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Lexicon of experimental typography


Content

Food Typography 4 – 7 Cut-out Typography 8 – 9 Illustration Typography 10 – 11 Punk 12 – 13 Distortion Typography 14 – 15 Glitch Art 16 – 17 Illusion Type 18 – 19 Transparent Type 20 – 21 String Art Typography

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Typographic Landscape

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Accessable Typography 26 – 27 Ambigrams 28 – 29 Anatomy Typography 30 – 31 Human Typography 32 – 33 Non-binary 34 – 35 Hand-drawn Typography

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Pixelated Typography 38 – 39 Beaded Typography 40 – 41 Pharmacology 42 – 43 3-Dimensional Typography

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Food Typography The most direct definition for food typography is a collaboration between lettering and food. Using food as your main ingredient, a wide range of skills will need to work together in order to complete this recipe. These skills are not only limited to sculpturing, flat lay design, carving, drawing but also photography, food preparation, food handling or even some basic chemistry knowledge. Danielle Evans, an art director and a dimensional lettering artist used the correlation between sugar, fashion and lettering construction to create a few accessory pieces for her fashion photoshoot with fashion photographer Nick Fancher. One of these accessories was the syrup coated wire necklace. She started with prototyping twisted, coated wires the word “queen”. Each wire was submerged into hyper-saturated syrup for four hours then hung until they were dried. The best wire was picked for her photoshoot. Danielle also made a candy ring out of taffy baked onto modelling clay with the word “ass”, a marshmallow rope charm bracelet, a lollipop necklace, etc. One of Danielle’s longest series of food typography is Kanegg. “Kanyegg was hatched while exploring Kanye West as a pop culture phenomenon: G.O.O.D. egg or bad yolk?” (Evans, 2018). This is a series of experimental typography using eggs in many different ways such as eggshells, fried eggs, dyed eggs, meringue, omelette and carved emu eggs. The most stand out experiment was carving letters on emu eggs. Letters were hand-drawn onto the dark teal egg surface. After the letters were carved with a Dremel attachment, two additional shell layers, light teal and white would be revealed. The carving process can take up two weeks. Russell Shaw is an art director, designer and illustrator. The project was to create a promotional artwork for AIGA Atlanta’s second annual Poster Show. This poster was created fully by hand out of paper and found objects. Inspired by the 2017 showcase which focussed on filmand movie-inspired poster designs, the iconic movie snack: popcorn was chosen to create the main title. Russell used paper and straws to form the three-dimensional letter structure then glued popcorn on top. Almost the entire poster was constructed by hand compositionally assembled then being photographed. Danielle Evans: www.marmaladebleue.com/stickytrap www.marmaladebleue.com/kanyeggchain kanyegg.com Russell Shaw: www.russellshawdesign.com/aiga-atlanta-2017-poster-show-promotional-artwork

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Behind the scene creating AIGA Atlanta’s Second Annual Poster Show by Russel Shaw

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Cut-out Typography Cut-out typography is a craft-like 3D effect typography. Letterforms will be cut-out on the same piece of material such as paper, wood, etc to create a 3D shadow effect, to reveal illustrations underneath or to be placed on any background and still be legible. Ariane Spanier is a designer based in Berlin. She designed covers for FUKT Magazine 2009 issue and Washington Post Magazine December 2012 issue using similar cut-out style. Remaining cut-out paper strips are curled towards the edges of her letters not only to create a 3D shadow effect but also to reveal the publications’ main theme and topics underneath. For FUKT Magazine, it’s the annual selection of contemporary drawings and for Washington Post Magazine, it shows headline stories about the Washington area within this issue. Toshiyasu Nanbu as an art director based in Japan. His Forest of Typographic design, which won the Japan Typography Yearbook “Best Work Award”, used laser cutting paper technique. According to Nanbu, the message by typeface is intertwined. Due to all very delicate details at the edge of each page, a real challenge is set up to test a person’s sensibility when they picked the book up. Global environment is the hidden message of this design as the cut-outs will be destroyed and damaged if readers use violence against them. Louis Rigaud is a freelance in multimedia creation and illustration. He designed the Le Tout Petit Festival poster in 2013 using cut-out elements on one sheet of paper. The main focus of this festival is for children and their companions to live and share their artistic experiences. Colour, paper and scissors are familiar to kids as their fine art first encounter, Louis created the entire colourful town with cut-out shapes and letters to give thisposter a fun and lively vibe as if children would be living it in when they came to Le Tout Petit Festival. The letters were not fully cut out but cleverly kept just enough to achieve the 3D and shadow effect. Ariane Spanier: www.arianespanier.com/fukt-7-12/ www.arianespanier.com/washington-post-magazine-2/ Toshiyasu Nanbu: www.tasteinc.net/graphicdesign19.html Louis Rigaud: www.ludocube.fr/portfolio/graphic

