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PORTFOLIO

VITAMIN Vytautas Jackevicius & Mindaugas Srupskelis The Bartlett School of Architecture March Urban Design 2009 Tutors: Robert Dye & Jason Coleman Director: Colin Fournier


CONTENT PART 2

OFFSHERE - VITAMIN CITY BENVUD 2.0: STRATEGIC URBAN DESIGN Task: Carry out research at a regional level and to come up, in broad conceptual terms, with an overall long-term strategy of urban development for London as a whole. The intention of this module was to get you to grasp the lay of the land and to look into future hypotheses and growth scenarios. OFFSHORE - VITAMIN CITY BENVUD 3.0: DETAILED URBAN DESIGN Task: The objective of the of module Detailed urban design is to get you to work more precisely on a smaller part of London, based on the results of your initial research and on the strategic concept(s) you have developed so far. It asks you to focus on a particular site of your own choosing and to come up with urban design proposals to enhance the quality of its social and physical environment, to make it a better place to live. NAUTOPIA BENVUD 4.0: URBAN DESIGN REPORT / A FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL The UD Report is in effect our final Masters thesis project. In academic disciplines that are not design-oriented, the Masters level Report is indeed, as the name implies, a 10,000 word written thesis. But for students following the MArch Urban Design course, with its strong emphasis on design, the “Report� is in effect composed of two interrelated parts: 1. A final design proposal, to be submitted in the form of a portfolio 2. A written thesis, to be submitted as a bound A4 document The written thesis, while related to the final design proposal, is not intended to be merely a description of the design. Its objective should be to explore from a more theoretical and conceptual perspective some of the issues that you are interested in investigating and have thus contributed to define and inform your design approach. The written thesis would normally include, as illustrations, reductions of the key images of the final design as well as other background illustrations. Because of this strong graphic component, it is understood that the written thesis does not need to be as lengthy as 10,000 words, but should at least be in the order of 5000 to 6000 words.


BENVUD 2.0: STRATEGIC URBAN DESIGN

OFFSHORE - VITAMIN CITY 71% of the Earth surface is covered with water. Climate change is causing the water level to increase rapidly. All North Sea ports - Amsterdam, Rotterdam and London are fighting with rising sea level and increasing water front. Instead of retreating, maybe the best way to protect your self is to attack? We are exploring possibility to live in the landless environment. Could water be more than just a place for fishery and digging goods, tradding? Beginning of OFFSHORE city would start with the objects people find in North Sea: oil platforms, ships, sea containers. Our challenge is to find ways to adapt in an unfriendly environment. Offshore city may create better quality living, than on land.


VITAMIN TEAM (VYTAUTAS JACKEVICIUS & MINDAUGAS SKRUPSKELIS)


VITAMIN CITY PRESENTATION


SCENARIOS

FLOODING Instead of capitulation and retreating away from the attacking waterfront, humans may use endless environment for everyday living needs. Climate change can force us to solve problem of lack of land ussing alternative places for living. Why stay in sheltered waters of endless “venice after flooding? Although open sea is dangerousand unfriendly environment for a human being, our challenge is to find ways for addopting it.

TAX HAVEN For a floating object in a sea international law should be applied as for a boat. You can avoid a lot of taxes, though building a safe floating house has its own cost. Different types of government created could take advantage of setting up tax havens.

Escaping THE system Poeple upset with living in existing structures of society, could find a great opportunity to create a new ways of living, experiment with new forms of government. Once you joined the offshore city you can change to another whenever you get annoyed with a current state of a sea city. You can declare your own independence. Freedom of choice forces cities to improve.Thats adventurous way of living. Traveling and staying in sea cities could become new kind of tourism.

RECYCLING Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of recycling involving the breaking up of ships for scrap. Most ships have a lifespan of a few decades before there is so much wear that refitting and repair becomes uneconomic. Ship breaking allows materials from the ship, especially steel, to be given a new life. Equipment onboard the vessel is also reused to a high extent. Vitamin city gives recycle another meaning instead of breaking the ship to parts, we suggest using ships for inhabitation, creating alternative solution to land urbanism.

SCENARIOS


FLOODING SCENARIO


ESCAPING THE SYSTEM SCENARIO


Capital gains tax %?% Currency transaction tax %?% Gift tax %?% Income tax %?% Inheritance tax %?% Land value taxation %?% Licence %?% Progressive taxes %?% Regressive taxes %?% Sales tax %?% Stamp duty %?% Tobin tax %?% VAT %?% Wealth tax %?% Withholding tax

TAX HAVEN

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RECYCLING SCENARIO


1. ARCHIPELAGO CITY. (disperse city) leaving oil and gas platforms where they are now with existing infrastructure. 2. Thames gateway city. Flood barrier for london. 3. city in Dover straigth. Population connection. 4. The wash bay city. Flood barrier for this region. 5. city as netherland coastal barier fROM flood.

