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University of Waterloo Waterloo, Qntario volume 15, number 37 thursday, march 27, ‘1975



Students’ council found out Monday much to its dismay that the 7975-76 federation budget has to be cut $34,000 to meet projected revenue (from student fees) of $250,000. In rapt attention, entertainment coordinator Niki Kle.jn and graduate councillor Robbie Mock closely go over parts of the bu‘dget. _

Women’s’ sports Goodyear worker Cambodia week Feedback .‘. . . . . Citiz.en’s coalition

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Last week it was no, but it soon changed to yes, and Renison COIlege, has agreed to binding arbitration in its dispute with the Canadian University Association of Teachers (CAUT) over the firing of professor Jeffery Forest. On March 19, the Renison board of governors refused to accept the terms offered by CAUT for binding arbitration. But they reversed that decision two days later. News of the board’s refusal to go to arbitration brought immediate reaction on campus. While student senator, Andy Telegdi, was collecting signatures which would enable” him to call a special meeting of Senate, some Arts faculty members were discussing possible motions which would establish an altemative programme for Renison students in the event that CAUT censured the college. Why the board changed its mind within 48 hours is not clear, and neither .the chairman, William Townshend, nor the ‘principal, lohn Towler, were available for comment. But what is known is that UW president Burt Matthews had one of his regular monthly meetings with the church college principals on March 21. ,And a CAUT statement released -Monday explains that an agreement was “following -further reached efforts-. . . which involved the UW president, the chairman of the board of governors,” and CAUT’s chief negotiator professor Jim, Stevens. __ When the&talks broke down last week UW Faculty Association president Mike McDonald said that -he saw no hope of the negotiations reopening_ but added “maybe with enough pressure they might be brought to their senses.“_No one will admit to putting any-pressure on the college but it seems something happened within those 24 hours since the proposal accepted by the board on Friday was the same one which it rejected on

Wednesday. -’ tinue at Renison College, then the The next step wa.s to have been A statement was released by arbitrator may award professor the establishing of a committee of CAUT on Monday explaining the Forest, as a severence allowance, inquiry to investigate the firing and course of the negotiations and why an amount not to exceed one year’s advise CAUT on its next move. they broke down, and, in an adden- _ salary,” was changed to “if adeBut now that won’t be necessary dum, how they were reopened by quate cause does not exist, then the as the boar& has agreed to accept the college. arbitrator may award professor CAUT’s questions for arbitration The statement clearly outlines Forest, as a severe&e allowance, minus number five, which is what that the bone of contention an amount not to exceed one year’s they were offered on March 19. throughout the negotiations has salary. ’ ’ The board agreed to go to arbitbeen whether an arbitrator would ration on these questions after the CAUT was prepared to accept be allowed to decide on Forest’s members were phoned March 21, the deletion of question five but reinstatement. but technically that decision must with question six altered it was Of the Feb. 18 meeting between be ratified at the next meeting, deemed that once again the board the board’s negotiating committee which is scheduled for April 2. was trying to preclude an arbitrator, and CAUT the statement reads: deciding on whether Forest should The arbitration board, wjll con“At the meeting it was apparent be reinstated. Stevens says in the sist of a mutually acceptable lawyer that the representatives of the CAUT statement “the board’s mowho holds a full time academic apboard of govemoqs were reluctant tion last Wednesday indicated to pointment in a law faculty at a to accept terms of reference which me rather conclusively that our Canadian university. would empower an arbitrator to re- negotiations After the arbitration agreement had broken down.” commend reinstatement of professor Forest in Renison College.” And on the March 5 meeting: “‘The board representatives were.. . still firmly opposed to granting the arbitrator power to recommend unqualified reinstatement to a teaching position at Renison College. ’ ’ Then after a ,March 12 meeting - Environmental Studies’ profs, the group,would like to see more of the .board’s representatives agreed the staff and others now excluded staff and students met last Thursfrom decision-making, in on the to all the terms for arbitration outday to organize a caucus to suggest lined by CAUT bar one. changes in curricula, evaluation process. Another area of concern for the The board met March 19 and procedures and- other issues. The again it seemed that the reinstate. caucus has already identified four caucus is the isolation of the four schools: the school of Urban and ment issue plagued progress. It acareas which need improvement. cepted the first three questions An issue of great concern to the Regional Planning, the department which CAUT felt an arbitrator of Geography, the school of Arcaucus is the method of evaluation should decide upon. These dealt -in the faculty. The caucus is dechitecture and the department of with Forest’s legal relationship to manding that the faculty introduce _ Man Environment Studies. Caucus members expressed the college. an alternative to the present gradThe fourth question was also ac- ing system. concern over the cliquish attitude cepted. It reads: “Does adequate The caucus is also planning to that has developed between the decause exist for the termination of organ-ize support for a pass/fail syspartments. There are few crossthe appointment of professor Jef- \ tern of marking. departmental activities, according frey Forest as assistant professor of to one- member. Another comIn addition, caucus members are Social Work at Renison College?” concerned with the- differential in mented that some of the individual Question five: “should the apwages between the faculty and . -societies in the faculty are stronger pointment of Prof. Forest continue support staff. Furthermore the - than the Environmental Studies at Renison College?” was the one caucus will look at working condiSociety. The architecture students which they would not accept. tions and other staff concerns. take little interest in ESS activities, And question six: “If it is r&t The caucus also questions-the the member said. considered appropriate for profeshierarehial process of decisionThe caucus wants more “crosssor Forest’s appointment to conmaking within the faculty. Instead, departmental and cross-strata



\caucus reviews


is signed on April 2 the two sides have 14 days in which to choose a suitable candidate. If they cannot agree on one, then Mr. Justice Bora Laskin of the Supreme Court of Canada will be asked to name an . arbitrator. Once a suitable candidate is found the arbitration should take place within 21 days according to CAUT procedures. Thus five weeks after April 2 and five months after this firing Forest will-get what he asked for at the very outset, what the Renison Academic Assembly has fought for, and what the senate, the Arts faculty council and other members X of the academic community have called for-a day in court where his I case can be judged. -n&l



ES faculty (staff, students, faculty) activities”. The caucus has divided itself up into four groups each studying different areas of concern. ’ One group is focusing on the curricula, another on decision-making processes, the third group will consider the school’s integration of the school with the surrounding community. This group will also analyse how well the school prepares students for “the real world”, while a fourth group will look at the evaluation methods of the faculty. The caucus has scheduled their next meeting for Tuesday,, April 1 at 3:30 in Environmental Studies room 22 1. The group still needs volunteers and is asking for any other students in the ‘faculty who- have gripes to attend the Tuesday meeting. -michael




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TORONTO (CUP)-The Ontario government announced March 18 changes in the Ontario Student Assistance Programme (OSAP), and the ’ creation of two additional student aid programmes for students in the province. The major changes in T>SAP regulations, which will take effect next year are: -the amount of money students are supposed to save during the summer or’ work semesters will be increased by $100; -the weekly living allowance will be increased from the present rate of 68.50 perweek to a maximum of $57.50; -parental income will stil! be calculated in assessing need for students classified as “dependent” but will be based onactual earnings for the previous year rather than projected earnings during the academic year applied -for. According to James Auld, Ontario’s Minister of Colleges and Universities, these changes “should enable students to enjoy a modestly improved standard of living despite the pressures of inflation.” No change was announced in the $800 loan ceiling which Ontario students must borrow before becoming eligible for provincial grants under OSAP. But students who do not qualify for aid under OSAP, or who do not qualify for sufficient aid to pay for a year of schooling, will be able to apply for up to $1800 per year under the federal loan plan. Money received under this option would be 100 percent loan, repayment to begin six months afier graduation. Auld also announced the creation of two new student aid programmes. The first, called the Ontario Student Loans Programme, “is designed to compensate for some of the shortcomings of the federal government loans scheme,” he said. This new programme, which marks the entry of the province into loan rather than grant aid, will provide up to $1400 per year to students who are not ell’gible for federal loans because of the programme they are enrolled in, or who have already borrowed the maximum allowed by the federal gqvemment. For instance, under the federal loan -programme, persons -enrolled in courses to make up credits necessary for admission to a post-secondary institution are not eligible for assistance. They will, however, be eligible -under the provincial loan plan.