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Illustration Typography

Typography illustration is a technique that was using lettering reform and make it to the illustration. It could be a single word, a phrase, related terms and so on. For example, use a phrase of a car to create the car illustration. It can be done by pens and papers, and you can choose a figure or object that you would like to illustrate, draw the outline of your illustration object, then put in your hand lettering into the illustration. You can choose only input your lettering inside and adjust the text, or reforming the text and make it looks like the object that you illustrated. Chris Spooner is an artist who holds his blog, ‘Spooner Graphics’, in which he aims to use his blog as a platform to share his design tips, tutorials and resources. He has done a few numbers of hand-lettering typography illustrations tutorials. For instance, he published ‘How to create typography illustrations the easy way’ tutorial in 2014. He taught how to use Illustrator to manipulate the text into a silhouette shape. Adam Trageser is a creative director, product designer, photographer and the founder of Two Left Co., which is | 10

a boutique design studio. He is Philadelphia based. One of his projects was designing the Philadelphia shirt for You&Who apparel, and he has used the text ‘Philadelphia Motor Works’ to illustrate the man who is driving with the hood vents. Linzie is from Scotland, and she is a Peckham based artist in London. Her amazing hand lettering, illustrations and great application of colours have appeared on lots of print and digital publications. Apple, Nike, Hallmark, BBC and so on are all her clients. One of her projects is typographic maps, in which to use the text to illustrate different place. Chris Spooner: www.blog.spoongraphics.co.uk/tutorials/how-to-create-typography-illustrations-the-easy-way Adam Trageser: www.twoleft.co/lettering-things Linzie: www.linziehunter.co.uk/portfolio/typographic-maps/


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Punk Popularised in England, Punk arguably started in America inspired by Rock n Roll music. One of the first Punk bands in America was the New York Dolls, managed by Malcolm McClaren. McClaren was of English background and after he left the New York Dolls, started the Sex Pistols in England. As well as managing the Sex Pistols he ran the store “Sex” with his partner Vivienne Westwood. As a pair Malcolm and Vivienne created a lot of the imagery and aesthetic we often relate to punk. The Punk graphic style was often characterised by a hand made aesthetic making use of things like collage, hand-drawn type, ransome note style lettering and stenciles to name few. The Sex Pistols only album “Forget the Bollocks, Here’s the Sex Pistols” was designed by artists Jamie Reid. Reid also co-wrote the lyrics to the song “Anarchy in the UK”. Jamie Reid’s work consists of collage and often used lettering cut from newspapers paired with other graphic elements, this can be seen in the “God Save the Queen” . Malcolm Garret is another English graphic designer who worked with the Punk band the Buzzcocks, as well as other non-punk bands like Duran Duran. The collage style can be seen in his works like the Orgasm Addict Poster. Barney Bubbles is yet another British designer who worked with various bands in the 1970’s and 80’s. His style also used collage, which can be seen in the record sleeve for Damned, Damned, Damned by the Stiffs. Jamie Reid: www.theguardian.com/music/gallery/2010/ aug/29/punk-poster-design www.retroavangarda.com/jamie-reid-and-thepunk-rebellion/ Malcolm Garret: www.itsnicethat.com/news/malcolm-garrettbuzzcocks-love-battery-orgasm-addict-g-fsmith-graphic-design-200318 Barney Bubbles: www.hero-magazine.com/article/104092/barney-bubbles/

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Sex Pistols’ Album cover “God Save the Queen” by Jamie Reid

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Distortion Typography Distortion Typography is a fast and easy design method that can buzz the content into an energetic, motivational and rhythmic flow. “While the digital often comes close to crushing its analog precedents, that process can do something curious to its putative victims: underscore their virtues, elevate their status and transform the formerly workaday into something rarefied, special, even luxurious.� Rob Walker said in a recent article in the New York Times. The creation is often ascribed to pre-digital technologies such as scanners, photocopiers, letterpresses as the unique aesthetic.

transformation of Mikser in terms of location and program. There are over 100 different visuals using the same method with Montero that generating the identity to match the dynamics of the festival. The poster was designed by Lorem Ipsum Studio an independent design studio based in Belgrade, Serbia.

Montero scans the typographic poster with the text he made while slightly moving the poster when the scanner is in progress. He repeated the process with the same poster while changing speeds, movements, angles. He then cleaned up the background and made some minor adjustments in the editing software.

Ruben Montero: www.typographher.com/blog/2016/1/1/ scanmania-experimental-typographic-poster-series-by-ruben-montero

Mikser is the most significant regional festival of creativity in Belgrade – Savamala. The identity was designed to reflect the movement and

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Cyril Vouilloz created a strategy to bring letters to a different degree and dimension. He has been bringing typography to the 3D with illusions which was made out of plywood and acrylic paint.

Poster for Mikser Festival: www.behance.net/gallery/6303755/ Mikser-Festival-2012 https://myfopinion.wordpress. com/2015/01/23/mikser-festival-by-lorem-ipsum-studio/ Cyril Vouilloz: www.rylsee.com/


