Page 1


The first occupants of tent city began arriving even before the snow fence had been put , up to keep them in. The cold weatfJerthe first few evenings limited th'e onslaught .of

people to a mere seven, however as of late'the number of occupants has/ been increasing

to over :two dozen. The media played their role perfectly and as, a result tent city received nationwide coverage, something that hasn't happened since the engineers wrote "beer" on the water tower. The photographer was-Randy Hannigan.

federation in 1973 in exchange .for free use of Radio Waterloo's human resources and facilitieS. The station is now paying the university $1,500 a year for the loan which financed the construction of new studio space. The Arts Faculty Board, which is responsible for creating ,new arts courses and departments, is pushing for - acceptance of Reynolds' proposal as a Oedgling communications course and other arts courses could, readily make use of the station's equipment. Reynolds said"I'm now at the stage where I have the support of the,,A.rts Faculty, but now I must Mathews insists that beyond the approach the university's finanresidences, the private sector cing bodies who have final say on should take the responsibility to cancelling our loan." The Faculty of Environmental house the students. Also the administration housing office has so Studies will be using the station's far failed to follow the example of people and equipment several Wilfrid Laurier University in times this term through its media _ drawing up minimum standards- course, "EMIC". A fund raising drive by 'the for rooms thai are to be rented to station will include the renting-out students.

-Nation'al ,coverage

Tent city a success Although the full路 extent of the more than successful. In addition housing crisis has yet to be to providing temporary acdetermined, there are still many commodation, while students students who have been unable- to loo~ed for housing, the tents find adequate housing. received news coverage- from all The number of occupants in- the television networks plus the creased sharply prior to the first newspapers and radio' stations" day of classes-'During registration Global news was first to film the the tents were averaging only event, they were there as the tents seven occupants a night"however, were being erected, and CBC and last Sunday night the number of CTV followed. A tent city story was occupants rose to twenty-four. released to the wire services and That figure has been increasing newspapers and radio stations ever since. This however, cannot across Canada picked it up. be taken asa true indication of the As a result of this publicity, housing shortage since many some students from as far away as students preferred the furniture in Alberta came prepared to sleep in the campus centre to sleep on. tents,some even brought their own The federation is now faced with , tents. " the problem of how long to leave The publicity also had another the tent~ up. Due to commitments effect. Shortly after the tents were to the board of health and the fire erected the housing office received department, the tents must be numerous calls offering rooms for supervised twenty-four hours a students. As a result of this the day. This means that six people crisis has subsided, somewhat. are r.equired to work four hour The federatioI\: will still be 'shifts every day. It soon became looking into somepassible long apparent that manpower was term solutions to the housing becoming scarce. One of the , situafion, as well as the problem of 'solutions proposed was for the substandard housing. The occupants oftent city to take shifts federation has been forced into this looking after the site, 'if this is not role since the administration .done the federation may be forced refused to accept any responto close the site. sibility toward providing better Tent city however, has been accommodations for students. Dr.

of time to local music groups, as now there is a large recording studio with a four tape recorder and mixing board. Despite financial diffieulties Radio Waterloo is enthusiastic about its future and just recently it made. its working schedule far more flexible. With the change, every day of the week has a group of Radio Waterloo staffers who are collectively responsible for each week!s programming and although the days' schedule can vary from week to week, it must stay withjn a , certain theme. For example, on' Thursdays blue grass and folkrock music are featured and local community issues are discussed, Finally, Radio Waterloo is always on the lookout for new staff, and in line with this the station ,has announced an organizationalm~e'ting September 18 for any stUdents interested in becoming involved. -mike gordon

-randy hannigan

Funds drained Radio Waterloo, the Federation of Students' radio station, is in dire financial straits as next to nothing is left in its current operating budget for the purchase of new equipment and records, said c'ommunications chairperson Kathy Reynolds to the chevron last Monday. In order to alleviate the station's monetary problems, Reynolds has been coaxing the university administration to cancel the payment of a $15,000 loan t~ken out by ,the

Inside Opirg report. ...... p.3 Food supplement. . '. p.5 Chile 1974....... . -p.15 Intramurals . . ,; .... p.30


the c h e v r o n - - - - - - - - - - - " " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - f r i d a y , september 13, 1974

New Course Offering' at Renison College Arts 220, 221 R•.




Contemporary Chinese Thought & Culture .It. it 'f rg] ,~, ~], A- ~ ., U An examination of contemporary Chinese society and its historical and cultural context. Topics discussed will include education, the arts, medicine, women, foreign policy, the cultural revolution, communes, factories, the PLA. Films, guest speakers, and a trip to the ROM in Toronto 'are planned. Mondays, 7-10 pm. Renison Room 42. , Mondays, 7-10 pm. Renison ROOm 42.

All Welcome The CAMPUS Barber Shop and UNISEX at your service! Open Mon. thru Fri. 8:30 till 5:30 Full ladies and gents service Zana, Charlie & Eddie in attendance


COME AND LISTEN FRIDAY, SEPT 27th-8 pm GRADUATE LOUNGEHUMANITIES BLDG.UNIV. of WATERLOO' 2 members of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) will speak on the freedom struggle in Zimbabwe (Rhodesia). Sponspored by the Board of Education, Federation of Students, and African Liberation Support Movement.

Counselling S,ervices




Levis at


The Campus Shop A large selection of cords & jeans Also


Advanced Reading Skills Training Study Skills Groups Essay Composition Exam Preparation Group Discussion of Academic Goals This program commences the week of Sept.16, at the Counselling Centre, Ira G. Needles Hall, second floor, opposite the Registrar's office. This no-cost learning assistance program is conducted in the reading room at Counselling.

Crested Tee Shirts Sweat Shirts. Fall & W'inter Jackets

There are ten group times available--one is bound to match your schedule. One hour per week for 10 weeks. To reserve a spot, come to the Counselling Centre front desk, and pick a suitable time. Full information will be supplied at the first meeting.

confectiona ry Basement Campus Centre ext. 2188

Moil - Fri Hours 9 - 12:30 1:30 - 4:30

Hope you all had a fine summer.




the chevron

hope that it will be the beginning of more co-opera tion between Southern Ontario Food Co-ops. . The co-op is always looking for new members. Anyone interested in joining should come to the top floor of the Laurel IndustriesBuilding, 12 Bridgeport East in Waterloo, noon to nine on Fridays and ten to six Saturdays. . . -mike gordon

Grads' • Income VI"age. orientatIon 74 is well in progress with many pubs and other, varied events. This year's frosh were hired, Instead of a tow truck, to remove cars illegally parked at the village. Cars can be retrieved from the pound for the cost of a nI;:I"'Jope. The photographer was CheSter Buczek.

O P -I rg

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Graduate Club, in a letter to the senate executive last week said "the Ph.D gown of the University of Waterloo looks like a harlequin outfit", and he urged that "a gown more suiting to the degree be sought." He also gave a detailed description of what he and his fellow officers felt a graduating gown should look like. 'The proposed gown will look much the same as the present one in design except' that instead of being green and red it will 'be scarlet. The enp result, according to the Graduate Club officers "will be a distinct improvement over the past one sin(!e. it was designed by people who expect to wear it, not by people having a good time and laugh at others expense around a bar or a party." Faced with the worthy student request, senate executive members decided to refer'the matter to -the university senate with the recommendation tIiat a "special senate committee of three" be set up to r~solve the question. Student senator Andy Telegdi said that since it was a concern of alU~raduate students "a majority of those on the committee· should be grads." Quickly countering Telegdi'-s suggestion, university president Burt Matthews -said the membership on the committee could be increased to include two graduate stUdents and three faculty members. Matthews . also reminded the senate executive that it is , "senate's decision as to what these gowns should look like."

As·-a 'fesult of a request by a committee studying financial compensation for graduate students, an additional 50,000 dollars will be made available this year to graduate students. This money will be made available in the form of bursaries to help raise the level of pay for graduate students. The average income of all graduate students in the year 197273 was $3902; this was a slight decrease from an average of $3923. the previous year. This decrease in light of inflationary trends was the main factor that prompted the study. . The study al~o showed that the lowest paid graduate" students were in the arts faculty,with an average income of $2942 per year, almost one thousand dollars below the overall average. In the arts faculty, the low~t paid graduates were in the Human Relations . department, with the average income being $2038. The highest average income for graduate students was in the mathel!latics faculty where the average income of the graduates in all but one department was over $4,000. Although the average for science On Monday, December 2nd, the graduates was slightly less than Cities of Waterloo and Kitchener $4,000, the graduate optometry willl\old their municiparelections. student was receiving the highest In preparation for these local income at $4,801. elections, the· government of' This calculated income' only Ontario is conducting an annual takes into account money received . -municipal enumeration from by the graduates that has passed which the voters list will be through the hands of the univei- compiled. This enumeration is sity. Any private income was not presently taking place and will included. continue until September 30. The graduates' - as To be eligible as a local voter, a reported comes from four distinct person must be a Canadian citizen areas. The largest portion comes or other British subject; at least from teaching aSSistantships and eighteen years old before· service' pay; research work, December 2, 1974; and be a bursaries and awards form the resident in the inunicipality betrest of the income. ween September 3 and October 8: Given these criteria, students attending this university areeligible-to vote. But one must be enumerated before one's name will appear on the voters list. The main criterion for appearing on the voters list seems to be whether or not a student considers his/her residence or place of residence as . If the wishes of the executive his 'her permanent home. A officers of the University of provincial '. official gives the Waterloo 'Graduate Club come following statement, "It is my true, the university's Ph.D gown understanding that our will be a striking scarlet colour enumerators will include stUdents 'instead of the present bright green in residences on the voters list and red at, next spring's con-, providing the respondent convocation. siders this to be his permanent - David Tozer, president of the residence. "

of the founding principles of the Co-op has been to encourage a community to work tog'ether to obtain food but at present this' is not happening. Mattias Fuertiges, member of " t h e co-op'sexpansion committee . told the chevron that "the problem In September 1973, the Ontario OPIRG will continue with several is how, to get more co-operation Public, Interest Research Group projects that 'have been successful from its members:" Implementation of the new (OPIRG) started operation on the by expanding and modifying them. University of Waterloo campus. In addition, new projects will be structure- has begun with, " The research group is composed of undertaken jn a 'variety of areas, geographically dividing members professional full and part-time and project possibilities are into cells of twenty members. staff, students from three unlimited. Each cell will collectively be universities (Waterloo, Wilfrid / A prescription drug survey, a responsible for tasks such as the Laurier, and Guelph) to date, who retail gas survey, a cable T.V. . purchasing . of food or work for course credit, student and series on consumer education, a storekeeping. " community volunteers, and consumer newsletter, a fat content These tasks will be rotated specialists from the academic and analysis for ground beef and monthly froin cell to cell. Fuerbusiness community. We have just hamburger, a massive bikeways tiges went on to say that "the co-op completed our first year and it has project for the shoulder paving of does not want to have a policing secondary highways, ---an in-' body. It is therefore essential that been a very eventful one. OPIRG has become widely vestigation of the dangers ,of we structure the co-op to" enknown in the community through a nuclear waste ..... thes~ are only a courage' the most possible parcontroversial food price survey of few of the, pilot projects that are ticipation from each member." 17 grocery stores in the Kitchener- planned for the {all. . _, Each cell will determ~ne its own Waterloo area published in the The peOple in OPIRG are 'firm structure to encourage its me!DKitchener-Waterloo Record; and believers 'in the concept that bers to keep in touch with each through a very 'successful con- citizens should participate and other and involved in the co-op. sumer complaints office which has beco,ne more· involved with the The co-op will continue to use the been in operation in downtown decision-making processes that store on Bridgeport East in Kitchener since February 'of this affect their daily lives. In par- Waterloo until the new method of year. The consumer ,c,omplaints ticular, the research group has a alloting work is, functioning office ha~ recently been moved great deal of confidence in the smoothly. When this is achieved back to the university office due to student population; they are of the t~e c.o-o~ hopes to restructure the - lack of funding and staff. conviction that, given the chance, distrIbutI~n of food by changing During the />ummer, OPIRG students can do much to improve . the store mto a warehouse. Each t:>ecame involved in the City of the quality of life in- this country, c~ll ~ill. pick up food fro,:" ~is Waterloo"s proposed bikeway plan. and derive much inner satisfaction distribution centre and take It to Its The group was asked by the City's . for themselves in so doing. OPIRG own w~rehouse. ~ell members w~ll Engineering and Community attempts to provide a more th~n pick up their food from thiS Service department to research meaningful education experience pomt. . and propose logos, sign locations, USing the students" knowledge The general mee~ing gavet,he ok lighting requirements, and the attained in the classroom in a to go ahead on the mcorporaboJ1 of next stage ofthe bikeway. The sign practical sense. to work on the co-op. The provincial governdesigns were accepted and OPIRG significant problems in the ment .has announ~e? that a co-op drew on the work. of many systems community. Indeed, this is an must mcorporat~ if It ~ants to use in Canada, the United States, and excellent opportunity to make the .word co-op m their name. Europe, as well as a bikeway academic work relevant and RICk DeGrass announced that he design by four system design. . challenging. In most cases, the was organizing a Food Co-op students of the University of' student is able to obtain course Conference for all food .co-op's in Waterloo. credit for this rather unique ex- Southern Ontario on the Sunday and Monday of Thanksgiving In coalition with other en- perience. vironmental groups, OPIRG also Students who have' project wee~end .. Anyone interested in became involved in the Elora suggestions, or who would like to he1pmg With the conference should Gorge issue, a rather classic work with OPIRG, or anyone in- ~o.ntact ~eGrass at 744-3682. ecological legal cQnfrontation. The terested in OPIRG is invited to . Orgamz~rs of the conference case goes before the courts this phone 834-9020 or visit us in month. . Chemistry 1, Room 351 at the' These are just a few of the University of Waterloo. ~pirg projects that· OPIRG has ac- . complished during the past year, and certainly much pride can be taken in the results. , As of September 1st, Victor Chan is Executive Director of OPIRG. Mr. Chan is a recent M.B.A. graduate from York University with a broad interest in the area of The Waterloo Food 'Co-op has community and social development. Gary Carsen, the former approved a new internal structure An open forum will be held Thursday September 19th in the Campus Centre great hall Executive. ·Director and general of alloting work and distributing starting at 1 :30 ~.m. to discuss what role the student newspaper (the chevron) plays on counsel has taken the post of food. The decision was made at the campus. Guests Include Mr. Burt -Mathews, President of U. of W. and Chris Redmond assistant director of the Human' monthly generaL meeting last editor of the administration paper The Gazette, along with representatives from th~ Rights Commission in British Wednesday. federation of students and the chevron .. In the past thirty to forty Columbia. ' In the forthconling period, members.out~f the .co-op'!) ,

re P0 rt

Voting rights





lP"--" ,....



Chevron forum

The role of the student newspaper on campus


friday, september 13, 1974

the chevron

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Chevron Special Supplement


our heroes discover that there's ~; more to munchies than good old hot dogs -""' .. '

ew years ago most' Canadians _were able to take food for granted. Canadawas 3Jarge country, with vast areas devoted to an agriculture that provided abundant supply of produce. Food costs were accepted as reasonable and price hikes seemed to match wage in:'creases. Recently, of course, this image has been completely shattered. Food has now become a major concern; 'not only is it affected by -inflation but it is in the -forefront of increased living costs. In the one year period, May, 1973 to May, 1974, food prices increased by 18% and the trend has accelerated 路since. Consumers have been forced to become very conscious of their food purchases and are becoming increasingly irritated at the shallow explanations offered for further price jncreases. However, because of the total dependence of most Canadians on the supermarket chains they are presently powerless to affect a change and they can only portray annoyance at food corporations who _now no longer even feel the necessity to r_ationalize higher prices. ' For lower, income families, the problem is路 naturally greater. Forced at the beginning of the inflationary trend to buy foodstuffs-that were cheaper {and usually less nutiitious>--:-hamburger instead of cuts of beef-they are now faced with the situation of even those 'cheaper' foods being expensive. People in countries less fortunate than Canada are facing even more extreme situations. Forthem, the problem is not food cost-it is the supply itself. World food shortages are not abstract problems of supply and demand-they are -very cl'licial, immediate problems of survival. The United Nations has predicted that by the time of this year's harvest the wOrld food reserve will have dwindled to a 30 day supply. One month is a very small margin for such reserves and millions of people throughout the world face starvation in the _near future. The question arises, of course, of what are the reasons for the recent rapid increases in food costs. Traditional explanations (including. the most recenf from Ms. Plumtre) have centred around weather conditions, crop harvests, supply virtual oligopoly exists, shared by the five largest and demand. Although such problems as poor food corporations, and this power is soon felt by crop yields obviously affect the market situation, the consumer who pays for the goods these cormore extreme influence is -found to be wielded by porations produce. 'Free enterprise' has become a the people from - whom most of us buy our myth within the /food industry-prices are food-the -food industry' corporations. determined to economic strategies and These corporatio!!s run on an essentiaJly simple not as a result of competition. Because of the vast basis-they want to make a profit. Such gi~nt size of these corporations, where 'vertical incorporations as Weston's or Kraftco ,do not view tegration' has resulted in small companies being food as a basic human necessity, they see food asa swallowed up as subsidiaries, profits,are made at means of making a return on their investment. every stage of food production, from the original Consequently, the interests of the food industry harvest on the farm or at sea through to the cans are not .the same as those of the consumer and a _ or boxes on the supermarket shelves. In purchasing food from the store, people are distinct split in priorities has occurred. paying for costs in all aspeCts of food con~ Profit-making motives lead to many absurd action's. Canadians were aware for several years in sumerism. This includes: the advertising necessary to convince p~ople that they desire some product; the 1960's that a surplus of wheat existed in the prairies while rnillions of people were starving in:' the diverse packaging supposedly necessary to other parts of the world. The reason why the wheat attract purchasers; the cost of displaying so many was not exported was too obvious-starving food items that are virtually identical. All of these costs, of course, are over and above those people have no money. Two years ago the Canadian government paid for the destruction of - necessary to get the food to a store -and do not even touch on the money happily spent by the governtwo million baby chicks. This action boosted the ment in grants to the food industry for fish price of eggs and chicken for which the consumer is now paying. processing plants, or cheese factories, or the like. There are more reasons for recent concetn Control of the food industry is becoming more about food than th.e sheer cost. The quality of food centralized-a few large corporations have a great continued on page 2 influence within the industry. In Canada today a



2 The Food Paper-------'---------------------------'-----'-------------September, 1974 continued from page 1

has been more seriously called .into question in the past few years and certain practices in food production have been closely examined. The use of ,chemicals as insecticides, herbicides and additives in processing do n6t necessarily improve food yield or value while at the same time can be harmful to hea.lth. The use of drugs in rearing animals could have serious. consequences for people eating meat over a long period of time. And, n6lsurprisingly~ the grounds for the use of most chemicals in the industry is not to make food more"Palatable or nutritious, it is to make a buck-quicker and more efficiently. The group who have put together this paper wanted to find the reasons why food has recently become a major public issue. When we first began' plans for the paper, we also hoped to demonstrate the necessity for groups like the Waterloo Food Co-op as alternatives to present food industry structures. Although we still see such ~ necessity,

we have come to realize that the difficulties would not end with a large scale co-operative movement and proposing that everyone join a. food co-op is too simplistic a solution to provide total answers. We can only hope that by reading the paper people will at least gain a clearer . picture of the issues involved. Food is a basic necessity for sustaining life. The quality of life is very much dependent on the availability of such basics as good food. For people to be in a positions where they cannot afford to buy food grown in a country as rich in agricultural land as Canada is perverse. Farming is one of the few remaining occupations that maint~ins a bal~nce with nature. To find farmers leaving the .land because they can no'longer make a living and to see urban sprawl eating away the countryside 'left behind is equally perverse. If we are not to be confronted with, at best, large mechanized farms, using all the latest industrial and chemical techniques, providing low quality food to huge

metropolitan centres at high prices, then something will have to be done about present food industry trends very soon.

'Pet foods: a lucrative' market I

One of the most interesting new sidelines the food processing industry has gotten into in recent years is pet foods. While we've all had pets to feed for years, an examinatIon of the explosive growth of the pet food industry clearly illustrates an j all-too-overused corporate policy of' developIng a neW "product", not necesswilybecause of consumer demand, but mainly because they can make it saleable, and then through the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing techniques, they create and maintain a sufficient consumer demand to make the product profitable. And the pet food industry' is indeed,


profitable. In 1971, when sales in'the:food average pet owner now spends about 125 irtdustry as a whole grew five percent,and dollars every year to feed a small dog, and profit margins around four percent (not upwards of 250 dollars to feed a.large one. Now in theory, anyone with a 50 gallon quite as' good as in more recent times), growth in the ,pet' food industry was over kettle, a supply of the basic ingredients 10 percent with profits running as high as and strong stomach could enter the pet food business. The basic ingredients are 50 percent before taxes. . The dog and cat popUlation in North' horse meat, several kinds of bruised meat America is now well over 100 million and J;hat is unfit for human consumption, growing three times as fast as th~ human animal entrails and a few old vegetables popUlation. Throughout the years these and cereals. The end product is either animals' have subยงisteo primarily on canned, semi-moist (looking something leftover table scraps, but' to the food like raw hamburg), or dry, (concentrated) . entrepreneurs, this is merely "virgin But to package (attractively, of. course) territory". And the development of this and market the food so that it attracts a territory has grown to extent that the lot of buyers seemingly requires substantial financial resources as well as the . advertising and marketing skills of the big corporations. Last year, sales of pet foods in North America were close to two billion dollars. And with all that big money at stake, the pet food companies have naturally devised marketing methods of considerable sophistication. Now every manufacturer knows that a diet of leftover scraps can be just as nutritious as an expensive packaged product and that animalS\ will , eat just about anytliing when they're hungry. Their problem then is to motivate the consumer-owners to spend more than 100 dollars a year on expensive prepared ' ' foods. , So' the advertising boys went to work.

Ralston Purina spent three years and many thousands of dollars on research, concluding that most pets are viewed as part of the family, or as theY" put it, "humanized". General Foods, another pet food'manufacturer, picked uI? on this with -the slogan, "Lers feed your dog just like a member of the family." And what they did was try to develop products that appealed, not necessarily to the pets, but to , their owners. Thus we have pet foods that look and feel like raw hamburg, or some with the colour, texture and smell of beef stew-hundreds of varieties. Arid all this after scientific research has concluded that animals can't distinguish the difference in taste between different kinds of meat. As a nutritionist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

puts it, "The food that is provided for the animal is what we think we like best." Given the owners" concern for their pets, it is usually considered a good idea to put plenty of vitamins and minerals in the mix. In fact, most companies now pack their pet foods with even more nutrients . than is required by the government. According to American consumer advocate Ralph Nader, it is quite conceivable that many animals are getting' more nutrition and ,eating more expensively than their owners. Nader adds that pet foods are more explicitly labelleq as to their ingredients and nutrients than most human product.s. What's most difficult to understand about all this is why the food industry doesn't take as much care and effort with good old people food. But maybe it's because pet foods provide such a thriving market. For some as yet unfathomable reason, price is of little significance to the average pet food buyer. Indeed, it sometimes appears that the higher the price, the more popular the product. And that's where advertising comes in. Ralston Purina, the largest pet food manufacturer in North America. spends about $30 million a year on advertising, most of'jt in television, and most of it aimed at children, an ~asy market to manipulate. . On occasion, people in the indu~try are rather defensive about the phenomenal size of the pet food industry. After all, the $100 spent on feeding a dog could supply a needy family in the Third World with a ton of food. And with today's soaring food costs, too many families, but in particular those on low and fixed 'incomes, have had to switch to cheaper foods, because they just .can't afford to pay for the nutrition they need. The pet fQod industry is, of course, an exaggerated example of what goes on in . the food 'industry in general. A bit more competitive, a bit more lucrative, but when they can create a market they'll be in there. It says a lot about where the priorities are in the food industry. Un, fortunately it says a lot about our society as well.

The' Food Paper The Incredibly Long and' Amazing Food Paper was produced by the incredibly persistent Food Study Group and published by the' Chevron, University of Waterloo. Typeset by members of the Workers Union of Dumont Press Graphix (CNTU). The research and writing for this paper is all voluntary, Editorial and production staff included Ken Epps, Jim Campbell, Carol Beam, Gary Robins, Tim Grant, Doug Strauss, Stewart, Peggy", Terrina and Mittens. For further information write to us at the Chevron, or the Kitchener-Waterloo Free Press, 144 King Street West, Suite 201, Kitchener, Ontario,

September ,197 4 ------------------------------------------~~~--------------------------------~The Food

Paper 3

g~~l~ ; !~jW: : :·. :~.;:l.~ ! :,~.;:· .~ ~: :t: .: :?: :~ : : D The of the Family Farm :. .:·' . :i. :;;. ..