Likewise, persons who have borrowed the $1800 maximum allowed under the federal plan will also be eligible for $1400 per year in provincial loans, up to a total of $4000. Both part=time and full-time students will be eligible to apply for provincial loans and the terms and conditions of repayment, according to the announcement, will be similar to those of the federal programme. The second new programme, the creation of a half million dollar ft+nd to provide bursaries to destitute part-timestudents will help “the most needy part-time students and will permit people in very restricted financial circumstances to take post-secondary courses that may enable them to improve their financial situation.” Under this bursary programme, students who are on welfare, unemployed, or from low-income-families will receive grants to cover the cost of tuition, books and equipment. ChrisHarries, spokesman for the Ontario Federation of Students, said the changes in OSAPwere ‘7very disappointing.” The $100 increase in mandatory summer savings, and the calculation of parental contribution based on actual rather than projected earnings would take money away from students receiving OSAP, he said. He also feels the 18.5 percent increase in the student living allowance, the first in three years, is “clearly insufficient if student incomes are expected-to keep up with inflation.” VHarriesstated that GFS, which has been lobbying for OSAP for the past year, welcomed the changeswhich will allow part-time continued on page 5

.Renison reprisal As reported in the chevron last week Prof Sami Gupta’s courses have. been dropped at Renison College. There seecfns little reason for this, and Gupta claims thatthe action was taken by Renison principal John Towler as a reprisal against his “open support for proper academic procedures as recommended by CAUT” in the dismissals of Profs Hygh Miller and Jeffery Forest from the college on Ott 31, 1974. In a letter sent to UW faculty association president&like McDonald Gupta, a full time Prof in Man Environment Studies, ex,plains that he was invited by Renison faculty to teach four courses at the cbllege--Fine&& 346R Film ixi Canada and 347R Film and Culture in India; plus ISS 367R Media and Culture and 368R Making and Unmaking of Counter Culture. He points out that his cources were well attended and says that his summer enrollment was larger than any other course at the college. The chevron has a copy of a letter sent to Towler by 18 of Gupta’s students urging that his courses be continued. Some of his students have nominated him-for an outstanding teacher award. Gupta claims that Towler “advised two members of the faculty at Renison, that myself and prof Sandra Sachs, both part-time faculty, will not be allowed to continue at the college for their “interference” in the decisions at the college.” Sachs name is not printed in Renison’s 1975-76 calendar below the courses which she has been teaching. No one contacted by the chevron last week could explain why. Gupta says that he was given confirmation that his courses had been dropped in a telephone conversation with Towler March 19+The reason he was given was that the courses were special topics and for them to be ,continued. they would have to be approved by UGAG. But Gupta points out that as long as courses are successfully conducted with enough enrollment to warrant their continuation, UGAG approval is easily obtained. Gupta has asked for an investigation into why his colirses were dropped. Neither McDonald nor Towler could be contacted before going to . press.

Brus:h - ’ up 133Rs y

“Well ma-ybe if I could have a few more minutes I could figur.e out the budget for next year”. This statement from federation treasurer lohn Long who now has the task of cutting approximately thirty four thousand dollars from the draft budgets of the various boards.

Troublbd times await universities The golden age of higher learning government’s concern with ‘prohas finally ended, states a report on ductivity’ in teaching,” the report Ontario universities’ planning for I says would be to: “Cease hiring of the remainder of the decade. new faculty; measure faculty workAnd the future spells troubled loads and discuss with department chairmen how many students are times for university administrators, the study-adds. . needed per class in order to balance the budget; expect larger teaching The report, prepared for discusloads of faculty not actively engaged sion at the April 3 Council of Onin research; review the need for tario Universities’ (COI-J) meeting, courses with small enrolments; esasserts that after a period of tablish large lecture classes; and skyrocketing growth in the-late fifreduce the number of course offerties and sixties, the seventies and ings.” eighties signal an era of dwindling In addition, universities could ingovernment support and declining troduce a nine month salary year university services. for faculty “not heavily engaged in The decrease in government research,” the study recommends. funding can be attributed to “pubuniversities individually ..- “The lic disillusionment” with univerand through the Ontario Council on sities as they “no longer are seen as University Admissions should reoffering instant magical solutions view admissions policy and practo society’s .problems,” the report tices to ensure that they are serving -. averrs. the best interest of the students,” Other causes for reduced prothe report states. This review -vincial spending include: “Campus would entail universities making confrontations and new forms of “their selections on the basis of governance have raised questions qualifications which can be asabout the ability of universities ‘to sociated with reasonable prospects manage their affairs: perceptions of of success in university,” the study the academic as a person teaching adds. eight or nine hours a week for seven The remport also suggests that months a year have led to the universities be allowed to increase conviction that universities are too their fees without “compensating generously supported; and both reduction in government grants.‘: these factors and others account The increment in tuition fees would for the financial squeeze which the allow the universities to respond to’ universities have faced for four “important new circumstances and years and will no doubt continue to new initiatives.” .. face in the future.” Greater communication with the Given that “operating grants will public is needed for universities, not be sufficient to continue unithe report says, as they are looked versity programmes as in the upon “more and more as simpl,y an past,” the report recommends extension of education” and not as “that the universities acknowledge a fertile ground for research. Rethe necessity of maintaining and search by universities is vital to improving the quality ofteaching at society as most of the “signific’ant a lower cost than at the present advances in all areas originated in time.“” - ’ universities,” the study points out. Ways of acknowledging “the -john morris

High school graduates may well have to brush up on the three Rs to get into university if UW president Burt Matthews has his way. Matthews said last Friday that students bent on higher learningought to take four to five years of english and mathematics in high school so they can be better equipped to handle first year material. But Matthews was sceptical about what such a measure would accomplish as presently 90 per cent of incoming fro& have a smattering of english and mathematics. However; if ,universities required a background in these subjects then perhaps the high school would encourage then- students to take them, he said. Matthews said he talked to the local high school board of trustees last autumn about the “problems of interface between a high school and university environment.” “Since the elimination of grade 13 and the permissiveness in high school curriculum requirements the problems of interface have greatly increased,” he said. ’ He also pointed out that even in one high school there’s a great variability of academic background among graduates. This’ diversity often results in students being unable to cope with the course-load demanded at university, Matthews added. Students. who fail to meet the standards in english and mathematics skills are shunted-off to specially designed remedial courses in these areas, Matthews stated. (The problem of student literacy was documented in a report by t’he Montreal Concordia University last December. According to the report, one in 10 students write english so poorly that “it is barely possible to understand what they:re trying to say.” Eden a number of final-year students whose mother tongue is english display “gross deficiences in their ability-to communicate in writing,” the report found. High schools and junior colleges have failed to give students adequa,te grounding in composition, the report says, citing the following passage by an english major at Concordia as a “good example”: “This brings out the belief of the hero that thus one has not experienced fear and anguish-until one has drawn blood, and that therefore strength and comfort are attainable only -with the continuation of evil, for such is the meaning of his preaching, SO- that is where he furthers his belief in their continua-tion of evils brings strength.“_ The report recommended the setting up of a short but intensive review course on the fundamentals of grammar and english usage). Matthews also said, at the regularly scheduled press conference, that enrolment projections for. 1975-76 show an 8 per cent increase for the university. However, Matthews is not paying too much attention-to the interim report as he expects a final one in April. The increase in estimated enrolment, according to Matthews, is caused by the return of “stopollts”, that is students who don’t come directly from grade 13. -john morris



the chevron . j I


I 975 >



,to decide if’ students The letters to the two political could be secured if CME agreed. chieftains of Canada’s student aid If the different tone of the two system were sent simultaneously letters is an indication of NUS’s only three days after the NUS Ceninterpretation of the events ,of the ’ tral Committee met in Halifax. last two months,,,then it seems the national union lays the blame for At that meeting the\NUS execuon Wells and tive expressed strong criticism of the “run around” CME and less on the federal govthe “run around” students are geternment. ting trying to secure studentparThe message to Wells is blunt. ticipation in student aid policy forThe reply to the earlier NUS letter mulation. which Wells instructed a subordiIn particular, the evasiveness nate to answer “neglects to remark which NUS has encountered over on the National Union of Students the past two months in trying to get requests for student participation representation on the federalprovincial task force on student aid on the federal provincial task force on student assistance and access to came under fire. pertinent documents” it st#ed. . NUS wants representation be- “We would like to discuss with cause the task force, which presyou in person at your earliest con- I ently meets in secret and consists of only federal and provincial student aid bureaucrats, is ,empowered to review and recommend major changes in Canada’s student aid system. Student representation WINNIPEG (CUP)-A food services boycott by University of Winnipeg students ended March 14 after winning most student demands covering cheaper food and better service.

OTTAWA (CUP)-The National Union of Students (NUS) made two moves last week’ in their stu-. dent aid campaign that may command immediate provincial and federal government attention. On March 19 the NUS national office placed the question of student participation in student aid policy formulation squarely in- the hands of Ontario’s Thomas Wells, who as chairman of the Council of Ministers of Education (CME) represents the provinces; and Secretary of State Hugh Faulkner for the federal government. The tone of the two letters-differed markedly. While Wells was curtly raked for neglecting to respond to earlier requests from NUS about student participation in decision-making, and an immediate face to face meeting demanded, Faulkner was invited to speak on student aid at the upcoming NUS national conference.



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venience” it continues. “We look participation on the Federalforward to an immediate reProvincial Task Force on Student ” it concluded. Aid.” sponse, In contrast to the Wells letter, The letter to Faulkner, however., NUS requests a response “as soon extends an invitation to the Secretary of State to speak on student aid as possible” and concludes: “We thank you for your cooperation on at the NUS Third Annual Conferthis matter.” ence in early May; “We would like NUS research secretary Hilda to know whether Mr. Faulkner Creswick, who signed the letters, would be free to speak on Friday evening, May 2, 1975” it reads. cautions against reading too much into the different tone of the two The letter also states that NUS “would like to meet with Mr. ’ letters. Faulkner in the very near future” * The letter to Wells, she said, “refleets the fact that we feel he has regarding a supplementary survey on student financing, covering already given us the runaround.” areas where NUS feels the StatisBut whether the federal government will prove to be any more tics Canada survey presently being done is inadequate; and to “hear cooperative than CME “is yet to be Mr. Faulkner’s views on student seen” said Creswick.

