fishing vessel and a tanker have to meet very different demands, and a coaster is different from an ocean liner. The concept of classifying vessels goes back to an 18th century coffee house in London, where Lloyd’s Register was founded in 1760. In 1764 the first Register of Ships was printed, in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered. By systematically collecting information about the ships in a particular class, a foundation was laid for improving the rules; and, subsequently, for building better ships.
In the 19th century more classification societies were founded, usually on the initiative of insurance companies. Many societies, including Lloyd’s, restricted themselves at first to classifying and inspecting the national fleet; only Bureau Veritas, which was founded in 1828, soon began to operate internationally. The first rules of classification drawn up by the then new DNV were very straightforward. They consisted of tables stating how wide a ship had to be if it was of a certain length. Today, a ship that is to be classified is monitored from the drawing board up to and including its sea trial, and then regularly inspected. Requirements are also laid down regarding the composition and training of the crew.
Meanwhile, in Norway When we look at Norway around that time, we see a country affected by the changes in shipping and trading, though with some delay. In the first half of the 19th century, Norway is a nation of farmers, traders, mariners, and shipbuilders. The fleet mainly transports fish and wood around the coastal waters of Norway, meeting the needs of local and regional trade. In winter the ships are pulled onshore for maintenance. Shipping and shipbuilding are organised locally. In order to spread the risks, a system of mutual insurance clubs is created in which several parties (shipbuilder, shipmaster, local traders, and farmers) jointly own a ship. They raise the capital for building the vessel and share the operating risks. To secure their mutual interests as best they can, they develop minimum quality standards for ships to meet.
Veritas’ ship register from 1880. The Register Book was important for all those engaged in shipping, as it contained the class notations and other data on the ship, its condition, and capabilities.
Morten Smith Petersen, one of the founders of Det norske Veritas and its chairman from 1867-1872.
Around 1840, international developments put Norway on the map. The liberalisation of shipping, combined with the upsurge in steamer traffic, provides more opportunities for international trade. These opportunities are gladly seized on by some ship owners. The fleet expands strongly, ships become bigger, destinations more exotic, and the cargo more valuable. These developments are accompanied by greater risks and by the need to meet the quality requirements imposed by other ports and nations.
A certificate for permission to sail At that time, anyone who sets sail in international waters and calls in at ports in other countries must have a certificate from a society recognised by the port in question. For Norwegian ships, a certificate from Bureau Veritas is often the only option, but the Norwegians consider such a certificate too expensive and not appropriate for their own ships. What’s more, Bureau Veritas is seen as an extension of the insurers. However, in Norway too, the interests at stake are increasing and the mutual insurance clubs cooperate in order to cover the larger risks. They feel the need for more uniform and comprehensive classification to replace their own rudimentary rules. This gradually leads to a common classification society for the entire Norwegian fleet.
Establishing DnV In 1864, Morten Smith Petersen and Hans Eleonardus Møller are present at the birth of Norway’s own classification society: Det norske Veritas (with a small “n”),
Hans E. Møller, chairman of Veritas from 1864-1867.
Nils Ihlen, managing director of Veritas from 1864-1905, in his uniform as rear admiral of the Norwegian navy.
often referred to simply as Veritas. Veritas is based in Christiania, as Oslo was then called. M. Smith Petersen is a visionary lawyer, businessman, ship owner, and politician, while H.E. Møller has also made his mark in shipping, shipping insurance, and politics. For years they fervently advocate a more professional organisation of Norwegian shipping, with a national classification bureau for Norway’s fleet as an essential element in that process. DnV is established as a non-profit organisation. Members of the mutual insurance clubs pay a fixed contribution, regardless of the number of ships to be certified. This makes DnV more independent of individual ship owners. An important factor in helping the bureau to gain a prominent position is its first director, Nils Ihlen, who runs DnV from its founding to his death in 1905. Ihlen has integrity, he’s knowledgeable, and he knows how to keep his distance from the parties involved – the numerous local insurance clubs and ship owners. Ultimately he succeeds in bringing almost the entire Norwegian fleet into DnV. This puts the organisation in a very powerful position.
Wood or steel Norwegian shipping had grown on the domestic bulk transport of wood or fish on simple wooden sailing ships. As change accelerates, more and more steamships enter the fleet. These are expensive to buy, but a lot less labour-intensive than their wooden predecessors. Steam shipping expands mainly through regular services carrying valuable cargo over long distances.
A first important test case for DnV is the difference of opinion between the “traditionalists,” owners of wooden ships who want a basic – and above all cheap – certificate, and the “modernists” who need an internationally recognised certificate. Veritas is able to bridge the gap with a high-quality certificate at relatively low cost. This certificate is considered to be very trustworthy, and DnV gains in international authority.
The Plimsoll Line The trade and industry boom of the 19th century had many undesirable consequences. Owners regularly played fast and loose with the seaworthiness of ships. “Coffin ships” are notorious ships deliberately overinsured by their owners, and thus worth more as a wreck than they are after arriving safely at their destination. Seaworthiness was not desired, which made it an extremely dangerous place to work. But the crew had no choice as, once they had signed up, they risked jail if they refused to sail.
Samuel Plimsoll, a British politician and social reformer, tried to fight such practices through legislation. His greatest achievement, after a political struggle lasting almost 20 years, was the introduction in 1891 of a compulsory load line on British ships; the "Plimsoll Line,” laid down in the Merchant Shipping Act. This line indicates the maximum draft of a ship and thus the maximum load. The measure worked to prevent overloading, until that time one of the major reasons why ships sank.
The question of safety The Merchant Shipping Act triggers another crisis for DnV. In Norway, there is also intense discussion about the need for more government regulation. DnV initially opposes greater influence from the government. It is committed to self-regulation, a continuation of the old spirit of cooperation within the mutual insurance clubs. The interest that the owners shared in having a sound ship was thought to be sufficient to guarantee safety. DnV finds itself in conflict with the governmentestablished Maritime Office, which puts itself forward as a defender of the interests of ships’ crews. This creates the impression that DnV supports the interests of the powerful ship owners. The conflict considerably undermines the confidence enjoyed by DnV and it takes years to restore its image.
A firm base for the future However, DnV emerges from the conflict stronger than ever. Once the smoke has cleared, the organisation has lost its virtual monopoly in Norway but it has achieved an independent position and a reputation as a reliable international classification society. DnV grows stronger over the years, extending its activities to other sectors. Today, it is also involved in certification in areas such as new energy sources. In ship classification, DnV (now DNV) is one of the three largest international societies, with a total classification market share of around twenty percent. •
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Photo: Marjolein Roggen, Global Marketing & Communication, Arnhem.
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