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Picture an average farmer; for the sake goods. The price credit more of example let us sayan Eastern Ontario than doubled in that time while land, dairy farmer, Who owns 22 head of cattle buildings amI hired labour also showed and a little more than a hundred acres of considerable increases. The pricing of the products which' a land. During most of the summer months, he puts in about 14 hours of work every farmer uses is influenced by what is called day and a couplE! less in the. wintertime. oligopoly among a number of the larger Some of the labour he performs is highly corporations. An oligopoly is a situation skilled, but, if calculated 'on an hourly where a limited number of corporations basis, he earns about $1.50 an _hour, a . control a certain industry, the classic figure. which includes labour done by his example being the "Big Three" among wife and children. As fl business, farming" auto producers. These corpora~ giants leaves a lot to be d~sired; ,the capital realize that competition, especially in invested in it returns about 3 % in a year- pricing, is harmful to profits and thus half of the average of all other sectors of they arrange for one company to set an industry. example and the remainder follow its lead. Our average farmer is over fifty years of The result is )tigher prices and expensive age, ten years away' from the age when inefficiencies in the whole industrial sector most everyone else in this country retires. that is involve<I. When a person is .that old, he is not too ~p. example of this among agribusiness interested in taking. economic risks to industries is the farm machinery industry improve his lot, especially when he has whiclj. was recently studied by a Royal little money to begin with. The best that a Commission on Farm Machinery, the farmer can hope for when he ~ants to Barber Commission). In Canada, the three retire is to sell his land to speculators (for largest firms, John Deere,' International anything from $200 to $1000 an acre) for a Harvester and Massey Ferguson concomfortable pension. The kids are not trolled 42 percent ¢ the market in 1967. interested in taking. over and 'who can These three and the next largest three !ll'e blame them? Most ofthem are choosing a all large multi-national corporations; they city life with all of its material benefits are among the tOp 150 corporations in the and without the hardships of farming. U.S.A. except for Massey-Ferguson which This picture is representative of most would fall 31st if it were listed. MasseyEastern Ontario farmers and, to a lesser Ferguson is the only Canadian among extent, of many farmers in Canada. It is these American owned companies. The not an attractive picture and one. can see acknowledged price leader in the industry why the number of farmers is decreasing is' John Deere-when _it publishes its at an al~rming rate. The present farm annual price list the other corporations population is a quarter less then what it follow suit and vary their own prices little was ten years ago. This means that eight from that set by John Deere. The logic farmers are leaving the land every day. Of behind this practice is clear. If one firm course, this is not a recent trend although cut its prices by 10 per cent then its sales it has been picking up speed in the last few would have to increase by 22 per cent to years. At the turn of the century, 40 per realize the s!JIIle profit margin. Such a cent of the work force engaged in large sales increase would obviously cut agricultural production-today the figure into the markets of pther firms, forcing _ is closer to 6 per cent. Nor is the trend an them to lower prices to compete. The net exclusively Canadian one but can be seen result would be lower profits for the entire happening throughout We~tern in- iridustry: Consequently price competition dustrialized countries. is taboo. . . The decline in' farm population can be Instead, competition takes place in linked to the decliniIig economic position other areas such as advertising, credit continue to affect agribusiness. For materials he works with. Perhaps the best .of the primary. production sector. of lending and in dealership practices, all of example, in the fertilizer industry, two example of this .problem· is wheat when agriculture among developed countries. which raise the cost oIthe products, a cost large multi-national firms, Dow and one considers how much the price. for a This is because the demand for food does which is eventually paid by the farmer. Cyanimid, have risen to be among the top loaf of bread has gone up since 1950 while not increase atlthe same rate as the rise in The Barber Commission focused on the five in this province despite the fact that . the price for a bushel of wheat has little personal incomes which usually ac- practice of interest-free floor planning as they are new entrants into the field. The more than fluctuated. The relative concompanies· industrial growth., There is one example of waste in the farm survival of, the fattest will eventually stancy of wheat and other farm prices is only so much, food that a person can eat machinery industry. Under this scheme, a, eliminate smaller firms which are illustrated by chart A. although there is no limit on the number dealer is allowed to displ~y the products of responsible for a' competitive market. In the past two years, farmers' net of cars or televiSIOns that can be con- a company fQr up to two years with no When competition goes down the result is incomes have shown marked increases as sumed (whether or not they get used is not charge. Thus, two additional costs are higher prices. a result of higher prices for agricultural important here). Along with the rise in -added:' the cost of the display space and, products. However, this fortunate turn of Farming income incomes there is, usually a change in diet the expense of a large inventory of unsold events must not be interpreted as peraway from grains, especially wheat and machinery which the. practice, requires. After the feed, fertilizer, fuel and seeds manent. It is a boom period which will towards increased consumption of beef This is but one example of a ,form of have b~en converted into food by the come and go as have four other such and other meats.' On the whole, the far- competition that adds nothing to the real farmer and his machines. then tJie periods since the turn of the century. The mer's share of the national income value of farm machines but is still an finished product has to be sold. However, upward trend. is more a result of il!. declines relative to all other sectors of the expense for which the farmer pays. the returns to the farmer for his products continued on page 4 economy. However, the agricultural It is the oligopoly structure of the farm has' not been rising fast enough to cover producer is still in competition with the machinery industry that allows such rising costs. IIi the decade from 1961 to other sectors in his demand for products inefficiencies to exist and also lets the 1971, the farm price of agricultural .. oT A, from industries where prices are rising ,industry charge what it wants for its products rose by only 17 per cent for all of along with the incomes (for example, the products. Farm machinery prices have Canada; Saskatchewan even showed a steel used in tractors is also required in shown a sharp increase over the years, decline in average prices. In the same the automobile industry.) The price he taking an ever-increasing fhunk of the period, the consumer paid 30 per cent receives for the goods he produces, namely farmer's income. Prices for other farm more for the food bought but most of this food, is not increasing because the materials have not risen as much, at least increase went to middleman corporations demll-nd is constant except for the increase until recently becaust! the industries such as Kraft or Weston's. In 1949, the accountable to' population growth. involved are more competitive in nature.- . farmer received 60 ~cents out of every Basically this IS the cost-price squ~eze This is changing, though, as the dollar spent on food. Today he gets only everyone talks about, the cos~ of inputs monopolization trends in the economy 36 cents, most of which pays for the into a farming. operation is increasing' while at the same time the price the farmer ChartA receives for his produce remains almost the same. Hogs Steers 'Broiler Eggs Wheat . Indqstry. control [lcwt) [lcwt) _. Chickens[/lb) [/doz) Ont.[lbu) 1949 $30.6 $21.9:; 24.9cents Let us examine the farm as an economic 39.4cents $1.77 1966 35.9 20:-6 . 27.05 entity more closely, beginning with the 39.4 1.81 1970 32.2 32.25 19.2 29.6 input side of the operation. Between the 1.72 census years of 1961 and 1971, the price of (Sources: Agricultural Statistics for Canada,1971; Agricultural Statistics for Ontario, all farm inputs increased twice as fast as 19!2) tl1!:l plice!! .Whicb, JlP:ro.~rs,t:~~ivec;lJQX: tbEtir '"~ .




4 The Food .



continued from page 3 fuel the farmer uses in an effort to increase ternational money market shifts and. production, the more profit it means to the . recent crop failures in the rest of the world largely A'merican-oWned companies such' than an improvement of agriculture's as Ralston-Purina, Jonn Deere and Dow position in our own economy. As the Chemical. To cite one example, the Minister of, Agriculture, Gene Whelan, average size of tractors which farmers buy put it, "Increases in food prices aren't has been steadily growing larger and, as permanent, increase in food production the Barber Commission pointed out, the costs are." Generally for the farmer, such percentage of' profit on sales increases boom. periods are times when.;a large part . with tractor size. In 1972; International of old debts can be paid off and new onesiIarvestor showed a ,profit that was' 91.6 incurred. per cent higher than the year before. Thus, About the most important reason for farm suppliers have much"to gain from the the overall lack of increase in farm prices modernizing and centralizing trend in had been the fact that, as an independent agriculture. Processors also benefit from producer, the farmer has no bargaining more uniform quality, greater assurance power with the large corporations he has of ~upply and the economies of scale that to deal with. Thus, in effect, each farmer is are the results of this trend. in competition'. with oth~r farmers m. The capitalization of the farming trying to sell his particular commodity. operation is also favourable to those who, As noted above, corporations realize that supply the capital, the banks and other free enterprise competition is not healthy lending agencies. The cost of money is for profits and so they work towards rising faster than any other cost that the monopoly or oligopoly situations. A farmer has to cope with. Borrowing more paragraph from a National Farmers Union credit to pay for the expense of increasing pamphlet describes the situation: production drives the farmer further into debt. The usual borrower does not have to "The organization the farmer buys from worry about whether ar not he is going to ask 'a price for the goods they Sell. Those .make enough in a, year to payoff the who buy his product tell him how much interest. but the farmer whose income is they will pay. Both need him to stay in business. As an individual, he has little dependent on the weather and the markets (locally and internationally) does run a buying {lower, he pays what is aS,ked and '. higher risk. It is rare to find a, farmer who takes whatill given. They could not stay, does not owe money to at least one , financial institution. in business'<that way." In some cases, marketing boards have Besides intensifying his, operation in helped to remedy this weakDess. A little order to increase production, the farmer more than half of Canada's agricultural may elect' to elllarge his farm by buying goods are sold(through these boards'which, nearby land. Average farm acre.age rose in function as wholesalers for individual Ontario from 153 acres in 1961 to 169 in commodities such as eggs or milk 1971. But this option is Closed off to .products. However, marketing boards are smaller farmers because of the dramatic still subject to the economic pressures of rise in land prices. The prime reason for large' processors and retailers as well as this increase is" of course, speculation the demands of the marketplace; They with the speculators and developers have failed to substantially increase acting as vanguard for the galloping returns to the farmers although they have urbanization that claims 26 acres of managed to-stabilize prices over the years. - Ontario farmland every hour. A recent report from the province's Farm' ,Classification Advisory Committee drew Production & profit . attention to this' problem and predicted Faeedwith these problems then, what that food shortage in 5 to 10 years would recourse does a farmer have if he wants to 'be the result. Most farmers cannot raise better his economic position? The sufficient capital to compete effectively .' traditional answer has been that in order, with speculators and consequently, a lot' to become viable a farmer must increase of. good farmland lies fallow waiting to be his production. For the individual resold at a substantial profit or eventually producer, provided that he can raise the built upon. Both intensification and expans,ion initial capital, this solution could work. However, a contradiction exists here for if have allowed some' farmers to gain a every ,farmer were to increase his higher income but at the same time, other farmers are becoming poorer and leaving production then the farming population as a whole would be no better off. Each, the land. The federal government's Task . farmer is in competition with every other Foree on Agriculture of a few years ago Chart Ii Agriculture [1949=100] Index no. of productivity' 154 Index no. of productivity/person 302 Index no. of persons employed 51


250 180 137

. (Sources: Agricultural Statistics for Canada, 1971) farmer in trying tie fulfill a limited demand from the marketplace. An increase in the supply of a certain food' would not result in more sales unless there is a dramatic decrease in its price, a decrease which loses money for the farmer. Sometimes a farmer finds it necessary to destroy part of his production in order to drive up prices enough to cover costs. Over a long! period of time, though, the traditional solution t9 rising productivity has been to eliminate some of the farmers so that the market is not flooded with excess food. Many farmers are taking steps to iIl-' crease production levels through the introduction of more ma,chinery, fertilizers,' feed and better facilities. This process of adding technological, improvements has had wide ranging effects on the agricultural scene. From 1961 to 1971, the capital invested'in farms rose 80 per cent while the total farm debt rose by twice that amount: 160 per cent. There is no doubt that the result is higher production as attested'to by'the figures in Chart B. As the new technological improvements continue. to convert farms into food factories, it is the multi-national corporations that supply and buy from the farmer whichpenefit most of all. The more machinery, feed, pesticides, feritilizer and

estimated that only one-third of all farms were viable, that is, large enough to provide aD adequate income for the producer and his family and sufficient returns on his investment. Another third were considered potentially viable while a

bottom third did not have much hope as successful farming operations. This latter third numbered about a hundred thousand farms, the families of which were all below the poverty level. Most of the decline in farm numbers comes from this bottom category with the middle third also losing a few. What the numbers do not reveal is the hardship of those who struggle to maintain a living from their farm nor do they reveal' what happens to those who give up their lifetime's work.

----September, 1974

programs have specifically avoided, the small farm. The majority of farmers are in agreement with the aim of government policy in general because most of them are interested lin improving their operations. Consequently, even some farmer-run organizations are weighted.. in this dierection at the expense of the smaller operators. For example, the Ontario Milk Marketing Board discriminates against small farmers by all~cating higher prices to fluid milk, the production of which requires more efficient operations~ Also, Government role those who do not have the facilities for The government's role in agriculture bulk shipment and have to ship in cans are has been to encourage the trend towards charged higher transportation fees by the larger farms with the avowed purpose of OMMB. ' The recent proposals to relieve farmers improving the lot of the' farmer. Their policies and programs have been designed recently 'anno1Jnced with much fanfare by to aid the movement towards cen- the federal.government do little to imtralization and mechanization .of agricul- prove the total situation of farmers. ture. A farmer can look towards the Income sta1>ilization schemes and. comgovernment for support only if he wants modity price supports assures the to expand his operati.on or for assistance . producer of a steady income over the years in going out of business. I but is not going to help if that income is The government's thinking can be low to begin with. Richer farmers will shown by analysing one of its programs, benefit the greatest while more and more the Small Farm Development Program farmers will continue to be elimiriated -which started late' in 1971 (small fann from the bottom strata. i referring to the income of its owner and And this will continue to happen as long not acreage). According to ail article as farmers act independently of each explaining its role in the Canadian Farm other because neither the government nor Economics magazine, the SFDP exists to the corporations will attempt to reverse it; "assist those farm families with growth the trend is in the best interests of both potential to enlarge their land holdings parties. When farmers start to. co-operate and improve their operations and incomes. with each other on a - level beyond .Secondly, the program will assist ~thers marketing boards, then the whole farming wishing to leave agriculture to liquidate population could be better off. Among the their assets and undertake non-farm possibilitie.s of united action are: joint employment路 or retire." The program is\ ventures by adjacent, farmers; coaimed at 125,000 to 150,000 farm families '. operatives which start to integrate verwho "suffer from inadequate education. tically and horizontally; credit unions and Most have not developed saleable skills" the National Farmers Union. In such nor have they generated the capability to ways, farmers could reap the benefits of develop and manage economic farm mechanization without the elimination of units." The message of this program is .the small farmers. , clear: either a farmer expands his If the present trend continues, however, operation (provided he has growth the number of' farmers will . keep potential according to their criteria) or he . decreasing while the remaining operations gets out of farming. grow larger and more intensive. The The SFDP is not the only g.overnment farmer isa victim of economic forces agency that pushes' t~is message. The (which are not blind, by any means) in a Capital Grants Program, the Farm Credit society which places material, before Corporation, the Land Transfer Plan, and human values. Only.when he starts to act the Farm Improvemnt Loans Act, to in unison with other farmers will there be name a few, all suggest similar change:;!. any hope for the long term existence of the The SFDP covers an area that these other family farm.



Food PaperS

Fishin2 in the 10·s: ·sQueezin2 out the fisherman ,



The face of the fishing industry has undergone a dramatic change 'in the last decade. Traditional fishing methods are rapidly disappearing as fishermen are presented with problems th,at require altered techniques and lifestyles. Hshing has become' "big business,"-:-more centralized, mqre' under the thumb of corporate control, and the consequences of the change in the industry have been and will be felt over a broad area. in 1968 when herring fishing was banned because of depletion, and in the Gulf of St. Off-shore fishing is in a state of crisis, Lawrence in Dec. '72 when the Minister of with the government having to provide Fisheries, Jack Davies, prohibited the more and more regulations in an attempt development of the commercial tuna to slow down processes that are leading to industry $tating that cun:ent stocks of a collapse. By far the greatest problem tuna in the North Atlantic were already, facing the industry is overfishing-the' reduced from the ~ress~re of commercial /' situation where some species of fish fisheries. And the future does not paint a (herring is the best example) are pulled out of tlie sea faster than the time required . promising picture. With world-wide meat for the fish to replenish themselves. prices constantly on the rise, more Overfishing is the result of too many fleets demand is being placed on. fish as a fishing the same waters, and it is already a regular dinner staple. In the richer nations problem on a world scale. Canadian such as Canada where there is an infishermen must presently compete with creasing demand for meat despite the fleets from Scandinavia, France, _Ger- prices, m9re fish is needed as a protein many, Russia and Japan, who fish in the source for livestock. Consequently there is Canadian continental shelf because of lack more of a tucrative market for the fishing industry and greater attempts will be of fish in their own waters. Overfishing has resulted in an annual made to catch fish. The most efficient decline in the amount caught of most means of achieving larger catches involves types of fish since the record catches of advanced technological processes. But 1968.ln Newfoundland, as recorded in the Jack Davies himself holds no optimistic International Commission on North view of the results of these processes. American Fisheries (lCNAF) redbook, the Talking of deep sea fishing he has said: i 971 landings of cod were down 8 % from "They are under the 'gun already. 1970 for which in turn the landings were Satellites will soon be mapping the 15% less than those of HJ69. Overall, oceans' temperatures. . . migration. of fish Canadian landings of fish and shellfisn in stocks will be reported hOur by hour.· 1971 were down 6% from those of 1970. Gradually, our entire fishery will take on This situation is having grave con- the characteristics of a large scale military sequences for many fishermen. Inshore operation - overflights,' up-to-the-minute 'fishing from small boats is becoming intelligence, a decisive strike by our fleet uneconomic as big trawlers with depth and it's all over. The resource itself is sounders and new types of electronic fish- bound to be in trouble. Faced with these detection gear are needed to bring in odds, it could be 'destroyed in the 1970's." adequate catches. The Atlantic provinces (Financial Post, Oct. 28172) are currently subsidizing trawler conDestruction of the fish resources' might struction to encourage off-shore fishing not be the only hazard. As competition ,but many fishermen, especially those in mounts for supplies of fish, international P .E .I ., are reluctant to leave their farms rulings could easily be ignored and to commit· themselves to weeks at sea. confrontation between fishing~ nations Those fishermen who are still at- (such as has already occurred between tempting fishing on a small scale are Iceland and the U.K.), may occur over finding they require extra time and labour rights to fish in certain waters. to bring in ever decreasing catches. (It was estimated that the average catch per Corporate control haul of nets in 1971 was 50% of 1970) This, combined with the increased costs of The trend towards fishing on. a large boats and gear, have given many small scale using advanced equipment and large fishermen great financial worries. boats is reSUlting in a greater part" of the The overfishing problem has become so industry coming under the control of food extreme that ICNAF has recommended corporations. This control has caused conservation measures and regulation of developments within the industry that size of catches through quetas. The have affected fishermen and consumers, Canadian government plans to ask for the alike. right to manage and protect all fishes on Although fish landings have decreased the continental shelves and slopes at the yearly since 1968, the value of the catches Law of the Sea Conference to be held this has increased. The Financial Post (June year. This would mean that the govern- 16/73) reported the total value of Nova ment would regulate fishing off Canadian Scotia fish landed in 1972 to be $134 shores, in many cases preventing fishing million, 'tip $7.million from the greater ~ by foreign fleets or banning catching of catch of the previous year. This increase in certain species altogether. This was catch value has more than been passed on already implemented off the coast of B.C. to th~ consumer. The price of fish pur-


A pretty fishy pepperoni The Nati~nai Marine Fisheries Service' has succesSfully demonstrated machinery that the Director Robert W. Schoning says "could bring about another revolution in U. S. fisheries." The machinery makes a product called "minced/zsf?," from meat stripped from dressed fzsh carcasses or from the bodies of less popular fzsh, such uS carp. Prepared into a spread, with the texture and colour of cream cheese, the rendered fzshprotein can be given the , taste of almost anytl#ng/rom salmon to pepperoni. Thzs spread can be mixed with buttermilk to give a'low calorie riwyonnazse-like dip, or the straight minced fish can be pressed into blocks and deep-fried as a snack. Schoning expects such products to, make underutilized fish species commercially profitable~

-reprinted from SCIENCE, Jan. 12, 1974

chased ! in food stores is not just a reflection of the reduction in catches or of the increased. demand caused by the public seeking alternatives to constantly increasing meat erices. Profits realized by fish processors are the main part of the increase in many fish prices.


The Union Farmer reports in its Feb. '74 issue that "in B.C., fishermen and consumers pay dearly for price-fixing 'and collusion -amongst major fishing companies." The report tells of an 80% increase in the price of canned salnlon since June oflast year, while in the period Jan. 1,1973 -June 17,1973 the profits of one of the processors of salmon, B.C. Packers, , had risen 124 % on a sales increase of 25 % (B.C. Packers is a subsidiary of Weston Foods). Last April retail fish outlets in Vancouver showed sole fillets selling at $1.25 per pound and cod fillets at 85 to 97 cents. By comparison, fishermen were paid 11 to 12 cents per pound for sole and 9 to 11 cents for cod. The corporations involved in the fishing industry have more going for them than soaring profits. With the government desperately attempting to prevent unemployment of fishermen and depletion of fish supplies, a great deal of public money is being used to bolster the industry. This" of course, saVes the fishing companies the cost. For example, the Ministry of Fisheries has propC?sed a $14 million salmon spawning programme be funded for the Fraser river to improve catches there. Given the present structure of salmon processing in B.C. this move would be. quickly translated into· profit for companies like B.C. Packers.

Foreign domination Canadian fish catches are yet another natural resource being, consumed in enormous quantities by foreign countries and especially the United States. In 1971, 70 % of all fish caught in Canada was exported to the U.S. and another 20 % went to Europe. That left 10 % for Canadians, averaging about 10. pounds per person per year. With large companies thinking of profits, there is no concern for the vast consumption of this natural food resource by the wealthy nations of the world. (It is interesting to note that a great deal of fish exported to the U.S. is

used for pet and livestock feed.) Reserving fish supplies . for domestic' use or developing secondary industries associated with fish-which would increase employment and the export value of fish products-are ignored in favour of . the monetary gain from immediate export. And even within this dubious mode of business there are few standards. The Financial Post described in June, 1973 how attempts were made to sell swordfish to Japan even though the sale of swordfish had been banned in North Americ.a in 1971 when it was discovered that most swordfish showed traces of mercury above the 0.5 parts per million permissible level. Like other areas of the food industry, fishing is viewed by those who control it as a means of making a ~onetaryprofit. Solutions' of difficulties occurring in the fishing 'business' are undertaken with this view in mind. Fish shortages, pollution, ecological imbalances are hindering returns on' investment-they are not seen as fundamental problems of a far-reaching significance. Alternatives proposed by big business are invariably further money making schemes that only worsen the situation. Thus, until problems in the fishing industry are treated with the respecftheyare due, unhampered by the greed -blinding those presently proposing 'solutions', the fishing industry will face further crises in the future.

8o'l.j J-LL.


6The Food Paper -----~---~-------------------------------September, 1974

Mainly because of the meat (but the'meat sure has changed) It doesn't seem like too many years ago' problems and fattened poorly. Si~ce then' that the countryside around us was they have leased out Hopewell Farms to large1y populated by mixed farms, each an Elmira farmer who still uses tbe same~ with some cattle, chickens, a few horses, force-feeding techniques but provides a and about One hundred acres of land for 'more balanced' diet. . " growing grains and vegetables, Each If you are driving in the New Dundee farmer, aided by his family, worked long area,.you cQuld easily run across anothE~r hours and patiently fed his animals with indoor million dollar cattle-fattening wholesome feed produCed on his own farm. operation. Owned by the same man who. Today that has changed quite built Tenderflesh (in Petersburg) and its dramatically. Mixed . farmers were huge turkey farms, this modern complex t squeezed out of business, ·or forced to fattens 2,500 cattle at any given time. borrow heavily from banks to develop Every day over ten tons of potato peelings highly specialized agricultural operations. arrive from the Hostess potato chip plant Farmers who wanted to raise livestock, ' 'in Cambridge and the ShiITif' plant in found that the only way to do so Alliston. Mixed with some grains, this is profitably was by building feedlots or the dietary mainstay for these lucky cows. other fattening operations. ' In these Both.local operations buy 'feeder' cattle feedlots, larger numbers of cattle or pigs frol!l western Canada. These cows could be force-fed and fattened more make their long rail journey through , quickly. Already though, these small' northern Ontario without stop-overs for feedlots are being overshadowed by much food or manure cleanups. Packed tightly larger competitors. in double-decker cattle cars, these The largest ofthese new competitiors is animals, panicky from hunger and stress, Montfort, a gigantic cattle fattening are given injections of antibiotics which operation in Colorado which fattens help to prevent the numerous diseases 125,000 cattle at any given time, and that can easily develop in these travelling 600,000 cattle annually. Young' feeder conditions. Upon arrival at Hopewell cows, weighing 400-600 pounds,arrive, at Farms and the New Dundee operation, Montfort"s 800 acre feedlot and are im- . these cattle are pacj{ed shank to shank in mediately forced to swim through a tank long rows beside the feed troughs, where of pesticides to be cleansed of worms and. they gain, like Montfort's cows, up .to 3 stimulants, or to dull animals' Sex drives, flies. Then they are crowded into endless pounds per day. Here too, hormone in- or for any' number of other purposes, also create a variety of health problems. The rows of pens, where they stand in more jections are used to speed up the fattening than three inches of manure. These cows process and to dull the cow's sex drive, most common hormone usocl during the eat constatly due to boredom and gain up which in turn increases the profitability of past twenty years, diethylstilbestrol or 'DES', was finally banned two years ago to three pounds per day. Daily doses of the operation. The crowded conditions hormones in their feed relaxes the cattle's' also necessitate regular doses. of an- by the government. It had been shown to cause poultry to lose' their feathers, muscles and loads them with moisture and- tibiotics. . become sterile, or even sometimes to abort, fat, which speeds up the fattening process their-chicks. Fed to cattle, DES increased and reduces the amount of 'natural' feed Drug use their chances of developing respiratory that would otherwise be required. The diseases. (Recently, a well-known critic of unsanitary conditions necessitate regular There are currently 2700 drug' cominjectio~s of antibiotics in orqer to reduce modern agricultural practices po~ted out pOllnds used by feedlot operators in North , profit-cutting diseases. Montfort's cattle America. These are mainly different types the increasing numbers of livestock who have developed tumors, liver abcesses and often tend to develop painful liver ab- of antibiotics and growth-inducing other diseases by the time they're ready scesses, but alas there are special drugs to hormones. When we eat meat today, we for slaughter:) Even more serious, a study solve that and virtually any other problem digest and retain a significant amount of in the New England Journal of Medicine .... that develops there. After four months, the residues of these drug compounds. Yet told of the discovery that tIre daughters of their ca:ttle haye grown to 1200 pounds most have not been tested for potential and enter Montfort's own meat-packing harm to humans. Much of what little, women who had recieved DES treatment during preganancy had developed vir-' plant at a rate of 2,000 a day. research has been done is cspied out by tually incurable vaginal canC(ers and many But you don't have to travel to the various drug companies who- are had died. It was for this reason that DES Colorado to see how big business is fin-. promoting the drugs in the first place. was banned. Since then, however, the ding profitable ways of fattening cattle. Already numerous problems have_been large drug corporations with the help of Today if you were to drive out Highway 7 uncovered surrounding the usage of these government research, have created new a few miles towards Guelph you might drugs. The harm caused by antibiotics is well-' hormones to take its place. notice a large number of low buildings and In bygone years, cows were regularly let a water tower which has 'Hopewell Farms' documented. Up to 10% of the Canadian out to pasture. They frequently roamed painted OIt-'it. Hopewell Farms was built people are' allergic 'to antibiotics like around in their fields, and this movement, by Seagram's in the early 1~60'sas an' penicillin. Antibiotics also tend to disrupt indoor cattle fattening· operation. The our intestinal systems because they can ,in turn, reduced the fat content in their meat. Today's modern feedlot operations cattle were fed the mash left over from kill all bacteria which are essential' for however, which keep cattle closely conSeagram's distilling process, and tbus. digesting food and preventlng disease. provided a potentially profitable outlet for Worse still, just as bugs gradually become fined to the feed trough, produce animals which have a much higher fat' content. this waste. However, Seagram's pperation resistant to pesticides, so do our stomach (Some veterinarians estimate that if these ran into difficulties during its first few bacteria become immune to antibiotics, confined cows were forced to run outside, years::- Their 2200 cows were mostly fed which means that a disease which many would suffer heart-attacks.) The only this 'mash', and by literally. drinking develops may be untreatable. The hormones used as growth-inducing usage of DES to accelerate growth alsothe stuff, they developed digestive tends to add· weight which is mainly watery fat, not protein. It creates more marbling of fat throughout the meat. Even as early as the mid-1950's, the Fann Journal in the U.S. noticed the deteriorating quality of beef and they attribute the decline to the widespread use of drugs like DES in cattle feed. At that time they advised farmers: "If you feed stilbestrol (ie. DES) to your cattle, better not say anything about it when you send them to market. You might end up getting less money. One ' packer has this to say: 'Stilbestrol cattle just don't cut out a carcass that's as good as they look on the hoof'. But it's not only stilbestol that's responsible-it's-\ the shortcut cheaper fattening methods promoted by -every agricultural college around. The beef we're seeing ·today doesn't measure up ,to 'the old corn-fed beef. It looks. plump and good on the outside, but when you cut it open, the quality isn't there." In any case, most large meat-packing companIes certaiDIy learned to accept th~ fact that most cattle are fed hormoneladen feed. Indeed, some of them g~t into <


the cattle·fattening business as well .....From all the above, it's easy to realize, that today's farce-feeding techniques used in modern' feedlots ate probably the basis for the meat industry's claim throughout the 1960's that the consumer is now purchasing "'more tender, juicy, red brand beef". .