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-allow student members of the I Foods, the company managing the university Board of Regents to see cafeterias, two to three thousand Beaver’s contract with the U of W. dollars a day. _ -decrease the price of someBeaver had planned to close one foods. of its cafeterias the last day of the -guarantee no price hikes until boycott, but was not allowed to by August. the U of W administration. Close to 95 per cent of students -stop reducing portions to cut The university and Beaver supported the boycott which began . costs. Foods ended the boycott by agreMarch 11 and which, according to -tie portion size to price. eing to: boycott organizers, cost ,Beaver The university also agreed to call -install more vending machines i’ for new tenders when Beaver’s for after hours service. contract expires in August and -partially open the university’s consider running the cafeteria itself food services committee. as the boycott had suggested.

Hotels for UBC students VANCO-UVER (CUP):The University of British Columbia housing administration is considering going into the hotel business to alleviate neti year’s student housing crisis. “We are planning to approach the government to pick up a few downtown hotels as student residences,” housing head es .Rohringer said March 12., Rohringer said buying a hotel

would cost as much as building another residence. “But building new residences would takeas long as 24 months,” he said. “Hotels are an immediate solution.” “Increase in enrolment-is planned for the next five years, with 1,000 more students next year. With cash we could buy these hotels by next September.” Stephan Mochnacki, Alma Mater Society housing committee chairman, praised the move by Rohringer. He said his committee as worked on a feasibility study t: ut has only had informal discussions with provincial- officials. “Buying a hotel would be a very” attractive way to solve the housing problem,” he said. “There was a recent overbuilding of hotels in the / downtown area.” 1 “We could get new high quality places-not skid row at all -perhaps with kitchenettes, suites, apartments.” Rohringer said one of the advantages of buying hotels is that ,students would live in the community . 1 “as students have asked for.” He said the rooms would be fully fur: nished.

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VANCOUVER (CUP&British Columbia premier Dave Barrett told a crowd of 1,200 at the University of British Columbia March 11, that the university system produces students who “want ‘X’ price for their skills with no thought of sharing.” Barrett was responding to a student questioner who cited the huge amount of talent available among university students and suggested an “idea foundation” to make use of the talent for social concerns. Barrett’s response was similar to an answer he gave to another student questioner March 5 at the annual commerce dinner at the UBC faculty \ club. There, he told students they-are a privileged group with a responsibility to provide a return to a community that doesn’t necessarily support the vast amount of money spent on them. He said there is grass roots opposition to spending large amounts of money on “airy-fairy education.” At that dinner Barrett told about 400 people students #must examine what they give back to the community that has subsidized them once they graduate. “There are hard-nosed businessmen questioning whether the;are getting their money’s worth,” he said. “You do have a privilege of going to university. Tragically, it is not a right in North America.” _ This time the premier pointed his finger at “the system’: that produces money-oriented students with no social conscience. Barrett said he could show them Indian reservations only 150 miles from “Vancouver where raw sewage runs down village streets. But if the UBC medical school were to require students to work in such “the first place to resist would be the places as part of its requirements, university,” he said. “Take the school of social work,” Barrett; a’former social worker, said. “It’s out here. But the people who apply for welfare are down in the guts and bowels of the city. That’s where the school of social work should be.” It was the first time in over a decade that a premier had chosen to speak in an open meeting at UBC. The last time was in 1958 when W.A.C. Bennett was pelted with lunch bags and apple cores and was booed. Barrett also told the UBC student newspaper, The Ubyssey, that education minister Eileen Dailly will make a full statement on the firing of all members of her department’s research and development division after the appeals of some cases have been heard. Two of-the five fired division researchers and division head Stanley Knight are planning appeals of their dismissals. The other three researchers have foregone appeals and have publicly charged that department ’ bureaucrats, not Dailly , control her department.

OSAP doles oyut more from

pat@ 3


students to receive aid, but was critical of the government’s decision to provide this aid in the form of loans to those who-do not technically - qualify 1 as welfare recipients rather than grants. The bursary programme for part-time students, which is designed for those-who are destitute, Harries said is “a step in the right direction.” As for the New Ontario Student Loans Plan and the CSL option, wherein a-student who cannot get sufficient aid from OSAP may apply for a straight loan under less rigid Canada Student Loan criterion,-Harries stressed that this may work to the disadvantage of students in the long run. “Ail the government has to do to gradually phase out OSAP and student grants during the next-few years is to continually make OSAPcriterion more rigid while steering students towards the loans provided by the federal. government, which are designed so as to be easier to get,” said Uchrrcab llU111b3. ./


In this way, he predicted “more and more students will become ineligible for OSAP assistance and forced on to the federal government’s 100 percent loan system.” ’ Harries cited as examples of more rigid OSAP criterion the*$lOO increase in summer savings required under the new changes, and the possible increase in expected parental contribution which. will result from calculating parental income on the basis of actual rather than projected income. According to Harries, such restrictive changes could be used by government to “steer students away from OSAP and on to federal loans, allowing.the province to gradually eliminate grants.” l

. .

WLU student knocks county jail treatme Kevin Kirby, a WLU psychology student, is appearing before the Waterloo Regional Police Commission April 2 to make a formal complaint regarding his treatment at the county jail this month. Kirby is also asking the commission to investigate conditions at the jail. ci The Kitchener-Waterloo Human Rights Caucus, represented by man-environment professor -Colin De’Ath, is supporting his case and is sending a formal brief to the provincial Ministry of Corrections, complaining about the county jail. The caucus brief lists several complaints: ecounty jail cells are overcrowded. At present the jail contains two to three. times as many inmates as it was designe\d to house. l there is no effort to group inmates according to their age and the seriousness of the offence. l thejail workers are not at all con- cerned with the health of inmates. Upon incarceration no inmates are -given medical examinations. &o effort is made by the jail to encourage the inmates to use their time usefully. Reading materials ofA fered include ‘girlie’ magazines and moralistic literature about the sins _ . 01 crime. The Ontario Public Interest Research Group (OPIRG) is also investigating the case. OPIRG .research co-ordinator Dave Robertson told the chevron that the group would devote its time and perhaps some money to support the case. \ Kirby was arrested when he

parallel parked and opened his car Kirby was placed with six other inmates whose crimes ranged from door on King Street. The charge for opening his car door was a fine of armed robbery to owning a faulty car muffler. $39 or a jail sentence of four days. Due to his interest in jail f ‘We slept in cells four feet wide and five feet de.ep, two others slept conditions, and its inmates Kirby’ in a larger cell on the floor on matdecided not to pay the fine and take the jail sentence. For, as he had tresses and pieces of foam rubber”, been accepted by the WLU School Kirby added. . of Social Work, he “wanted to Inmates’ time is consumed -by come in contact with people who continuously cleaning cell bars are in prisons to gain experience for with steel wool and the repainting future work.” of indoor cells. Kirby is hoping to gain the supMorley Rosenberg, a local port of the students in his school lawyer and Kitchener alderman and is considering a rally to publi- _ says the jails must follow certain cize jail conditions.. regulations, however, if those reguWhen asked the effect of his four lations are broken there is no legal days in jail he said “they attempt to recourse to rectify the situation. take all your self respect away”. Meanwhile, the local media has Colin De’Ath added “inmates lose covered the issue. A CKCO televiall their former skills and become sion news cameraman was filming dependent on the institution and the jail building and’was then surrounded by a group of five jail it’s external authority and feel inadequate to cope with life outguards who held him in the county . . , side.” jail. The cameraman was only reA jail official told the chevron leased when Kitchener mayor “we have a regular clientele here Edith Macintosh heard of the inciwho have no cause to find a job and dent and ordered his release. . _ want back in jail for the winter”. . -michael gordon

