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The Official Newsletter of the UWI Dental Students Association This Issue: Overview of the Newsletter Introducing the new DSA Exec What your new DSA has been up to 22 Questions with Dr. Al Useful Reference

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OVERVIEW Dear Readers, Welcome to the first issue of the newsletter of the UWI Dental Students Association. This is intended to be a highly informative and entertaining bit of reading for students, staff and practitioners. We have perceived a need to keep all the aforementioned parties abreast of what’s happening in the dental school, - the issues, the activities, the events, basically what’s going on! As a result we have launched this newsletter as a medium for information, education and entertainment. In this issue we bring you an overview of the newsletter, an update on issues in the school, a staff profile as well as a couple of articles which may be useful to the undergrad and practitioner alike. In future issues we hope to have announcements, reports on school events and functions, letters to the editor and lots more. We appreciate all comments and look forward to airing your views on this forum. We must stress however this is not the place to bash anyone or anything. Constructive criticism and useful solutions on any issue in dental school are what we’re after. If you wish to join our dynamic team please feel free to contact the Dental Student’s Association ( or email us at We hope you enjoy this issue and look forward to bringing you more in the months to come. Thank You, The Editors.


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From the Newsroom UWI School of Dentistry Receives ADA Accreditation The University of the West Indies (UWI) School of Dentistry, Lutheran Medical Centre’s (LMC) Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) Post Doctoral Residency Training Programme has received full accreditation by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) of the American Dental Association (ADA), becoming the first ADAaccredited institution outside of the United States and the first International Clinical Training Site for the LMC AEGD programme. The full accreditation came on Wednesday 21st May, 2008 when consultants from the ADA visited the UWI School of Dentistry. The ADA consultants met with Professor Samuel Ramsewak, Dean, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Professor Paluri Murti, Director of the School of Dentistry, Dr. Shivaughn Marchan & Dr. William Smith both of whom are assistant programme directors of the UWI-AEGD initiative. The Consultants toured the Dental School Facilities, reviewed the UWI-AEGD programme documentation and met with staff and residents. The collaborative UWI-AEGD programme was launched in July 2007 as part of a joint effort between the UWI School of Dentistry and the Lutheran Medical Centre (LMC), Department of Dental Medicine, Brooklyn, New York. The AEGD Certificate is a recognised postdoctoral qualification of advanced training in clinical general dentistry. Selected graduates of the UWI Dental School, enrolled in the pre-licensure year of vocational training, can concurrently enrol in the LMC AEGD programme. UWI-AEGD graduates are eligible to undergo a second year of training at the Lutheran Medical Centre’s Training Sites in Puerto Rico, Arizona or Massachusetts in the USA. For further information please contact the UWI School of Dentistry at 663 7407 -from


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Greetings from the newly elected Dental Students Association The election bell rang, the elections and boundaries commission responded and the student body exercised their rights at the poles (oral hygiene lab polling station 1). After the battle was over and the smoke cleared the new DSA executive was installed to office. Taking over the reigns of the DSA Executive were President Devin Jaggernauth (Yr 5), Vice President Arif Saqui (Yr 4), Treasurer Sarah Ramsaroop (Yr 4) and Secretary Allana Tang Choon (Yr 5). The executive would like to take this opportunity to thank all students for participating in the electoral process. The DSA was inactive for some time, and so dental students found themselves underrepresented and divided. This changed with the election of the previous executive and the DSA slowly began regaining its former strength, as was evident by the success of our Dental Banquet held in March. (Those of you who were present know how it went down!!) Having now been elected to office, we wish to continue the trend that was started in unifying the school. It is of utmost importance that we come together as a single unit, to show the powers that be that we are strong as a student body, that we will not be bullied nor will we settle for mediocrity. Simply put, once united, there’ll be a much greater force for administration to deal with. Don’t be fooled, clinical or preclinical, all issues will affect you sooner or later. We urge everyone to get involved, let us forge new and reinforce existing relationships. Regardless of your academic year, let us work and play together. The dental fraternity begins here. No man is an island and we would continue to gain from the friendships and bonds made throughout our careers. Let’s aim for progress as we create amazing memories while writing the history pages of our university. We would also like to take this opportunity to extend our gratitude and appreciation to the former Executive, Dr. Ryszardo Jennings and his team for all of their hard work for the past year. We convey our best wishes to the new doctors of the Class of 2008 who have now begun a new chapter in their lives. Remember, every student enrolled in the DDS program is a member of the Dental Students Association. We are here to represent YOU. If there are any issues that you feel need addressing, please feel free to contact us: A Facebook group (UWI Dental Students Association) has also been setup in order to easily facilitate mass communication. Please urge as many of your classmates to join!! We stand prepared to serve you, and we look forward to your support and suggestions.