Poultry production.· Poultry breeding' has developed even more rapidly towards mass production than cattle and hog farming. There are currently poultry 'factories' containing up to 250,000 birds in the United States. In Waterloo county near Galt, Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms Ltd. is so.large that it employs over 125 people to maintain its complex operations. The concentration of large numbers of birds in long windowless barns has enable4 the owners to yield greater profits but has also created its own share of problems. A modern- poultry barn will contain thousands of birds, each caged in Y2 to % square foot compartments. Their existence is intensively controlled by' regulated levels of light and sound and by 'medicated' feeds which are distributed by conveyors. Most poultry feed will contain the types of antibiotics, hormones, and tranquillizers that are administered to other livestock. (Similarly, poultry raised this way will contain far higher fat levels than poultry which is raised on pure feed outdoors.) Arsenic is a particularly popular feed additive used by most poultry breeders. It ht;llps to speed the maturation process and increase both the efficiency of feed utilization and the' production of eggs: It also improves skin colouring and feathering. Unfortunately for us though, arsenic is also a carcinogen and dangerous accumulations of it have been found in chicken livers. The development of I large poultry operations utilizing sophisticated environmental controls· and force-feeding techniques, combined with high protein feeds and intensive use of drugs, has enabled the large poultry producer to -greatly, reduce both the length of time needed to fatten a bird and the amount of feed needed in the process. In 1935 for instance, it required 16-17 weeks and 5lbs. of feed to produce 1 lb. of meat, whereas by 1960 it took only 9 weeks and lIb. of feed to produce an equivalent amount- of meat. These figures are quite dated but they indicate how dramatic the changes have been. Producers have sought to speed up the turnover in their poultry because it enables them to increase the rate of return on their investment. 'Historically, this practice has enabled the wealthier

September;,1974-------.....;,.....----------"--------------------------The Food Paper 7

producers to effectively - displace or' bland or tasteless than the old farm remove their poorer and smaller com- variety. tndeed, this has led to an expetitors from the poultry business because panded market for poultry sauces and only they could afford the large in- seasonings. When- Colonel Sanders claims vestment needed to utilize these expensive his chicken is "finger-licken' good" you force-feeding techniques. By using ,can bet it's the greasy sauce that makes modern technology to mass produce the difference! poultry, the wealthier producer could raiSE) The drug industry owes much of its greater numbers of birds more cheaply growth to the transformation of farming from the family farm to a big business than could his smaller competitor. Strict environmental controls have operation-their drugs have greatly aided' proved necessary for the large poultry that process. More than half the an. producer who wanted to crowd un- tibiotics used in North America today are . naturally large numbers of birds in very sent to farms-not hospitals. The' close proximity to one another. Poultry government is reluctant to intervene have always been extremely sensitive because both the drug industry and the animals, but in the days 0f the small meat industry form powerful influences farmer, being raised outdoors contributed within it. to their health anQ. vigour. Today's lIlass Widespread use of drugs has occurred produced birds; who are never exposed to for' one simple reason-they increase either the earth or sun, are given high profits. Montfort uses antibiotics because protein feeds without any way of exer- it only cleans up the wastes of its 600,000 cising or burning off this excess energy. cattle three to four times a year, Hor(Hence the higher fat content ... ) After mones enahle poultry and cattle to fatten delivery from the hatchery, young birds more quickly than, with normal feed. may find themselves in darkness for the Without antibioti<;s and hormones, big first two. weeks, being fed medicated food business would not have been able to pack and being sprayed periodically with, in- thousands of animals in extremely consecticides. But overcrowding frequently fined fattening operations. leads poultry to start pecking at one another. Poultry producers in response Pesticides often condemn the birds to longer periods For those of us who consume meat of darkness, or remove their beaks. Much more seriously though, the combination of regularly there is another health hazard to overcrowding and lower health levels of come to grips with-pesticides. Various mass-produced poultry provides a pe~icides are now widely used by farmerssituation where disease can and often to increase vegetables and grain crop become rampant. Chicken virus or yields. Many studies in ,the last ten years leukosis spreads very, rapidly. in close have shown how these contaminants, quarters especially where broiler chickens especially DDT, can significantly alter the are involved. Mortality rates as high as 25 ecology due to their ability to disrupt the percent per year are common in large reproductive cycles of animals and' birds and the nervous system of fish. It nas concentrations of laying hens. As a result of using mass production been shown that poultry and cattle who techniques for fattening poultry, large daily eat feed grains that contain pesticide producers had more difficulty meeting residues, retain and slowly accumulate existing government health regulations. these residue!\ in their own bodies, But since mass production was their key espec~lly in their livers. When we as to high profits and market control, they humans consume this beef and chicken, were able to successfully convince the we digest their accumulation of residues. government to lower their health stanConsequently, these 'accumulations are dards for poultry. retained and build up in our oodies. By The mass production of poultry has eating lots of meat, we are eating off the been linked quite logically to the fact that top of the' food chain and consuming many people claim today's poultry is more higher concentrations of pesticides than .if SOURCES OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN THE U,S. DIET (from Diet for a small plan~t, F, M. Lappe, 1971) DDT, DOE, TOE 'Pesticide Residues in Parts per Million



Dairy Products

? ..,

'" ..,3 g

~--------------~e :;;

Meat, Fish & Poultry ~------------------------------------------~? ......________________________________________---J ~ Grains & Cereals Potatoes ~---?

Leafy Vegetables h---~~ Legumes

1964-1968 Levels of DDT, DOE, & TOE路

Root Vegatables路 Frultr


Oils. Fats & Shortenlna J----..I~


the dse in meat prices. In Canada today, there are only_ four large meat-packing corporations-Canada Packer's, Burn's, Swift's, ~nd Schneider's. Together they' process most of the beef, pork and chicken raised in the country. Canada Packer's is easily the largest of the four, and generally recognized as the' price-setter. Their control of the market means that they too can more easily pass along their increased animal, machinery, and labour costs to consumers and charge prices . which guarantee high profits. This is why huge corporations seldom suffer during periods of inflation. The meat industry, by spending -hundreds of millions of dollars on advertising desigtied to link meat-centred diets with status and success, have left most of us ignorant about - alternative (non-meat) diets which 'could provide us with better nutrition at lower cost. Yet with 40 to 50 different kinds of commonly-, we were to eat combinations of other eaten vegetables, 24 different kinds of protein rich foods without Chart A peas, beans and lentils, 20 different fruits, shows the r,elative concentrations of 12 different nuts, 9 different grains, and pesticides in different types of foods. It's numerous types of fish and dairy products easy to see that by avoiding meat as much to choose from, there are many alternative as possible and $ubstituting other diets available for people who want' to nutritious foods instead, -we can greatly avoid the cost and health hazards of meat minimize our intake of these con- today. Meat 路is路 not the best source of taminants. protein. There are other foods which Some authors are now suggesting that contain higher quality protein. More the raising of tens of millions of cattle, importantly though, by combining pigs and chickens itself constitutes a various protein foods in a particular meal, ,tremendous wastage of the world's food' say rice and soybeans for -;instance, it resources. There is more than a little truth becomes relatively easy to consume higher to this idea. Francis Moore Lappe, in her quality protein than could be derived from book Diet for a Small Planet points out eating meat. (For those interested in that half of North America's' crop-growing ,pursuing the matter of obtaining more agricultural land is devoted to growing , informatiOll and recipes for tasty nonfeed for these animals. She also states that meat dishes;- look for Frances Moore 78 percent of all our protein-rich grain is Lappe's Diet for A Small Planet, or EUen fed to them. Yet these animals are very Ewald's Recipes fpr a SmaIl Planet.) poor converters of the protein in these The development of modern . livestock grains. For instance, it takes 21 pounds of fattening methods has made it necessary . protein fed to cattle to produce 1 Ib of that a large part of our food resources be . animal protein for human consumption. devoted to the production of feed for The ratios for pigs and poultry are 8.3-1, animals; Yet because these. animals are and 5.5-1 respectively:-When 'one realizes poor converters of the protein in this feed, that in 1968 in the U.S. alone 20 million this represents an enormous wastage of tons of protein were fed to livestock, and the earth's food resources. These modern that this total represents food sources livestock-fattening methods, while highly that could be eaten directly by man, it profitable for feedlot owners, are also the becomes obvious that our present most expensive for the consumer. And as - agricultural priorities are tremendously a result of these methods, .the meat wasteful of the earth's food resources. produced is of poorer quaUty' and contains This information becomes all the more the residues of a variety of harmful drugs. startling when you take into account that Today, as the supermarket chains and livestock don't need to eat protein in order meat-packaging- corporations join forces to produce it. Cattle, for many years grew with the feedlot companies to pass along well on low-protein agricultural feedstuffs, their higher costs (and wider profit which they themselves converted into - margins) to consumers, many people are protein-rich meat. The only real reasor being forced to cut down on the amount of why high-protein grains (like soy-beans) meat they use. But as this article has are fed to livestock is that livestock fatten attempted to show, there are. other more quickly on them. Formerly, it took significant reasons why reducing or even cattle up to two years to fatten to 1200 eliminating our meat consumption is lbs. Today, with force-feeding of high important. Since -corporations exist protein feed, that period has been shor- primarily to make as much money as they tened to less than -six months. can, they have developed forms of agricultural production and processing which are both harmful to health and A changing industry financial well-being and wasteful in the To understand why meat. prices have use of food resources. As an important been climbing steadily in recent years, we step towards a solution to this situation, have to look at both the changes in we must recognize the controls that exist livestock raising and the monopolization and refuse to accept all that is foisted of the meat-packing industry in Canada. upon us at the meat counter. When most livestock and poultry were raised by small farmers who grew their own feed and competed with thousands of other similar farmers to market their finished animals, meat prices tended to rise slowly. The development of huge automated feedlots and poultry barns by big business changed that. Not only are these animal complexes costly .to build and maintain, but they also use expensive high protein feeds like soybeans, wl).eat germ, ,and even fish. (In fact, United Nations reports have shown that up to 50 percent of the world's fish catch is fed to livestock.) . When fishmeal from-Chile and Peru becomes scarce (as it actually did in 1971-_ 72), or when there is a poor wheat or i;loybean crop, then the feedlot companies have an excuse to raise their prices. Since there are fewer of these -large feedlots, they have greater ability to control the amount of meat sent to market, and therefore pass along their increased costs .to the consumer. Similarly, the monopolized meatpacking industry has further accelerated

8The Food Paper--------------~------------------------~------------~--------------------------------------Septen

At the end 'Of January, the federal gQvernment annQunced that the first mQnth 'Of 19.74 saw a 1.2% rise in fQQd prices. Canada's eCQnQmists, having 'Only 'One mQnth earlier predicted a 10 % rise in fQQd CQsts fQr 1974, began scrambling tQ upwardly revise th~ir estimates. Then at the beginning 'Of March, the annQuncement 'Of a further 2.6 % increase in February made newspaper headlines. Once again,Qur well-paid eCQnQmists were fQrced tQ revise their 1974 predictiQns. FQr tKQse 'Of us whQ shQP every week, it's extremely frustrating tQ see cQntinual price increases in the fOQds we buy. Our wages and salaries frQm wQrk seldQm rise as quickly as supermarket prices. Yet fQQd shQPping each week is sQmething that we can't put 'Off when CQsts mQunt as we migbt wJth a new car, im appliance 'Or any 'Other CQnsumer gQQd. FQQd is a basic , necessity fQr 'Our very existence and bQth its CQst and quality greatly affect 'Our general health and well-being. It's nQt very cQmfQrting tQ hear PQliticians, the news rnediaand the fQQd CQrPQratiQns telling us that fQQd prices are justified, when we have less mQney tQ pay fQr them. While it's QbviQUS that we are nQt benefitting frQm the high CQst 'Of fQQd, farmers, at th~ 'Other end 'Of the fQQd chain, are nQt significantly ,benefitting either. The-ir share 'Of the fQQd dQllar is , decreasing alJ,d is presently abQut 36%. TQ understand whQ dQes benefit frQm the high CQst 'Of fQQd, we have tQ IQQk at that sectQr 'Of 'Our eCQnomy called "agribusiness" and understand the changes that have been Qccuring there. While thousands 'Of farmers are being squeezed 'Off their land every year, tremendQus prQfits are being made-by thQse cQmpanies invQlved in tlie prQcessing, distributiQn, and sale 'Of fQQd. But first let's IQQk at what is happening tQ the average Canadian farmer.

At 'One time, a farmer's greatest asset was his labQur. By wQrking IQng hQurs, he and his family CQuid thereby increase their agricultural prQductiQn tQ a point where they CQuid make a living. But farm prices seldQm equalled productiQn CQsts, which cQnsequently fQrced tens 'Of thQusands 'Of farmers 'Out 'Of business. Between 1961 and 1971 fQr instance, farm prQductiQn CQsts rose 40.2 %, while farm prices increased 'Only 25.46. As a result, 'Over 150,000 Canadian farmers went bankrupt during the same periQd. ThQse whQ remained, attempted tQ expand their QperatiQns in 'Order tQ increase their sales. But this expansiQn required that they purchase newer and mQre expensive farm machinery, fertilizers, livestQck, feed and fuel. TQ 'Obtain these things, mQst farmers needed large IQans frQm variQus financiaC institutiQns. ThQse whQ SQught exp'ansiQn tQ aVQid' bankrupcy frequently fQund that their problems were 'Only beginning, , , . The farm machinery business, fQr instance, is highly cQncentrated, with three large firms, JQhn Deere, Massey FergusQn, and InternatiQnal Harvester cQntrQlling mQre than 50'12 'Of the Canadian market. This market cQntrQI enabled them tQ raise their prices 34 % between 1956 and 1968, while autQmQbiles increased 'Only 10% in the same periQd.CQmplaints abQut farIl} machinery prices by farmer's QrganizatiQns led tQ the 1966 Barber RQyal CQmmissiQn 'On Farm Machinery, which cQncluded that the actual profits 'Of the big cQmpanies were mQre than dQuble the figures used tQ justify their p.nnual price increases. These firms were able tQ hide their prQfits because, as Canadian subsidiaries 'Of American cQrpQratiQns, they simply purchased parts and finished gQQds frQm the parent cQmpanies at inflated prices. Dr. Barber, whQ headed the investigatiQn, stated: "It is clear that discriminatQry pricing in the sales 'Of tractQrs is still being practised against the Canadian farmer." He PQinted 'Out that identical tractQr mQdels are being SQld in Britain 22-32 % cheaper than in Canada.' Recently JQhn Deere, Massey FergusQn and InternatiQnal Harvester began switching frQm the smaller 100 hQrsepQwer tractQrs tQ large 300 hQrsepQwer tractQrs.FQr these cQmpanies, the large tractQrs prQvide them with higher returns 'On their capital investments. But Qidy the larger and -wealthier farmers will be able tQ affQrd and efficiently use these tractQrs, and cQnsequently will further increase the eCQnQmic pressure 'On the majQrity 'Of farmers. The Canadian farmer has faced similar

pressures frQm the PQwerful agricultural CQrPQratiQns. The pesticide,' fertilizer, fuel! and transPQrtatiQn industries are all dQminated by a handful' 'Of large cQrpQratiQns. Several gQvernment studIes have eXPQsed the CQmmQn industry practice 'Of price-setting, whereby the largest cQmpany is the price-leader and sets prices which in turn will be rQughly matched by its smaller "cQmpetitQrs". FQr the cQrpQratiQns, this practice remQves CQstly price cQmpetitiQn and guarantees high prQfits. But fQr the farmer, it_ has meant steadily increasing prices frQm his suppliers, mQst 'Of whQm are in better 'Organized and mQre PQwerful eCQnQmic PQsitiQns in the fQQd business than he. As a result 'Of these and 'Other pressures, farmers have gQne deeper intQ debt, especially in the last ten years. Since. 1961, interest rates1l.a:ve 'mQre than dQubled, and the tQtal Canadian farm debt has risen frQm $1.8 billiQn tQ mQre than $5 billiQn. It's little wQnder then that the average farm incQme tQday is, less than $4,000 per year. Smaller farmers have alSQ begun tQ face cQmpetitiQn frQm well financed "CQrpQrate farms". The develQpment 'Of large-scale farm technQIQgy cQupled with the rise in retail fQQd prices during the last few years has led a number, 'Of agricultural cQrpQrations tQ turn tQ farming themselves. Backed by huge assets, they develQP massive farms and emplQY the mQst prQductive machinery in 'Order tQ achieve the greatest returns. YQrk Farms, fQr instance, a divisiQn 'Of Canada Packers, has several 10,000 acre farms in SQuth-Western OntariQ which supply its canning and frQzen vegetable plants with produce. - The rise 'Of cQrpQrate farming, thQugh widely ackI).Qwledged, is difficult tQ dQcument mainly because the federal and prQvin~ial statistics agencies have nQt bQthered tQ cQllect data 'On this relatively new develQpment. HQwever, Federal Farm Credit statistics have shQwn that in 1971, 2.9% 'Of Canada's farms had 29% 'Of, tQtal farm sales, while at the same time, 29.3% of the farms I had 'Only 2.5 % 'Of the sales. Clearly these figures demQnstrate that there are real differences tQday between the average farm and the large cQrpQrate farming enterprise. The decline 'Of family farming has been accelerated in SQme regiQns 'Of Canada by the develQpment 'Of "cQntract" buying, whereby a IQcal fQQd prQceSSQr CQntracts tQ buy all 'Of afarmer's future crop at路 a fixed price. The histQrical tendency fQr farm prices tQ rise and fall

sharply in successive years has been the main . factQr in attracting farmers tQ this arrangement with fQQd prQceSSQrs, but in many ways it 'Only cQntributes tQ the squeeze 'On the average farmer. The NatiQnal Farmer's UniQn has PQinted 'Out that: "The cQntracting by farmers 'Of prQductiQn at a fixed price priQr tQ a grQwing seaSQn transfers tQ them the major risk 'Of shQrt crQPS 'Or 'Over supplies. If the CrQP is shQrt, the proceSSQr is able tQ raise prices because his plant 'Operates at less than capacity, enabling him tQ claim higher 'Overhead CQsts." The stQry 'Of the PQtatQ fru;mers in the St. JQhn Valley 'Of New Brunswick prQvides a gQQd example 'Of the effects 'Of cQrpQrate farming. The St. J Qhn Valley has IQng been famQus fQr its PQtatQ crQPS as successive generatiQns 'Of Acaaian farm families marketed their harvests in Central Canada and eastern United States. But in the last decade, fluctuating PQtatQ prices have caus.;ld real hardship fQr these Acadians. Their CQsts 'Of productiQn have frequently sQared higher than New Brunswick PQtatQ prices, fQrcing' many 'Of them 'Out 'Of business. ThQse that survived did SQ by bQrrQwing heavily to purchase new machinery and fertilizers in 'Order tQ grQW mQre. This CQnsQlidatitln has nQt prQvided the remaining farmers with much stability hQwever. The decline 'Of Acadian farms is very much cQnnected with the rise 'Of McCain FQQds Ltd., whQ market frQzen fre~h fries, a variety 'Of 'frQzen pies; and 'Other processed fQQds. Originating in New "Brunswick, the McCain brQthers have reinvested their large Maritime prQfits tQ build new plants in EUJ:Qpe and Australia. The CQmpany's primary strength IQcally is its CQntract buying methQds. Since McCain has whQlly-owned subsidiaries producing farm machinery and fertilizers, it 'Offers IQcal farmers enQugh credit tQ purchase these,items in return fQr signing a IQngterIE CQntract tQ sell their PQtatQes exclusively tQ McCain. Once in debt tQ McCain, a farmer is" likely tQ remain there. Many dQn't survive 'On its CQntracts and they, 'Of CQurse, have tQ turn 'Over their farms tQ their wealthy creditQr. Already McCain 'Owns 'Over 4,000 acres and presently cQntrQls anQther 20,000 acres by this methQd. GQvernment farm PQlicies usually echQ thQse advQcated by business magazines. They ratiQnalize the decline Qf--Canadian farmers by


"And though in 1973, your company had again to contend with spiralling labour costs, meddling government regulations, and ecological do~gooders, management was able once more, through a ,combination of deceptive billing and false advertising, and the proper use of plant shut-downs, to showa profit which in an modesty can onlybe called excessive."

claiming-that mQst fa and 'PQQrly managed'. is bQrne 'Out by tl prQductivity ihas inc] annually since the sec with 2 V2 % fQr the re:;t poQr management 'Or i the squeeze 'On the Ca receive less and less expansiQn and high terized the grQwth 'Of and retailing cQnglQm 'Of agribusiness, and it us tQ turri tQ it nQW tQ present fQQd crisis.