FED.E&iTION --i-e OF. STUDENTS Applications now being accepted following positions: *

~~~~~~~ Cinema Soli.diritji presents ’-

A truly inspiring.account of the’worke-r’s , rkvolutionl in Russia 19-17. l=tis a siht film directed by the now famous Eisensfein. After t-he film there will be discussion led by1 \ UW history professiar Leo Johnson. . . ewenirlg- arch 3Q-7:oo p.m. ampus Centre .


by the Anti-Imperialist


for the \

- Chairperson, Creative Arts Board -. Speaker, Federation Council ”


Please submit applications by April 4, 1975 to ‘the Federation of Students office in the Campus Centre’. Both positions run from April 1, 1975 until February 28, l-978. ...

John M. Shortalll resident



W/ih y0L.J;initials and Now that you have your degree, capital; we can help ~~~~~~X,‘.“~~~~O,~~~~un’ow, it’s as that. First you need money make your name tonotstartas simple a practice. Which is where the




Royal Bank can help you. Because we’ll loan up to $25,000 (or more) to help you bridge the gap until you become established.‘ You see, we believe in your earning power in the years to come. So we‘ll tailor. your repayment to fit that - we’ll even defer your first payment if it helps. To find out more, drop into your local branch of the Royal Bank and pick up our Practice”. brochure - “Money - and more - to help you start your Professional Or talk to a Royal Bank manager, who’s a professional too. And befoie you kno’w it, you can ha;/e your name out front like you always knew you would.

Saturday 9:00 Noon 12:15 3:00 6:00 6:30 9:00 adn.

Sunday \ Noon 12:l5

ROYAL BAN I< the hdpful bank

March 29

MusicAim McFadden Scope-United Nations Music-Reid Robertson Music-Ian Allen BBC African Theatre Music-Jim Waldram The Nine to Twelve Show Music-Don Cruikshank 1

3:00 Terry Devlin 6:00 Folk Music from the Soviet Union 6:30 Music-Gord Wood & Steve Favell 9:00 Concert Canadien Moe Koffman 9:30 Music-Phil LaRoque * Midn. Music-Vic Decker

March 30 Belgian Press Review Classical GasIan MacMillan

, Player5 filter cigarettes.’ * ” I At&m you can cdl ~OU~OWIL IF \



Monday Noon It:1 5 3:00 6:00 6:30 9:00 Midn.

March 31

Perspectives-United . Nations Music-Paul Bennett -Music-Mark Perrin Community Services Music-Donna Rogers Music-Tim Paulin Music-Mike Devillaer

Tuesday Noon 12:15 2:45 .3:15 5:30

6:30 9:00 9:30 Midn.

April 1

Thinking Out LoudRadio Moscow Music-Reinhart Christiansen BBC Science Magazine Music-Roger Gartland Profile-James Lawson speaks on the Legacy of Martin Luther King .. Music-Al Wilson Guitar Player Magazine Music-Dave’Preston & Jack Langer Music-Bill Chaitan


April 2

9:00 Music-Rich Armstrong Noon Rest of the news 12:15 Music-Ewan Brocklehurst 3:00 Music:Pam Newman 5:30 Political Realities 6:30 Music-Dave Horn & Steve LaGear 9:00 Explorations II:00 Music-Ian Layfield



’ .

April 3

9:00 Music-Mike Arnold Noon Soviet Press ’ Review 12:15 Music-Neil Green & Joe Belliveau ’ 3:00 Music-David Bucking ham 6:00 Regional GovernmentMorley Rosenburg, Alderman City of Kitchener 6:30 Music-Hans Zschach & Bob Valliant 9:00 Music-Lorne Goldblum Midn. Music-Andy Bite & Larry Starecky

Friday April 4

’ Warning: Health and Welfare Canada advises thakdanger

to health increases with amount smoked-avoid ,


Noon BBC world report ’ 12:15 Music 2f45 Agency for international Development ’ $15 Music-Phil Rogers 5:30 The World Around Us 6:30 Music-Peter Chant 9:00 The Mutant .Hour Midn. Gord Swatters





the chevron



More eon 1 the US assassin’ations .


the book depository where Oswald MONTREAL (CUP)-The assaswas hiding. sinations of John Kennedy, Popkin suggested that Martin Luther King, and the recent Kennedy’s assassination was Watergate crimes were not the probably the work of more than one “malevolent actions of individual anti-Castro group, and was probamen” but we’re conspiracies inbly, connected to the Mafia. Yet, volving large organized groups. even I3 years later the establishThis was the theory presented’by author and .“conspiracy expert” 3 ment still clings to the “sick minde’d loner” view of Oswald, he Richard Popkin in a talk at-McGill said. March 10. -Popkin said this establishment Popkin said the American establishment and media have conview recently manifested itself in stantly turned to the “lone nut the “trivialization” of the Watertheory” to explain traumatic politi* gate affair and the constant refercal events such as presidential asences to Nixon and his cohorts as a group of fools acting only in their sassinations. He pointed out that the Warren own individual interests. Commission into’the death of KenAccording to Popkin, violence nedy concluded that-only one man, has been a predominant feature of Lee Harvey Oswald, killed KenAmerican history and political life nedy even though much evidence from Lincoln to JFK. The Amerito the contrary was discovered. can claim that the assassinations Photographic and medical eviwere the result of isolated madmen dence has shown that bullets aimed has allowed the Americans to claim at Kennedy came from more ‘than their government system is not one direction, said Popkin, and all * plagued with the same problems as ‘eyewitnesses claim the shots that some “dictatorial’ ’ foreign govkilled Kennedy did not come from emments. .


Women tortured


Over 15 million men and women have switched to the “Because they are women, they faced with being executed by the military regime. are also raped, their genitals and Trac II Razor System. This may be your easiest bay to find out why. breasts burned by electricity, evIn Argentina, an. American 4The Trac II Razor Effect: erything from spiders to sticks and Chicana sister, Olga Talamante, mice are put into< their vaginas, and was arrested last November while they ,are sometimes branded with visiting Argentina. She had gone hot irons like cattle. Women who there to visit friends and to conwere pregnant when arrested must tinue her studies. Olga is the daugh\ endure having their unborn child ter of a Chicano farmworker and tortured along with themselves, had been active in the Mexicanoften causing miscarriages or birth American Student Organization deformities. Others, of course, be- and the Farm Workers Union. It is cdme pregnant and are not permitreported that she has been subted to have abortions. Many are jected to torture consisting of beatforced to serve as prostitutes by the ings and electrical shocks. Olga will military’ ’ . Please send to me your complete be in jail indefinitely unless intemaAddress envelope to: Trac II Twin Blade Cartridge Shaving Quotes from a document re- tional support Trac II Offer, 307 Davenport Road, for her can be System for only $1 .OO, includes razor, #Toronto, Ontario M5R 1 K5 ceived last April, compiled by mobilized. 5 shaving cartridges (suggested women in Chile and smuggled into The two committees are’seeking retail price $3.50). Gillette will pay all the United States. Name support-, endorsation, and financial postage and handling’charges. _ - W.ithin* International Wom,en’s assistance, from organizations and Check one only; Year two Toronto groups are trying individuals. The addresses are: Address Send me both a Lady Jrac II & The * .__/ to call attention to the crimes comCCJLAPP-Box 38, Station B, ToMen’s Trac II Twin Blade Shaving mitted against women political ronto. Phone 922-7624. And System (I enclose $2.) . Hers ’ His prisoners in Latin America, CDUPP-Box 277, Station P, ToI Send me a Lady Trac II Twin Blade They are the Canadian Commitronto. Phone 766-5805. Shaving System (I enclose $1.) tee for Justice to Latin American City -.-, Apt Amy Conger will be speaking 0 Send me a Men’s Trac I I Twin Blade Political Prisoners (CCJLAPP), Offer expires April 3, 1975. at 8 p.m. Hart House Shaving System (I enclose $1:) and the Committee for the Defense December 31, 1975. Prov. P. Codedebates room University of To28 of Uruguayan Political Prisoners r-e-a+(CDUPP), and they have invited l”‘lLw’ Amy Conger, an American art i teacher recently imprisoned by the Chilean junta to speak on women political prisoners in Latin America. Arrested thirteen months The Consultant’s Report to the Advisory Committee on Academic Planning after the coup in Chile she WANTED.. . THIS STUDENT! - Ontario Council on Graduate Studies concluded that: was taken to the Academia de * Guerra run-by the Chilean Air 0 This student is approaching graduation and has already shown competence The SHORT Canadian school year pose6 a peculiar problem not Force for political prisoners. Amy and is eager to take up the challenges of our day. recognized explicitly in designing Canadian management programs. It is obvious that an annual academ,ic calendar designed to was released after 13 days, and was 0 This student seeks an opportunity of making a contribution to society not meet the needs of an earlier agricultural community is not suitable able to return to the United States. possible to most. , . for management programs. / Her experience is recounted in an affidavit which was inserted into ’ l This student has the potential for excellence and will unlock doors for the Last year the University of Windsor recognized this problem and introbenefit of others. M.B.A. program accomplished in three stages: duced a unique the December 4 Congressional Re- cord of the United States by 0 This student seeks to become a scholar in the tusiness disciplines in order to Stage 1 Basic foundation courses Senator Edward Kennedy. keep growing. Stage II Intermediate courses in desired areas of study The press release issued by the Stage III Advanced-courses. If you are a young man or woman who fits this description the Faculty of two groups gives several examples Business Ad’ministratkon has an opening for you in the following programs: Stages I and II consist ofprerequisite courses designed to give the studpy ‘of the tortures used against women. equivalency to an undergraduate honours degree in Business Administration. Lucy Lorscht, ‘Chilean historian i BACkELOFi OF COMMERCE FOR UNlVERSlTY GRADUATES The length of study for the prerequisite courses is based on the individual in her late fifties, was arrested two A calendar year (three semester) program for graduates with a “C” or better student’s background as evaluated by the Faculty of Business Administration. overall average, who wish to obtain a Bachelor of Commerce Degree in _. weeks after the coup, taken to the Students who included such courses such as Economics, Mathematics, StaHonours Business Administration. (Entry into this program may be made in * tistics and other Business-related courses will normally require two semesters National Stadium where she unMay or September.) . for the prerequisite courses. Students withoutsuc.h background will additionally derwent various tortures including require the summer term of study. rape and electric shocks. Like most 0 MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION other prisoners, she has had no A “B” average on the above program and an acceptable score on the ATGSB Stage III courses are taken in the M.B.A. candidate year. These courses test will gain your admission to stage III of the M.B.A. program. charges pressed against her and felt require two semesters for completion. These advanced courses permit a student to study in depth in a minimum of two areas of Business Administration. Up to that she was arrested because a ACT TODAY AND.WRITE: two one-semester graduate courses may be included from other Faculties within book she had written a year earlier THE FACULTY OF BUSiNESS ADMINISTRATION the University with the approval of the Dean of the Faculty of Business Adminwas considered Marxist by the UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR, WINDSOR, ONTARIO N9B 384 istration. Course electives in Stage II and III provide an opportunity for either 6 I specialization or broadening of subject exposure in the following areas: Accountmilitary authorities. ‘\ Please send me an application for: ing, Administrative Studies, Finance, Management Science, Marketing and In Uruguay, ,Maria Curhelo is ! (1) M.B.A. Program . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0 International Business. one of eight women being held (2) B.Comm. for University Graduates Program . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0 1 under subhuman conditions. Her In addition to course requirements, the candidate is required to prepare NAME ’ a major paper. non-malignant tumour has turned and defend malignant under the brutal torture ADDRESS: If you have a “B” average, apply today for acceptance to a program that she had to endure. All eight are held Doors.‘,’ CITY & PROV. PQSTAL CODE will open many “Opportunity as political hostages by the Uruguayan dictatorship and are