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Glitch Art

Glitch art is a fault in a system including human, nature and electronics industries. Glitches appear in visual art such as the film A Colour Box (1935) by Len Lye, the video sculpture TV Magnet (1965) by Nam June Paik and more contemporary work such as Panasonic TH-42PWD8UK Plasma Screen Burn (2007) by Cory Arcangel. It is not similar to “bug,” “glitch” is not a serious error and it seems more mysterious and unknowable. Glitch art is a random and unexpected effect achieved by destroying electronic data or physically operating electronic devices. This data error eventually evolved into a major trend for desirable effects in graphic design. This font can represent the word “modern,” it is a Bohemian reflection. It uses different kinds of technical errors to achieve aesthetic purposes. The glitch can be performed via data manipulation, misalignment, hardware failure, misregistration, and distortion. This type of font is often used to express false or psychedelic feelings. Using physically operating electronic devices to create glitch typography and an excellent example of this method is the Spanish designer and art director Rubén Montero. His process for producing the faulty font was simple, moving the original image at different speeds during the scan. Then I finished the poster design under the computer editing software. Montero thinks it makes sense to use physical means to control the font making process, which has unique effects that cannot be achieved by digital means. Using electronic software to create the effect of the glitch typography can also achieve many different outcomes. The Italy designer, Giarri’s work, is another example of digital glitch typography. He works by | 16

using software such as radial blur, noisy filters, copying layers and recoloring. His work has more details in the signal letter. Furthermore, #36DaysOfGlitch is a project using digital software to create glitch typography. The electronic mode is as random as the previous one. The automated way can produce many more possibilities than the physical form, in other words, it can create more unique effects. Ruben Montero: www.designcollector.net/likes/glitchytype-posters-by-ruben-montero Giarri: www.behance.net/gallery/24363153/ Sonrie-Te-estamos-grabando-Proposal


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Illusion Type

Seeing is believing. One of the most common phrases we hear. Seeing something with your own eyes is the ultimate confirmation of an occurrence for us. But what if what you see is not everything? Is seeing something the same as actually looking it for what it really is or what it can be? At one point or another we all have looked at a something upside down or from a different perspective and thought how it looked like something else. We have also looked at something in the dark or in light and seen it in a completely different way. Even something in motion can result in a completely different experience. The thaumatrope for example, of the bird on one side and the cage on the other. Even something as simple as looking at a reflection. There are so many way to actually experience or experiment with the versatility of our vision. GRIT – DOYLE PARTNERS This experimental typography project by the Doyle Partners was implemented in two schools in New York city. It was an installation of character traits originally produced for an article “What is the Secret to Success is Failure?” in the New York Times magazine. The work was done by a team and was made by sticking duct tape across the basketball court. While it may seem like a decorative element or just modern art from many perspectives, it also can be a perfectly form word with a simple typeface. MEN GA EEN ZACHTER GANG – FRED EERDEKENS 2002 Light and shadow. Most of our Initial experience with experimenting with light and shadow was by making shapes using our bodies or hands, with a strong light source. The shape of a dogs head or a bird. For this project

Fred Eerdekens uses light and shadow to form a typeface. The objects used to create this were glass and steel panels and book covers. Without the lights this experiment may seem like a random arrangement of material but gives us a completely different experience, just with the flip of a switch. URBAN TALES - KATIE BEVIN 2010 One of the first ways humans were able to tell the time of the day was using the position of the sun. Even the sundial was based on this. This natural phenomenon of the sun rising and setting was the base of this project. This time-based, site-specific piece of environmental typography is a conceptual installation that works like a sundial. Based on the dimensions of the poles, she created a modular typeface equivalent in width to the shadows they cast. Parts of the letterforms were reproduced on the ground surrounding the bollards so that, as the sun moved across the sky, the shadows cast by the bollards moved, completing a letter at each increment of 45 degrees. Words become visible when shadows meet the shapes on the ground, constructing a phrase that appears over a 10-hour period. The lines of the phrase can be viewed from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., with each word appearing for approximately an hour. The forms ultimately spell out the phrase by Dr. Seuss: “From here to there and there to here” Doyle Partners: www.doylepartners.com/#/nytimes-grit/ Fred Eerdekens: www.fred-eerdekens.be/work/installation Katie Bevin: www.segd.org/content/urban-tales-shadow-typography


Installations of character traits in two NYC schools originally produced for the article “What if the Secret to Success is Failure?� in the New York Times Magazine.


Transparent Type

Transparent Type was made by transparent elements. The transparent colours will overlap and become a new colour. The more layers overlapping each other the heavier the parts look like. In the first instance is a project by a font designer Christoph Ruppli. He used geometric elements to build letters. Although the letters can’t be read immediately but Christoph created fun letter shapes with contrasting colours. The second example is by Richard | Studio Laucke Siebein. In this design, we can see he used more than two colours, so his font became more colourful because many chosen colours overlapped each other. Holes

were chosen as his font main element so the letterforms look more complex. The third instance is designed by Mitsuo Katsui. Mitsuo’s specialty is creating abstract form. By using vibrant and pop colours, his design attracts viewers from a far distance. Christoph Ruppli: http://luc.devroye.org/fonts-77477.html Richard | Studio Laucke Siebein: http://binger-laucke-siebein.com/archive/projects/from-a-to-z-richard/ Mitsuoko Katsui: www.graphicine.com/mitsuo-katsui-contemporary-japanese-posters/