N Qt tQQ many year: dairies, cheese plants canning factQries scati mQst. 'Of which werl markets. But the desi cQmpetitive eCQnQmic led inevitably tQ ex] bitiQUS firms. By E prQceSSQr CQuid expect vQlume buying 'Of in, derprice its CQmp lessening 'Of CQmp.:; remaining few CQmpa 'Over their prices, I themselves desired n TQday, the fQQd pr cQncentrated with ( dQminating the natiol 'Of fQQd, An idea 'Of t was prQvided by 1 Department 'Of CQnsu when it annQunced tt fast cereal manufactu all shipments; 4 'Of 8 ~ 'Of that industry's sh vegetable 'Oil millers a sales; and 14.2% 'Of a The tQP fQur meat had 55 % 'Of its 'ship vegetable canners aJ 1.4 % 'Of fish prQduct PQultry prQcessQrs ha bakeries had 30.7%; 22.6 % 'Of all shipmer It's reasQnable tQ already six years 'Old level 'Of mQnQPQlizatic Canada there are fl markets than the nati These figures alsQ d( traQrdinary cases 'Of IT fQr instance, cQntrQl Canada's cheese tra cQntrQls 80 % 'Of the N, One majQr reaSQn ' tQ fQQd additives is t drink manufacturers cyclamates in the 19 synthetic artificial S\ much as sugar. TQda: StroganQff", yQU shQ beef. It's been replac( cQmpany's vice-presi< 'One-ninth as much as these savings are n( CQnsumer. The fQQd filled with ads by 1 which prQmise fQQd p: using their additives Advertising, 'Of cc factQrs enabling fQQd new additive-laden fc 'Of the newspaper, bi] advertising media, f( prQmQte their new CQ] make their new bn wQrds. Kraft, fQr im 1969 to-expand and I cheese market. CQC! soft drink company, push its artificially c( saturated drinks! ThrQugh advertis PQratiQns have been ~ buying traditiQnal fc synthetic and hig] agribusiness has be~ fact, in the last t gradually eaten 25 vegetables and fruit sugary snacks and !



l have been 'inefficient' t the falsity of this view fact that agricultural led approximately 6 % World War, compared ile economy. So it is not 'iciency that has caused lian farmer. While they the food dollar, rapid fitability have charac: large food processing ,tis. This is the essence robably appropriate for erstand the roots of the

- - - - - - - - - -----The Food Paper"'"

pronounced, where five large chains have 85 % of total food sales. . The growth of the large supermarket chain and the disappearance of smaller competitors has been a relatively recent development in food retailing. ,It was only in 1951 that the small independent grocers controlled 62.8 % of the market. Today independent stores control less than 20%. The growth of the supermarket chains developed gradually throughout the fifties and sixties and towards the end of that period the b'ig chains had become dominant. But by 1967, the 'large chains in Canada were mainly,comprised of older and relatively small downtown stores that faced too much competition to provide their owners with desired profit levels. Hence the decision in 1967 by the supermarket corporations to close most of their dowtown stores and build much larger oMs in the new shopping plazas of that time. In these new plazas a large chainstore would usually face no other competitor, a position that became known as a "monopoly of location." The changes in Waterloo Square provide a good example of the shift to fewer and larger supermarkets by the big chains. Until three years ago, Waterloo Square contained three supermarkets: a Zehr's路store occupied the present Big. Buck store; an A&P store occupied the present Cargo Canada facilities; a Busy B store leased the current Zehr's store. The original Zehr's and Busy B supermarkets were of -the smaller chains tore variety and were closed down. The ,Busy B supermarket chain was sold to Weston's,

.. .......

o there were numerous . keries, flour mills and I all across the country, "/ guess he didn't have time to freeze them or onfined to their local put them in cans." Ir greater profits in the [Avion that existed then, ion by the more amrrding, a larger food educe its costs through The trend towards monopolization in the food ients and thereby unindustry has been a fundamental cause of In. Gradually, this escalating food prices. As a food company gains rr would enable the more control over its matttet, it has the increasing to have more control ability to set its own prices and to pass its costs ultimately guarantee on to the cons~mer. If it is vertically-integrated, of profit. it can inflate the costs of its wholly-owned ling industry is highly A few important factors have enabled the suppliers, and simply pass them on to us. Nationa handful of' firms wide advertising on television and other media, development of monopoly or near-monopoly mrket路 in certain types while crucial to food companies for market conditions in the food processing industry. One xtent of concentration control, is also extremely expensive and it also key factor was the move by the more successful federal government's corporations towards "vertically-integrated" contributes to the rising cost of food. and Corporate Affairs structures. Vertical integration is becoming When there are fewer companies in the路 of Canada's 16 breakcommon throughout our economy and involves country producing a certain food, transportation :lccounted for 95.3 % of the organization of all the companies involved in costs rise enormously for those large producers. refineries made 92.4 % producing a commodity from the raw materialS to (Kraft, for example, has only one cheese plant to nts; the top 4 (of 10) the finished product under one corporate umserve the whole Canadian market). Where foods rrted for 81.8 % of total brella. Controlling these comp~nies, a large . need to be shipped greater distances, packaging ur miller's had 76.90/0. corporation can greatly increase its profits by costs also rise steadily because foods need to be :ssors (1 % of all firms) reducing its overhead costs and even its tax better protected on longer journeys. By con;s; 1.6% of fruit and burden (by loaning,money from its highly-taxed tinually raising their prices I the largest food r"servers had 38.4%; companies to its low-taxed ones). corporations are in fact making consumers pay 1S had 34.9%; 4% of In the Canadian food industry, the most for the expenses of trying to monopolize the food 'i%; less than 1 % of all successful vertically -integrated conglomerates .industry. Every expensivetelevision commercial ).4 % of all dairies had have been the large supermarket chains who have shown, and every fancy new package developed, begun buying up their suppliers. But food them with an excuse to claim higher provides ne that these figures, processors have been using th~s organizational costs and raise prices. .l.,d underestimate the technique as well. Large bakeries' often own flour 1974. In each region of mills. Vegetable and fruit processing companies Food retailing firms controlling the frequently own farms; canning factories, and figures would indicate. Today the most powerful and frequently the transport firms. Some processors, like Canada point out certain exmost profitable corporations in the food business Packers who bought 7% of Dominion Stores, buy oly domination. Kraft, are those which are primarily involved in food into supermarket chains to guarantee themselves heen 70 and 80% of . retailing. This is partly due to the fact that there a large market. ;ampbell's reportedly are only a few supermarket chains left, but The rapid growth of the large food companies ~merican soup market. mainly these companies, by controlling the store has in many cases entailed processes that affect ood corporations turn shelves, also control what products or brands will the consumer beyond increased food costs. ley reduce costs. Soft During the processing of much of our food, many or will not be sold. ,ched from sugar to The history oUood retailing is similar to that of nutrients are removed. Although losses in ,ccause 'cyclamates, a farming and food processing. The small corner nutrition do occur in bulk food production, often ler, cost only 10% as grocer-like the small farm-is rapidly becoming this removal is more a result of convenience for )U buy Lipton's "Beef a thing of the past. Today in Canada the large the processor. look too hard for the corporate food chains receive more than 77 % of soy protein which the every Canadian food do'Har while comprising only Nutritional loss eports as costing only 18 % of the total number of stores. In Ontario lou can be sure that supermarket concentration is even . more The mass production of today's white ng passed on to the ,try's magazines are :hemical corporations A table of rising profits Drs greater returns for was one of the key rations to peddle their 'hrough extensive use , radio and television rporations could both nce food products and !:"nes into household spent $69 million in in their control of the the world's leading $71 million in 19~1 to , flavoured and sugar;he large food corlure people away from pIes and towards the 'ocessed foods that ~loping each year. In years, people have iVer dairy products, ~onsuming 80 % more inks.



Sales 72 7,3 % x$I,OOO x$I,OOO change

Massey Ferguson 1,137,232- 1,377,360 George Weston . Ltd. 1,189,972 1,504,000 Dominion Oshawa Group 953,739 1,320,732 Ltd. 490,381 697.583 Burns Foods . 433,259 543,178 Maple Leaf Mills 202,154 266,127 Silverwood Industries H2,002 189,154 Robinhood Multifoods 112,675 161,673

Assets Net Income [profit] % 73 72 72 73 % x$I,OOO x$1 ,000. change x$I,OOO x$I,OOO change




18,577 34,629 46.4


1,057,315 1,247,795 15.3

32,046 58,155 44.9

27.8 29.7

165,531 187,603

199,708 199,488

17.1 6.0

9,574 6,094

13,664 7,590

29.9 19.7

20.2 24.0

83,214 117,191

106,894 139,213

22.2 15.8

3,646 3,150

5,048 7,859

27.8 59.9
















Source: Financial" Post

"enriched" bread is a good example of how agribusiness transformed a food (once called "the staff of life") into nutritionally poor substance . The search for higher productivity led the large flour mill exporters to adopt huge steel rolling mills in place of the old stone grinding mills. However, the new steel rollers necessitated the removal of both wheat germ and bran from the original wheat berry because of their tendenss to stick to, and clog up the roller. The next stage in the creation of spoil-proof white flour is the "bleaching" process in which tile flour is treated with various-poisons like hydrogen, benzoyl and acetone peroxides which remove a miinber of nutrients and destroy the natural oils. All in all, sOll!.e 14 important nutrients are removed. Later a few 'synthetic vitamins are ~ added, and this enables the baking companies to claim that their lifeless breads are enriched. It's not surprising then, that when Continental Bakers was taken to court a few years ago about the validity of their claim that their "Wonder Bread" helps build strong bodiestwelye different ways, they were forced to drop the advertising slogan that served them well for so many years. Faced with overwhelming evidence concerning the nutritional deficiencies of their mass produced bread, they were unable to prove that Wonder Bread helped build strong bodies in any of the twelve different ways listed! ' The changes in Waterloo Square"provide a good example of the shift to fewer and larger supermarkets by the big chains. Until three years ago, Waterloo Square contained three supermarkets: a' Zehr's store occupied the present Big Buck store; an A&P store occupied the present Cargo Canada facilities; a Busy B store leased the current Zehr's store. The original Zehr's and Busy B supermarkets were of the smaller chainstore variety and were closed down. The Busy B supermarket chain was sold to Weston's, who closed it down, and sold all its properties to the - various supermarket chains that he owns across Ontario. So Zehr's received the former Busy B store, one which was much larger than its former location. Today, Zehr's is the only supermarket located in Waterloo Square and therefore possesses a monopoly of location. (In fact,in Kitchener-Waterloo, unlike most Ontario cities, virtually路 every supermarket has a monopoly of location in its immediate neighbourhood). In Kitchener-Waterloo as elsewhere, the corner store was gradually squeezed by the large food corporations. Not only were they losing customers to the large supermarket chains, but these small independents were also facing difficulties with their suppliers. Two years ago, for instance, Schneider's served notice to all local grocery stores that it would no longer deliver any --orders less than 100 pounds. One small store owner on Victoria Street indicated at "that time that the Schneider's decision would probably mean the end of his business. More significantly, the only food wholesaler in K-W during the last few years has been National Grocers' which is owned by the same company (Weston's) that owns Zehr's Markets Ltd., tne largest super. market chain in the area. Caught in this squeeze, it is easy to understand why most small-,grocers have gone out of business in recent years. The development of large supermarket chains were also aided by a number of other


continued on page 10

10 The Food P a p e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S e p t e m b e r , 1974


Eugene Mihaesco

continued' from page 9

factors. One advantage they' had was the ability to buy' in volume, enabling them to undercut their smaller competitors. Another advantage was that since the large chains 'were owned by exttemely wealthy Canadian businessmen like George Weston and E.P Taylor, their financial backing allowed them to wage price 'fars against their_ competitors. The last major price war occurred in 1971. The result was that thousands of small stores went bankrupt and the major chains increased' their market control considerably. As E.P. Taylor himself said several years ago: ~'I am sure that we now have the power "to contfol prices and' sales of the industry ,and while it may be necessary to start local price wars here and there to ; discipline a small competitor, I am sure I the profits will appeal' most gratifying to the shareholders." i! , Advertising has also been a key factor in the concentration of the food industry. Ad~eriising favours monopolization because the' bigger the chain the less they pay per sales dollar., For instance, Zehr's huge advertising ,costs are paid from the revenues of its 27 , regional stores; while its smaller com- the need for companies to work together petitor Dutch Boy has only the revenues ,he said: of 5 stores to draw on. A large chain is "So what's so bad ,about industry co: thus able to saturate local areas' with its operation? After all, your competitors own radio '1ingles 'and newspaper ,ads aren't your enemies, but 'your consumers which offer weekly specials to attract are." All of this would lead us to believe shoppers. Advertising enables, the dominant company to, prevent any real that the large supermark,et chains are competition from developing because making a grelit deal of money. Indeed, newcomers w'ould have to risk, large they are! But you wouldn't know that , amounts of capital to become well-known. from their statements to the press. The modern supermarket itself is a Without blinking an eye, most superwasteful and costly operation. When we market executives have claimed that they shop, at a particular store, a significant make only slightly more than 1 % profit to amount of our money goes to pay for all their total sales. What they don't mention the store features that ate used to attract ' is that their goods turn over 24 times a us to the~. We pay heavily for the fact year on the. average. (Any_real that most supermarkets are virtually businessman knows that it is not profit on empty most of the week. Expensive' sales that is important; it is the profit on lighting, in-store advertising, display his initial investment that counts). So as cases, and even "mood" music are all used some food executives, have sheepishly to en~ourage us to buy more food, but we admitted, their profit, on investment is inevitably pay for these forms" Qf roughly 12 % after taxes, which means psychological manipulation. Most chains that before taxes they are making a 25 % ' have several "luxury" stores which are profit on their investment! built in wealthier areas of Cities, These special stores offer' many extra services Role of government and quality foods to their well-to-do clientele, but the excessive overhead costs When the federal government estab. are paid for by shoppers at all the chains' ' lished the Food Prices Review Board last ,~tores, ~ven though most people never fall without any power to stop rising food benefit. in anyway from these special prices, it was Oldy continuing' a dong services. tradition established years ago by earlier Vertical integration has' also en- governments as a response to strong couraged the monopolization of the food consumer criticism. In fact, since 1935 we , retailing business. 'Since supermarket had had six Royal Commissions or chains have the power to decide what Inquiries into the food industry. The products will or will not be stocked on FPRB, in spite of the government's stated their shelves, large food retailing intentions, was never really designed to conglomerates frequently find it useful to undertake an extensive review of the . buyout existing food processors and monopolization of the food industry as wholesalers, and even to restrict the most of the earlier Royal COIDqlissions brand names sold in their stores to their had done. Instead, it soon became obvious own brands. Fot instance, Dominion that it was created as a public relations Stores, currently the largest Ontario agency for the food industry and industry supermark~t chain, ha~ seven processing spokesmen have acknowledged it as such. companies involved in. producing foods for The president of Libby McNeil and Libby its stores. George Weston, easily the of Canada recently stated that: largest food retailing magnate in Can- "The Food Prices Review Board has done ada, has over 80 food companies which a good job in bringing to the public's produce food for his 2,000 supermarkets, ,attention the facts behind the food price includirig his Zehr's chain. WithinZehr's, increases, , ,Public education serves a his own Weston brand of bread and baked useful purpose in' the current period of a goods are the dominant kind sold. Dozens cyclicaJ jump in food prices." of other brand names covering a wide The establishment of this board was not variety of his food products usually have, the, first time (or the only way) that our prominent places in his stores. government's policies have been designed By integrating farms, food processors, to assist ,food corporations. Antifood packaging 'companies, transport monopoly laws for decades have been firms, and wholesalers into a large food either weak or full of loopholes. In spite of , retailing conglomerate, the latter is able to •the fact that. there have been numerous, increase its sll.are of every food dollar sold well-tlocumented cases of monopoly in its stores. It also means that the control through the years, seldom are the .conglomerate can guarantee its profits all responsible corporations ever charged by government agencies. In ,fact, present the way down. the line. To add insult to injury, the retailing" government laws are so weak that an industry makes ~o bones about; where its industry, virtually has to be controlled by loyalties lie. The attitude of supermarket only one corporation before they will' lay executives towards shoppers was clearly cliarges. Another way government shown by Ted Earl, an official of the policies aid food corporations is by Canadian Grocery Distributors Institute. conveniently excluding over 300 Speaking at their 1973; conventio'n about, categories of foods from their ingredient I

labelling laws. (Presumably, it w?ulcl be difficult for ice cream manufacturers to sell their products if consume~s learned that up to 50 ingredients are used to make the popular dessert.) The creation of marketing boards for farm products has been the usual government, response to repeated pressure from farmers' groups, who have been very concerned that rising costs were forcing many of them out of basiness. These marketing boards, established at both the federal and. proviricial level, were created to slow dowh the decline of farmers by guaranteeing sales of farm products and attempting to regulate prices according to farm costs. However, in fact they have usually accelerated the disappearance of farms across Canada, mainly because of

profits can be made, individual governments are effectively pressured into providing an economic and legislative framework where these corporations are able to thrive. It's not surprising then' that food conglomerates recelve abundant' tax concessions, loans, and other financial assistance. Legislation on the federal and provincial level has aided 'the ,monopolization of the food industry to the, detriment of the small food processor, corner grocer, farmer, and lastly the consumer. Government-funded food research institutes (such as the one at the University Qf Guelph) help the food industry to develop much needed new technology. So when consumer pressure forced the federal government to establish the Food Prices Review Board, it was no

Chang'es in federal laws are needed to give government agencies the power to stop excessive profit-taking by sl,lper-markets, says R.E. Olley of the Consumers Association of Canada. . Even if the combines branch of the federal government conducts an investigation and uncovers excessive profit-taking, there is little it can do about the problem, Mr. Olley said Friday night. Mr. Olley" vice-president of 'the CSA and an assistant professor of economics at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon cited a Calgary case last summer in which the combines branch gained an injunction prohibiting expansion by Safeway Stores for five years. This is all the combines branch can do and it is not very effective, he . , said.

-CP, Feb. 1973 the power of the large food corporations and their refusal to pay the prices demanded by farmers. In most cases, marketing boards have made it easier for food corporations to deal with farmers,. Instead of having to purchase .farm products from hundreds of individual farmers, their existence means these 'companies can simply purchase from one body. It's no wonder that even Kitchener's J .M. Schneider recently pointed out, "in general, management favours these (marketing) boards". The government's usual response to the decline of farmers across Canada has been to 'encourage both the exodus of small farmers off the the land and the development of corporate farms. This helps the agribusiness corporations because these larger farms will more easily adapt" to new farm machinery and fertiiizers. But for the consumer, it; means higher prices for farm produce grown with larger concentrations of pesticides; and, meat that comes from livestock artificially fattened with hormones and antibiotics. In short, we are generally paying more for food that is of poorer quality . The close association between Canadian governments and food corporations is really npthing new, but in the era of large multi-n'ational corporations, both the federal and provincial governments have been required to provide an 'increasing number of services. Since ~ulti-nationals will go anywherejn the world where high"

accident that its main function was to explain to consumers that the higher food prices were justified.

••••••••• Since food companies are in business to make money, they havEl developed forms of agricultural production, food processing and retailing which provide us with foods that are frequently both harmful to our health and expensive to buy. While our food prices are expected to jump 20 % in 1974, the food industry openly admits that their profits have never been higher. Yet everyday when we eat today's foods we digest all the pesticides, hormones, and antibiotics that the food corporations are using to monopolize the industry. As the food industry centralize~ two things occur: • Fewer and larger firms have more power to control prices, and therefore create inflation to boost their profits. • The ·use of harmful food· additives in, creases, both to better preserve foods in order to increase their shelf-life, and to develop new very profitable convenience foods. To more and more people who are the deteriorating concerned about nutritional quality and the increasing cost of the food being sold in supermarkets, one thing has become clear: it is this system of production that must be changed. '

September, 197 4 -----------------.:.----~-----------'----~--_:_----;:---- The Food Paper

• •

uri Ion


grQUP, QftEm fQund in multivitamin -These are the groups whQse diets are mQst preparations that list a large number Qf_ likely to. be shQrt in irQn due to. an invitamins and minerals. It is said to. be a creased need. NQte that excessive .intake grQwth prQmQting factQr PQssible alQng Qf ii-Qn over lQng periQds may be tQxic and with fQlic acid. However, the need in therefQreharmfui. RecQmmended daily human nutritiQn has not been established. intake: 10 mg.

Vitamin E [d-Alpha, Tocopherol] is Phosphorous, with, calcium, fQrms a knQwn to. prQtect SQme Qf the important majQr CQnstituent Qf bQnes and teeth. It is Faced with a grQwing WQrld-wide food peppers, PQtatQes and tQmatQes. bQdy tissues frQm damage by' QxidatiQn. alsQ-essential fQr the wQrk Qf muscles and shQrtage, and mQre aware that the RecQmmended daily intake: 30 mg. But, Qther claims fQr it are CQntrQversial. normal nerve reSPQnses. PhQsphQrQus is average Canadian diet is nutritiQnally , The B Vitamins. Three Qf the B 'Vitamin E may be mQre necessary if Qne fQund ih'a variety Qf fQQds, including milk, inadequate, many Qf us are beginning to. vitamins-thi8.IJlin (B1), ribQflavin (B2), CQnsumes large amQunts Qf Qils cQntaining milk prQducts and Qther calcium SQurces, take a bit mQre care to. see that we are ana niacin - play a central role in the polyunsaturated fatty acids. This vitamin meats and cereals. RecQmmended daily getting the proper nutrients to see us ,release Qf energy from fQQd. They also help is widely {Qund in Qrdinary fQQds, in- intake: at least equal to. calcium. thrQugh these trQubled times Qf rampant with prQper functiQn Qf nerves, nQrmal 'eluding whQle grains, wheat germ, meat, . Magnesium is anQther impQrtant inflatiQn and Qther ,ecQQQmic and social appetite, gQQd digestiQn and healthy skin eggs, liver, butter, margarine, vegetable cQnstituent Qf bQnes and teeth and is WQes. and eyes. , ' Qils, leafy vegetables, and legumes Qf clQsely related, to. calcium and We knQw that a well-balanced diet is a Good Sources: Usually animal foods pnQsphQrQus in its IQcatiQn and functiQns p~erequisite'fQr good healt~, and variQUS (eggs, milk, meat, PQultry, fish) are variQus kinds (sQybeans, lentils etc.). gQvernment agencies are continually leadingsQurces Qf the B vitamins. Several Citrus Bioflavonoids,. Hesperidin-, in the bQdy. It is impQrtant in SQft tissue, reminding us thatthe average Canadian is , fQQds are Qutstanding sQurces-milk fQr ,Rutin. These substances are prQducts.of especiaHy the heart muscle. Good Sources: Magnesium is fQund in nQt in gQQd. physical shape. But the ribQflavin, lean PQrk fQr thiamin and plant Qrigin Qnce knQwn ,!S vitamin P. A essential problem fQr mQst Qf us is Qrgan meats fQr all three. Yeast PQwder is number Qf 'natural' vitamin supplements significant ampunts in nuts, whQle-grain knQwing just what is need~ fQr'a well anQther rich SQurce Qf thiamin. Other include, hesperiatn and· rutin, Qr prQducts, dry beans and peas, dark-green balanced diet. HQW Qur fQQd is prepared is SQurces supplying lesser but impQrtant hesperidin:rutin-biQflavQnQid , cQmplex. vegetables and hard water. Magnesium is impQrtant, too., because that affects what amQunts Qf B vitamins include peanuts Hesperidin is Qbtained frQm the pulp and remQved when water is sQftened. nutrients are left by the time we sit dQ~ and peanut butter, dried beans and peas, cQnnective tissue Qf citrus, fruits, and Iodine fQrms a part Qf the thyrQid to. eat it. ' whQle-grain and enriched breads and rutin, frQm buckwheat. SQme vitamin hQrmQne thyrQxine. People who. live in 'A bit more care spent in preparatiQn cereals, and SQme nuts. Milk, yeast.and sellers have made exaggerated claims areas away frQm the se'a where the SQil will undQubtedly aid in learning hQW to dark,leafy greens are also. gQQd SQUrCeS Qf abQut these prQducts. HQwever, the need may be lQW in iQdine sometimes fail to get _ retain QUr fQQd's natural nutritiQnal ribQflavin. . - in human nutrition' has nQt been enQugh iQdine. A deficiency can cause elements, ·and the best ways to combine , Getting enQl!gh niacin is nQt a prQblem established. gQiter, a swelling Qf the thyrQid gland. them.' if plenty Qf ,gQQd quality prQtein is inVitamin K is essential fQr the nQrmal '. IQdized salt and seafQQds are reliable And so., in the interest Qf spreading cluded in daily meals. An essential amino. functiQning Qf the liver- and fQr the fQr- SQurces Qf iQdine. Sea salt dQes nQt always knQwledge and jQy thrQughQut the WQrld). acid~ tryptQphan - present in the protein matiQn Qf prQthrQmbin, a cQnstituent Qf cQntain much iQdine. ,we have attempted here briefly to. explain can be changed by the bQdy into' niacin. blQQd, which aids in clotting. A deficiency these strange and elusive elements knQwn Fluoride becQmes incQrpQrated in teeth Other B vitamins (B6, and particularly can result in prQIQnged clQtting wit;h as vitamins and minerals, what they do. B12 andfQlacin Qr fQlic acid) help prevent reSUlting haemQrrhage. (This shQuld nQt and bQnes and helps in the preventiQn Qf fQr (Qr to.) us, and where to. get them. anemia. B12 is fQund in foods Qf animal be cQnfused with haemQphilia which is an tQQth decay. FluQride is nQt: widely Much Qf the infQrmatiQn here was gleaned Qrigin; especially rich SQurces are beef, inherited blQQd clQtting disQrder). distributed in fQQds. RecQmmended daily frQm a bQQk called Health Foods: Facts milk prQducts, egg yQlk, and liver. Deficiencies are nQt usual but may occur intake: 1.0 mg. and Fakes by Sidney MargQlius. Especially rich SQUrces Qf B6 (alSo. called as the result Qf Qther illnesses such as Sodium, Potassium. These are amQng Remember, fQQd is really impQrtant to. pyridQxine) , , include meats in general, diseases Qf the liver Qr after prQlQngeduse the mQstplentiful minerals in the bQdy. each and every Qne Qf us. WithQut it, life whQle-grain breads and cereals, wheat Qf SQme antibiQtics. The bQdy itselfinakes They are essential fQr maintaining a . seems hardly wQrthwhile. germ, dry beans, PQtatQes and dark-green, vitamin K through bacterial actiQn in the nQrmal balance Qf water between cells and leafy vegetables. FQlacin Qccurs in largest intestinal tract. While the need fQr fluids. PQtassium is similar in chemical Vitamins amQunts in Qrgan meats and dark-green, vitamin K is recQgnized, no. recQmmended prQperties to. sQdium but is IQcated : leafy vegetables. RecQmmended daily intake has been established. Vitamin K is primarily inside the cells, while sQdium is Vitamin A is needed fQr nQrmal grQwth intake: Thiamin (B1) - 0.3 mg. per 1,000 found in alfalfa, green,' leafy vegetables, chiefly in the fluids that circulate Qutside ap.d visiQn in dim light. It. also helps to calQries cauliflQwer, liver Qf all kinds, eggs and the cells. OvercQnsumptiQn Qf sQdium, keep the skin and inner linings Qf the bQdy sQybean Qil. Niacin - 3 mg. per 1,000 calQries mQstly frQm excessive salt added to. fQQd, (mQuth, nQse, thrQat and digestive tract) RibQflavin (B2) 0.5 mg. per 1,000 calQries may .cQntribute to. elevated blQQd ,healthy and resistant to. infectiQns. CQmbinatiQns Qf foods that prQvide pressure. Ordinary table salt is 43 % Minerals But tQQ much (which is PQssible sQdium; bakingsQdaabQut 30% and thrQugh Qver-use Qf vitamin capsules and sufficiently fQr the vitamins described Many minerals are required by the abQve are likely to. furnish enQugh Qf the baking PQwder abQut 10%. FQQds frQm vitamin A cQncentrates) can interfere with bQdy. They give strength and rigidity to animal SQurces cQntain mQre sQdium than nQrmalskeletal develQpment, especially in Qther vitamins. HQwever, becauseQf the infants and yQung children or during interest in 'the Qthers', stimulated mainly certain bQdy tissue, such as bQnes, and fQQds frQm plant SQurces. Canned pregnancy and cause lQSS of appetite, by organic fQQd writers and the help with numerQUS vital functiQns Qf vegetables usually have sQdium (salt) ,patchy lQSS Qf hair, dry skin with prQmQtiQnal effQrts Qf vitamin sellers, Qr nerve and muscle. All the nrinerals the added, as do. Qrdinary canned and dried ulceratiQns, and Qther symptQms Qf what by CQntrQversy Qver the need fQr ad- bQdy requires, with the PQssible exceptiQn SQUps. Cured meats, such as bacQn, ham ditiQnal supplements, we are including Qf irQn, are available frQm Qrdinary fQQds. and cQrned beef are especially high in nutritiQnists call hypervitaminQsis. brief descriptiQns Qf SQme Qf the Qften- ,HQwever, fQr certain ,illnesses, such as SQdium, as are pickles, Qlives, sauerkraut Good sources: Liver (Qutstanding), nutritiQnal anemia, dQctQrs may prescribe and soya sauce. SQdium is lQst thrQugh impQrtant amQunts also. fQund in eggs, discussed 'Qther' vitamins. additiQnal amQunts Qf specific minerals. perspirlitiQn and may have to. be replaced butter, margarine, whQle milk and cheese Choline is an essential cQmponent Qf (by eating salty fQQds) during manual animal tissues. Its functiQn is in the made from whQle iiillk; also. dark green Calcium is an abundant mineral in the aJ;ld deep yellQw vegetables such as metabQlism and transport Qf fat. ChQline bQdy. CQmbined with phQsphQrQus, it is labQur in su~er's heat. The average diet brQccQli, spinach and Qther leafy greens, also. plays a rQle in SQme aspects Qf nerve largely resp()nsible fQr the hardness Qf (including salt and salty fQQds) prQvides carrQts, pumpkin, sweet PQtatoes, winter functiQn. It is usually assQciated with the . bQnes and teeth. MQst of the calcium in 51.7 gm. sQdium. squash, apricQts, cantalQupe and B vitamins althQugh SQme authorities the bQdy is fQund in these two. tissues. ThEl,' tQmatQes. RecQmmended daily intake: disputethis classificatiQn. ChQline is part small amQunt Qf calcium in Qther bQdy Qf lecithin and also. widely avlillable in tissues and fluids aids in the prQper 3,700 I.U. RecQmmended daily intakesquQted are meats, Ipilk, eggs, 'vegetables, legumes fQr adults. RecQmmendatiQns vary frQm functiQning Qf heart, muscles and nerves, Vitamin D helps the bQdy u§.e calcium and phQsphQrQus to. build strQng bQnes and whole grains. The bQdy can also. fQrm and aids the blQQd clQtting during adult levels during different periQds Qf growth (infancy, childhQQd, adQlescence) and teeth; impQrtant fQr skeletal grQwth it frQm, Qther cQmpQunds such as bleeding. Good Sources: Milk is an Qutstanding and during pregnancy and lactatiQn. FQr a in children and during pregnancy and methiQnine, Qne Qf the essential amino. acids found in gQQd quality prQtein. sQurceQf calcium. Appreciable amQunts mQre deta,iled Qutline please refer to: lactatiQn (nursing). . are cQntributed, by cheese" espeCially the - Canadian Bulletin on Nutrition, to. be an aid to. inBiotin is cQnsidered Good Sources: Few fQQds cQntain much vitamin D naturally. Milk with vitamin D termediate metabQlism Qf fat, car- cheddar-types, ice cream, certain dark- VQl. 6, No.. 1, March 1964. Dietary ,added is a practical SQurce'. Small amQunts bQhydrate (sugar and starch), and prQtein. green, leafy vegetables, canned sardines Standard fQr Cal\ada, available are present in egg yQlk, butter, liver, liYer BiQtin is available in most fQQds that have and salmQn (especWly if the bQnes are' frQm the Queen's Printer, Ottawa. sausage; large amQunts, in sardines, significant amQunts, Qf Qther B vitamins, eaten), 'and sQybeans. WithQut milk Qr (abQut $2;50). salmQn' and tuna. AnQther SQurce is the and is also. furnished by bacterial syn- milk prQductsin Qur diet, it is difficult to Qbtain sufficient calcium. Recommended vitamin D produced by the actiQn Qf direct thesis in the intestinal tract. daily intake: 500 mg.Qr mQre. sunlight Qn the skin. -, Inositol may b!: included as anQther While fQQd is nQt a dependable SQurce Qf 'member Qf the B ,cQmplex family. Iron is Qne Qf the elements needed by significant amQunts Qf vitamin D unless HQwever, SQme' authQrities do. nQt classify the' bQdy in relativE)ly small but vital fQrtified, massive. amQunts, such as inQsitol as a vitamin. InQsitQl is invQlved amQunts. It cQ!llbines with prQtein to. 100,000 I.U. fQr adults, Qr 4,000 I.U. fQr in fat metabQlism. No. recommended make haemQglQbin, the red substance Qf infants, can prQduce symptoms such as intake has been established. In any case, blQQd that carries Qxygen frQm the lungs - lQSS Qf appetite, nausea and vQmiting, and inQsitQl is abundant in meat, milk and to. bQdy cells and remQves carbQn diQxide raises the danger of withdrawing calcium whQle grains. frQm the cells. IrQn also. helps the cells from the bQnes and depQsiting it in SQft Qbtain energy frQm fQQd. tissues such as heart, kidney, lung and Pantothenic Acid aids in the metabQlism (jood Sources: Only a few fQQds CQntain blQQd vessels. RecQmmended daily intake: Qf fats, carbQhydrates and Qther submuch irQn. Liver is a particularly good 400 I.U. stances. It is widely available in meat and SQurce. Lean meats, heart, kidney, Vitamin C [Ascorbic Acid] hE11ps hQld fish, eggs, sQybeans, peanuts and peanut shellfish, dry beans, dry peas, dark-green bQdy cells together and strengthens ,walls butter, brQccQli, cauliflQwer, sweet vegetables, dried fruit, egg yQlk and Qf blQQd vessels; helps in healing wQunds; PQtatoes, peas, cabbage, PQtatQes and mQlasses are also. gQQd sQurces: WhQlehelps tooth and bQne fQrm~tiQn. It also. whQle-grain prQducts. Because pan- grain cereals and bread prQducts alSo. aids in resistance to. infectiQn, althQugh tothenic acid is widely available in Qr- cQntain irQn and become significant the use Qf very large dQses fQr preventing dinary fQQds, a qeficiency is nQt likely. lt SQurces in the quantities usually eaten.' is also. manufactured by bacteria in the Qr curing CQlds is cQntrQversiai. Frequent use Qf fQQds prQviding imGood Sources: CantalQupe" grapefruit, intestines. portant amQunts Qf irQn is particularly Qranges, strawberries, brQccQli, Brussels Paba [Para-Aminobenzoic Acid] is encQuraged fQr yQung children, adQlescent sprQuts, raw cabbage, green and sweet red anQther Qf the vitamins in the B complex girls and fQr WQmen Qf menstruating age.