I *




the chevrqn

Anyone who has survived on the synthetic food at the campus cafeterias would do well to visit the area’s new vegetarian restaurant “The Spice of Life”. The emphasis here is. on good quality and taste, with freshly cut fruit and vegetables cooked to order. Many of the spices are ground from seeds in the kitchen. The fresh home-baking, done on the premises, uses stoneground whole-grain flours and honey. The menu features international cuisine, and one may sample such exotic fare as pakoras, guacamole, enchiladas, curries and Greek salad at reasonable prices. Plants of all kinds add to an exotic decor in which one may, relax after a sumptuous meal, choosing from among more than 30 varieties of teas and coffees.. The restaurant i-s looking for pieces of art with which to decorate the walls of the establishment, so if you have anything which you would like to display for a while, be sure to take it along with you.

march 27, 1975

~Sp.ic~ of &life. Photos

bye brian amos




27, 1675

the chevron

cent of the two million dollars that the school spends annually on sports. “The amount of coverage given to women’s athletics is meager and the quality is atrocious”, the article also said. There seems to be little wonder why women have indeed built up an inferiority complex concerning sports.


Men Only

Nick Timtsenko, women’s volleyball coach, says- that “ Sports were created around men so that males could show their prowess; should women play sports to show ‘male prowess’ as well? Are women too fragile to become engaged in contact sports? Will they react more severely both to the physical pain of injury and the emotional pain of defeat?” Liz Sileott, Tommies’ basketball star, says that “women have a higher pain threshold than men.” Pat Boland adds that “girls will live with pain and not bother anyone while men are used to special treat(merit.? + Trainer Russ Blackwell disagrees, seeing little, difference between the two sexes: “It depends on the personalities mainly. There are those who will complain about every single-minor injury and those who won’t complain too much. Of course girls are too shy. to come to me about very personal injuries but basically there’s little difference.“lMr. Blackwell finds the whole idea of sports being unfeminine absurd: “Hell, this is 1975. Twenty years ago girls would be afraid to come out onto the court in shorts above their knee but times have changed.” Dr. Enos is also on the side of the fema’ie: “If sportsis a good experience, it should be available to all students. Sweating is unfeminine? It should be looked upon as a thing of beauty, as a very healthy phenomenon. There is nothing more beautiful than the human body in movement.. “Sports is a great way of relieving anxiety and aggression. An athlete can take out all his frustrations on his particular sport. _ How is a woman to cope with the anxieties of life if she is looked down upon for play*ing sports? We all need an escape valve.”

Is crying feminine or human?

sports society. They have been brainwashed into by Dennis Lanthier believing that they are incapable of parSome forty years ago there lived a woman who did not believe Bobby Riggs’ . ticipating in such sports. . “Things are different in Europe,” asassessment that “the women’s place is in serts Pat Boland, Loyola’s director of the home, getting the pipe and slippers for women’s athletics. “You don’t see any of the man of the house.” She could not acthis feminist-idea there. The whole idea is cept the North American concept of thatyou do what you do best of all, whether women’s inferiority to men in terms of athit be in terms of athletics or otherwise.” Ed letic ability. Enos, director of Athletics agrees: “I’ve Her name wa’s Babe Didrikson and bebeen to the Soviet Union and women and fore her life would end at the young age of men are on equal terms. For example there 42 she would have amassed a record in is a women there who runs the entire Mossport that ‘would surpass anything, that cow Sports centre and she’s got something anyone dreamed could be accomplished by like two hundred men working under her.” a woman. She made the women’s AllA prime example of the kind of narrowAmerican basketball tea”m after only one minded thinking that still surrounds us is a year of play, as well as setting three world’s column written by Joe Falls in the January 4 records in the ‘32 Olympics. She also starissue of THE SPORTING NEWS a weekly 1 red in baseball and tennis, as well as wininternational newspaper. He comments ning more than a hundred golf tournaments after he sees his first girls basketball game: in her professional career. (At one time she “My strongest impression watching the ran up a string of twenty consecutive tourgirls play basketball is that it wasn’t very ney wins.) femin’ine . . . it just didn’t seem ladylike to L me to see them racing up and down the court sweating,, bumping into each other, and sprawling on the floor.. . When I saw ’ some -of the y‘oung girls. . . crying from Up until recently examples such as Didtheir injuries, that was a little tough to rikson+have been few and far between. In take.. . Maybe I have to adjust to seeing this part of the world there has been a tradigirls act like boys. . . I can’t get with- them tion of women playing the rode of being wanting to be treated as one of the guys.” calm, passive spectators. They are supThis is not only the opinion of one perposed to cheer their heroes on while they son, judging from a series of af-ticles pubsit in the stands and decay physically. lished by Sports Illustrated two years ago, It has always been acceptable for women entitled Sport is Unfair to Women. It makes to take part in sports such as tennis, the comment that “Funds, facilities, swimming, and golf because there has alcoaching, rewards, and honours allotted ways been a certain grace and “feminin. women are grossly inferior to those granted ity” attached to these sports. But the more 4 men.” Scores of examples are cited, one of grueling activities such as hockey and basthese beingthe University of Washington ketball have been frowned upon ‘by our where women receive nine-tenths of 1 per. . .

North America behind times I


Two years ago, when the Montreal Canadians were elimina$d by New York in the Stanley Cup play-offs the headIine . next day in the Montreal Gazette screamed KEN-DRYDEN: ONLY TEARS COULD EASE THE PAIN. It would seem that contrary to what we have been taught crying is not merely a woman’s way of releasing emotion but a man’s method as well. Again here the difference between the two sexes is very slight indeed. “It is a lot of bull,” says trainer Blackwell’.‘You should have seen the men’s varsity hockey team two years ago when they lost to Sir George in the. final. I’ve never seen so many grown men i cry. I’ve seen



boxers cry after a defeat. It’s a very natural 7 thing.” Ann Hamilton, former gold medalist, comments that “men would be a lot better off if they could cry. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with showing emotion.” -

Men vs. Women “Males cannot tolerate a serious challenge from a woman”, says Dr. Foreman, Seattle Pacific College. Do male egos indeed take a severe jolt when they are defeated by the so-called weaker sex? A lot of people think so. “If men can’t accept the women’s changing role, that’s their problem,” Bolaqd continues. “ I can understand their feelings of insecurity, though. Man has this stereotyped role of being the dominating sex, and he doesn’t know how to handle these new developments.” Over to Ann Hamilton: “Women can accept losing to a man, but just wait and see what happens if the man loses. He feels less masculine for some reason.” “In the past women were indeed “prog- , rammed to be,..losers.“, Not only did they not believe that they could compete with a man and emerge victorious, but the minority who did believe did not let their male opponents know and intentionally lost to allow the man to retain some foolish thing called an ego. Now women are less worried about a man’s pride and more concerned with their own.”


’ “~ .

too rough?

Some persons fear if women get too involved in contact sports they ‘will become overly aggressive and will carry this aggressiveness over to the outside world. This would *mean that women would no longer be women in the sense that we have become accustomed to. ’ Timtsenko fears that women% sports will evolve in the same way that men’s athletics have, the idea of winning at all costs overshadowing what should be the true idea of what sport is all about: “If not controlled, it could evolve into more than just a game. Girls could maintain their feminity off the court’or rink but only if the sport is controlled. But I’m worried that there will always be coaches who will ask for that little extra shot. I sure wouldn’t like to see a girl sprawled on the court with her teeth knocked out either.” (This is in reference to Joe Fall’s column.) However, this does not seem to be the case here at,Loyola. Women here have not allowed their emotions and grudges to follow them off the court. They remain as “feminine”, if you wish, as they did before the start of the game. “Any guy that goes after someone after the game shows a complete lack of educa’ tion and real stupidity,” exclaims Dr. Enos. He goes on to point out that women ’ here have a decisive advantage over the men in terms of showing sportmanship after a game has finished. (Reprinted from Loyola News)


MAJESTIC THEATER:t Starting Friday March 28~


and Sunday

starting Monday March 31


‘/ ~ Monday Tuesday


, Wednesday , 2 i.


and Thursday

admission $2.(lO .6 Princess St. West Waterloo phone 743-8991



the chevron