String Art Typography The ideas of string art typo are using the pins or nails to pin on the broads, walls and so on, by using strings to round it on the pin and make the lines to form the typography. Strings art is probably combining the concepts of mathematics and art, the more lines you made, the smoother the curve you will have. You can start on using string art to create the geometric design, such as square, circle, triangle and so on, then use these geometric designs to form the typography. Chase and Aaron love creating things together with their great creative ideas, Aaron has a background is in architecture and Chase is a graphic designer, they have their Etsy shop called Inkwise to sell their handcrafted wood and paper products, their wedding is full of handmade elements. They used string art to form the ‘My Beloved’ sign; they plotted out their meaningful message and designed the typeface, then they started to draft on the wood panels. After that they winding around the words and used the yarn in a different colour to wrapping the nails, they mentioned that it was a very long but meaningful and amazing process. Dominique Falla is an Australian artist, and she is also a professor at Griffith University. The project that she had done was a thread and nail poster. The purpose that she did this poster is to participate in the Positive Posters competition. She came up with a phrase, ‘WE ARE ALL A PART OF THE SAME THING’, she chose to use all caps and set it in trusty Helvetica typeface. She spent around 10 hours to nail the grid and winding coloured cotton strings. Pae White is from California and is a Los Angeles-based Artist. She has installed and displayed one of her project at the South London Gallery in Peckham. She was inspired by the artist’s insomnia, she created a 48-kilometre network thread-based

sculptures, by using different coloured yarn and criss-cross the room to spell out words such as ‘tigertime’ and ‘un-mattering’. Chase and Aaron: www.greenweddingshoes.com/crafty-reclaimedwood-wedding-chase-aaron/ Dominique Falla: www.thisiscolossal.com/tags/typography/page/8/ Pae White: www.southlondongallery.org/exhibitions/paewhite-too-much-night-again/


Typographic Landscape Typography is traditionally a rather flat pursuit: letters on a page, as beautifully designed as they may be, are still just two-dimensional images. But a growing number of artists and designers are bringing typography off of the paper and into the real world. These incredible works of physical typography span fine art, furniture design, public ar. bringing the intangible nature of languages into a touchable three-dimensional world. Sitting in Vancouver (from October 2009 to Summer 2011) is a strange and wonderful man: The We sculpture from artist Jaume Plensa. Designed for the Vancouver Biennale open-air art exhibition, the sculpture is made up of characters from several different alphabets that come together in the shape of a seated human. Visitors can walk inside the sculpture and surround themselves with letters, creating a one-of-a-kind art experience (and fantastic photo opportunity). Typographic garden commissioned by the Thij College in Oldenzaal. Vollaerszwart Studio made nine objects covered in artificial grass are used as outdoor furniture for the school. It serves as an engaging space for secondary school children. The usually flat material of artificial turf achieves three-dimensionality through the oversized letters that spread across a 20-meter circle. The Nine huge letters from both the seating area itself and the name of the project, offering a range of playful lounging options where youngsters can relax and socialize.

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Andrew Byrom has created a typographic sculpture in a farmer’s field from local materials. Finding inspiration from both the natural landscape and man-made materials,  byrom’s installation sees old corrugated metal sheets spell out the word ‘true’. rust stained patina and flaky textured panels form larger-than-life letterforms in the landscape, channeling the community and culture of the countryside Jaume Plensa: www.vancouverbiennale.com/artists/jaume-plensa/ Vollaerszwart Studio: www.vollaerszwart.com/evergreen Andrew Byrom: www.andrewbyrom.com


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Accessable Typography The vast range of human sensorial capabilities require expanded forms of access. A ‘one style, fits all’ approach only excludes those abilities that are considered to deviate from pre-prescribed ‘norms’. In recent times there have emerged new ways of thinking about seeing, hearing, speaking, reading etc. that seek to address that issues that exclude people based on ability and push towards common forms of access for all. For instance, The Center for Universal Design situated at North Carolina State University have been working for a number of years on developing and promoting a series of Universal Design principles. These principles aim to avoid discrimination in favour of systems and features that cater for as wide a range of abilities as possible that are shared, not separated. Examples include the provision of architectural details such as the provision of ramps instead of steps, wide doorways and alcoves, levers instead of door knobs and more. Their guidance for visual design includes the use of sharp and clearly defined contrast between texts and elements to cater for a range of visual acuity and the provision for audio and other non-visual elements when a person’s visual acuity might be too low for high contrast prove helpful. In terms of typography there have been a number of projects in recent times that seek to address issues around low acuity and contrast, but also less well-known issues such as those associated with dyslexia and memory. Mencap is a U.K. based charity for people with learning difficulties. In

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2008, they hired a corporate design agency to help with their rebranding. As part of this project Fontsmith, a U.K. type foundry, was invited to collaborate on a new typeface that sought to create a benchmark for legibility, based on interviews with a diverse group of people who experienced various learning difficulties via Mencap. The resulting typeface, named ‘FS Me’, provided utmost clarity in its ability to communicate whilst seeking to respect its intended audience by not appearing too simplistic or childlike.

aforementioned Universal Design principles but it also neglects the legitimacy of Braille as a commonly-held system of language particular to a group of society. Time will tell whether or not one type of typography will ultimately outweighs the other, although the privision for both seems like a commonly accepted form as well (see City of Melbourne street pole signage, or Public Transport Victoria’s information boards as examples of this).

Dyslexie started as a student project by graphic designer Christian Boer, a dyslexic, who was so frustrated with the typefaces he encountered whilst studying that he turned this frustration into a research project. What he noticed was that fellow dyslexics had less trouble distinguishing 3D than 2D letterforms. This formed the basis for his Dyslexie font. Since the release of the typeface an organisation has been founded in it’s name to continue research into dyslexia, and provide resources that address issues around this.