12 The Food P a p e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - September, 1974

The Kraf,t boycott pay farmers more out 'of the enormous profits taken from processing the milk. The government agencies only made excuses as to why it couldn't 'be done~ On July 22, 1971 the NFU aslted the Carnation Company, Bordens and Kraftco to meet with officers of the union to discuss the matter of setting up a "forgiveable" loan is a government, negotiating process fpr milk prices. euphemism-the word forgiveable ob- Carnatio~ and Borden's both agreed to scures the fact that the loan does not have meet at a mutually acceptable' time. The to be paid back. president of Kraft Foods of Canada, R.J. Meanwhile, the farmers share of the Greenwood, wouldn't even take the phone food dollar steadily decreased-in fact, it call. had gone down from 57 cents ip 1949 to 37 So on July 28, dairy farmers who were cents in 1970. The average net income for also NFU members initiated a picketing action at the Kraft Ingleside plant. The a farmer in 1970 was $3,700. The NFU approached the three district OMMB representative"Sarsfield agencies, the Canadian Dairy Com- O'Connor, responded by ~ettm:g ·up his ',mission, the Ontario Milk Commission office inside the plant. He saw to it that (OMC) and the Ontario Milk Marketing the picketing did not interfere with milk Boa,rd (OMMB) with statistics showing being brought into the plant. When the that dairy farmers are not paid enough for bulk milk truck drivers refused to cross their products. The figures also showed· I the picket lin~, he reminded them that that the corporations could well afford to their contracts could be terminated and

The NationalJ'armers' Union's [NFU] callfora nationwide boycott of Kraft products was fz:rst announced almost three years ago. Today} many people are stzU unaware of the exzstence of the boycott} let q,lone the reasons for £t having coritz'nued so long. A review of the background of the NFU's request and of the achievements and responses that have developed z'n its course is therefore necessary. The NFU was founded in 1969 with support mostly from' farmer~ in western Canada. Since then it has spread, across the country, organizing locals and instigating -' action to further' farmer's demands. The NFU .represents a unification that hadn't existed for farmers before; they believe "that farmers will obtain justice in the present economic. system by having the recognized right to collectively bargain". In order to realize this right they propose "a collective bargaining procedure that would allow farmers to democratically control the terms and conditions under which they produce food and fibre, and ..-earn an in.come froIn the sale of their products.!' The reality of this proposal is a fight to eriable farmers to negotiate in regional groups or on the national level with marketing boards and processors for the prices paid ,on farm products, and·with suppliers for the prices paid for farm materials such as machinery or seeds. Without an organization like the NFU, farmers hav,e essentially no bargaining power; they' are forced into competition with one another, sometimes in a cutthroat way and at. an ecOnomic loss tp themselves. By dealing with corporations and marketing boards on an individual basis they have often been forced to sell products below their production cost. It is in the context of the aim to bargain collectively that the Kraft boycott becomes extremely important to farmers. .At present, encouraging the public not to buy Kraft products ,is one- of the most effective means the NFU has of making consumers conscious of the problems faced by both the far~ers and consumers themselves. Many of these problems stem directly from having to deal with large corporations such as Kraft.

NFU and·Kraftco In 1966 there were 22,206 dairy farmers in Ontario; by 1971 7,664 of them had been squeezed out of business. In the two and a half year interval from mid 1969 to 1972,44 Canadian co-op and independent cheese factories closed down. In this same interval Kraft received a $250,000 interest-free, forgiveable loan from the Ontario government to build an addition , to its Ingleside, Ontario plant. A.

Kraftco: a multinational giant Shopping 'in any supermarket aI!d great deal of control over food marketing procedures. checking the brands on the shelves containing jams, salad dressings or The control Kraft has in the dairy dairy produce, one finds that the small "'-industry is related to concern over Kraftco label appears more often than domination of the Canadian economy by foreign corporations. Kraft is yet any other. In Zehr's markets, for example, of 53 ,different jams, 17 are another foreiincompany that controls Kraft products; of 200 dairy items, 65 the distribution of Canadian produce to are Kraft; of 36 salad dressings, 26 are Canadian consumers at a great profit. made by Kraft. . . In 1972, for instance, dairy farmers Kraftco is one of the largest food, won agreement from the OMMB for a raise of 57 cents for each hundred marketing companies in the world. It is a multi-national corporation with weight of milk they produced. Kraft, the biggest buyer, refused to pay the interests in over ioo different nations including Canada, where it is a higher price and the raise was cut to 35 dominant force in the dairy products cents. Retail milk prices in Ontario. market. As witnessed by tp,e NFU, in were then raised by 3 cents a quart. Ontario through the OMMB Kraft has Since a'quart is two pounds of milk, the a vast influence on prices paid to the increase brought Kraft (and its subproducer for raw, dairy commodities. sidiary, Dominion Dairies) one ,dollar And because it is a "price leader" in the and fifty cents. After paying off the -cheese market, it can virtually set the farmer, who was blamed for the inprices paid by the consumer for retail crease, Kraft still gained a profit of one goods in the stores. dollar and fifteen cents per hunThrough large scale advertising dredweight. (Kraft is the second largest advertiser Besides the economic questions, in North America), Kraftcoalso critics have also expressed concern maintains a strong influence at the over the quality of Kraft's products. consumer level. (Its highly' James Turner in "The Chemical Feast" sophisticated, soft-sell approach has, 'quotes from Ralph Nader's study upon occasion, fallen flat-two years group' on the United States Food and ago Kraft was fined $5000 for false Drug Administration: " Food and advertising and the judge said Kraft Drug Administration official believes "treated Canadians like imbeciles"). that Kraft has been responsible for a And through the sheer size and major decline in the quality of cheese diversity of its operations, it gains a made in the U.s.A." , \







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that under the terms of their contract, they were responsible for the milk in their trucks. . O'Connor did this even though the NFU had given theOMC a list of small cheese factories willing and able to handle all the milk diverted from Kraft: In the end the milk was diverted-but not to these small plants. It was sent to the Ault's plant at Winchester, Ontario which is owned by Labatt's Breweries. On July 29, the OMMB announced a price mcrease based on $1.15 per hundredweight for cheddar <:beese milk. The picketing action was' called off, but immediately following, a mass meeting of 1,000 people from dairy farms in eastern Ontario decided to pursue the principle of the NFU beeomhlg collective bargaining agent for dairy products without any govet;nment intermediaries. The decision was readied realizing that the government agencies were merely vehicles through which corporations were assured a cheap supply of milk. Again Kraftco refused to meet with the NFU to discuss matters of mutual conCern So on August 19, 1971 a nationwide boycott of all Kraft products was called to back the NFU's request to meet with Kraft and discuss procedures which would give dairy farmers effective bargaining rights. Presently, the laws are set up to prevent farmers .from obtaining such rights- the boycott is designed to promote a change in the law.

Support and success _ In the interval since the boycott was first called, the NFU has widened its boycott activities. Supported by a broad range of groups, including unionists, housewives, students and native peoples, boycott-support committees have been esta'blished across Canada. Actions carried out by these groups, such as informational pic~eting and leafletting'. at ' supermarkets and retail stores in both urban and rural areas have resulted in concrete ~esults . With the help of public endorsement of the boycott from many organizations, pressure lias been put on the government, both at the federal and provincial level, to actively support the boycott., In many universities across Canada, students and faculty members have been successful in getting Kraft products out of the cafeterias and off campus. . A measure of the success of the boycott has been the attacks waged on it by Kraftco and their cronies .. Instead of directly responding to the boycott, Kraftco has consistently used other groups such as the National Dairy Council, Dairy Farmers of· Canada (DFC) and the OM~B as a buffer between themselves and the NFU. The National Dairy Council has at-· tacked the NFU for spreading "lies" and has charged the NFU and the boycott supporters as being "illegal, hnmoral and un-Canadian." The council is the trade association for' the dairy processorsKraftco, Aults, ~eatrice, Granby Co-op etc.-a kind of club of companies in the dairy industry. President Greenwood of Kr~ft is a director of the National Dairy Council. Both the OMMB and the DFC have said the boycott is irresponsible. The " DFC, of whi<;h the OMMB is a member, went so far as to circulate a twenty page document obviously designed to give the iIDpression that the DFC is the true spokesman for Canada's dairy farmers, that the NFU does, not represent the thinking of grassroots dairy farmers, and that the grassroots do not support the boycott of Kraftco. . \ It is interesting to note that· the president of the DFC, Roland Pigeon, is also president of the Co-operative Federee de Quebec .. On~ of the Co-op Federee's wealthiest and most prominent members is the Co-operative Agricole de Granby. This company is closely tIed to Kraftco. Co-op Agricole de Granby also holds a directorship on the National Dairy Council of Canada. continued on page 13


September, 1974----------~----~------------------------------~------~----~~--------------The Food Paper 13

Farmworkers fight for rights It is May 1974. The setting is Vancouver at the Canadian Labour Congress . and one of the visitz"ng speakers is about to en~er. He is an unimposing man-of small stature, straight black hair, dressed unostentatiously in simple working clothes. This man commands an inordz'nate amount of the audience's respect and enthusiasm. The applause crescen.does, wracking the building... "vz've la huelga" rings through the hall as Cesar Chavez steps before the crowd. It was indeed a memorable reception. And this is a typical scene taking place in many Qf the major cz"ties of North America where, for the past year, Chavez and his organzzers have been travellz"ng thousands of exhaustz"ng mz'les publiszzing and generating support for t~e lettuce and grape boycott. Cesar Chavez earned his reputation in the late 1960's as a grass-roots organizer and for the past ten years has been trying to unionize the two hundred thousand oppressed farmworkers of California. The story. of these farmworkers is heartrending. Attracted by Mexico:s low wages, agribusiness firms such as Anderson Clayton & Co. (cotton) and Del Monte, moved into Mexico after World War One, .setting up huge mechanized corporate farms and driving tpousands of campesinos from their land. These landless, jobless people were 'compelled to come north in search of work. California frqit and vegetable are, on the whole, big business (roughly 40 per cent of the crop-land is owned by less than of one per cent of the farms, biggest 'farmers' being Chemical and Purex.) and so campesinos into C profited these growers. subsistence wages, and fire anyone ....t"h路....' abundant easily-replenished labour. The plight of the farmworkers remains deplorable. A 1971 study uncovered: "An average migrant family (6.4 members) had 2.3 persons working and earned Idotal of $2{)12 per year. -800 US路' farmworkers. die of insecticide poisoning each year. There were 5729 ~evere poisonings in 1970. -average .schooling is 8.6 years and 25 per cent of farmworkers had 4 years or less of schooling. -despite the banning of child labour in 1938, one qu_arter of the farm labour force are children, -life expectancy of a US farmworker is 49 years. -f!lrmworkers, families lived in an average of 1.9 rooms; 90 per cent of houses had no continued from page 12

sinks and 18 per cent of electricity.

growers best-their money bags. Early in 1967 about fifty farmworkers trekked off to. New York' City to 'begin a boycott of California grapes. With $5.00 each and a bag of bologna sandwiches for the cross-country trip, no one would have believed that this was the official launching of the famous InternationafTable Grape Boycott. But by 1970 most grape growers, sufferingi debilitatfug losses because of the boycott, agreed to sign contracts with the UFW. With this victory the lives of 30,000 grape pickers improved significantly. Drinking water, rest breaks and toilets were now mandatory in the fields. Fiveperson ranch committees, elected by the workers themselves, were established at each farm to enforce the contracts. Hiring

halls were set up by the union eliminating labour contractors - the middlemen who take a cut of the workers wages-and jobs were given on the basis of seniority. The hiring hall procedure meant the grower must sit down opposite the Chicano farmworker and with

past, were snatched away from them. In December 1972, Fitzsimmons, President of the Teamsters, spoke at'the Americv.n Farm Bureau, a right-wing agribusiness organization, suggesting an alliance of agribusiness and the Teamsters to put Chavez 'out of business'. And sure enough, the following spring, as the table contracts were expiring, the growers/met clandestinely , California and signed covering virtually all who had been UFW elections had been held. were then路 informed that accept their' Teamster or prepare to ship out. summer (1973) ten thousand responded by going out on strike. of strikers were in turn beaten by hired Teamster goon and despite the fact that Chavez the United Farm Workers practice I-Vloll~nt tactics, two strikers have been murdered. The picket line and the boycott, which extends to lettuce, grapes and Gallo wines, are the two foremost weapons employed in this battle and the strikers are encouraged by the fact that, this year, only half the crop will get harvested. UFW boycott organizers have set up offices across the continent-in Canada there are Chicano activists in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Dominion Stores, the largest supermarket chain in Canada, the subject of much picketing activity is 'foreman because of their stubborn refusal to English and told me that it the company's r'ecords. I did not un- boycott non-UFW grapes and lettuce. One derstand the paper, but signed it .. J would Dominion Store executive is quoted as never have signed the paper if I had saying there was no need for Dominion to known that it was a Teamster be involved in this conflict as the Chicanos authorization card. I am a strong UFW are paid well enough. . The question remains though ... can the member and believe that the Teamsters are just bandits who rob people of their路 UFW, even with the backing of the AFLCIO, prevail against the reactionary and money." powerful forces of the Teamsters and During the next few weeks over70QO agribusiness. One UFW woman organizer farmworkers in Salinas went out on strike. expresses her opinion on this question: The strike was ruled illegal by the local growers-controlled court on the grounds "Even though we're at a very critical that Teamsters contracts were, in effect, stage-a stage when it will be determined whether we keep our 'union . or not, I've covering the workers. The only recourse that the UFW had never seen a stronger spirit. Maybe in a was to commence a nation-wide lettuce way the two go hand in hand. People' know it's a life or death struggle and they are boycott which is still in effect. The year 1973 proved even more tragic putting everything they have into it." for the United Farm Workers Union when So the least we can. do is to boycott non~ the gains they had so painfully won in the UFW grapes, lettuce and Gallo Wines..

tentions of the NFU. "We are strongly in influence is responsible for the directives favour of collective bargaining through an of the other bodies. Boycott importanCE!-orderly marketing system. We approve of Boycotting Kraft products is also the establishment of a government ap- . important to the consumer. Control of the The Kraft boycott has become im- pointed commission handling all milk distribution and variety of food products portant for many reasons. Primarily, of' marketed within a province and indeed, now lies almost totally in the hands of course, the boycott action is crucial to the within Canada. But with this commission large corporations like Kraft. Arguments dairy farmers of Canada. Kraft's refusal should be the establishment by in- of the consumer having a choice in a free to meet with the NFU is essentially a stitutional means of effective collective market place are meaningless when ofdenial of the farmers right to unionize, of bargaining'procedures for f!U"mers. When fered to the majority of the people who their right to bargain as a collective whole. farmers have an orderly marKeting system shop in one supermarket supplied by a , The establishment of the dairy industry . that does not' mean they also have handful of food industry giants. Attempts has claimed that there already exists collective bargaining." to alter . foreign control of Canadian within the iridustrybargaining procedures Unless the farmers gaill more say in the resources and industry will be pointless if and that the NFU has political aspirations policies and practices of the food industry, American based 'multi-national cordesigned to undermine an. orderly economic and social conditions '\vill porations maintain control of any area as marketing system. continue to deteriorate dramatically in fundamental as dairy products. But the president of thl;l NFU, Roy Unfortunately, avoiding the purchase of rural Canada. Dairy farmers are presently Atkinson, has expressed different incaught in a cost price squeeze that is Kraft products is not an easy process. The forcing many of them out of production. If sheer quantity and almost total contro! of the present direction continues, the Task some areas of the supermarket by Kraft Force on Agriculture's goal of removing goods makes it difficult to find altertwo thirds of the number of farm natives. But involvement with the boycott can operators existing in 1969 an replacing an educative experience for the conbe them with corporate farms will be sumer. Supporting the boycott often achieved. results in a <mushrooming' effect, where As the boycott has progressed it has recognition of dairy farmers' .grievances become clearer to farmers where the power by the consumer leads to many other lies in" dairy marketing procedures. questions about corporate control of Initially the issues at stake in the boycott indust;.ry. As Walter Miller, vice-president were deliberately confused-- and farmers ofihe NFU, has 'said of the issues inherent were ,unclear as to where the responsibility in the boycott: lay for their grievances. Now, action that was taken against the government, the "There is a whole question of quality of marketing boards 'and the Kraft cor- food; there's a whole question of pollution poration has been directed at Kraft alone, of food; there's a whole question of because farmers have realized Kraft's monopoly and oligopoly power, the profit

picture, the manipulation of the pressthe whole gamut." Now in its third year, the Kraft bOycott may take several years yet before it is won. The NFU has a strong adversary in Kraft and it won't be easy to force them to accept the right of farmers to bargain coHectively. It took five years for the initial American grape boycott to win rights for Californian grape pickers, but with the determination of the workers and the, support of the public they won nonetheless. -with thanks to WRCUP. Western Region of Canadian University Press'


14 The Food P a p e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - _ - - - - S e p t e m b er, 1974 -

The additives in our food: trading nutrition for convenience Be profit Consider the food that many people eat every day; toast and cereal for breakfast, coffee and a donut during morning brea~; for hinch, vending machine sandwiches made of cheese slices; for supper a package ,of frozen fish and chips and canned peas, with ice cream and cake for dessert. Along with this goes the usual assortment of snacks~ a can of coke and potato chips and delivery pizza while' watching TV. 'Food has changed a lot over the past few years. It is no longer just a matter of preparing meat, potatoes and a vegetable. The consumer is now offered an overwhelming' array of pre-packaged and highly processed foods.路 The food corporations continually extol the virtue of their wonderous, new improved products. According to their public relations people these products save us countless hours of slaving over a hot stove; they are sup, posed to be safer, more convenient, more nutritious and better tasting than ever before. Yet it doesn't entirely fit. It is true that bread stays fresh forever but when was the last time that you really enjoyed a slice of bread? It is true that oranges are a nice orange colour but what happened to the -juice and taste? There is a great deal about food that we do not understand. The primary purpose of eating is to supply the nutrients necessary to sustain life, yet a study done for the department of Health and Welfare, Nutrition Canada, has shown that many people do not gain all that they should from their food. They' discovered that 44 percent of Canadians have an iron deficiency, over 60 percent receive an inadequate amount of vitamin D, while 26 percent get' an insufficient amount of calcium. Weare led to believe that we are one of the best fed natiOns yet many people are unable to' eat properly. It is not simply a lack of money, (although of course it is. easier to feed a family on $15,000 a year than on $6,000) for these deficiencies are evident in all income groups. Nor is it simply a question of education although that is a necessary first step. The problem with food in Canada is quite fundamental and we must begin to examine the reasons why we have become a nation which is overfed yet under-nourished. As Canada became more industrialized the entire nature of the food industry was changed. Agriculture came to be regarded as ju:;;t anotJter field for economic activity and if a businessman were to invest a sum of money in any level of agricultural production, then he would expect what he considered to be a reasonable return of his dollar. As a result food became just another potential money maker. It made little difference to the businessman, or corporation, whether their money was invested in the auto industry or the food industry; the main criteria was profitability. The fact that it was profitable can be seen by the size and wellbeing of such corporations, as General Foods, Zehrs, Kraft and Canada Packers. The food industry has found it difficult to meet the twin goals of nutritional quality and profit. With only their' conscience, to guide them it 'is not difficult- to figure which Ol)e they would choose. This has had obvious ramifications on our eating habits. The more processing which goes into a food the greater the opportunities for taking a profit. If a processor takes some'peas,.cooks them slightly and cans them, a small profit can be made. If those same peas are added to some french fries and a few chunks of meat then a much larger profit can be , made by selling a: "complete dinner". The consumer ends up paying for the convenience of this way of eating in two ways, First, the cost per person is ofte~