-DSA Executive


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What has your new DSA been up to? We restored the Dental Students Association office Room 68, Building 44 – EWMSC - Come check it out –

We need your input! The DSA is currently producing a UWI Dental School Clinic Needs Survey to be completed by all clinical students and interns. The results of which would serve to inform policy changes to improve clinical operations as we seek greater efficiency.


Recommendations include de-centralizing specific consumables from the central dispensary desk to the trolleys and/or each cubicle to reduce unnecessary lines and clinical time wastage waiting for simple items such as x-ray film, gauze, big bags etc. In addition, further shortcomings will be brought to light and addressed accordingly

The new DSA meets the Dean – 23/05/08 ISSUES RAISED

1. FMS/UWI Recycling for Health initiative: The Faculty of Medical Sciences is seeking to institute a recycling project. The initiative aims to promote environmental friendly attitudes and involves the recycling of paper, glass and plastic products.

Respective recycling companies will pay the University for paper, glass and plastic products. Staff and students are encouraged to bring recyclable waste from home to support this effort. It is proposed that any funds generated from this effort would be distributed among the participating student associations.


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2. The Mt. Hope/ UWI Student Shuttle Service The DSA executive also met with the director of the UWI Student Shuttle Service to address the following issues:


The inefficiency of the current service The lack of availability and publicizing of schedules Shuttle security The introduction of more shuttle bus stops e.g. in heavily student populated areas such as Champs Fleurs and in front of the Dental School. An increase in the frequency of the student shuttle service during peak times

Subsequently, the DSA has created the UWI Student Shuttle Service Needs Survey! FILL one OUT today! This needs survey seeks to assess the current operations and inform changes for a more efficient shuttle service.

3. The DSA raised concerns on the current dysfunction of the air conditioning system at the School of Dentistry, which continues to cause a great loss of clinic time and productivity at the UWI Dental School/Clinic.

4. The Government has mandated an increase in the student enrolment at UWI including the Faculty of Medical Sciences. Unlike many other programs offered at UWI, the DDS program requires much laboratory and clinical resources to ensure adequate training and professional skill development. Unfortunately, there has been no concomitant infrastructural or personnel improvement implemented alongside the increased enrolment. Such uncoordinated efforts are making the operations of the DDS program less efficient and has contributed to longer lines at the X-ray rooms, sterilizers, x-ray developing equipment, compromised access to audio-visual teaching aids in the laboratory and a significant reduction in student/clinical instructor interaction time.

The DSA voiced these concerns!


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5. An inquiry was made into the status of the “24-hr reading room” facility that was constructed in the Medical Sciences library that still remains inaccessible to students.

6. We requested the implementation of wireless internet access throughout the complex.

7. An evaluation of the security coverage on the Mt. Hope campus was requested and the need for enhanced measures was brought to the fore including physical and camera surveillance.

8. We discussed the need for maintenance of the water lines in the UWI Dental clinic, which often supply exploding bursts of brown or no water at times.

9. We requested that UWI parking stickers/passes be available for purchase at the Mt. Hope campus during the first 2 weeks of the academic year instead of purchasing on main campus.

We’ll keep you updated!


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The DSA meets the President of the UWI Guild, Mr. Hillan Morean 24/05/08

The new DSA took the opportunity to establish ties with the UWI Guild as both bodies seek to improve the student experience at UWI.

We addressed problems and concerns faced by the clinical students relating to:

The limited space on the Adult Polyclinic and Pediatric clinic that is only projected to worsen with the increasing student enrollment.