Population density 7m flood

POSSIBLE OFFSHORE CITY LOCATIONS


FAUNA AND FLUORA The North Sea supports a huge diversity of animal and plant life. Hundreds of species of fish, shellfish, whales, dolphins, seals, otters and sea birds make the North Sea their home. Keeping in mind of some damaging impacts Vitamin city could cause in the future we made a study of Greenpeace Report to support our choice for a city site. Reclaiming parts of the sea for fish farming, discharging of chemicals into the sea (could be accidental) or even obstruction and disruption of water currents. Careless design of the city can cause environmental degradation to the North Sea.

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Our aim is to meet Green Peace’s guidelines for national reserves in the North Sea and avoid environment unfriendly solutions.

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PROPOSED NORTH SEA MARRINE RESERVES - GREEN PEACE


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NORTH SEA ANALYSIS

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PROPOSED NORTH SEA MARRINE RESERVES - GREEN PEACE


ENERGY RESOURCES People see North Sea water as human unfriendly environment; we mark as strengths and opportunities for renewable energy. Picture shows different energy collectors from: 1. Wind power 2. Tidal power 3. Wave power Tidal power is most predictable; however wind is the richest source of energy. There are also other opportunities such as solar and geothermal power. Tese maps are from Atlas of UK Marine Renewable energy resources. Producer: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory.

NORTH SEA RESOURCES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY


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BATHYMETRY and 7m water rise

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wind speed

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PEAK FLOW

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WAVE HEIGHT

NORTH SEA RESOURCES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY


CURRENTS The main pattern for the flow of water in the North Sea is an anti-clockwise rotation along the edges. Ocean currents mainly entering via the north entrance existing along Norwegian coast. The Kelvin tide of the Atlantic Ocean travels northward. Some of the energy from this wave travels through the English Channel into the North Sea, bringing a portion of warm current.

NORTH SEA CURRENTS


BATHYMETRY Bathymetry of the North Sea varies from 0 to 50m deep with average depth 20m below chart datum. Sea is rich of sand banks which are slightly covered by shallow water all the time. Usually it consists of sandy sediments which are typically colonized by rich range of fauna (worms, mollusks, shrimps, crabs and fish). Shallow sandy sediments are often important nursery areas for fish and feeding grounds for sea birds. Vitamin city could benefit from shallow sand banks with a soil needed for a city. Seabed on the sand banks may be less than need direct connection with a ground such as geothermal power generators or other objects that need to be permanently fixed to the bottom of the sea. However these are very fragile environments where we have to act responsibly.

NORTH SEA SAND BANKS


OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, CABLES, SHIPPING There are around 350 various types of oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Assuming their expiration in several decades we could bring them to Vitamin city crating a significant amount of stable living area. TRANSPORT

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The North Sea is important for marine traffic and its shipping lanes, especially, Dover Straight being the busiest shipping place in the world. Traffic in the North Sea can be difficult in high density traffic zones. The Dover Straight sees more than 400 vessels a day so ports regulate traffic and monitor vessels in the North Sea lanes. Dover has the world’s first radar control traffic separation system. You can see traffic separation scheme on the map. We see this organization of marine traffic rather as an advantage for our site as marine GPS systems allow ships to be programmed to follow navigational channels accurately and automatically. By joining civilized and regulated framework of marine traffic we would avoid numerous accidents or collisions.

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NORTH SEA INFRASTRUCTURE

Please find the BBC film in the DVD attached (Ships Crossing). This visualization shows GPS traces of ships passing through the Channel in 24 hours.


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UK MArrine administrative boundries

UK MARRINE ADMINISTRATVE BOUNDIRES

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SKETCHES


SKETCHES


FUTURE VISIONS After using mentioned inventory of salvage; people would start to build new types of marine objects to accommodate their needs of offshore city. We made some sketches of how these objects might look like. FLOATING LANDSCAPES Will there be a need of creating floating platforms for artificial landscapes. Would people use them for agriculture? Soil from bottom of sea and composed waste could be used.

LAYERS OF TIME Would all the objects sunk after they expire? Should they be chopped into peaces and be recycled? Or could they serve as air pillows, supporting the new layers on the top.