Mencap: www.fontsmith.com/case-studies/mencap

3-Dimensional type has recently been adopted as a standard in signage and wayfinding to address access for people with low visual acuity, leading to questions around the relevance of Braille as both an aid, but also as a cultural signifier. The issue is multi-faceted. Providing text in common languages that is raised, so it it is readable by touch addresses discrimination along the lines of

Dyslexie: www. eyeondesign.aiga.org/can-fonts-reallyhelp-those-with-dyslexia/ www.dyslexiefont.com/en/home/ 3-Dimensional Type: www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-04/ sydney-launches-largest-tactile-network-for-blind-pedestrians/7566852


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Ambigrams

Ambigram is the name given to a visual trick whereby a piece of typography that can be read from multiple orientations, i.e. upside-down or back-to-front. They often repeat the same word but can also read as different words depending on the orientation of the reader. The name was bestowed upon this form of typography by an American professor of cognitive science, Douglas R. Hofstadter who wrote: “Ambigrams are discoveries, not creations”. Hofstadter wrote extensively about the phenomenon in 1987 in a publication titled “Ambigrammi” (full title, translated reads as “Amigrams: an ideal microcosm for the study of creativity”). Although Hofstadter is often credited this inventing the term, he did not invent the form and examples appear throughout the history of the written word. For graphic designers the ambigram can appear as a gimmick, or seldom used typographic element, but for enthusiasts of the form (or ambigramists as Wikipedia refers to them) there is a type of cultish fever that accompanies the collection and/ or creation of ambigrams that lives outside of the hermetic seal of the graphic designer’s realm and that gives form to the types of scientific concepts that appear with a sheen of mystery and imagination embedded within them. An early example of the ambigram, as an illustrated element within book design, appears as far back as 1893. In Peter Newell’s children book ‘Topsys & Turveys’ the story ends with an ambigram of the words ‘The End’ and text inviting readers to turn the book around to read the words again, this time appearing to spell out the word ‘puzzle’ instead.

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The ‘New Man’ logo is one of the most well-known examples of an ambigram designed as part of a corporate identity. It was designed for a French clothing company in 1969 by industrial designer Raymond Loewy. His interest in designing ‘machines’ informed the rigid, geometric nature of the logotype which has the added benefit of being able to rotate 180° to read in exactly the same manner. In recent times, tattooists have found inspiration in the arcane properties of the ambigram, provoking a rash of sites offering to create ambigram designs in similar styles such as fontmeme which uses a blackletter style font which is easily reflected horizontally to produce a very simplistic interpretation of an ambigram and flipscript which produced more sophisticated and complex results, ready to take to the tattooist. Peter Newell: www.vancouverbiennale.com/artists/jaume-plensa/ www.alphabettenthletter.blogspot. com/2012/09/lettering-ambigrams.html Raymond Loewy: www.raymondloewy.com/about/biography/ www.goodlogo.com/extended.info/new-manlogo-2389 Try out Ambigrams yourself: www.fontmeme.com/ambigram-font/ www.flipscript.com/ambigram-generator.aspx

Above examples were created using www.fontmeme.com/ambigram-font/


Illustration by Peter Newell from the book, Topsys & Turvys, first published in 1893

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Anatomy Typography Anatomy typography has a strong visual effect. Designers regard this typeface as the human proportions and conduct anthropological research on them. Andreas Scheiger’s “Graphic Laboratory” was inspired by the book “The Alphabet and Elements of Lettering.” “Alphabetical Anatomy” is an excellent example which designed by Andreas Scheiger. In this project, the designer simulated the effect of fonts that had been immersed in formalin. These fonts have a kind of infantile feel. They seem to have not fully developed. He saw the font as living and tried to trace the family tree of the font. He believes that “Of all the achievements of the human mind, the birth of the alphabet is the most momentous.” (Frederic W. Goudy 1918) In this project, he believes that the development of fonts is an essential part of the process and should not be neglected. Therefore, he tried to trace the development of fonts through in-depth research on fonts. He traces the origins of the development of typefaces, dissecting multiple letters. He thinks the letters are similar to mammalian structures, with muscles and calcium carbonate skeletons under the skin. “GARAMOND CORPUS” is a typographic study created by Björn Johansson. He inspires by Geoffroy Tory’s book Champ Fleury from 1529 and believes that there are many different kinds of typography, such as sans serif and sans serif. Furthermore, each font also has different glyphs such as uppercase, lowercase, italic, bold and so on. He seems letters as organic and alive things and states that these letters are similar to humans, who have many differences. As a result, he used human bones as the design element to create the typeface, showing the letters through the bones of different parts. This font can be used for health or medical purposes, and a good example is the project “FLOAT health” created by Nuno Neto. It is similar to the previous design method, but this project is endowed with practical value. The public can quickly understand the field to be conveyed by this advertisement. At the same time, this strong visual effect can attract many people’s eyes and achieve good communication effects. Andreas Scheiger: www.designswan.com/archives/stunning-typography-sculpture-evolution-of-type-by-andreas-scheiger.html Björn Johansson: www.garamondcorpvs.com/pages/the-story Nuno Neto: www.behance.net/gallery/3891497/FLOAThealth-ad-agency-communication-strategy