The need for MORE sterilization units, x-ray units, x-ray developers, x-ray view boxes and clinical instructors. It was outlined that there is currently only one working X-ray unit and developer that serves the entire polyclinic, emergency and paediatric clinics. The 2 small sterilizers are not sufficient for all the students to use resulting in the use of rapid sterilization cycles without adequate drying times observed thus breaching infection control measures.

It was noted that the compulsary costs of handpieces and instruments to be purchased should be documented in all literature/handbooks made available by UWI to prospective students applying for the DDS program.

The following points were also re-iterated at this forum:


Water line assessment / maintenance  exploding / brown water

The need to increase the number of instructors on clinic

Security enhancement !

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We voiced our concerns on Intern Salaries!

The current salary of $5,000/month has been the same for over 4 years despite the major increases in the cost of living (rent, food prices, gas).

In the Oral Surgery rotation interns are on call 24hr/day for the entire rotation and should be compensated accordingly.

UWI pays dental interns’ salaries unlike our medical intern peers, who are remunerated by the North Central Regional Health Authority.

DSA allocation of Guild funds

Each UWI student association represented by the UWI Guild has a right to a budgetary allocation under the Guild budget. The MSSC is charged with the responsibility to submit a collective budget to the guild. Funds received are to be distributed among the associated schools, which the MSSC represent.

This includes the School of Dentistry!

Unfortunately, the DSA has failed to receive any funding over the last two academic years. In fact, it was found that a new MSSC budget is on its way to submission and the DSA has yet to be contacted.

In light of this, the DSA made a request to receive budgetary allocations directly from the Guild instead of via the MSSC.

Even though we were told that the MSSC must claim as one unit and then distribute to the various schools within the faculty we submitted a DSA budget directly to the guild for their consideration! 8

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Mr. Morean requested a document outlining all the DSA’s issues be submitted to him so that he can hold discussions with the Dean of Medical Sciences, the director of the School of Dentistry, the Clinical Coordinator, the president of the DSA and himself to address these issues.

We’ll keep you updated!

Patient : “ Doc I eh go lie… I real frighten yuh kno… dis is d first time I pulling out a Tooth” Year 4 student : “ Doh study it, is no big scene, is my first time too.


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Meet the Staff “You’re fired!” The phrase resonates through the halls of the UWI School of Dentistry and for the students that have passed through the school over the last thirteen (13) years, it can only be the exclamation of Dr Haytham F. Al-Bayaty

During his tenure at the S.O.D. he has been the guiding hand in ensuring the successful graduation of many of the Dentists the school has since produced. As we reflect on the eve of his one year sabbatical we reminisce some of his past achievements such as: • • • • •

1971- Bachelor in Dental Surgery (BDS) 1975- Master of Dental Sciences (MDSc) in Oral surgery University of Leeds , UK 1986- Diploma in Biomedical Sciences , University of Wales, UK 1990-Dr. of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Oral Pathology- University of Wales, College of Medicine. 2004- FDSRCS Ed. (Fellowship in Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh )

In the next 22 questions we sit one and one to learn a little more about this unique lecturer and mentor. We put him in the chair and get from the one and only Dr. Al as we have to come know him…


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22 Questions with Dr. Al-Bayaty 6) What do you consider your greatest Achievement?

1) What is your greatest joy? To see the final year results with the students being happy, having qualified as doctors.

Being able to stay for 13 years in Trinidad and qualify many dentists.

2) What is your secret Fear?

7) Any interests other than dentistry?

The war in the world which is happening over and over….

Listening to Italian Opera music, reading political books, and traveling.

3) What is the best advice you have ever received, and from whom?

8) If you could do something other than dentistry, what would it be? Psychiatry

Don’t ever give up and try to do it again – Professor M. Walker , Pathologist

9) What is something people don’t know about you?

4) Most embarrassing moment? A professor I met for the first time, brought his wife with him and before he introduced her to me I said “you have a lovely daughter”, but it was his wife.

I am emotional. I cannot watch the face of a woman or child crying and suffering. 10) What’s your favorite Food? Italian Lasagna , with cheese.