VISIONS SKETCHES


ICEBERG Is the city growing flat on the sea surface as in present (according to ground surface)? Objects in the water are affected not only by earth gravitation but also air pulling it up. Could we think about ‘weightless’ city? Compact living between ground and water environments? This kind of space would be submerged as an iceberg; only small part of it showing off on the surface.

ENDLESS LAYERS Could offshore city elements be physically attached to each other; creating almost endless layers of the sea surface? What would be nature of this big structure? How fast could it react to threat of hazardous storms?

VISIONS SKETCHES


SKY OVER WATER

WATER SUR FAC

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WATER SURFACE

UNDER W ATER

MAnipulative model UNDER

GROU

ND UNDE

RGRO

UND UNDE

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SEA ENVIRONMENTS

UND


VISION


BENVUD 3.0: DETAILED URBAN DESIGN

OFFSHORE - VITAMIN CITY After the strategic urban design we focused on further, more detailed analysis in larger scale of North Sea region. Research was dedicated for indication of the best site for offshore city. Various aspects proved Dover Channel to be one of the best locations for new type of offshore city. Simulations for the several sites within The Channel were performed. Different speculative scenarios are seen in the animations and models. Elements for offshore city categorized in our full catalogue of existing marine objects. Marine objects are designated to different functions, but encouraged to be mobile, stay sustainable and independent. Ship can be part of the city organism as a whole, or detach itself without damaging the system. Future VITAMIN city will reveal the advantages and qualities of water urbanism from land urbanism.


VITAMIN CITY PRESENTATION


OIL AND GAS RIGS There are around 350 various types of oil and gas platforms in the North Sea. Assuming their expiration in several decades we could bring them to Vitamin city crating a significant amount of stable living area.

SALVAGE MARRINE OBJECTS


CHANNEL TUNNEL CATALOGUE Above you can see a range of existing marine objects, which would be used for Vitamin city framework. For notion of their scale some more familiar dry land objects appear in the line. Some of these ships can accommodate up to 6000 residents. Those big objects are significant urban elements themselves in comparison with present cities; putting only few of them together we would make a quarter of city. Most of these object were designed to with stand harsh environment in the open sea and be sustainable and independent in a long term journeys. Some of them have new clear power generators that can produce energy with alternative power resources.

Channel tunnel already proved to be capable of serving in transportation of over 18 million passengers and 20 million cargos every year. It is only a question of engineering solutions how we could connect Vitamin city to Channel Tunnel. Having fast rail connections with dry land, could bring a lot of advantages to our city. Practically you could live in Vitamin city and work in London or Paris only one hour journey away or vice versa. Also it would enable to attract travelers as the same day tourism destination. That flow of people and flexibility of citizens/workers would increase the economical and intellectual potential of a city.


NORTH SEA MAP

DOVER STRAIGTH


SITE IN BETWEEN SHIPPING LANES


VYTAUTAS First simulation is based on settling above the existing Channel Tunnel. This maneuver gives opportunity to have a fast and regular transport connection with dry land. People and goods flow via tunnel would accelerate growth and development of the offshore city. Assuming the tunnel could accommodate traffic of cargo transportation from offshore port straight to the continent; ships could unload here without entering the busiest ports of the North Sea. Animation show city parts which arrive in the sea first and form small city for builders, who start to work for new link of Euro Tunnel, which would connect Vitamin city with land. All facilities for inhabiting the ‘alien land’ are placed around the area: ships for inhabitation, water, food, sewage. Elements form market like courtyard, which create shelter from wind and waves in this unfriendly environment.

SIMULATIVE MODEL OVER THE CHANNEL TUNNEL


MINDAUGAS Second simulation suggests starting building frame of the city in the shallow waters of sandbanks (such as Varne Bank, Le Colbart). Ships are driven on the bank and permanently stuck to the sea bed. This could reduce the costs of fixing objects to the sea bottom. While small boats are still fully flexible; large elements can have physical links, because of their stability (e.g.: bridges, piers). Other big ships that can or needs to be flexible can be floating aside.

SIMULATIVE MODEL ON THE SAND BANK


VITAMIN CITY Vitamin city unites most attractive solutions of the both simulations. Ships are being sunk systematically forming artificial reefs. This environment crates shelter for human occupied ships as well as sea fauna. City makes a stop for cruise liners, ferries and container ships (for uploading in its port) as it is suited on the busy lanes and Channel Tunnel. The development of the city is drawn to the sand bank direction, while the head is facing the strongest currents of the sea; absorbing it with power collectors and buffer zone – artificial reefs.