The editorial pages of the nation’s newspapers create the impression that unions are the root of most of the world’s problems-at least the economic ones. As mouthpieces for the business community their insistent harping about inflationdry wage increases, unpardonable strikes and the general irresponsibility of,organized labour leads naturally to the conclusion that the corporate interests are locked in deadly combat with the organized work force. No one can deny the intrinsic conflict between workers and bosses. Indeed, it, is precisely this realization that alarms editorial writers. But to conclude from this that trade unions and management, in the context of present-day industrial relations, would engage in a conflict designed to destroy either party is a serious error in judgement. In point of fact, the labour movement of North America is much more of a partner with the corporations than ,it is their enemy. It should not be forgotten that such a cooperative view of society comprised the foundjng principle of the AmeriLabour. The can Federation of A.F.L.-Cl-O.-C.L.C. continues to uphold such principles: that the interests of workers and bosses are essentially the same; that the capitalist economic system provides the best opportunities -for workers; that any critique of capitalism must therefore be rejected in favour of “pure and simple” unionism; and that trade unionists content themselves with regularly demanding a little bigger piece of the pie. This pure and simple unionism has come to be known as business unionism, and . despite pockets of resistance, business unionism has remained the dominant and almost exclusive ideology of the North American labour movement. , Business unionism is quite prepared to engage -in the rhetoric of class conflict. But the history of North American trade unionism reveals over and over again, that wherever the ingredients of class conflict begin to take shape, or when workers are prepared to undertake a vigor.ous defence of their interests, the practice of business unionism has been to lead workers away from such a struggle-and to blunt the edge of the conflict that exists. It is not enough, however, to,make sweeping critiques of the ideology of the labour movement of North America. One must also b&prepared to _ document such criticisms based on struggles which workers are facing at the present time. Last year, most of th;e workers who make tires in Ontario and Quebec were, on’ strike. DespiteJhe number of workers involved, their militancy and the strategic nature of the industry, little attention was paid in the media to these strikes. But the strikes raise a number of important issues, the most immediate of which is the extent to which business unionism has robbed the labour movement of a leadership capable of mounting effective strikes against the corporations.



On April 25, 1974, the 1900 members of Local 232 of the United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America (U.R.W.) at the Goodyear Tire plant in New Toronto walked out on strike. They were joining the 1200 members of their sister local no. 113 at Firestone iri Hamilton, who had been oh strike since February. In the course of the summer, four more Ontario tire plants were to join in, as well as two large locals in Quebec which shut down their factories during a seven week wildcat. In ail, over 5,000 rubbenrvorkers were to hit the bricks during the summer. Not since the ‘general strike’ of 1946, when the entire Canadian rubber industry was shut down, have so many rubber workers been on the picket lines. The 1946 strike was part of a well prganized labour offensive to force corporations to come across with demands which workers had postponed for the sake of the.war effort. It resulted in important victories on wages and union security. Such was not to be the case in 1974. Despite the fact that thousands of irJorkers would endure six to eight month strikes, serious setbadks would be the result. If you’re a worker at Goodyear, there’s never a shortage of reasons forgoing on strike. Management i’s partidularly authoritarian with a poor industrial -relations record. Working conditions are brutal. The factory, like all tire plants, is notoriously hot;smeiiy and filthy, The huge amounts of sulphur, the 120 deoree temperatures, the noxious chemical additives and the powdery carbon black required for the manufacture and curing of tires, make conditions at times unbearable. On top of #is, the New Toronto plant is half a century old and run down, making the situation worse. But in 1974, there was niore at stake: Job security ‘was a factor which entered the-picture. Goodyear’s expansion programme at its Valleyfield, Quebecplant was nearing completion

with a capacity for producing 35,000 tires a day. The New Toronto plant, currently the largest in Canada, makes a maximum of 14,000. Thus there were fears that Goodyear’s modernization programme would-spell the end to its operations in .New Toronto. Although job security and working conditions /were not to be underestimated, for most workers the main issue was wages. Over the past IO-15 years, rubber workers have slipped seridusly behind other workers in Canada’s heavy industries. In 1960, rubber workers were paid more than workers in the auto industry; by 1974, they had fallen almost a dollar an hour bebind. Most workers realistically conceded that it would be very difficult, despite Goodyear’s ever increasing profits, to make up this lost ground. But all were determined to prevent the situatidn from worsening. The solution which they proposed was an equitable Cost of. Living Agreement (COLA) which would maintain the value of the wage increases negotiated. For all these reasons, the U.R.W. members at Goodyear were ia a fighting mood. Their hand was strengthened by the fact that the local had built up considerable strike experience and the members in the past had shown that they were capable of maintaining determined stands against the compacy. With so much at stake in the negotiations, the militant support of the rank and file was never in question. The unknown factor, however, was whether the U.R.W. readership would use this militancy to win a settlement.




At Goodyear, the centre of power in the local was the five-man bargaining committee which was dominated by the top executive board members. -At pre-negotiation membership meetings this committee presented a list of “demands” which covered just about everything-job security, pensions, health and safety, wages and a COLA. Not surprisingly, this was passed- without a single opposing vote. _ But did t.he committee face the company with the same determination? No one will know for sure. But the comri7ittee made it clear that what went on at the barggining table was nobody’s business but their own. They even took an oatti among themselves not to reveal anything that took place except for agreed-upqn statements such as “we’re optimistic”. It soon became clear, however, that negotiations were not going well. Over the years, in most major industries in North America, patterns of _nego#ations and strike action have been worked out as tacit agreements between the corporations and the unions. The tire industry has traditionally followed a pattern best known in the auto industry, that in each contract year the union would select only one major company for negotiations, grid if necessary a strike. The agreement . -

The Goodyear

strike \ hsintiss Unix -4 (reprinted


from This Magazine)


Once negotiations were opened the company immediately zeroed in on the union’s demand for a COLA clause. It stated firmly that it would not make a serious offer unless the union removed this item from the bargaining table. The union naturally refused to give up its major demand in its first move; the membership was militant, and a strike appeared as the only alternative. On April 25th, therefore, the workers at Goodyear joined those at Firestone on the p’icket line. The explanation for Goodyear’s ultimatum, which in effect forced the union out on strike+ to be found in the overall economic position of the company. The energy “crisis” in the winter of 197374, and the resultant shortages of gasoline, p’roduced a major slump in the sale of cars in the United States. This meant that fewer tires had to be produced, which resulted in cutbacks and layoffs at Goodyear plants throughout the United States. In the States, however, the U.R.W. had supplemental unemployment benefit (SUB) plans included in its contracts. Since the corporations have to tintribute to these plans, Goodyear would be forced, if the downturn,in production continued, to pay out many thousands of dollars each week to its laid-off American workers. By closing down its’largest Canadian plant with a strike, Goodyear could return its American plants to more normal production and save this money. Thanks to the Canada-US. Autopact which allows original equipment tires to enter Canada duty free, American prodljced tires could keep the Canadian market fully supplied. In one easy motion, Goodyear was able to throw its New Toronto workers out on strike and shift the burden of the U.S. recession on to the backs of its Caqadian workers.


- ,

graphic by tmy jenkins that was reached in these negotiations, would then be accepted by thesther tire manufacturers. According to this pattern, the U.R.W. was to “fight it out” in 1974 with Firestone in Hamilton. If the arrangements went as in the past, Goodyear would offer some interim concessions on wages to keep negotiations open; but no agreement would be signed until a settlement had been reached at Firestone. This type of well-rehearsed shadow boxing was not, however, on Goodyear’s schedule for 1974. . . t sI ; . I


i /‘


232’s Response

In contrast to this well-developed strategy of Goodyear, the United Rubber Workers was unable or unw.illing to develop,an effective strategy of its own. The strgtegy of the U.R.W. was a donothing strategy: a strike is simply a withdrawal Z of services; it is not a struggle with the company. In this instance, it was a strategy which Goodyear could not only endure, but one which it, in fact, welcomed. Furthermore, it became clear, later in

the strike, that -careful been given to the gener; -the tire industry. Ron LaH ident, admitted to the prt he went along with the z membership wouldn’t st The first hour of the stl strategy, as well as the concerns and attitudes and the rank and file. T begin the strike with a Je the plant, and then go c sign up for picket duty. were more interested i stayed ih front, at the e agement and office staf work. The union leader: around the plant almosl they returned to the fror no one had.folIow&d then the top of their lungs to and go over to the union ant leadership. Despite their lack of sl ship was determined t1 strike would not get out the strike, the strike pal responsible for the sizea of picketers and distrib gested that a visit be ma to get some tips ofi how /tion. On hearing of thi: Goodyear became irate no circumstances would principle rule of busines contact among the rank Somedne may ge_t a mo The‘picket line tactic w&e a paragon of politer out to all strikers stress act “responsibly” and _; ently, this included the 1 The union volunteered pickets down to a-respe Goodyear, however, c ween 5-15 percent of I management personnc which is not organized. I hired a non-union firm haul materials in and ou effort was made to stop casionally, one of these to respect the picket lint dictable. As the weeks turned i tion of the rank and fil initial suggestion was t! collective strength of sh plant down. But the idc the suggestion of mas: that there would be “tr< After weeks of algum’ nally agreed to hofdinc only on condition that c bit, not stopped. The ( notified in advance of th ply decided to cease all About 250 members she ration, but they were m police, who made it per set, that they were in c( As the strike draggc strategy became more a rank and file became thousands of tires wer from across the .border. no efforts to call togeti these tires, to ensure tl would not .be touched., thatunless they,could st tires, they could not brin onthe combany, and tI won.

I 27, 1975

the chevron


The Role of the “International”

0 I