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Secondly, the' increased processing has destroyed more of the nutrients in the food. The value of your food dollar must be measured in terms of the nutrition that you get for it. Extremes of heat and cold, crushing, slicing, exposure to heat and cold all take a toli"on the nutrients in the food. However, there is no incentive for the processor, to -develop manufacturing methods which wmdd reduce the nutritional loss. His prime concern is increased efficiency through the reduction of cost. Bread is .one example of a food which has undergone a major transformation at the hands of the modern corporation. The next time you eat a sandwich, pause and really taste the bread; that is if the bread has any taste! Unless you are one of those people fortunate enough to have the time to make your own bread, or else live near a small bakery where they still care about their product, the bread probably tastes .little better than cardboard. Bread is one of our staple foods yet not only is more manufactured bread' nutritionally deficient, but it also contains a long list of chemical additive's which make it pure white, which keep it "fresh", and which serve any of antiinber of other chemical usages the - modern bakery deems necessary. Historically bread ceased being a staple food and became a convenient way of eating peanut butter'or otberfilling when a new milling process was ifitrixil)ced in 1870. The steel grinding process enabled the millers to completely separate the endosperm layer of the wheat kernel from the bran and the wheat germ. The endo~perm, when crushed, produces a fine white flour. Unfortunately, this flour contains little else but starch. AIQng with the bran and the wheat germ, almost all the nutrients are removed, including the vitamin B complex, vitamin E, and a large proportion of the minerals such as iron, copper,cobalt, the essential fatty acids and much of the protein. ' The steel grinding process had various advantages for the millers and bakers. It made possible the complete removal of the wheat germ oil which had tended to turn rancid and spoil after a few days. Bread gained a much longer shelflife and could be kept-in the warehouse or store for days and remain as "fresh" as ever. Later, shelf

life was extended even more with the Tile food industry, addition of preservatives which helped to delay the growth of molds. The food industry, is a multi-million The longer shelf life enabled 'the more ambitious of the bakers to gradually- dollar business complete with misexpand, since it was now possible to ship information, government complacency, bread over much longer dis.tances and and 路-high pres搂ured advertising. The loaves could be kept in the stores for a general, trend towards highly processed longer p~riod of time. Mass produced foods has been aided by large advertising bread became cheaper than the bread from budgets which dictate new eating habits. The food industry provides the radio tne local bakery aml these large, centralized bakeries gradually came to and television industries with 27% if its total revenue. The amount spent in just I control much of the industry . one month (August 73) was over 'three and The assault against bread does not end by merely removing the nutrients.- The a half million dollars with another baking industry seems to follow a motto $787,000 spent in the press. These totals of "out with the good and in with the do not include any of the indirect expenses bad". Over ninety different chemicals associated with advertising, including the have been approved for use in flour and cost of the ad agencies or the internal' bread including chlorine which is used as a advertising costs within the companies bleach to get the flour whiter than white. themselves. Added onto this is the cost of No one has really explained -why bread' all the give aways and special promotions. The consumer pays for all of these needs to be so white but chlorine also has expenses when he or.she buys a given food the characteristic of causing the starch in . product. the 'flour to swell. Since white bread is The advertising is primarily focused on almost entirely starch, this has the added the highly processed and convenience benefit of giving a larger volume of bread for the same amount of flour. Chlorine also foods; so price goes up while food value destroys vitaniinE and is destructive of goes- down. Breakfast cereals provide a good example. Up to 19% of the sales the remaining protein. dollar is used to cover the cost of adVery few of the additives are of any vertising yet these ,cereals are little more apparent use to the consumer so one must than carbohydrates and sugar. Many of assume that they benefit the manU7 th~ nutrients are destroyed by the _high facturer. Many of these chemicals are heats and mutilations required to puff, short-cuts in the manufacturing process. snapple and pop them. It is better for the bakeries to add a few These so-called foods are then pushed at chemicals such as yeast food than to have the children through their t.v. programs. to wait for a longer more expensive There is little mention of food quality, natural process. , only of free gifts and trips to Disney Land. Other chemicals are used to deceive the A.s the ads say these cereals "f!long with consumer. Emulsifiers are used to increase milk and fruit are a good source of the the rate of water absorption so that much essential nutrients". But then so is just of the weight of bread is actually water. plain milk and fruit and they don't come Emulsifiers also have the unfortunate, with an excessive coating of sugar. As the characteristic of reacting with the' starch president of Kellogg's was quoted on a in flour to produce an indigestable C.T.V. program, "Kellogg's is not in the product, although this drawback has not business of nutrition". prevented the bakeries from, using them. The industry attempts to answer It is almost impossible to get good criticism about the nutritional inferiority _ bread in Canada. Most whole wheat~bread of their products by adding a few syntheis little better than white bread, since, as tic nutrients and then calling their with the white, much of the oil' which products enriched. The only p~oblem is contains vitamin E has been removed that, as in the cas~ of the milling and from the whole wheat flour to ensure a processing of bread, 22 or 23 nutrients are long shelf life. The same nutritionally ,removed while only-4 or. 5 are returned. destructive chemicals are used in the .This is, rationalized by dividing the preparation of most Canadian breads. nutrients into essential and non-essential nutrients and government: regulations call for the addition of only the essential ones. It seems rather dubious that government and industry can legislate the nutritional needs of the body. , Enrichment fails on two grounds. First, only a few foods are enriched such as bread, milk (vitamiii D) and breakfast cereals. Secondly, only a few nutrients are -added and these are /!dded quite haphazardly. For example.-Qnly three of the B vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, are added to bread. The problem is that these-three vitamins can only work in' conjunction with the other B vitamins. This means that to a large extent they are wasted and can even result in deficiencies of the other B vitamins. Does it make sense to manufacture nutritionally inferior products and then to enrich them? It does if it increases profits.

To a great extent our health and wellbeing is dependent upon the quality and quantity of the food we eat. The body is a delicate mechanism and its ability to function effectively depends upon the availability of all the essenfial nutrients; protein, vitamins, minerals, fats and carbohydrates. If y-ou do not get all. of these over forty nutrients in sufficient a~ounts then~here can be wide ranging

September, 1974 -.....;,....--.....;,....-------------------=-------'--"'---~---------:rhe Food Paper repercussions. AJack of the B vitamins, for instance can lead to feeling depressed, bored, fatigued; or even angry and fearfuL, In Canada it is rare to find an actual occurrence of one of the deficiency diseases; however even minor'deficiencies ,can 'cause problems. If one nutrient is lacking then the chances are that some of the 'others are also deficient. The effect of these deficiences can be extremely subtle. Anyone could go for years with a deficient diet without suffering from any apparent harm but there would be a gradual decline 'in the state of health as the effects of the various deficiences began to accumulate. It helps to think of the body as an ecologjcal system where everything must be kept in careful balance. Once that ,balance is thrown off the effects are rather widespread. It is difficult to trace back assorted aches and pains or a general lack of wellbeing to a dietary lack since it becomes .so complex as 'the side-effects begin to multiply'. Medical doctors do not have the "This is the dog that bit the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that came from the grain that Jack sprayed." training neeessary to understand the role nutrition plays in health. Aproper diet is a necessary first step in ensuring a long and healthy life. There is a liver damage, learning disabilities, slurred and that nitrites do combine with myth in Canada that we are a nation of speech etc. D.D.T. is also widely believed secondary amines, a substance found in a healthy people; the statistics simply do to cause panmyelophthisis, which is a wide variety of foods, to nitrosamines. not bear this out. Half the population has wasting away of the bone :marrow. The The H.P.B. does grant that nitrosamines some kind of continuous illness-heart recent partial ban of D.D.T has not helped have been linked to ,cancer in animalstrouble, high blood pressure, digestive -the situation very much. D.D.T. has however, they say that nitrosamines have , difficulties, poor resistance to infections simply been replaced by its stronger never been shown to cause cancer in man. arid so on. It is not uncommon now to hear cousins in the chlorinated hydrocarbons Are you willing to take a chance on any of people in their thirties and fourties family whQ share similar characteristics. substance which is known to cause cancer dying from heart attacks and cancer. in animals just so you can eat red meat Even children do not seem to be immune For a-(ew dollars more. instead of brown? Several countries do as the incidence of leukemia contimies to quite well without them. Once again, the climb. As we saw in the discussion on bread, need for a preservative which is cheap and Health, however, cannot be measured the poisons in our food are not Umited to allows for a longer shelf life outweighs all by statistics. Nor is health simply the contamination on the farm. There are over other considerations. Fteezing of the meat absence of disease: Large numbers. of " 3,000 chemical additives currently in use. would be one; ~ay ofelimiDating the need peoflle feel that there must be something They have a wide range of uses; dyes to for the nitrates and nitrites but this wrong with theI?; however, since there is make the food look better, texturizers to doesn't seem to be feasible to the meatno visible evidence of disease the doctors / give drinks a better mouth feel, flavours packers since it would increas~ their cost. There is no way of knowing what side tell them that they're okay. That does and flavour enhancers to give the food little to reassure anyone who finds it an some taste, preservatives to keep the food effects the 3,000 additives have on our effort to get through the day. from spoiling, emulsifiers' to make a health. AroundJifty percent of Canadians product smooth and creamy. Canadian suffer from some form of alergy problem. law states that it is illegal to use any It is not known how many are allergic to additive whose sole purpose is to deceice the food additives they ingest daily. There are many factors which have the consumer yet there is little doubt that .Doctorsat the Allergy Department of the contributed to the decline in our standard most' of these chamicals serve no other Kaiswer Permanente Medical Centre in California have claimed that a diet free of of health; air and wafer pollution, the lack purpose. , of exercise, the stress, which come from An example of the way in which these artificial food colour and flavouring can our pace of living and so on. Yet much of additives can be used to take' advantage of help to eliminate the symptoms of this health problem can be linked to our consumers would be to take a hypothetical hyperactivity; a sometimes serious diet in terms of what we do and donot eat. case of two orange juice companies. behavioural disorder affecting 500,000 There is no question that much of our Assume that the first is reasonably honest children in Canada. But there is no sure f$lod supply contains traces of poisonous so that when you buy his product you get way of completely avoiding dyes and pesticides. Farmers are spraying in- what you paid for. His competitor, flayours since they are in almost every creasingly large 'amounts of these however may not be quite so honest; say food we eat. Check the next pound of pesticides on their crops and residues that, he waters his juice down by 10 butter you buy. There will be no mention , remain on much of the food we eat. The percent., In order to cover up he adds of the dye which was probably used in its nature of farming today makes it colour, flavour, texterizers, and the or- manufacture. A yellow dye is used on the necessary to use intensive agricultural ' din~ consumer could never tell the paler winter butter because the creameries , techniques and spraying is the most ef- difference. think that consumers expect butter to be a ficient way of controlling the various The sec.ond company has decreased his deep yellow colour; the dye is used on insects ,'Weeds , and fungi that threaten the cost so he can sell at a reduced price. The summer butter so that it will be the same crops. Yet ironically these same intensi~e increased profit can be used to launch a colour all year round. Most of these chemicals are probably techniques only make the matter worse. full scale advertising cainpaign to conPest control could be simplified by better vince you that if you don't start your day quite harmless. But there has been enough crop rotation, by better soil management, with his product there is no- use in even evidence to indicate. that at least a small or by relying to a greater extent on getting out of bed. In the long run which percentage are dan~erous to begin mechanical or biological means to control ..- of the two companies would stay in exercising some caution in their use. the various types of pests. business? Many. countries get ,by with a far fewer , The indiscriminate use of pesticides Unfortunately, the question of ad- number. It is time public health began to adds to the problem .. Insects build up ditives is more serious than just cOnsumer take precedence over corporate profit. immunities necessitating the use of deception. The vast majority of additives Most of the additives could be stronger asndstronger poisons. There is have never received adequate testing. The eliminated with.out any loss to the con'no incentive for the farmer to use less inadequacies of the testing procedures are sumer. The rise' in their usage has hazardous methods and very little, indicated by the number of supposedly paralleled the increasing domination of all research is done on non-chemical pest safe additives which were later withdrawn aspects of agriculture by large corcontrol methods. Government supported after evidence that they were dangerous to porations. Cheese would not have to have research goes along with the idea that human health. Bromated vegetable oils preservatives added if it was not shipped chemicals are the only means of control for example, were withdrawn after tests hundreds of miles. Synthetic flavours 'while the profit margins of the large had shown that they caused heart damage would not have to be added to almost chemical corporations depend on the- in rats" along with retarded growth, everything we buy unless the, mote exincreasing use of these chemicals. difficulty in digesting fats, enlargement of pensive natural flavours threatened profit D.D. T. accumulates in the body fat of the kidneys and liver, and rtlpleen and margins. Oranges would not have to be dyed if they were allowed the time to ripen people. There probably isn't a person alive thyroid damage. in Canada who does not have some D.D.T. Even' when thy evidence against a on the tree. in their bodies and this poison is even particular additive seems overwhelming The government agencies in both found in the milk of nursing mothers. the- government often fails to act., Con- Canada and the United States who are D.D.T, is known to cause birth defects in sider sodium nitrates and nitrites which responsible for protecting the consumers animals but there is little conclusive are widely used and serve a dual function interest are firmly in the control of the of preserving meat and keeping it a nice ~ food industry. Neither the Health evidence regarding harm to humans. Most of the human health problems red colour. (The red colour keeps the meat Protection Branch nor the American Food involving D.D.T. have been discovered looking much fresher than it actually may and Drug Directorate have adequate through direct contamination. People be<:) In the Rx Bulletin (july/august '73), facilities to test every new -additive let such as farmers and farm labourers who published' by the Health Protection alone the old ones. . have been directly exposed to D.D.T.have Branch (H.P.B.), it is admitted that When a company proposes the use of a shown a wide variety of effects including nitrates do break down to form nitrites new additive, it provides the H.P.B. with



the results of feeding tests on ,animals. It is difficult to determ.ine the long effect on humans by afew short term, tests on rats; but if the rats survive then the additive is assumed to be safe for humans. There are times that the "1lystem obviously fails. In 1969 a Quebec city brewery added a cobalt salt to help ~aintain the head on its beer. Between 50 ahd one hundred m~ddle-aged drinkers in Canada, th.e U .~. and Belgium died from heart problems directly associated with drinking the beer. Where was the protection these people deserved? Why didn't the brewery or government detect the danger before it was too late? How manl people suffered from heart damage that goes undetected? In this case the connection between the additives and' the deaths was fairly straight forward. The next time a mistake is made it might not be so obvious. Are we slowly being poisoned? N.ot all toxic substances are eliminated. by the body. Some, such as D.D.T., continue to accumulate in the body. Each individual has her or his own tolerance level for these substances. You could consume a toxic substance for years and Ibe fine and then one day pass your poison threshold and sickness and death could follow. Remember that we all consume these additives daily,. young or old, sick or, healthy. When industry and government talk about a costlbenefit you know who pays the cost in possible ill health and who reap~ the financial benefit.

. SOme solutions The best way of ensuring a more adequate diet is to avoid highly processed and take-out foods. To, quote from Chemical and Engineering News, a. trade journal, convenience foods are "p~pared under severe conditions of temperature, pressure or agitation. Therefore they may require special flavourings, flavour enhancers, colours and additives to make up for a partial loss of flavour, colour, texture, and other properties caused by prpcessing." These foods are of, small nutritive value to your body . Diet is often just a question of time and energy. In many homes in the KitchenerWaterloo area both parents have to go to work to support a family and there is little time to prepare meals from the more basic food-stuffs. A wide variety .of foods however, such as vegetables, beans, meat, potatoes, can be prepared in a few minutes using a pressure ' cooker. Salads are quickly and easily prepared and are a good source of nutrition. Soups and bean dishes can be prepared on the weekend for useduring the week. Baking your own bread offers another real alternative to the food industry. This is neither as difficult nor as time consuming as it may seem. Less than an hour . of actual labour time will supply the average family with enough bread for a .week. Any member of the family who can cook at all could probably find satisfaction ' in making good tasting nutritious bread. Find a good recipe, some whole wheat flour; preferably stone ground and try it for a month. Chances are you will never go back to eating store bread again.

16The Food


There are few immediate solutions to · is a way of· relating to the people around the problems of price and quality will. not the problems surrounding food. They are you. Co-operativism means .that people be solved. The eventual goal of the co~ work together as friends to achieve a operative movement is to buy directly ~_ rooted deep within our economic system \vhich treats everything as a profit certain goal. The experience of sharing, of .. from the farmers. Both pr·oducers and producing commodity. The probletp is not · helping yourself while heiping others is as consumers wQuld benefit from this just the cost but the quality and types of ilnportant asiillingthe need around which arrangement since farmers could charge more realistic prices and co-operatives people have come together. food which are readily available. It is essential that as many people as would not have to pay the mark-up costs Many local people have attempted to do possible take an active part in the co-op. of middlemen. something. about these problems by Without such involvement there..canbe no In British Columbia, fifty-three co-ops setting up the Waterloo Food Co-op. By· l real understanding of what the co-op is all have joined together to set-up their own _ joining together and buying food in bulk about nor can .one participate intelligently wholesaling op·eration. This enables the from wholesalers we have been able to get in the decision-making process. If the co-ops which range in size from just a few cheaper food while at the same time work load falls' on a small group of in- families to 'several hundred members to gaining more control over the quality and dividuals then the CD-op becoilliis overly gain the advalltage of size white retaining " types of food that we buy. dependent on these people, while the rest the advantages of being small. They have Anyone can become a member of the cosimply regard the co-Op as a cheaper 'evenfiiiscussed the possibility of buying a op QY paying a $5 membership fee. This tnrctor trailer to enable them tD import source fDr food. allows members to buy their food at cost The Waterloo Food Co-op currently fresh fruit and vegetables from California. price plus a 15 % surcharge to cover such operates un a committee structure. Each.. "It is important that people learn to costs as store rental and purchasing trips committee is responsible for a specific area work together. Large numbers of people to the wholesalers: Foods available in the such as purchasing, newsletters, maint- co-operate everyday in the factories anf' co-op include cheese, milk powder, dried enance etc. However, the co-op has grown offices, yet it is seldom that such. cofruit and brown rice. too . large to be adequately served by its operation is intended to benefit those . Along with membership goes an present structure. There are ap- engaged i11 it. Isolation from other people is one of the obligation to help with the work needed to proximately 500-600 people h3ing served major problems facing the urbun dweller keep the store runIling. A co-op is suc- at the one location. Not everyone is able to cessful only to the extent that its mem-· become fully involved so discusions are today. (S) he is surrounded by people but bers are willing to give of their time and underway as to how the structure can be seldom gets, the opportunity to get to know anyone well. We are all involved em';rgy. Necessary work includes keeping changed to more fully fill the needs of Its with-- various groups, at work, while en-. store, doing cleaning, dividing vegetables, members. Food co-operatives are not without their joying our leisure time,but we never get to or serving on the various committees and know these people as whole people since all of these must be done regularly.t(Lkeep problems. They still depend upon wholesalers for their existence and most we see them in only one small aspect of the co-op functionillg. .. their daily lives. A co-operative organization is based on co-ops have only succeeded in eliminating the 'idea that people can fill their in- one or two levels of middlemen. As long as . An act~eco-op movement can help to build a sense of community; As people dividual needs by working together. Co· we continue to he dependent upon anyone operativism is not simply a structure but · who is in the business primarily for profit, become involved with each other, as they,

September, 1974

begin to understand that they do have a great deal of interest in common with the people around them, then the ,fear which keeps people apart, begins to disappear. CO-Qps do not start off very large. Fifteen' to twenty families in a neighbourhood or' an apartment building would be sufficient. Food can be obtained from a wholesaler and then broken down into individual orders in a church basement or other such area. If you are interested in co-operatives, come up to the store in the· old Laurel Industries building, across from the Waterloo Post Office. Store hours are from noon to 9 p.m. Fridays and 10 a.m. until 6 p.m. on Saturdays. If the Waterloo Food Co-op can fulfill 'your needs, you are welcome to become a member. If not, then we can help you set-up your own eo-op. Other needs. such as clothing, hardware and car rep '\irs can be met co-operatively and we'd 'be more than willing to offer advice and encouragement to any group starting a'co-op.

Hunter, Dave and john Van Azrichem Vanishing Rural CDmmunity: Dunda~ County available fr6m Box 701, Kingston, Onto for 25 cents james, P.G. "Agriculture Policy i·n Western Countries" frorn Statistics Canada, 1971 Kordel, Leland Eat Right and live longer Included in_ the bibliography are all thE: major references usedjn researching this Kraft Boycott News April 1974, ed. by Don Kossick paper, along with additional references and sources to information on the topic of food Krok, Morris formula for lDng life and related subjects. The listing occurs in alphabetical order under the author's last 'Kloss, Jethro Back to Eden-uses of herbs name, wbere known, and under the subject title when not. Leffler, Lyle Seven Ways to Better Health Valley City Herb Dist., Rocton, Ont. Longgood, William The Poisons in Your food Pyramid Books, New York 1971 Adams, Ruth Body, Mind and B Vitamins Lappe, Francis Moore Diet For a Small Planet Ballantine Books, New York 1971 . Complete Guide tD all Vitamins . Vegetarian Manife"Sto, Ramparts, June, 1971 Berkely Barber Royal Commission on farm Machinery Lovell, Dr. Phillip M. Pregnancy and Childcare-=Natural Way' ,- . Bender, A. E. Dietetic foods, Leonard Hill 6.Qoks, London 1967 (Title is misrepresenLindlahr, Victor You Are What You Eat tative. It has basic nutrition information with~· a simple presentation of the- More Than the Price is Rigged 1974, The Exploding Myths Comic Collective biochemistry of how our bodies use food.) , Marine, Gene & judith Van Allen food Pollution: The Violation of Inner Ecology, Holt, Bernarde, Melvin A. The Chemicals We Eat American Heritage Press, New York 1971 Reinhardt & Winston, New York 1972 Boody, Samuel "Facts, Fables and Fallacies..9n Feeding the World Population" in The Margolius, Sidney -Health foods-facts and fakes Walker, New York 1971 Subversive Science, Paul Shepard ed.Houghton Miffin Company, Boston 1969 Maternal Nutrition & the Course of Pregnancy, Natural Academy of Sciences, Bragg, Paul Preparing For Mother Natures Way Washington 1970 Bronson, H.E. "Continental ism and Canadian Agriculture" in C;:lpitalism and the Mayer,Jean Overweight: Causes, Cost, and CDntroIPrentice-Hall,lnc., 1968 National Question in Canada, U. of T. Press 1972 Mitchell, Don "Notes re: Agribusiness", chapter oia SDon to be published book, Regina Brown, Edward Espe Tassajara Qread BODk Shambala Publ. Berkely 1970 1972 " , "The Business of Food" 'Carillon' newspaper staff (Regina) in Our GeneratiDn, Vol. 9 no. Nutrition Today, Vol. 5 no. 2, 1970; Vol. 5, no. 4, 1970 4, Montreal 1974 ' Null, Gary Food Combining HandboDk Pyramid Books, New York 1973 . Campble, J.A., Thatcher and McKinley "Environmental Pollution -and Food Safety" in Oldfield, Dr. J. Eat Natures food and Live LDng The Pollution Reader, Harvest House, Montreal 1968 Orton, Mildred Cooking With WhDle Grains .Canadian Consumer periodical Pauling, Linus Vitamin C and the Common Cold Canadian DimensiDn, Vol. 9, nos. 7& 8, pgs.26 to 42 includes the National Farmers Pike, R,l. and M.l. Brown NutritiDn:-An Integrated Approach John Wiley and Sons, Un ion Brief to the House of Commons Committee on Food Prices New York 1967 (An advanced nutrition textbook; requires some knowledge of "Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics" june 1968 ,biochemistry and physiology) . Carr, Donald E. The Deadly feast of Life, Garden City, N.Y. DD.ubleDay, 197.1 Pryor .. Karen Nursing YDur Baby, recommendedf)" .. he La Lecheleague "Changes in Agriculture to 1970" Economic Council of Canada . Church, C.F. & H.N. Church FDDdValues DfPortiDns CDmmDnly Used, j.E. Lippincott Ralph Nader Group Chemical Feast-a repor:on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . Co., Toronto 1970 (A bDok of charts and tables concerning fODd) RichmDnd, Sonya International Vegetarian Coo1cery' Davis, Adelle Let's -Get Well Rodale ,j.1. The Basic BDOk of Organic Gardening Let's Have Healthy Children Complete Book .of Vitamins Let's Ea(Right TD Keep fit Complete B~DOk .of Minerals Let's CDok It Right and others by the same author. Signet Books , Rohe, Fred <The Sugar Story "Dietary Standard for Canada frDm Canadian Bulletin of Nutrition, Vol. 6 no. 1, 1964 The Oil S t D r y . .. Dooley, Peter Retail Oligopply-an empirical study of the structure, conduct and The Nut list, and others available from Erewhon Trading Co. performance of the grocery trade on the prairies. 1968. Commissioned by the Rose, Ian F. faith, LDve and Seaweed Award Books, New York 1963 Prairies Economics Council . . Rudolph, Dr.. r.M. Vitamin E Ewald, Ellen 'RecipesfDr a Small Planet Ballantine BODks Stuart, R. B. and B. Davis 'Slim Chance In a fat World Research Press co., Champaign, Federal Farm Credit and Related Statistics, 1973, Farm Credit Corp. Illinois 1972 "Feeding Ourselves" by the BerkelyWomen's Health Collective Supermarket StorybDok PSA Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. financial Post, Toronto (weekly) .~. Survey of Industrials and Directory oj Directors the Financial Post Gerard, Alice Please Breast Feed Your Baby "Survival in Rural Canada" from the Charlatan, Jan. 10, 1973 (U. of Carleton, Ottawa) GIDbe and Mail, Business section, Tues. to Sat. incl., Toronto Gudmundson, Fred "What EvefyCanadian Should Know About Food and Energy'~ from Thomas, Anna The Vegetarian Epicure' Turner, James S. The Chemical Feast Grossman Publishers,New York 1970 Canadian Dimension, Vol. 9,nos. 7 & 8, Winnipeg , Union farmer the paper of the National Farmers Union ., HelN,i.t, jean N.Y, Times Natural Foods CDokbook Hornsfall, james G. "The Green Revolution: Agriculture in the Face of the Population Ward, Bob Food for Thought-a Study of Skyrocketing fODd Prices Ontario Federation , of Labour,Toronto Explosion" from The Environme_nJal Crisis, edited by Harold W. Helfri~h, Jr. Yale White, Ruth Bennet Food and Your future Prentiss-Hall 1972 (Good basic nutr.ition University Press, New Haven and London 1970 information with a.generous quantity 'of colour photos and drawings) Hotema, Hilton Facts of Nutrition . Hurnphries, Don "The Great Food Scandal-Where Does All the Money Gc)?" from the Wood, Dr. Curtis Overfed But Undernourished . UniDn farmer, May 1973, Sas~aioon. "The Market Square Food Co-operative", 1973 Winter, Ruth Beware .of the food YDU Eat Signet BOOKS, New York 1971 Wrench, Dr. G. T. Wheel Of Health (about Hunza diet and health practices) (An unpublished discussion paper circulated in Regina) Hunter, Beatrice Trim Consumer Beware! Your h)Od and What's Being Done tD It Zwerdling, Daniel "Beefed Up: Drugs in the Meat Industry", Ramparts, jlme,'1973 "Death for'Dinner", New York Review of BODks, March, 1974. Bantam Books! New York 1971 Natural foods Primer "Food Pollution", Ramparts, June, 1971

the ~hevron

friday, september 13, 1974 '


GO BY BUS Gray Coach University Service Direct from Campus Entrances To Toronto and Woodstock-London Express via Hwy. 401

COMING SOON Directly from Poland WARSAW NATIONAl ORCHESTRA Wed. Oct. 16, 8 p.m. Physical Activities Building, U. of W. ADMISSION-FLOOR $5, BLEACHERS-lower'$4, Upper $3 STUDENTS HALF PRICE Central. Box Office ext. 2126



THE DYBBUK by S. Ansky


The Manitoba Theatre Centre's production of this powerfully moving drama. . A new version adapted and directed by John Hirsch. A mystical, timeless love story full of music, So.!1& dance and ritual. OCT. 22 & 23 8 p.m. Humanities Theatre Admission $5.00,students $2.50 Central

TORONTO SERVICE Express via Hwy.401 LEAVE UNIVERSITY Mon. to Fri. - 3:05 p.m. & 4:50 p.m. Fridays - 12:25 pm. & 3:35p.m.