SIMULATIVE MODEL IN DEEPER WATER


SKETCHES GRID / NO GRID


SKETHES FOR SPACIAL ARRANGEMENT


SKETCHES FOR GENERAL PLAN


INFRASTRUCTURE Vitamin city infrastructure: water, electricity, sewage system grid, which acts in simbiotic funtional relationship. Inhabitants are changing, sharing or selling goods to neighbours. This way elements of the functional grid can change in infrastructural resources, be sustainable and independent. intelligent city grid helps people to save resources (time, electricity, etc). Spaces for transport are created and defined by mooring locations, which are defined by the places in the functional grid. It also controls the movement of the boats in the sentre of the city to avoid high traffic and accidents.

INFRASTRUCTURE


MODEL OF CITY INFRASTRUCTURE


PROCESS OF CITY MODEL - GRID


PROCESS OF CITY MODEL - FREE ARRANGEMENT


CITY ANIMATION


CITY ANIMATION


SITE PLAN MODEL


SKETHES


CITY FACILITIES, FORM LOCAL TO DISTRICT


LOCAL POPULATION - 4000 INHABITANTS


CITY SCHEMES


CITY PLAN


BENVUD 4.0: URBAN DESIGN REPORT - A FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

NAUTOPIA 72% of our planet’s surface is covered with water and climate change is causing it to increase rapidly, which impact we can face in next 50-100 years. We are exploring possibility to live in the landless environment. Instead of capitulation and retreating away from the attacking waterfront, use water surface for everyday living needs. Treating oceans as field of fishery only already proved to be immature world outlook of humanity. In 50 years we have eaten 90% worlds big fish and destroyed half of coral reefs in the seas and oceans. The idea we are testing is a culture set on water, where people have different values for life, they are living self-sustainable, consciously, socially and environmentally active. Different speculative scenarios are seen in the animations and models. Marine objects are designated to different functions, but encouraged to stay sustainable and independent. Ship can be part of the city organism as a whole, or detach itself without damaging the system. Our project demonstrates detailed analysis of North Sea region. Dover Channel proved to be one of the best locations for new type of offshore city as ‘filter’ on the channel. Our goal is to find out if it could be a futuristic answer to the environmental and social problems of today’s “land urbanism”. Challenge is to design a better quality living in comparison to land urbanism. We would like to thank everybody who was involved in our project through the year. Especially our devoted tutors Jason Coleman and Robert Dye.


FROM SECTION TO MODEL


MODEL SCHEMES

TOP VIEW OF THE MODEL

SPACIAL ANALYSIS

PUBLIC & PRIVATE

PUBLIC FUNCTIONS


AUTONOMOUS BOAT & SMALL SHIPS

AUTONOMOUS NETWORK

AUTONOMOUS BOATS

FIXED INFRASTRUCTURE

COMUNITIES & INFRASTRUCTURE


SKETCH CITY SECTION


SKETCH - SEA COMMUNITIES


SKETCH CITY ZONES


SKETCH


Duck rotates with nodding motion as wave passes

Chain method MOORING METHODS

Tension leg method

Wall method

Frame guide method


MOORING chains The most efficient way of building large moored structures would be - tieing them into chains rather than putting them side by side. While being so close to each other ships are loosing natural daylight penetrating to the interiors of ships through the side facades. In ‘chain’ case we would need to sacrifice only one side of the ship, we would reduce the amount of ropes and fenders needed to tie them. At the same time it creates continuos highstreets with clearly defined centre platform, as ahead of the body.

MOORING


SEA COMMUNITY CENTERS & DENSITY


COMMUNITY FORM ABOVE


Wave Energy

>-50m

CITY SCHEMES -50m -30m

Transport / Shipping Lanes

Best Wave/Tide energy Site

Tidal stream

International Borders

Best Wind Farm Location

Predominant Wind Directions

United Kingdom

>-50m -50m -30m

France


COMPOSITE SCHEME


date:

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population:

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population:

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sequence

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0 m 2) :

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2061/09 population:

000 750 a r e a ( 1 0 0 m 2) :

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NAUTOPIA SCENARIO IS COVERED IN THESIS

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Rich in new settlers

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DECISION MAKING FOR NAUTOPIA


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NAUTOPIA SCENARIO IS COVERED IN THESIS


DECISION MAKING FOR NAUTOPIA


VITAMIN PORTFOLIO  

Portfolio shows design of a radical culture based in sea, where people have different values for life to live consciously, sustainably, are...

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