5) What is the happiest moment you can remember? It was when University






The Fill In 11) Favorite Drinks?(Alcoholic/Non Alcoholic) Rum & Coke , Fruit juice 12) People you admire and why? Che Guevara – Cuban Revolutionary Leader. 13) What was your initial impressions of Trinidad & Tobago when you arrived, have they changed? People were friendly and chatty, which reminded me of my first country. The crime situation has increased and I wish it decreases, because the island is wonderful. 14) Out of all the places you have been, where is your favorite? Tobago 15) Where is the one place you would like to visit? Scandinavian countries 16) Biggest pet peeve? Driving in Trinidad/ Inconsiderate drivers

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17) Favorite Movie? Gone With The Wind & Lord of the Rings 18) What do you do to unwind? Walk in gardens, going to the beach, or listening to classical music. 19) If you win the Lottery tomorrow, what would you do with the money? I will buy a new air conditioning unit for the dental school, and purchase a new car! 20) What plans do you have for your sabbatical leave? Upgrading lectures, and publishing an atlas on common Oral Diseases in the Caribbean. 21) What is the one thing in your life you would like to accomplish in the future? To work in the peace force of the United Nations, in the Medical humanitarian section. 22) Is their anything in your life you would like to do over if you could? To go back to my student years in dental school, and live the social life of the 60’s.


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Want to know your dental school staff? Join us next month for another insightful interview with yet another member of the Dental School family.


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WHO SAID THAT? Can you figure which lecturers are known for these lines?

● “Greetings all”

● “ When in doubt pull it out”

● “ Well yuh cyar get vex with me yuh kno…”

● “I give up!!! You’re fired!!”



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Student Perspectives Thoughts on Exams (Written, Clinical & Viva)

Exam stress! We all go through it at some time or the other. Can it be avoided? In some cases yes but it is the build up to one of the most important steps in your life that may or may not break you. Final year is filled with many exams throughout. We all coped with it, all that was needed was some pace and never forgetting to take time out to relax and enjoy life outside exams. The final DDS exams start in April/May with the written papers first. As you know, the “Restorative” and “Oral Disease” papers are structured papers and the “Child Dental Health” paper is an essay/short answer paper. My personal experience of studying 6 weeks prior to exams was a huge rush. I felt that it was not enough time and I had to try to fit everything into that time frame. It is important to plan a study timetable and stick with it! Going the extra mile and being persistent does pay off!

The key to the written exam is past papers. It was very helpful to do this in a group. It gave us different perspectives on how to answer the question and was an excellent learning experience. I know not everyone likes group study and may find that they get more work done alone but at least doing past questions is beneficial. Most importantly for the written exam, was time management! It is very important, especially for Child Dental Health to write essay plans! This helps you stay focused on the answer and hence would not stray and lose time. Although Dental Public Health & Preventive Dentistry accounts for 50% of the paper, it is important to do as much of the other questions also! Personally, I strongly believe it’s really about quality and not quantity! Also, all answers should have a logical sequence and not be jumbled up. The clinical exam and the viva exam were probably the most terrifying of them all because there you are sitting in front of your examiners and the external examiner being questioned!! For Oral Disease, there are mocks, so at least there was a practice run of things before. The key to these oral examinations is to have confidence! With Oral Disease, ensure you are very thorough with your history and examination of the patient. It is important to remember that the final diagnosis is not


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important but the diagnostic pathway is! Presenting the history and examination findings are key and personally, it should be practiced. For Restorative clinical examination, you have to present your Cons exam case and Prostho exam case. Having your patients to completion is ideal and impresses the examiners. Ensure that the patients have no caries and no periodontal disease on the day of presentation. You should know everything about your patients! All procedures that you have done on the patients and any complications that you encountered or may arise in the future should be well understood! The clinical exam for Child Dental Health is patient oriented. You may be questioned on your Peado Exam Case or any other patient. Practice orthodontics using models! Identify the IOTN’s! Get in the habit of critically examining radiographs! The viva examinations are for pass/fail or honours/distinctions. These are based on clinical pictures or radiographs usually. However, there can be other questions included. For me, it was extremely terrifying to sit in front of the examiners and be questioned. However, the examiners are all very comforting and welcoming. They really do try to calm you down and it helps to relax. There is no time to get flustered! You have approximately 15 minutes to shine! Gather your thoughts and answer wisely! They are not going to bite off your head! If an exam does not go in your favour, or so you think, don’t stress over it because you may still have other exams to complete. Don’t let that hinder you from doing the other exams! My advice, have a goodnight’s rest and a good breakfast! Relax! Be confident, brave and speak up! Whatever you do, do it to the best of your ability! Once the exams have started, the days fly by really fast and it’ll all be over pretty soon!