Danoe Auditions, PorU.路of W. Repertory Company


Monday to Friday - 7: 00 a.m. Sundays 7: 30 p.m. ~8: 30 p.m., G9: 50 p.m. & 10: 50 p.m. via Islington Subway Stn. G - Locally via Guelph

Monday Sept. 23 7:00 pm



WOODSTOCK-LONDON SERVICE Express -via Hwy.401 Read Down Read Up Fridays Sundays Ar. 6.45 p.m. South Campus Entrance 6.05p.m. Lv. Lv. 7.10 p.m. 6.35p.m. Lv. Kitchener - Term inal 7.25p.m. Ar." Woodstock Lv~ 5.55 p.m. London , 8.05p.m. Ar. Lv.5.15.m.

Dance Studio Physical Activities Complex audition format: class modern class jazz class individual prepared \fork no' longer than one minute. bal1~t

male and female dancers welcome. top pro.ficie(lCY not required in every area.

Toronto and London buses loop via University, Westmount, Columbia and Phillip, serving designated -stops. Buses will stop-on signal at intermediate points en route and along University Ave.

The Facts of Life Welcome back to the University of Waterloo for another year. If you are a freshman, I hope your years with us will be the best in your life..



See Time Table No.6

You have come here to learn. Besides knowledge from books, you will learn many things here, including the challenging experience of your own life for the first time. You will also meet other things which are not so wonderful, such as frustration, disappointment, and possibly serious illness. (Two of our students died last year of incurable diseases.)


Running your own life for the first time includes taking care of yourself. This is something you cannot leave for others to do. That is a fact of life. . For starters, (and it's easy), you can read Health Services booklet "The People Place". It is about you; it is for you. It g; important because you are important. Health Services will help you run your own life.




10 Rides


Tickets have no expiry date; they do not have to be used by the purchaser; they may be used from the Kitchener Terminal or from Waterloo.

Have a best year.

HealC{?h SerViCeS



, ' Dr. Dan Andrew Health Services Telephone Numbers Medical Director - Appointments only* . outside calls ....................................... 884-9620 inside calls ........... , ............. : .............. Ext. 3708Medical Information and lab Results Ext. 3084>, Insurance Information * ' Student ........................................... Ext. 3731 Staff and Faculty ................. '.................. Ext. 3132 General and EMERGENCY (24 hours a day) .... : ...... Ext. 3541

* ,...............

*(9:00 a.m.-5:oo p.m. Mon. to. Fri.)


GroyCoach .



friday, september 13,1974 the chevron

Library Orientation Tours Engineering, Math & Science (EMS)' - Library~ (4th FI'oor- Math & Computer Bldg.)

Sept. 16-20

Sept. 13

10:30 am & 2:30 pm.

9:30 am & 1:30 pm

Arts Library "

Sept. 13-2010:30 am & 1:30 pm. Reference Desk Main Floor

THE 34 KING ST. N. WATERLOO 742-406]





SIZES 1 - 17 -



9:30 - 6:00 /


9:00 - 9:00

the chevron

friday, september 13, 1974


Chile: one, year after the coup Exactly one year after president Salvador Allende Gossens of Chile was overthrown and killed by a well oiled military coup d'etat, many cynical observers say the country has nOw been restored to what is euphemistically known as South American "normalcy". A "normalcy" which was only brought about by an equally well organ ized and systematic repression., The death toll resulting from this repression, as of January, 1974, varies from 12,000 (according to the United States senate subcommit.tee On refugees) to 30,000 (the Chilean MIRMovement of. the Revolutionary Left). However, despite a year of "wiping , out subversion", everyday life in Santiago, Chile differs little from that encountered in other SOllth American military or civilian-military dictatorships such as Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Paraguay: the beggars roam downtown streets; the street vendors try to sell matchboxes, haircombs and other derisory oddments to pedestrians; the rooming-houses on the outskirts of Santiago are daily, taking in new guests who cannot afford to live in the city . Surprise: the food stores Once again abound in merchandise. The butcher, once the king of the black market during. the Allende years, now has to display his choice pieces to customers for many days. The price of 2.2 pounds' of steak costs 1,600 escudos, which is more than two and a half days' paY' for the average steelworker. "You will note that Once again there is plenty in the shops", say partisans of the military junta; "but obviously not everything is within the purchasing power of all the population." A return, no doubt, to the "normalcy" of South, American underdevelopment. The vertical drop in purchasing power caused by rampant inflation (in the months since the military takeover ConSumer prices have risen between 200 and 1 ,000 percent) has generated i considerable discontent among the very sectors of the population such as the sm'all businessmen, shopkeepers, truckdrivers and professionals which readily applauded the military leaders of the September /11 uprising. If the minimum salary of 18,000 escutios is well below adequate, that of 'the engineer, the doctor or the 'professor which ranges from 85,000 to 250,000 escudos, does not in the least insure the lifestyle these groups were previously uses:! to. /

supporters of the regime they once were, The decline in the lifestyle of the \middle classes more than accounts for, the growing schism between the junta and the Christran-Democrats. After being in power for six months, president Augusto 路Pinochet attacked the Christian-Democrats on a television show saying" "certain political s~ctors which . at the outset were in favour of the government are now turning against it once they. saw that mil itary intervention den jed ther:n the political leadership of the state which they Once enjoyed. I ask one. question of these people: are they patriots or merchants?" At the right moment the television focusses on the previously selected audience which breaks into loud applause.

Right consoliaates power. The military leadership and' the right wing National party, venting their oldtime aversion for Christian-Democracy, are overjoyE!!d. One of their spokesmen" Sergio Onofre Jarpa, says "the Marxist government was not the source of Chile's ills, it was only the last.stage of a long period of decadence." (Chile was ruled' throughout the sixties by a Christian-Democrat regime). ' Nevertheless these public attacks do not deter a great number of ChristianDemocrats from working within the state apparatus. Perhaps it is caused by conviction but most likely it is due' to cynicism or ambition. In the countryside it is the administrators of former Christian-Democratic president Eduardo. Frei's government who have

been reinstated in the chief posts of the agrarian reform. Visibly concerned with the silent opposition of the urban workers, the junta has allowed the old Christian-Democratic land reform to continue with a few changes, in order to appease the peasants. But the few changes made in the original land' reform will not appease the peasants for very long, as close to half of the agriculture cooperatives (asentamienfos) created in the three years of Allende's government will be dissolved so as, to enable the former landowners to recover their best land. "We will get there but it will take a very long time. It will take many years to clean the heads of these people of demagogic slogans such as: "the land belongs to those who till it" says Ernesto Wagner, a big landowner from Villarica. In the industries, the change has been much more violent. By the score, factories both big and small, have been returned to their former bosses, under the control of military leaders. In this light, "normalization" is done through iron-fisted discipline. The few strikes which erupted after the coup have been severely crushed and now workers, in order to signal their protest, conduct "lightning" strikes, which meanS they stand a .few feet in front of their assembly lines and cross their arms. "Lightning" strikes are good because they last only a few minutes, never more than five, and fhus the police can not repress them easily. The Chilean resistance, on the other hand, is not in the'most enviable of pOSitions. However, the common front, a long desired goal of all leftist parties is close to reality, and the committees

of these organizations are solemnly working to further the process. But at the militant level the task is another matter entirely, for the old differences between the various tendencies of the Popular Unity could ,never be more apparent (the communists talk about an "alliance" with the Christian-Democrats while the MIR prefers a more militarist approach). And above all, it is hard for the parties to exchange information because the repreSSion is so well coordinated that clandestine political work can only be carried out in very small cells. According to a young communist, "I never see more than two to three comrades, for to see more would 'be extremely dangerous" and he adds "in any case, our strategy will be defined here, in Chile, and those who have been exiled don't have any say in the matter. Their situation is tragic but. there's nothing to be done about it."

Resistance under siege .',


Th.s long and dangerous task of restructurin~ a, leftist underground unused for nearly four years is compounded by a repression which day to day gets more efficient. The sy.stematic blitzes, the massive roundups and the night-time sweeps are still in full gear. The newspaper "Ultimas Noticias" / published On the front page a colour photograph showing young people encircled by an army detachment in a ghetto, with the following headline: "280 street urchins arrested." The newsstory said that the blitz was conducted in the early morning by an entire regiment of soldiers. Soon the police will relieve the army in such roundups because they are quickly becoming able to carry out the same types of activities with equal smoothness. The growth of the political Apparently the funds got prior police has been dramatic and the co. The Untted States put up $11 mz"llion to try to brz"ng down the clearing from the 'Jorty committee", ordinating centre ts the DINA of National Intelligence) Popular Unz"ty government of the the National Security Council's covert (Department located in Santiago, where torture is Late Salvador Allende, accordz"ng to action-policy arm. And the money systematically used. an admz"ssion made by Central In- was to be ,allotted for use durzng ,The systematic use of torture is tellz"gence Agency director W'z"llz"am Allende's 1964 and 1970 presidential' nothing new in South America as the Colby z"n"mony April 22 to the campaigns, and to "destal:Jilize" hz's Brazilian military government after being in power for ten years, has House of Representatz'ves' , Armed government after he won in 1970. already made th'is tragedy a part of Services. Intelligence subc_Qmmittee. Durzng the summer of 1973, when everyday life of South American the Allende admz'nistration was "normalcy". This "normalcy" is little The testz"mony was made publz"c, plagued with spz'ralling z"njlatz"on and. more than the stable' operation of last 'Sunday in a' lener from growz'ng cz'vz"l路 unrest, a $1 miqz'on American imperialism which insures representatz"ve Mz"chael Harrz'ngton program was set up 'Jor further enormous profits to foreign investors at [D-Mass.] to House FQreign Affairs pOlz"tical destabilzzation activities." the price of a political-economic . repression which affects not only the, 路Coinmz'ttee Chairperson Thomas After the coup z'n September the lower classes but also the middle 6nes. Morgan [D-Pa,]. program was dz"scontinued. by John Morris

Chile and the' CIA

Inflation erodes support This trend more than explains 'the "brain drain" to foreign countries. Everyday, there ~re long lineups outside the Canadian 'and Australian embassies of professionals who say "no, we are not political refugees, we only want to be allowed to live elsewhere, for the life here rs too hard and will remain so for a long time.", In' an attempt to curb this "brain drain", the junta decided to enlist all men between 41 and 35 years old into "military' service" for one month and those. drafted can not leave the country. / The measure also permits the military to see who has chosen to go "un-derground" . Meanwhile, the merchants are dissatisfied with the junta, because as the purchasing power has oeclined so have sales; and no longer is it possible to make up the lOSS' by resorting to' the black market as was done <;Iu(ing the Allende years. Even the truckdrivers who paved the way for military intervention are no longer the strong

This photograph of president Sa was ta l:Jefore his deathdurigg last September's military takeover. Since the junta took power, major resource industries have been given

to US, multinationals, the rich landowners have taken over the best farmland and the Chilean people have been subjected to an-inflation rate of up to 1000 percent.


. ..

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10 percent off on pipes with student card cigarettes imported cigars special



The Korean Art of Self-Defence Lear" Pru/ll Instructur Chung W. OH International Master Instructor 4th (Dan) Degree Black Belt Tae Kwon - Do 6th (Dan) Degree Black Belt Ha.p Ki, - Do Foriner Instructor: Korean Marine Corps and West Germany AU!t':_A._..1 with the I.T.F. and CDN T.K.D. Assoc.

magazines billiards fishing supplies

Art's Recreation 60 King St. S. Across from Waterloo Square

. _0

6: 30 am til midnight Mon-Sat, Sunday 10:00 am - 6: 00 pm

DO YOU LIVE - .-In this main campus residence Complex? COLUMBIA ST. . " Pizza ~ VILLAGE TWO VILLAGE ONE. ~p I rn • . • r> a ace ~kNOO~ Z· h' ; ... RENNISON ..... DAME· / ;0 IS ere o

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for off-campus students we are also at:

, 6 Princess St.W. W'loo

tel: 743-7911

And Now For Something Completely Different

355 ERB ST. W. 745-2991

347 WEBER N. AT COLUMBIA ST. 884-1550 '


Sept. 13 - 15

An anthology of sketches from Monty Python's Flying Circus including: Self-defense ~ainst Soft Fruit, Blackmail, Hell'S Grannies, Townswomens Guild's reconstruction of Pearl Harbour, The Upperclass Twit of the Year Race. Full-length Monty Python hilarity. Colour .


.Secrets of Women· directed by Ingmar Bergman



Day Classes and Evening Classes (We're Open 6 Days A Week)




You & you alone should phone 884-1553


99 cent Special-




Sept 18 - 22

One of Ingmar Bergman's preoccupations is the psyche of woman. (The Silence, Persona,.The Passion of Anna). Here, in an early film (1952), a saucy film of sophisticated humor, three of a group of.four sisters-in-law tell about their marriages and affairs as they await their husbands. Consisting of three long flashbacks, the style builds from straightforward realism to a colourful dreamlike expressionism and culminates in high comedy. This film marked a triumphant success for Bergman's versatility as a director. Black and White.

should attend the Flying Club's introductory night. Room 145 Physics, 7 :30 pm, Sept. 19. Film, material hand-c,uts, que~tion & answer period."

C"L>,"'...... r .." AT 7:00and 9: 15

Re"nison College Special Women's - Courses ..~ . WOMEN - THEIR - SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ROLE

1st term listed SW369R Women and Social Work 2nd term listed as HR871


Although these are separate one term cour~es, they are" in fact sequential and will be jointly taught by Marsha Forrest (Human Relations) . ~nd Marlene Webber (Reni.son). The purpose'ofthese courses is to examine the social and economic position of women in contemporary society. We will focus en the sexual,'-economic, and cultural exploitation women-special emphasis will be given to the situation of working wo_men,' single mothers, poor _ ' women and women prisoners. Everyone welcome. [Staff, students or anyone interested. You do not need to register to attend.)

The M.injstry of Transport· approved Ground School course will be held each Wed. evening (12 nights) Room. 3003 M & C. 7:00 PM, Sept. 25. \ " Registration fee $15.00 - maps &books $25.00

friday, september 13, 1974

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small groups

Sept. 13-14

Coming Soon

_ Encounter/Sensitivity; Couples; Self-Consciousness Lowering; Explorations in Human Sexuality;' Sensory Awareness; Gestalt; and Community (Mature persons from outside and inside the University). If you are interested in more information, or in joining a group, plea se contact us. Counsell ing Services, Student Services Bldg., Ext 2655.

We will be opening a brand new lounge featuringliv_e entertainment and com-:fortable surroundings.

-small groups

CREATE A CAMPUS LAIR .7Jec4IIIJie Walt 7W1{~~ Real ea1rth flowers, dried for saf.ekee1pi·ng, fields of them! Some preserved in their own nature colors, some tint·ed in a.. riot of h~s. M.any brand new varieties including Uva plumes.

1.29 to 6.49· Indian Bedspreads Paisley bedspreach of 100'" cottan-o Loamed in India and printed with hand. corved waaden blocks in troditianal Indian patterns. lmagin. the delightful visions you'H conjure with these inexpensive spread ... You c:an do more than caver a bedl Create pillows, curtaim, . round tabledaths. Dream up flawing hal~ dressesl Shop for the designs and calors that please you. 11M No. 250·208 250·210.


Pick up a practical


Put a nymph-(:hair in your den. On your porch. Bya sunny window. Anywhere! They won·t let you down. Woven of golden willow; about 28" tall. Add pillows for even more c,olor. A sturdy idea from a storehouse of decorating ideas -

Reg. $29.99 Cushions $9.99. Nymph chair only .....





CARGD CANADA liThe Decorators Department Storel l 35--~ing

South, Waterloo 742-3841 -

Open Daily 10 a.m. to 9 p.m.

Pile . on 'the pillows. Snuggle a ti':'y nook with pillows for a cozy place to ta'lk-or read. Colors and sizes for any room, any posture. Not necessarily ones iIIust,rated.



Focus' Belgian rugs.

Oriental reproductions, made in , Belgium. 100% cotton 'woven in. to a jute base. Traditional patterns. .. colors, 5 sizes, 2 x 3 to

9" 12.

6.99 to 99.99


friday, september 13, 1974

the c.hevron


16 Olltarlo Street, • Stratf.nI 2'1-2•••

12 King St. N. Upstairs Waterloo, Ont. 579-4950



New books Art books Politics Light reading Bargains


Used books Text books Architecture Heavy reading 100,000 volumes

For the flne.1In HI.II Dall, 11·7


Discounts to students Friendly knowledgeable staff. / n ice place to visit. Open 7 days a week 10 am to 10 pm Sunday 6 pm - 10 pm


"If you're after a chrome and glass bookstore, this ain't the place!"

RenisonCollege Special Topics Courses


INTERDISCIPLINARY ,SOCIAL SCIENCE I~S 369R Game Simulation of Social Processes Simulation will be examined as both a teaching device and a research tool in the social sciences, Games with simulated environments will be employed to study interpersonal interaction and social processes. These games will focus on social control, bargaining, stratification, socialization, power, etc. Subsequent to examination of theory, students will be asked to develop simulation exer.cises of their own. Fall Term : 3 Hours Instructor: H. Miller Prerequisites: Introductory courses in psychology, sociology, or permission of instructor.

PSYCHOLOGY PSYCH 367R Fantasy Processes The course will examine the role of fantasy processes in the normally functioning h,uman being. Aspects of human ·experiencingwill be explQred in which fantasy processes are basic and essential, e.g., dreaming, daydreaming, play, creativity, aesthetic sensitivity. Therapeutic applications of fantasy approaches will be explored partially through experiential involvement. Winter Term: 3' Hours Instructor: J. Wine Prerequisite: An in!roductory psychology course

PSYCH 368R Socillil Psychology of Me., The emergence of the women's move'ment has provokeda\1<Uhreatenedmany men"producing anger, 'bitterness, confusion, and guilt. Yet a perplexing question has been raised: what does it mean to "be a man" in our society? What does it mean? In an attempt to answer these questions the course will examine socialization and development, affiliation and emotional expressiveness, power and violence, fatherhood, work, sexuality, marriage. Winter Term: 3 Hours Instructor: To be announced Prerequisites: An introductory psychology course

SOCIAL WORK ' SOC WK 367R Senior Seminar in Social Problems

SOC WK 368R Problem

/. .

Education as a S~ial i

A look at how our educational institutions are reflective of selected social problems. A consideration of the relationship between education and the place of the individual Vt\ithin. society. The significance of education and social processes for the study of selected issues'in social work. Winter Term: 3 Hour,s Instructor:' J. Forest Prerequisites: Soc Wk 225R Qr permission of instructor

Women--Their Social and Economic Role 1st term listed SW369R Women and Social Work 2nd term listed as HR871

Although these are separate one term courses, they are in fact sequential and will be jointly taught by Marsha Forrest (Hl,lman Relations) and Marlene Webber (Renison). The purpose of these courses is to examine the social . and economic position of women in contemporary society. We will focus on the sexual, economic, and cultural exploitation of women-special emphasis will be given to the situation 6f working women, single mothers, poor women and women prisoners. Everyone welcome. (Staff, students or anyone interested. You do not need to re~ister to attend,)

FINE ARTS 346R-347R Special Topics in Film . 346R Film in Canada A studY'of the films of .selected Canadian film-makers and of the key issues peculiar to the Canadian film. An examination of selected feature films as well as short . :films, documentary films and experimental films which have contributed to the Canadian film experience. A number of actille film-makers will be invited to give guest lectures. Film fee $5.00.

Tickets for all events (series and single tickets) are nOW-OA sale at the Central Box Office ext. 2126

lUES. SEPT. 17 MUSIC REHEARSALS for the University

'. of Waterloo now In progress





Tues. 7:00 - 9:00 p.m.; Al 113 Thurs. 7: 00 - 9: 00 p.m.; AI6 Music Room CONCERT BAND Wed. 5:30 - 7:00 p.m.; AI 6 Music Room LITTLE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (by audition only) (rehearsal times for orchestra to be announced) For further information contact Mr. Alfred ~unz, Music Director, Arts Lecture room 6, ext. 2439. EVERYONE WELCOME Creative Arts Board, Federation of ~tudents

DRAMA AUDITIONS MAJOR FALL PRODUCTION Oct. 29' - NOV.' 2 8 p.m. THE CIRCLE by Somerset Maugham NOON PRODUCT~ONS OCT. 9-11, NOV. 13-15; 12:30p.m. Two one act presentations to be an-· nounced

AUDITION DAT-ES Mon. Tues. &Wed.-Sept.16, 17 &18 - 8 p;m. Humanities' room 180 ' For fUrther information contact Mr. Maurice Evans, drama director, Modern Languages Building, room 121,-ext. 2533. Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students




347R Film and Culture in India

Humanities Theatre Admission $4.00, students $2.00 Central Box Office ext. 2126

A critical examination of some possible solutions to the alienating nature of work and its relationship to the unequal distribution of wealth a'nd power in Canada.

A consideration of special topics in Indian cin,ema and its relationship to folk-drama. Special attention to several selected directors and trends in contemporary Indian film-making. An examination of issues ~n Indian culture which have come to expression in selected films. Film fee $5.00.

Fall Term: 3 Hours Instructor: J. Forest Prerequisite: Soc Wk 225R or permission of instructor

Winter Term: 3 Hours Level: Second-year standing Instructor: S.K Gupta



Evening .