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Human Typography “It becomes ever clearer that the ultimate, most intimate territory for design is not electronics, or interiors, or furniture, or the web. It is us—our own living, breathing, biological selves” - Rick Poynor (Design critic) The delicate arrangement of bone, muscle and tissue that makes up the human body can be transformed into substantive and convincing shapes. In art the physicality of the human body adopts various forms, from naturalistic bodily representations, to abstract depictions, and symbolistic simplifications. This extends to the typography field where body parts can be arranged and contorted to become letters in themselves. The human body’s soft and organic features juxtapose the structured and stiff composition expected of letterforms, creating unpredictable and dynamic results. This is seen in Arian Benning’s ‘Twisted Typography’ which uses wooden pegs to distort areas of skin into the alphabet. In a less abusive approach, ‘Naked Silhouette alphabet’ by Anastasia Mastrakouli uses the silhouette of a nude human form in different positions to recreate the alphabet, showing the relationship between anatomy and visual art. Despite its flexibility for manipulation and transformation, it is the strong emotional and psychological connections society has to the body that make it such a powerful subject matter. Before any modifications are made, implications exist just from the choice of skin colour, body size, posture or gesture. Designers use this to their advantage, allowing them to create pieces that make us question not only how we view the human body but society as a whole. The universal nature of humanity gives it the ability to convey strong messages accessible to all ages, sexes, ethnic groups and social classes.

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As part of MTV’s safe sex community service campaign, Luke Lucas created the series ‘Promiscuous Type’. It targets individuals who cheat on their partners and features phrases that are typical excuses given by cheaters, such as “I’ll be home late, honey. Still have a lot to do at work”. It features skin coloured letters that interact with each other through realistic depictions of lips, tongues and nipples. Lukas used the mouth and breast, body parts we associate with deep intimacy, to allude to the promiscuous activity. The core message of the campaign was “More than half of women with HIV are infected by their cheating husbands”. The extraordinary anatomy of the human body combined with its strong personal connections to individuals and society makes it a subject of extreme potential in the art and design world. When used together with type, the body is more than just flesh and bones, it becomes a stimulating tool for communication. Arian Benning: http://thijsverbeek.nl/projecten/alfabet-in-huid Anastasia Mastrakouli: www.detail-online.com/blog-article/savaged-by-sex-naked-silhouette-alphabet-by-anastasia-mastrakouli-24932/ Luke Lucas: www.lukelucas.com/MTV-CSA-promiscuous-type


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Non-Binary Can typography be gendered? Of course, it is common to describe typefaces as either masculine or feminine depending on their anatomy but beyond their explicit features, how can typefaces can be used to represent feminism, gender equality and non-binary groups? How can type design be used to represent the vast number of people who do not identify with a binary definition of gender? Beyond this, can the world of type design be more aware and inclusive of marginalised groups? How can type design cooperate within inter-sectional feminism? And why is it that type design is still such a heavily cis-male dominated sphere? These are just a hand full of questions that come to mind when thinking about the practice of typography and how it can be more inclusive. In an attempt to shed some light on some of these big questions, an internet query into the subject unearths a wealth of designers exploring these questions. In 1994, designers Siân Cook and Teal Triggs noticed an overwhelming imbalance between men and women working in type design. In response to this, they set up WD+RU (The Women’s Design & Research Unit), an initiative aimed at supporting women designers through promoting their work and shining light on the inequality in the type design world. An early project to come out of the initiative was the experimental typeface Pussy Galore, which is now in the Collection of the National Modern Art Museum in Paris. Named after Honor Blackman’s unrelenting character in the James Bond film Goldfinger, the typeface addresses gender stereotypes using dingbats of feminine archetypes including pouting lips, Eve’s snake and a horned “she devil”. Different juxtapositions of the typeface invite the user to consider the lexicon of female stereotypes and acknowledge the imbalance within the gender status quo. | 34

Beyond these efforts in the 1990s, the work did not stop there to address the issues of gender imbalance in type design. In 2015, designer Kimberly Ihre launched Typequality, an online platform where users can share and discover typefaces designed by women. Functioning as both a database and a digital meeting place, designers can connect on the platform, showcase their work and support each other in a sphere that continues to be dominated by men. Meanwhile, Brussels-based designer Loraine Furter launched Badass Libre Fonts by Womxn to promote the work of woman-identifying type designers. In terms of the uneven power structures within graphic and type design, Furter notes: “In relation to gender, graphic design has a specific history. Women working in this trade were unaccepted, invisible and undervalued… and this was until about 1980, which is so recent. In Briar Levit’s wonderful documentary Graphic Means: A History of Graphic Design Production, one of the interviewees mentions an expression used in the ’50s and ’60s: you could use a “girl” to do typesetting, which in the trade’s jargon meant a non-unionised, inexpensive worker. The representations we are used to seeing and producing as graphic designers—that we consider natural— are informed by this history and the broader society we live in, which is patriarchal, sexist, racist, classist, ableist… Intersectional feminism, which considers these intersecting fields, is useful in addressing these issues.” The strengths provided through intersectional thinking can also be used to explore and give voice to gender-queer folk who claim identities outside the gender binary and cisnormativity. Swedish Designers Minna Sakaria and Carolina Dahl address the gendered use of type in projects such as Queertype, which challenges typographic stereotypes by switching their application. That is, words commonly associated with

femininity were written in ‘masculine’ typefaces and vice versa. Sakaria explains, “I designed two gender stereotypical typefaces—Sans and Avec—and made them queer by applying them inverted.” Siân Cook and Teal Triggs: www.grafik.net/category/feature/wd-ru Kimberley Ihre: www.halloffemmes.com/2016/03/httptypequality-com/ Loraine Furter: www.design-research.be/by-womxn/