Good luck everyone…


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On the next few pages, we start our featured article series, starting with the first of many on complete dentures.




1 This introductory article sets the scene for a series of articles on complete denture prosthodontics.

In this part, we will discuss: • Changes in the levels of edentulousness • Changes in the degree of complexity of treatment of edentulous patients • Changes in how prosthodontics is reported in professional journals.

Complete dentures: an introduction J. F. McCord,1 and A. A. Grant,2 he purpose of this series is to reflect current changes in philosophy towards the prescription of complete dentures. To achieve these aims, this series will deal with trends in edentulousness and changes in perceptions to edentulousness to the treatment modalities in complete denture provision. This series is not intended to replace standard textbooks of prosthodontics, but rather to serve as a chairside guide/aide-mémoire of clinical procedures for the general dental practitioner with an interest in complete denture therapy. The balance of emphasis in this series has been determined by the experience gained in dealing with difficulties acknowledged by practitioners and patient indictment of treatment they have received. Over the past 30 years, surveys of adult dental health indicate that the prevalence of people, in developing countries, becoming edentulous is decreasing.1 The figures for England and Wales covering 1968 to 1988 are presented in Table 1. In the United Kingdom as a whole, the overall percentage of adults who were edentulous fell from 30% in 1978 to 21% in 1988.1 A parallel study spanning 1985–1986 in the United States reported that 41% of adults over the age of 65 were edentulous.2 According to Winkler in 1977,3 almost 50% of the 22.6 million edentulous Americans were 65 years of age or older. In parallel with this is the almost 50% drop in the number of complete upper and complete lower dentures (C/C) and relines provided under General Dental Service (GDS) regulations between 1970 and 1990 (Table 2). This table also indicates the relative percentages of the total cost to the (dental) budget.4 Although these statements are factually correct, they must be balanced, in the United Kingdom at least, by two separate factors. First of all,


Table 1

1*Head of the Unit of Prosthodontics, 2Emeritus Professor of Restorative

Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester M15 6FH *Correspondence to: Prof. J. F. McCord email: REFEREED PAPER

© British Dental Journal 2000; 188: 373–374


a significant number of general dental practitioners have become independent practitioners, thus disengaging themselves from National Health Service regulations, therefore many dentures provided will be unrecorded. A second, and professionally important, factor is the finding that many (edentulous) patients when examined on routine dental visits, require replacement dentures (normative need) although they themselves did not feel this need (perceived view). This indicates the potential for a possibly large reservoir of unmet need in the population, in general, and in the edentulous elderly population in particular. Clearly, although the (edentulous) percentage of the adult population is estimated to continue to decrease into the next century, the provision of replacement complete dentures to those currently edentulous will present a considerable task to the dental profession in the United Kingdom.5 Two factors adding to the relative complexity of this task are: i) The reduction in teaching of prosthodontic technology and in decreased minimum requirements of completed cases during undergraduate curricula. This means that new graduates are potentially less able to provide a satisfactory prosthodontic service. ii) Those patients who are edentulous are becoming more clinically demanding either because of oral conditions present at the time of total tooth loss or the deterioration of anatomical, physiological and sometimes psychological well-being which often are sequelae of edentulousness. For these reasons, a sound biological approach to complete denture construction is necessary and, although this will be emphasised