PLEASURE, & '. \

Fall Term: 3 Hours Level: Seconp-year standing Instructor: S.K. Gupta

Wouldn't it be nice if our university hada good band to play at athletic events?If interested in helping either musically or otherwise, please send pertinent information to the Creative Arts Board, Modern Languages Building. . -

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friday, september 13, 1974

control with continous and frequently repeated therapy." However, testimony before the Senate subcommittee on Health in " 1973 reveals the unauthorized use of DES as a contraceptive is widespreaa. While doctors are supposed to prescribe the drug only for "emergency use"., there are no limits on 'the doctor's judgement of exactly what' constitutes an emergency. In addition, DES is approved for during pregnancy to - prevent use in treating disease, including miscarriages. Twenty-four of the young women are known to have endometriosis (an abnormality of the uterus) and, ironically, cancer died as of July, 1974. The drug also causes seriou.S in the lining of the uterus. "The prescribing of an approved side effects in women who take the pills. Besides the usual nausea, drug for an unapproved use by vomiting, sweating and vaginal individual physicians is beyond the bleeding, a woman may suffer jurisdiction of the FDA," exother side effects linked to plained, FDA commissioner estrogens, blood clots, loss of hair, Charles Edwards in 1973. ~ the "hands-off", policy hypertension; migraine, development of breast cysts, towards doctors,- drug companies hyperthyroid conditions, diabetic are regulated under the FDA reactions, changes in eye ruling. Any company selling DES pre!'sure, depression and per- specifically for the emergency sonality changes' have been contraceptive use must get apreported. Even after DES was banned from cattle feed in 1972 (the ban was overturned in January, 1974'()n a technicality), it was approved CANADA'S LARGEST SERVICE for "emergency use" as a mor$2.75 per page ning-after contraceptive drug. The Send now for latest catalog. Enyood and Drug Administration close $2.00 to cover return postage. (FDA) recommends its use only in extreme emergency cases such as ESSAY SERVICES rape, warning that "it shouldn't be 57 Spadina Ave., Suite #208 Toronto, Ontario, Canada considered as- a method for birth

DE'S p' -III may .


cause can-cer The Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut working together with the Yale Medical School has conducted experiments on 600 women from across the state to test the "morning after pill". The Department of Health, Education and. Welfare funded the $132,000 experiment: Known to cause cancer in the laboratory animals and in tb-e children of women who have taken it, the drug diethysibestrol (DES) contains a massive dose 'oC synthetic estrogen, equivalent to a four-year supply o'f birth control pills. . Women in the experiment are ". given a series of ten pills containing 250 milligrams of DES, which are administered during a five-day period 24 to 72 hours following intercourse. DES has long been opposed by women's groups, health and consumer organizations. Evidence shows it caused cancer of the vagina and cervix in at least 200 daughters whose mothers took it


(4161366-6549 Our research service is sold for research assistance only.

Like to rap?

Transactional analysis and the book "I'm okay; you're okay.'"

pro val from the FDA, provide American clinics are allowed to labelling that would spell out, administer DES for emergency' precautions and enclose a leaflet to contraceptive use (but supposedly patients explaining . the risk of only in extremely controlled and cancer and other dangers: But carefu}~ followed-up medical since they can sell DES for other experiments.) Yet it is reported uses, no drug company so far has . that follow-up procedures are bothered to obtain the approval _ inadequate, and prior warnings neededJo legally sell DES for usez-- are few. Women are not warned of as a contraceptive. "-the cancer risk to themselves or to Eli Lilly of Indianapolis (the the fetus, should the pill fail. largest single marketer of DES for Although all of the women in the human use) correctly predicted, Connecticut experiment must after the FDA.. ruling' on consent to "an abortion.. should emergency use "we don't expect conception occur the service is not this will make a significant change provided by Pla~neG. Parenthood in Lilly's sales or profits." ~t 'stated its Connecticut directo~ present the company faces a Kenneth Pruett. Only advice will lawsuit brought by a Royal, be offered. -LNS Michigan woman who has vaginal ca;ncer beca,use her mother took DES during h~r pregnancy.

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Unitarian fellowships offer an opportunity for people'to get together and talk freely about the human condition and .-the meaning of ethics. A unitarian fellowship has existed in this communit-y for many years. It . meets Sunday mornings at 11 :00 a.m" at 136 Allen St., East, Waterloo (at the corner of Allen and Moore not far from the centre of the city)'. Subject for this Sunday:


Our materials are sold for research pu rposes enly

$269. 50 student reduction

What is a. Velosolex It's just a bike with a motor on_ it-a sturdy bicycle, made of rust-free aluminum, with a small quiet motor which rests on the front wheel and - pushes it round, so that you don't have to keep pedalling. a bicycle that goes by itself. Speed: 22 mph Cylinder capacity: 49 c.c. Fuel Consumption: 200 mpg.


Saturday September 28 8:30p.m. . Elmira & District Elementary School University Ave. Elmira . Admission $3.50 ea.


call Henri Socha Eng II 2362, ext. 2329 579-8645 after 6 pm

WATER,_ WATER everywhere". You love the water. You're attra~ted to it. You love to swim and won't give it up-· foraday. ~ven if you have your period, you know you can swim dependably protectedwith Tampax tampons.- They give you . internal protection that- -'. won't irritate or cause discomfort. Protection that won't cause odop'. Protection that can't slip or show under swimsuits. Protection small enough to be carried discreetly wherever you go.

Wherever there's water, there you are. Swimming . every day. Protected, sure. - of yourself because you use Tampax tampons.

Renison College Day-time Course ,


The internal protection more women trust




the chevron .

Are you interested in Music, Electronics, Public Affairs, N~ws, Sports, Productions, . Recording or anyth·ing else, sayan amateur radio club? ',


. Then introduce yourself

Everyman Theatre of Waterloo presents


R--.. . ;· io Waterlqo's adio Waterloo 5 . Rt!i.qo~t:fI~~'s

. The Ma.ster Builder by Henrik I.bsen September 18-21 • \ Theatre of the Arts, University of Waterloo Curtain Time.8:00 P.M. Tickets: $1.50, $1.00 for: students


For further information call the Central Box Office, 885i211 ext. 2126 '

N~dio Waterloo's

Organizational Meeting Campus Centre,Rm. 135. \

Wednesday, Sept 18,8:00 p.m.



FOR THE· FAll' /

FOR OUR ,CONVE.NIENCECO-OP STUDENTS " PLEASE APPLY NOW IN WRITING. ' FOR ALL OTHER ~ STUDENTS, 'APPLICATIONS' WILL BE ACCEPTED BEGINNING SEPT. 1. ALL APPLICATIONS WILL BE' CLOSED SEPT. 10. This is a part-time job and all applicants must be able to stay until January 19, 1975.For furthe'r information contact Susan at extension 3425 between Iprp and -3pm any weekday' or write to the Campus Centre Board, Unjversity of· Waterloo. ,


... pharmacy


MON-SAT 9 am - 10 pm SUNand,HOLIDAVS 11 am - 9 pm

the chevron

friday, september 13, 1974








TEAC QX8000A 4-channel receiver

list $729 (30 RMS x4l Special $499 2 only Cl3131 Cassette Deck

list $257 Special $195 PL12D Pioneer turntable

Complete with $59 ADC230XE

List $203;95 Special $144.95

Superior SP45 $4.95 Superior SP50V., 7.95 Superior Sp75S 11.95




64.50 69.95 44.95 35.95 27.95 24.95




SUPERIOR 8-track record deck Special $139.95



SUPERIOR 8-track playback deck Specia,1 $39.95


List $279.95 Special $199.00 1 only


ADC Cartridge

Dolby Noise Unit Special $139.00




KA2002 Amplifier





KT4005 Tuner




list $179.95 Special $120.00 -. 2 only

Buy a minimum of 10 TOK Tapes and receive 20% off suggested list.







Special ADCXlM VLM 'ADC230XE

$49.00 39.00 19.95


We supply most makes of equipment at realis'tic disc.ount prices. Our'shop is not awe-inspiring. Functional, friendly, helpful~yes-but . no 'way is it described as architect designed or furnished. The staff is one person, myself" who supplies individual service and keeps the overhead at miniml,Jm so that the best price is offered to you.


30 the chevron

friday, september 13, 1974

Intramurals 74

/Notice of ~tudents Council


activity -,Archery

- contad person-

regular sessions

organizational meeting

Mondays 7-1Opm Red Activities PAC

Monday, Sept. 16 Red Activities 'Area, PAC,7:00pm

Don Statham 743-7796

Sunday, Sept. 15; 7pm Waterloo Lanes

Robert Sleep Mark Smith

5 pin Bowling Sundays 7-9pm Waterloo Bowling Lanes Curling

Mondays & Thursdays-4~6pm Granite Curling Club

Sunday, Sept. 22 7pm 10~3 PAC

Bob Jerrard Pat Munroe


Wednesday 7-1Opm Thursdays 5-7 pm Red Activities'

Wednesday, Sept. 187pm Red Activities

George Faygas Vic Dicarlo

Orienteering Regular Weekend meets for all levels of ability

Sept. 11 Room 1083 PAC_Spm

'Dayle Vraets Ext. 3550


Monday Sept. 9 1083 PAC 7pm

Ken Brown 884-5803


Regular practices 5-7pm Columbia Fields Varsity team plus seconds Instruction 6-7 pm each evening; Rec Sailing. any time

- Sunday Sept. 15 1: 30pm 1083 PAC

Hal New,llon


Weekly trips; instruction films and~ fashion shows


Tuesday and Sunday 7:30-9:30 6-8pm; Underwater hockey a specialty

Sunday Sept. 15 1083. PAC 8pm

Mark Yunker ~4-0962 .

Weightlifting Monday-Friday 7-9pm Seagr.J,m Stadium

Monday Sept 16 7pm . Seagram Stadium

Franklin Hardin


Sunday Sept. 15 5pm 1083 PAC

Not Available

. activity

entry date

A by-election is being called to fill the following vacancies on students council arts

MiIre Ruwald 884-9042

Sunday Sept. 22 8pm Room 1083 PAC

Sundays 4-6pm pool PAC; Instruction


organizational meeting


explanation 5-6 games possible-tournie Sun Oct. 6; 3 ladies on field; 15 per team pitch to own team

Co-ed Slow Pitch

Mon. Sept. 16

Wed. Sept. 18 1083 PAC 8:30 pm

Sat. Morn'. 10 am Sun. afternoon 1:30 Columbia fields

BliJ.ll Hockey

Mon. Sept. 23

Thurs. Sept. 26 Seagrams' 7:30 pm

Mon & Wed. 4:45-10:45 6-7 games & tournament Seagrams min. !O per team

Floor Hockey

Mon. Sept. 23

Thurs._Sept 26 Seagrams 8:30pm

Tues & Thurs 4:45Seagrams

entry date Sept. 16-20 , Qualifying

tournament date Championship 36 holes Sat. Sept. 28, Sun. Sept. ~

Tennis Singles Tennis Award

Fri. Sept. 27

Mon. Sept. 30-Sat. Oct. 5

,Horseshoes Mixed Doubles Badminton _

Fri. Sept. 27

Sun. Sept. 29

Fri. Oct. 25

Tues. Oct. 29 & Nov. 5


entry date "

organizational meeting Tues. Sept. 17 7:30pm l00(PAC

Flag football Delahey Trophy

Mon. Sept. 16 AorBLevel

Soccer MacKay Bowl Lacrosse Vinnicombe Cup

Mon. Sept. 16 Aor-Blevel Mon. Sept. 16

Tues. Sept. 17 8:30pm.1001PAC wed. Sept. 18 1:30pm 1083 PAC

entry date activity Wed. Sept. 11 St. Jerome's Invitational Softball Tourney Fri. Sept. 20 5th Annual Ring Road Bicycle Race .Eri. Sept. 20 Little Olympic Track &Field

tournament date , Sat. Sept. 14 _. Sun. Sept. 15

starting date Thurs Sept. 19


Sept. 19

Fri. ~ept. 20

time & location Mon-Thurs. 4:457: OOpm Village Green & Col. Fields Mon-Thurs. 4:457pm Col. 1 & ~ Fri. and Sat. 4: 45-7pm, 10am-12noon


Sat. Sept. 21 Mon. Sept. 23路 Rain Date: Sept 24

time & location ViI. GreEm& Col. ALLDAY North Kiosk 9:30am. Seagram Stadium 7:00pm.

e,xplanation Single Elimination with a consolation minimum w games 4 riders, 2 bikes per team; 1 lap pet rider 7 field & 9 track events-:::do your best type of meet

1 seat

mat.hematics (regular) science (regular)

1 seat 1 seat

integrated studies renison

1 seat 1 seat

Chief Returning Officer Federation of Students

6-7 games & tournament mIn. 10 per team

time & location explanation Foxwood Golf Club Playas many rounds (Past st. Agatha) to qualify that week. Top golfers will qualify for A & B championship levels Waterloo Tennis A & IB level-Single Club7-11 pm. .,;Elimination with a consolation ViI. Green 1 pmSingle Elimination 6:30 pm: with a Consolation Preliminary Rounds A & B levels Single 7:30pm.-gym Elimination with Championship a consolation


Nominations, open Tuesday September 17th and close Tuesday September 24th at -1,:30 p.m. Nomination forms are available from Helga Petz in the federation office campus centre room 235, and must be returned to that office by 4:30 September 24th.


activity Golf (Paul Knight)

3 seats

Instructional intramurals

Badminton: Sunday, September 15 in room 1083 of thePAC building at 7pm. The regular sessions are at 9-12 on Saturday mornings in the gym. The lessons' consist of five one hour sessionS. Judo: Sunday Sept. 15 in the combatives room of the PAC building at 7pm. The regular sessions will be held on Tuesdays and Thursdays between 7 and 9 in the evening in the Red and Blue Activities-and Combatives room. Kinder Swim: Sunday, Sept. 15 at the red north entrance to the PAC building at 1-4pm. Regular sessions will be held at Tuesday 9:30-10:15, 10: 15-Uam, starting on Sept. 24. The cost is four dollars for eight lessons. The program is for children under five only. Fitness: Sunday, Sept. 15 in the 1083 room of the PAC building at 8pm .. The regular program will be established, daily, on Monday, Sept. 23. This program hopes to establish a regular enjoyable program of exercise through jogging, weight training and ph楼sical activity. Skating: Sunday, October 5at8pm in room 1089 of the PAC building. The program will run for two weeks starting OB October 20 on Tuesdays and Thursdays 1:30-3:00pm. The sessions will be geared to non-skaters and beginners. Squash: Sunday; Sept. 15at7:30pm in room 1089 in thePA~ building. The sessions will be held on Monday, Sept. 23 to Thursday of the same week and consists of three one hour sessions. Courts used will be 1069-1072. Swimming: Sunday, Sept. 15 at 7:30pm in the pool gallery of the PAC building. The classes will be held on Mondays,-Tuesdays and Fridays from 7:30 to 9pm starting on Monday 23. The program consists of programs for non-swi!Dmers, and then everything up to senior AR. Tennis: Sunday, Sept. 15 in room 1083 of the PAC building at 2pm. 'J,'he regular sessions will start on Sept. 22 at the Waterloo Tennis club running from ~12 on Sunday mornings.

friday, september )3, 1974 _ _ _ _ _ _--._ _- - - - - - - - - : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - " " " ' - - - - t h e chevron


Iwoc FRIDAY Selections from the University of Waterloo permanent collection. Art Gallery 9-4 pm. Free Admission., Information Waterloo. Info about the community and university. In CC great hall all day. Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk 9:30 ani. Arts Library Tours meet at reference desk 10:30 am. Federation Pub CC with John Love.sin. 12 noon to 1 am. 50 cents admission after'" pm. Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk 1:30. Arts Library tours meet at reference desk. 1: 30 pm. Federation Flicks: Sleuth with Laurence Olivier and Michael Caine. All 16 8 pm.

Selections from the University -of Waterloo permanent collection. Art· Gallery 2-5 pm. Free admission. First general meeting of the Ukrainian Students Club. Club Picnic. 2 Pm in front of Modern Languages.

Optometry Golf Tourney. For information enquire Optometry Society. Kin. Bike I Car Rally. Meet at PAC building. For info'enquireKin. Society.

Concert with Perth County Conspiracy and Spott Farm. 8 pm WLU auditorium. Admission.$2 at door. Benefit conCert for CKWR-FM 98.7.

SUNDAYOptometry Sports Day at Columbia Field. For info enquire Optometry Society. Federation Pubwith John Lovesin. CC 8 pm. 50 cents after 7 pm.

Stratford Play: Love's Labour's Lost. 2 pm. For tickets and inform.ation enquire at Fed. office CC235. ' Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk. 2: 30 pm. Concert-Moe Kaufman 8:30 pm Humanities Theatre. Sponsored by Federation of Students. For tickets, inquire at Fed. offiCe CC235. Free movies, sponsored by Campus Centre Board. CC great hall 10: 15 pm. Movie: The' Fox.

Organization and Orientation meeting for Associcltion of Greek StUdents. All students of Greek descent are invited to attend. 7:30 pm CC1l3.

Drama aUditions for major fall productions and non productions. 8 pm HUMI80. For further info contact Maurice Evans, drama director, ML121, ext. 2533: The Master Builder by Henrik Ibsen .presented by the Everyman theatre of Waterloo. 8 pm Theatre of. Arts. A Norwegian classic ,aiJout youth and dreams. Admission $l!.50; students $1. Central box office ext. 2126.

Drama auditions for major. fall productions and noon productions. 8 pm HUMI80. For further info contact Maurice Evans, drama director M(121, ext. 2533. Chess Club meeting. 7:30 pm CC135. Concert Choir rehearsal 7-9 pm AL113. For further information contact Alfred Kunz, music director, AL6, ext. 2439.

'Concert Band rehearsal 5:30-7 pm AL6. For further info contact Alfred Kunz, music director, AL6, ext. 2439.

WEDNESDAY Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk. 10:30 am. Arts Library tours meet at ref~ence desk. 10:30 am.


Engineering-~ath-Scie~ce Library tours meet at reference desk. 10:30 am.

English Department of the U of W presents 1st of its series of lectures on Fantasy Fiction being presented at the Kitchener Public Library in the Gallery at 7 pm. For further information contact the English Department, U of

Federation Pub with Michael Lewis. 12 , noon to 1 am CC. 50 cen~s after 7 pm.


classified LOST

CoupleS' needed. Part time and full time openings. Very rewarding. Must have car and be bondable. Call 8840788. Pregnant and Distressed? Birth Control Centre 885-1211, ext. 3446. Doctor referrals, unplanned and unwanted pregnancy counselling Clnd follow-up birth control information. Complete confidence.

One set of keys on a ring, no identification on it, in field by St. Jerome's on Sunday, Sept. 8th. Reyvard. Call Dave or Paui 884-9677.

PERSONAL Readers needed for blind student in Recreation, willing to pay. Call Lorne DaleY"at 745-4022.,

leedback Thanks feds

Federation Pub with Michael Lewis. 12 noon to''l am CC. 50 cents after 7 pm.

Concert-Steppenwolf, 8: 30 pm. Sponsored by Federation of Students. 'For tickets enquire at Fed office, CC235.


Federation Flicks: Sleuth with Laurence Olivier and Michael Caine. 8 pm All 16.

Sci-Soc Pub with Brussel Sprout 8:30 pm south campus hall.

Arts Library tours meet at refeience desk. 1: 30 pm ..

Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk. 2:30 pm.

Drama auditions for major fall productio'ns and noon prq.ductions. 8 pm HUM180 For further information contact Maurice Evans, drama director, ML121, ext. .2533. Organizational meeting for Amateur Radio classes. 7: 30 pm E2-3342. Optometry Smoker. For info enquire O~tometry Society. .

Federation Pub CC 7 pm with John' Lovesin .• 50 cents after 7 pm.

Village 1 pub with a steel band 8 pm Red & green Dining Hall. - .

Arts Library tours meet at reference desk. 10:30 am.

Arts Library Tours meet at reference desk. 1:30 pm.

Engineering-Math-Science Library Campus Centre Board free jazz con- 'tours meet at reference ·desk. 10:30 cert with Jazz Art Ensemble. CC great am. hall 8 pm. Followed by all-night horror Arts Library tours meet at reference movies with breakfast in the morning. desk. 10:30 am. Movies: House That Dripped Blood, Federation Pub with Michael Lewis. 12 Tales of the Crypt, Whatever Hap-- noon to 1 am CC. 50 cents admission pened to Aunt Alick and The Rein- after 7 pm. , carnate. . Arts Library Tours meet at reference Arts Society Pub south campus hall desk. 1:30 pm. 8:30 pm, with Saltspring Rainbow Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at'referen'ce desk. 2: 30 pm. Band. $1 Fed members.


31 ,

Address all letters to the Editor, _ Chevron, Campus Centre. Please type on a 32 or a 64 character line, doublespaced. ~ pseudonym may be run if we are provided with the real narrie of the writer.

Dear' Friends: I write this letter to be printed in your newspaper so to publicly thank the School of Opto~etry, the Federation of Students, and all at the University of Waterloo who contributed and supported financially the Caribbean Vision Care Proj!ltt. We who live in the Caribbean see your money and efforts as a very worthwhile en- Dear member of the Chevron staff, deavor. Here in Carriacou, a small Despite the limitations in space island of 14.5 square miles, 350 and reporting staff due no doubt to children were screened with eye your limited budget, I feel that you tests, 75 were given thorough people are sincerely interested in examinations, and 25-30 bringing pertinent topics out in the youngsters received glasses. \ open for the good of the student There are about 10 children body. For this reason I submit to receiving special further attention you a poem of mine 'written quite now thQ;mgh charities for recently and of a very obvious operations and further treatment. relevance to my fellow students. These figures' do not mean as This topic is controversial and for much as the fact that most of these this reason I suspect will' bring a children would never have seen an great deal of disagreement down eye doctor were it not f()r the on me, but I welcome whatever University of' Waterloo's Op- reaction it may cause an,d feel tometry program. ready to answer for my' conWe at Madonna House victions with facts. In short I'm Apostola,te saw a great service hoping that you may find space for rendered, as the smaller Carib- this poem in the light of your bean Island!,! are often' in responsibility to represent .the

Abortion maligned


I would like to correspond' with a sincere and' ur,Jderstanding female. I am at present confinded in a federal institution. Ralph Belevins 30157138, Box P.M.B., Atlanta, Ga: 30315. Helping to alleviate the pains of loneliness can be the most beautiful -.. feeling a confined man can experience. I'm six feet one, weight 168 pounds, thick p,lush ako, brown eyes, sun sign aries. Nathan Curry No. 135-847, P.O. Box 69 London, Ohio.

need of Medical Attention_ We different views of all sections of hope you who made the program the student body_ possible realize its import and our Yours sincerely. appreciation, ,and we / ..look Bill Trusz foreward to the.continuation of the The Nativ-ity Tbat Never Was Caribbean Vision Care Project a nativity that never was 'in A.D. again in 1975. . Very Sincerely. nineteen hundred and seventy four Trudi Cortens for , took place in a dingy hospital with Madonna House Apostolate a neon cross above the door

Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk. 10:30 am. Arts Library tours meet at reference desk. 10:30 am. Chevron forum in CC great hall. 1 :30 pm. Engineering-Math-Scienc;e Library tours meet at reference desk. 2: 30 pm. Fed- Flicks: Jesus Christ Superstar 8 pm AL116. Fed Pub with Paul Languille. 12 noon to 1 am. CC. 50 cents after 7pm. Arts Library tours meet at reference desk. 1:30 pm. Optometry Pub with 8:30 pm South Campus Hall Admission $1 Feds. The Master Builder by Henrik Ibsen presented by the Everyman Theatre of Waterloo. 8 pm Theatre of Arts. A Norwegian classic about youth and dreams. Admission $1.50; students $1. Centra I box office ext. 2126. Fine arts. 3;46R, Renison College. 'The .Film in Canada'. A study of selected Canadian films, documentary, ex-~ perimental and fictional and a consideration of particular themes and issues in Canadian cinema. 7-10 pmln addition to films, a number of Canadian film makers will be invited to present their work and experiences. Chamber. Choir rehearsal 7-9 P.£ll AL6. For further info contact Alfred Kunz, . music director, AL6, ext. 2439.

Classified ads are accepted between 9 and 5 each day in the Chevron office. Ask for Charlotte. The ad deadline is Tuesday afternoon by 3 pm. All Glassified ads must' be prepaid.

Pregnant and Distressed? 'Birthright 579-3390. Pregnancy tests, medical and [ega I aid, housing, clothing, complete confidence. ,


window defroster, very good condition, Phone 1-638-2183. 1972 Datsun 24OZ, only 78,000 miles, executive driver, undercoated, AM-FM radio, $3,900 or best offer. Phone 5795700. 1971 Volvo station wagon, $2,200, certified, very good condition. Apply 608 Westminster Drive, Preston, after 5pm Monday to Friday. 1972 Toyota Corolla 1600, automatic transmission, 46,000 miles, excellent condition, $1,700. 13 Betzner, Kitchener.


Lonely prisoner wishes to correspond to anyone. Age 25. Terry E. Rahn 131547, Box 69, London Ohio 43140.

Temple Shalom, a Reform Jewish Congregation, requires religious school and Hebrew teachers for the term beginning October 5th. For information call Ethel Fahidy 579-0936..



One portable radio; Heathkit AM-FM model Gr-17~ Has never been used; will guarantee for 90 days. Please call Klaus at 885-0268 if interested.

IBM selectric, .40 cents per page. Located in Lakeshore Village. Call 8846913 anytime.

1971 Toyota Corolla, 1200 cc, 2 door coupe, 4 speed standard, radio, rear

Thesis essays, arts subjects only.' Westmount area. 2 or 3 days notice. Phone 743-3342.

the mother was a sweet lost child the child (for what its \forth) was 'conceived without a father- . you might say a virgin birth


three very learned doctors came and from their cases of polished black they brought forth gifts-a scalpel, a pair of tongs and a sterile plastic sack the sirens of' the city made an awful racket in the streets around the sound rose to the heavens like a choir of six million brats bawlingan awful sound o silent night yon virgin slept a sleep of heavenly peace the ether wouldn't wear off til her pain began to decrease o. silent night 0 who would think that outside on the plain the leader ()f the land had ordered all the children to be slain!

member: canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by dumont press graphix and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of waterloo. .Content is the sole responsibility of the chevron editorial staff. Offices are located in the campus centre; (519) 8851660, or university local 233l. This issue of ithe chevron was brought to you through the combined efforts of several lumberjacks who killed the trees for the paper, several olympia typewriters, a couple of ..pentax cameras, ilford film, a compugraphic and few perforators and yes the people behind them_ Thanks to the people who did the food supplement, Gary Robins and others unknown, thanks also to all the people who showe~ an interest in the paper by coming and talking to us. The largely human element behind this weeks paper was john morris, david cubberley, mike gordon, ron colpttts, peter hopkins and various other unknown but very alive people. nrh.


friday, september 13, 1974

the chevron



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