Hand-drawn Typography

Swiss visual artist Cyril Vouilloz, aka Rylsee, has conquered new media channels with his catchy, satyrical hand-drawn typography, becoming a huge representative of the typography world on Instagram. The new body of work at “Other Inbox” combines his fascination for the letter form and his discontent with the confusion of our current digital communications with each other and the Internet. A rather nebulous set of conditions and facts that are difficult to grasp and describe verbally for many, the modern afflictions of this fragmented digital life are here visually represented – through the prism of letterform love. Letters are warped, over warmed, sliced, slid, and glitched in ways that seem perfectly normal today, even though we know that they are not normal at all. He said that “I use simple, cheap stuff. I tried the expensive ones but its not really fun when I am scared of losing them! By far my favorite pens are the one euro Muji pens. Their ink is really nice, they have a good range of sizes, of which I normally use the 0.3 and the 0.5mm tips”.

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The piece is a mixed composition with 9 woodcut letters hung on the wall and hand painting all around them. He has pushed the limits of my installation by adding some crazy mapping on it! On top of being fun, This collaboration made he aware off the infinite new possibilities that this technology can bring to my art. Other Inbox: www.brooklynstreetart.com/2017/08/02/ rylsee-plays-with-letters-show-opens-at-urban-spree/ Instagram Posts: www.instagram.com/rylsee/


From an on-going project Rylsee is doing called the X.RAY app. Test footage can be viewed www.instagram.com/p/BoMf3DDjBUl/

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Pixelated Typography For every monitor from the glorious 8K monitors to your 4.7-inch iPhone, it dials down to one simple measurement – pixels. Even for the retina displays on Apple devices, the perfect curve will still look pixelated under a magnifying glass. But the modern era is still blessed as previous monitors have too few pixels that cannot well-represent a curve. Yet, the limitation of the past era created the best of design. Digital designers of the past were able to create icons and fonts using nothing but squares. And grey was also missing by that time. Designers focused on the feature of the real-life object to create a digital, pixelated replica, most notably on previous Apple computers, which was known to be the first to implement a graphical user interface.

Pixelated fonts are beneficial in mega-sized productions. Using pixelated fonts with low resolution per inch allows lower file size while also being hugely visible across far distances with its simplistic design. Pixelated fonts also work great with low-res printings, like newspapers. For speedy printing on low quality papers, using low resolution fonts promote printing speed while maintaining a resolution suitable for reading. Uses of EBOY fonts: https://fontsinuse.com/typefaces/25544/ ff-peecol www.fontshop.com/families/ff-eboy www.theverge.com/2014/6/17/5803850/pixelperfect-the-story-of-eboy

As resolution of screens increases, the pixels allowed for same-sized fonts increased for more complicated designs, which can be seen with the evolution and discontinue of fonts on computers. Yet, using pixels as a medium to create art has amused artists like EBOY to soldier on with simplistic arts. The way in using pixels in creating lexicons is obviously originated and hugely beneficial in the digital medium. “Retro” and “8-bit” have been a trend in the modern era in bringing back the old form of digital medium. And these pixelated typefaces allow the generation of retrospective digital medium with the high-definition, more advanced displays.

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Beaded Typography

Beads have been a common entertainment and educational toy for kids alongside creativity-required Lego and shape or object-building toys. The formability of beads allows it to be an exception daily life object to experiment with typeface. YOLO by Julia Katrine Anderson is one of the award-winning 180x50 cm creation in using beads to create lexemes while incorporating food and beverages.

The Story of Hama Beads https://www.hama.dk/the-story-of-hama/ Beginner’s Guide to Perler Beads: http://www.perlest.com/ The Difference Between Beads: https://houseofgeekiness.blogspot.com/p/notall-beads-are-created-equal-when-it.html Julia Katrine Anderson website: https://www.lilollady.com/

The Marshall McLuhan, whom proposed the remediation theory, believed that as technology improves, media will endlessly enhance its ability to mimic real-life. Yet, from the infamous game of Minecraft and revival of 8-bit, the return to low-res form brings artistic creation to this older form of medium. With these beads, and especially in YOLO, a similar implementation of low-res, non-vector art has been seen, and was widely acclaimed. In form of physical exhibition of words, most likely to be small-to-mediumsized artworks, using beads as typeface can be greatly helpful in expressing uniqueness in the forms. The threedimensional feature of the beads could also include a whole new aspect to the expression of art. In the digital world, beads would loss its favourability of its dimension but would be beneficial in terms of design cues. As making vector or high-res art with a low-res overcast has been a retro trend, transforming these beads typefaces into a digital form are able to benefit digital designers.In a more utopian world, the application of beads in digital fonts could allow a change in individual colours and structure of the beads in the fonts to allow a personalised form of fonts that is simple for every person to create their own fonts with virtual beads.