nsideration had not conomic situation in Ice, Local 232’s presthat the main reason ce was because “the in”. L revealedthis lack of 3;at gulf between the the union leadership leaders’ plan was to D-style march around . to the union hall to e workers, however, he real battle. They ‘antes, to stop manIhe, were arriving for I proceeded to walk y themselves. When ley were furious that Id started shouting at ; away from the plant 111~So much for militegy, the local leadertotal control of the their han,ds. Early in lmmittee, ,which was t;xsk of keeping track ng Strike relief, sugto the Hamilton local lad set up this opera7e local president at 1 decreed that under ch a visit take place. A nionism is to prevent d file trade unionists. nent going. sid out by the union s. A pamphlet handed that everyone was to “gentlemen” (appartien strikers as well). keep the number .Aof tble token. tinued to put out betmat production with 3nd the office staff dditiori, the company. lideman trucking, to the plant. No serious’ s strikebreaking. Oc:kers would be asked iis response was pre) months, the frustranembers grew. Their they should use their numbers to close the eadership recoiled/at cketing. They feared lie”. Heaven forbid! t the union leaders fi110 mass pickets. But ; merely be delayed a Tpany, however, was nidn’s plans, and simb&rations for that day. d up for the demonstmy 150 Metro Toronto tly clear from the outr0l.

on, .the U.R.W. nonmore discredited. The vare that every day, :oming in to Canada le U.R.W. was making the unions handling these “hot” products 7 workers recognized the importing of these ny economic pressure strike would never be

This realization brought into question the role of international unionism. Canadian workers have repeatedly been told that the reason why “International.” unions are good for them is-that in the event of a strike, they can count on having thousandsof American workers behind them. Yet here was a case where their American brothers, in the same union, were producing tires for the Canadiqn market, and were therefore, objectively, breaking the strike. This issue was raised in the meetings of the Goodyear strike committee soon after the strike began. Ron Lawrence said he would contact International headquarters about the matter. After three weeks of stalling, Lawrence report&d back that the International had promised “action” on the issue. Another two weeks passed without any developments. Then, in a news letter, which the International president regularly circulates to all local pre,sidents, there appeared a two line statement to’ the effect that if anyone heard of tires being shipped to Canada, they should inform the Canadian locals. This statement, plus-a further “mention” of the issue at the International Executive Board meeting in September was the extent of the International’s response. This was not the type of “action” which; the strike&had in mind. The Goodyear workers suggested that the big tire plants in Akron, Ohio be leafleted, so that the rank and file there would know what was going on. Reports had filtered back to New Toronto that some American workers had been told the Canadian strike had been settled. The local leadership vetoed this suggestion, claiming that such leafleting was illegal and ‘against the U.R.W. constitution. The Firestone local went a step further. They sent invitations to all Firestone locals in the States, calling for a conference in Hamilton to discuss ways of building support for thestrike. Going over the head.s of the International officers in such a manner is strictly verboten in the U.R.W. and pressure was quickly applied to discourage attendance. Only one local sent a representative.. But the Firestone strikers did not give up easily. They organized a mass picket to assemble at the Ft. Erie- border crossing, and called on all the U.R.W. locals in Ontario to support them. It was becoming clear that the Firestone local had lost confidence in the leadership that the U.R.W. was giving to the strike. The top Canadian leadership responded quickly to this challenge. Bill Punnett, U.R.W. District 6 (Canada) Director, who is appointed to this office by the International president, appeared at an executive board meeting of the Goodyear local and “convinced” the executive not to sup,port this action. His argument was that it would hurt negotiations that were beginning again at Firestone. Punnett was of the opinion that the Hamilton local did not know what was in its own best interests. The border demonstration went ahead anyway, and was probably the most successful tactic of the entire strike. For four hours, all truck t@ffic was held up at the border, and a large amount of publicity was given to the strike issues. Despite personal phone calls by Punnett, most U.R.W. Ontario locals sent official representatives. This amounted to an open revolt against the leadership of the International. About 25 rank-andfilers attended from Goodyear. Hundreds -more would have shown up had the membership known about it, but the executive was cunning enough not to announce even that it had refused to endorse the picket. When word. got around the-membership was furious. At the next general meeting of the Goodyear local, Punnett, who attended in person to defend himself,,was officially censured by-the rank and file for his failure to support the F;t. Erie actiofi. Hamilton and New Toronto-the U.R.W.‘s two largest Canadian locals-had turned against him. For Punnett, the situ&ion was beginning to get out of hand.

The Settlement One might expect that in such circumstances a trade union officer would take direction from the rank and file and begin to propose more militant steps. Such was not to be the case. To almost everyone’s surprise, the bargaining’ committee came up with a “compromise” offer from the company, which it unanimously recommended to the membership. The hand of the District 6 .office could be seen busily at work behind the scenes. Punnett was $0 concerned about getting the contract accepted that he would not even permit the local executive to print up the company’s offer; that was done from his own off ice. But there was more treachery in the works. The bargaining committees of all the striking locals had *made solemn. promises - 5 that every local

in the final weeks of the strike organized its own would be consulted before any memorandum of slate.- This slate presented a programme which agrekment was approved. This was particularly emphasized the democratization and de: important for the Firestone local because of its si;e and because it had been on strike two centralization of the local’s affairs. It proposed months longer than Goodyear. The Local 232 changes for the- local’s newspaperand demanded autonomy for the Canadian section of bargaining cdmmitteebroke this pact and attempted to push through the agreement on its the U.R.W.-especially the election of the Canadian director. The old guard, who did very little own. Ron Lawrence stated that even if all the other locals disagreed, he would recommend it anycampaigning, let it be known that a vote for them . was a vote for experienced leadership. wav. So much for solidarity! At first glance, the “compromise” proposal The elections were held in late November and had some attractive features,‘particularly around the resultsrevealed that the union was split right pension plans. But the cost of ?living formula was down the middle. The old guard w&s returned to weak, and in fact an insult to workers who had all eleven positions but only by margins of betendured almost five months of strike. It would ween 30 and 150 votes. Many were surprised at again mean that over the life of the contract, the strength of the insurgents. Goodyear workers would fall further behind. But there were more surprises. A number of These factors, plus the anger upon learning of election irregularities-were brought to light, and the double-cross of the Firestone strikers, led the at the next general meeting the membership rerank and file to .defeat resoundingly the fused to accept the election results and ordered a memorandum of agreement. new vote. The executive maneuvered to have the It is one thing for the rank and file to turn back a vote postponed,‘until January, and began to fight sell-out contract; it is another matter for fi to seriotisly -to keep their positions. They accused undertake the type of struggle necessary to win a the insurgents oi packing the meeting-that overgood contract. Once again,’ the workers at _ turned the election and said it was a simple case\ Goodyear looked to the union for leadership. Butof sour grapes. They could also rely on the comthe U.R.W. was not about to change its tactics. pany to keep things quiet in the plant and to avoid provocations which could prove embarassing to Instead of attacking the company, it attacked its The holiday season also had members. A U.R.W. District representative was /‘the local leadership. sent down to the picket line to inform the the effect of cooling things off. Goodyear strikers of how ‘stupid’, they were for The second election showed that the standsoff rejecting the agreement. The-machinery of the remained. The insurgents won two positions on union was turned toward “selling” the memb_erthe executive board, but neither was for one of ship on the contract they had iejected. c the important executive offices. The split in the Negotiations were qtickly re-opened with the overall vote -remained about the same. company. One can only surmise, but given the At this stage, it is futile to advance predictions record of the bargaining committee, ‘it would be about what may develop within the Goodyear very surprising if it put up much of a fight. Rather, local. Too much depends on what policies the old the atmosphere was more likely one of both guard executive decides to follow during its new union and management agreeing that “their” set- three-year term, and inrhether the insurgents are tlement was a good one, and it was simply a able to maintain an organized opposition. From matter of including a few minor changes which the point of view of the struggle against business would make it more acceptable to the memberunionism it appears on the surface that little has ship. changed. But one must not judge too hagtily: In two weeks, the bargaining committee came Perhaps the failure of the insurgents to win conback with another offer,. Essentially, it was the . trol of the local at this time is a blessing in dissame as that presented earlier. The rank and file guise. Too many times in the past, the rank and realized that it would be futile to 90 on any longer. file in unions have felt that the business union On October 23rd, they voted by a large margin to philosophy could be overturned simply by electaccept the contract. The Firestone strikers came ing a new leadership. They have usually been to the same conclusion. With Goodyear back on disappointed, for the defeat of business un-. the job, they had no option but to settle. An agionism requires that the bulk of union members reement w&s quickly‘ negotiated and ratified be mobilizbd in the struggle._This is the task that which followed ihe same- pattern that had been remains at Goodyear. From this perspective, the agreed to at Goodyear. The 1974 strike in the political developments over the next three years rubber industry was o.ver. could prove to be most interesting. Although the strike had ended, another struggle was just beginning in the local. Locals elections were coming up immediately and the rank This article was written by a worker at the --. and file opposition-which had begun to coalesce Goodyear pFant. 1. .-.






the chevrbn /



27, 1’975








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the chevron


Science Fiction, row is a part.