Percentages of adult edentulous patients in England and Wales, 1968 –1988








75 and over




All ages







prosthetics in the next three parts, the dental practitioner must be aware of the scientific basis of complete denture construction. This is of very real relevance in the United Kingdom, where the dental practitioner, at present, is the sole licensed agent to undertake clinical prosthodontic treatment for a patient. Practitioners should be familiar with the technical aspects of complete denture construction in order that they may direct the fabrication of the prostheses for which they are clinically and legally responsible. Failure to communicate clearly with a dental technician cannot facilitate a harmonious prosthodontic team. The latter should be built out of mutual respect between clinician, nurse, technician and patient. Recent laboratory-based studies have indicated that there would appear to be an increasing trend towards the dental profession not fulfilling their responsibility to technical colleagues who have received little or no training in relevant clinical sciences.6–8 Although two of these studies relate to removable partial dentures, they nevertheless reflect a trend for clinicians to abdicate their responsibilities in the prescription of a medical device. While no apology should be made for an early reference to the biological basis of prosthodontics, due emphasis should be given to altering trends towards edentulousness among the population. Anecdotal and anamnastic comments among those already edentulous reflect perceptions that there was an inevitability of edentulousness.9 These perceptions were particularly prevalent among the working classes, especially in the north of Britain. According to Todd and Lader,1 there were interesting variations in perceptions towards edentulousness among dentate adults wearing partial dentures and among dentate adults who did not have a partial denture and these are listed in Table 3. While dental health education must be credited with reduced levels of edentulousness among the population in general, the expansion of dental information in newspapers and magazines has made the general public aware of the very real benefits of dental implants. Unfortunately, many patients do not satisfy the clinical criteria for the provision of implant-retained/supported prostheses. Those patients who are deemed unsuitable for implants, for whatever reason, will doubtless develop a negative stereotype towards conventional complete dentures and these negative stereotypes may make a successful outcome of treatment doubtful.


Table 2

Details of the total numbers of complete dentures and relines provided under GDS regulations, 1970 –1990


No of C/C

No of relines

% of total cost C/C reline
















Figures from Dental Practice Board

Table 3

Perceptions of dentate adults to edentulousness


Dentate and no RPD 1978 1988

Dentate and with RPD 1978 1988

Very upsetting





Slightly upsetting





Not upsetting





A final aspect of perceptions towards complete dentures lies among the profession. For the purposes of this series, a survey of articles on complete denture prosthodontics in three journals (British Dental Journal, Journal of the American Dental Association and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry) indicated that, in comparison to 30 years ago, the percentage of prosthodontic articles had fallen from almost 30% to less than 10%. Clearly this cannot be a facile comparison, as journals should reflect alterations in trends of treatment, and the developments during the past 20 years of adhesive techniques have significantly altered treatment trends. Concomitant with the reduction in (complete denture) prosthodontic publications is the risk that younger practitioners may be deprived of the opportunity to become acquainted with prosthodontic techniques beyond conventional undergraduate curricula. Such a situation cannot be in the best interests of those requiring prosthodontic treatment and the purpose of this series is to serve as a convenient chairside guide for practitioners undertaking prosthodontic treatment. As this series is meant to supplement standard textbooks of prosthodontics, references will be used to enforce specific areas and to refer readers to key areas of general and prosthodontic literature.

1 Todd J, Lader D. Adult Dental Health, United Kingdom, 1988. London: OPCS, HMSO, 1991. 2 US Dept. of Health and Social Services. Oral Health of United States Adults. National Findings. NIH Publication No. 87. 2868. 1987. 3 Winkler S. Symposium on Complete Dentures. Dent Clin N Am 1977; 21: 197-198. 4 Dental Practice Board (Eastbourne ): Personal Communication. 5 McCord J F, Grant A A, Quayle A A. Treatment options for the edentulous mandible. Eur J Prosthodont Rest Dent 1992; 1: 19-23. 6 Basker R M, Harrison A, Davenport J D, Marshall J L. Partial designs in general dental practice — 10 years on. Br Dent J 1988; 165: 245-249. 7 Walter J D. A study of partial denture design produced by an alumni group of dentists in health service practice. Eur J Prosthodont Rest Dent 1995; 3: 135-139. 8 Basker R M, Ogden A R, Ralph J P. Complete denture prescription — an audit of performance. Br Dent J 1993; 174: 278-284. 9 Fish E W. The Englishman’s teeth. Br Dent J 1942; 72: 129-138.


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Please feel free to submit any questions, comments to the editors at We welcome your suggestions and contributions. Tell us what you would like to see in this newsletter!!

The UWI Dental Students Association can be contacted at More good stuff to come in our next issue!


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June 2008 Issue