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“Be My Valentine, Bitch” at VESS Exhibitionin Copenhagen February 2012


“YOLO” won the Outstanding Achievement Award at the HOW International Design Awards and a Best in Class Award at the PRINT Typography and Lettering Award.

Letter K, made by around 8000 HAMA beads, from Danish word KØD which means meat. A design for Autobahn’s 10 Year Anniversary Project

“Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much” is a collaborative piece, between Julia and the participants at the 2017 Future Convention.

Made for Danish magazine UD & SE which is found in all the Danish Trains. The article it illustrates is about a great bookshop/café in Copenhagen called Tranquebar.

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Pharmacology Why do our pills have letters, what do they mean and how did they come about? Common questions, which seem to be to a large park, not common knowledge. However, the history behind these compressed letters is deeply ingrained in typography research, form, function, and branding. Imprint codes serve multiple public health functions. Primarily these came about to assist healthcare professionals to identify each pill easily. Preventable medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the US, with the largest subset of medical errors in a medication error. In Australia, we have clear principles for safe, distinct and consistent terminology for medicines. These can be for ensuring the use of generic medicine names not just as a brand name, or more interestingly the invention of a type to help differentiate medicine names. Tall Man lettering uses selective capitalisation to highlight the differences between look-alike medicine names. Tall Man lettering reduces error by warning clinicians about the risk of confusing medicine names. it also helps clinicians select the right product in electronic systems or from shelves. For example rifaMPICin and rifaXIMin, and proGRAF and proZAC. Product size, shape, and colour are intrinsic to the imprint design and choice of font. It’s not all for the customer’s benefit, however. These spaces can be used to advertise brand names and create a recognisable brand image. As customers ingest these pills, attention to detail is high and retention of brand identity is key. Brands such as Nurofen can be easily distinguished by its sugar-coated red type outer. For these reasons, generic drug manufacturers have been known to produce pills that look similar to these household names. However, with the pharmaceutical industries becoming absurdly lucrative, we have seen an introduction of illegal unapproved drugs hitting the market. | 42

These have caused harm and paranoia within buyers. Due to this, you can go onto a plethora of websites to decipher your pills by colour, packaging, font, and taste. Identification has become a necessity to pill production, and not just for the legal pharmaceutical market. The spread of an illegal narcotic can be directly correlated to the popular branding of a drug. Brand mentions for drugs such as Ecstasy have a direct relationship to their beliefs about the purity and quality of the drug. Considering this relationship can increase our understanding of the buyer and seller relationships in all areas of illegal narcotics. For example, tech logos such as the giants Tesla, have become increasingly prevalent on pills considered to be of a strong purity. Maybe it’s the correlation to pop-culture or that people buying these pills trust them based on their designs. However, understanding the branding of Ecstasy has the power to relay messages not only about this particular drug market and its subculture but also about our consumer-conscious society as a whole. Articles: http://www.papermag.com/aesthetic-ecstasy-the-prettiest-pill-designs-1504208645. html https://www.vice.com/en_uk/article/ywwgxx/ the-website-you-need-to-check-before-youtake-ecstasy https://www.verywellmind.com/ecstasy-pictures-4020394


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3-Dimensional Typography One of the more interesting aspects of contemporary type design is the relative ease with which designers can shift back and forth between the digital and real world, depending on the needs of the project. (Cases in point: B ​ ixa and ​Lustig Elements). Spanish Western, a one-off project from Madrid design studio ​Dosdecadatres​, is a set of 3D lettering commissioned as titles for Alberto Esteban’s public television documentary of the same name. And lest you think all this 3D business is just a bunch of bells and whistles, the type’s depth exists for a very good reason; Quique Rodriguez, creative director of Dosdecadatres, wanted to create typographic landscapes that mirror the rugged countryside that appears almost as its own character in every Western film in the canon. Spanish Western’s letterforms—epic, solid, dramatic shapes—speak of wind-worn rocks and harsh mountain ranges, of dry air and dust and baking sun. The documentary’s black-and-white title sequence serve to highlight the stark contrasts of light and shadow.

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Striking out into the creative frontier between 2D and 3D type has never been easier, thanks to the wealth of technologies now available for bridging the gap. And while the process isn’t as lawless or violent as the Wild West (designers are generally a peaceable lot), it does have much in common with the free-spirited sense of exploration that defined that era. The Sculpted Alphabet: www.behance.net/gallery/15179093/ The-Sculpted-Alphabet?tracking_source=search%257C3d%2Btypography Spin Typography: www.uniteditions.com/products/spin-adventures-in-typography-2


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The 3D font “Parallax” translates the grid rules of the Hebrew font “Haim” into 3D forms. These forms generate a new kind of font that exists in 3d space and interacts with viewer’s viewpoint. New forms are being created as the viewer moves and changes his viewpoint.

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Uyen Cat Le Khac School of Design RMIT Melbourne

Profile for uyencatlekhac

Lexicon of Experimental Typography  

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