Last week was Cambodia week-an occasion for Canadians to show their support for the struggle of the peoplezof Cambodia. All over Canada and Quebec rallies and forums were held to educate people, about the situation in Cambodia and to gather both moral and financial support for the National United Front of Cambodia. In the Kitchener-Waterloo area three events were held. On Sunday March 16, at the conclusion of the Political Economy. of Canada. Symposium a meeting was staged and a film shown about the current situation in Cambodia. (Over $1,500 was raised during the conference to be sent directly to the National United Front). In addition, the Anti--Imperialist Alliance, the International Students’ Association and the Waterloo-Wellington Anti-Superpower committee, held two programmes. The first, on March 17,, “Ca-mbodia week” was attended by over 50 people. A panel of three speakers outlined the struggle of the Cambodian people against the two superpowers. One speaker from the African Liberation Support Movement pointed out the deep similarities between the national liberation struggles and the national liberation struggles of the people of Southern Africa/The root of this similarity is that all these nations face a common enemy: U.S. imperialism. The other speakers talked about the geography, history and politics of the Cambodian situaI tion. After the speeches a film of Prince Norodom Sihanouk’s historic inspection of the liberated zones of Cambodia was shown. The film made it quite clear that there isno split between Prince Sihanouk and the leaders of the Cambodian people as some writers from the corporate press -would have us believe. Sihanouk- is the symbol of national unity of the Cambodian people. The film also made it clear that as early as 1972 the liberated areas had a relatively prosperous economy compared to the areas controlled by the Lon No1 clique and a functiomng government and army enthusiastically supported by the Cambodian people. _ , The audience contributed over $40 to send to the National United Front of Cambodia. On Thursday evening, AIA, the International Students Association, and the committee against the two superpowers moved downtown Kitchener for their next program. An informal and educational forum was held in the warm atmosphere of the Hearth room atdTrinity United Church. TWO films were shown“North Vietnam” and “Women of Vietnam”. These films portrayed the valiant struggle of the Vietnamese in the struggle against U.S. imperialism. A panel of speakers again gave the history, geography and political significance of the situation in Indo-China. Phil Femandez, a Malaysian student at UW, spoke of his homeland and the situation there and the similarities to the struggle in Cambodia. .-- A lively discussion took place -among the participants. On Saturday, March 22, about 20 people from the K-W area, manytof _ them from AIA, went to Toronto to take part in a rally and demonstration in support of the armed struggle for national liberation of the Cambodian people. The day was a great- success . Over 150 people gathered to express their solidarity with the Cambodian people and to denounce the Lon No1 clique and the two superpowers which-support it. ’ Short speeches were given by representatives of the Southern Ontario Committee of CPC(M-L), the Waterloo-Wellington Anti-Superpower Committee, the Anti-Imperialist Alliance, the Iranian Students’ Association, the Indian Workers Movement and the Toronto Anti-Superpower Committee, In addition the Student Christian movement and Bruce Kidd, a professor at U of T, sent messages of solidarity. In her speech the representativeof the AIA pointed out that the eight million Cambodian people have given us a splendid example of heroism. They have shown it is the people who are truly strong by defeating the Lon No1 clique and its backers All speeches were received with great enthusiasm. Everyone present rejoiced in the defeat of U.S. imperialism and Soviet social imperialism and looked forward to the complete liberation of Cambodia. After the rally everyone present marched on the U.S. consulate. The marchers vigorously shouted slogans such as “Victory to the Cambodian People” and handed’out leaflets to all interested people on the way. A _ short rally was held in front of the consulate. - The marchers returned to the staging area for discussions and refreshments. The demonstration received a great deal of support along the route and the demonstrators were very strongly united on the question of opposing the two superpowers and supporting the Cambodian people. Cambodia Week was a success in the K-W area. Over 100 people participated in events and generously gave money to support the struggle of the Cambodian people. The national minority groups in the K-‘W area were especially supportive of this issue. Phillipine, African, Malaysian, , Pakistani, *East Indian and Caribbean people joined these events to support their brother and sisters in struggle. -john





anthologies of original’stories), film and television. . . _ Now there is also the new literature about sf literature, of which

OTTAWA (CUP)-Canada’s Department of Manpower and Immigration . has-different advertisements for different people when it comes to student summer job ads. In student newspapers students are told “don’t hold*out for the impossible dream” when it comes to picking a summerjob. The ad tells the tale of a-woman student who wanted a job dealing with architecture and didn’t get a job at all because she waited for one in her field. But, this ad advises “who knows. Your Canada Manpower Centre might introduce you to a whole new field. Maybe you’ll like your summer job so much you’ll’ want to make a career out of it someday.” . It is necessary to read the Financial Post, however, to fnd out what kinds of jobs the Manpower Centre has in mind for students. “Hire a student to pick your peaches, type your letters, pump your gas, wait on tables, answer your phone, work in your factory, fill in for Mildred who’s gone to the beach, wash your dishes, help your art director, sweep your floors, run your errands, dig your ditches, survey your land, be your receptionist, drive your truck, stamp your cans; ‘straighten your files, work your cash ‘register” etc. “‘You get a lot of mileage from an easy to handle student.” “Delivered to your door by your nearest Canada Manpower Centre,” . the~ad tells Canada’s businessmen. PC“... ,-.CI.srrr\r-c~sra_71~1C*C-~rD11-~.-.,,..(*~~~~~ - 1 , . :. -_, _ -_. Y1 * e ,<wn*v-m-r

Penguin: Boiks,\ 342 pages Science Fiction, Today’ and Tomorrow is a sizeable collection

-of essays by a group of individuals who are all in the forefront of science fiction literature as writers, ‘editors, teachers and critics.. The book has made its appearance at a time when science fiction and fantasy have become widely accepted even to the point of becoming the subject of specialized university courses. The popularity of English 208A (Forms of Fantasy) and 208B (Science Fiction) at the University of Waterloo are examples of this trend. The book is divided basically into three sections: Science Fiction

avoid making outright technical errors, but also make a science fiction story seem plausible is treated extensively by Gordon Dickson. Dickson remarks that the science fiction story must first of all combine the usual elements of characterization, description and plot-to be successful. In addition; though, it also “contracts with its readers to provide not only these necessary elements-but also to offer an experience outside of ordinary reality; and it undertakes to’make this partitular experience believable unfamiliar or -however bizarre-or fail as a story.” The science fiction writer therefore has a more difficult task than most writers in convincing his readers that what he has written is actually possible; if the reader does not-find the finish story itlikely, he will probably not .


and Tomor-

, -glen


Coffee house

Before those who matured in the sixties learned how to merchandize both themselves and their culture and before “hype” became the order of the day the coffee house provided an informal place to meet, talk and listen to good music. But time slouches on and everyone now enjoys the benefits of their very own campus pub filled with beer swilling potential pugilists and- the coffee house has become a thing of Today, science Fiction, Science and the past. Or So it would seem until \ Modern Man, and The Art and Sciyou visit Slaughterhouse in Aberl ence of Science Fiction. However, foyle. the titles of the sections and the For two dollars you can recapindividual essays do not necessarture some of those mellow feelings ily describe exactly what is conWhat is science fiction that were so much a part of the lasttained in the book, as many of the It is particularly noticeable that _ decade. Slaughterhouse has a lot to contributors to the symposium none of the contributors to this offer; not the least of these being have taken their own interpretation symposium have the same opinion the physical surroundings themof the subject to be-discussed, and selves. The small club is housed then approached the subject in a regarding exactly what science fiction is. Frederick Pohl considers inside an old barn very little of completely unconventional manbooks such as The Andromeda which has been changed since the ner. The result is a very thoughtof the Strain by Michael Crichton to be analysis days it was in active service. provoking ‘peripheral’ to the field of sf, Everywhere you, look you see capabilities of science fiction, alwhereas Anne McCaffrey seems to wood, from the beams and walls to though some topics such as the history .of science fiction magazines consider the writings of J.R.R. the hand made chairs. The lighting Tolkien and H. Rider Haggard as is subdued and. the whole place are too heavily discussed while gives off an aura. of warmth and ’ others such as the ‘tomorrow’ as- part of the field. Reginald Bretnor gives a definirelaxation. During the winter addipects of science fiction referred to tion of science fiction which emin the title, are practically left tional heat is furnished’ by three phasizes some of its primary wood burning stoves. Logs for alone. characteristics. He states that sciwhich are provided by the axe The overall impression which one gets from reading this book is ence fiction is “fiction based on rahandling expertise of the owner tional speculation regarding _t_he Peter Owens. that science fiction is a unique new human experience of science and Along with coffee, hot cider and branch of literature which is misits resultant technologies.” This eight different kinds of teathere is a understood or ignored by many, stresses that science fiction must small sel.ection of healthy foods but which has the ability to perform certain functions which lie- corn- - have some scientific or technologi+,,rnuch of,which is produced on the cal content; with a plausible premises and available at reasonapletely outside the realm of nonficstoryline-which relates the impact tion or ordinary ‘mainstream’ ficble prices. Df science to the human condition. --Each week there’s a different tion. Often the science fiction field is enheadlining entertainer who is often hanced by grouping science fan‘subliterary’ augmented by people doing guest tasy , speculative fiction, fantasy sets. Because of the club’s size and Science fiction receives criticism on many levels. Most common is and science fiction together under shape the sound is excellent and the the single lable .‘sf . performer is visible from wherethe attitudek of complete dismissal The ambiguity of opinion probawhich it receives from some, as in a ever you sit. bly arises from the fastevolution of Slaughterhouse is located in comment by a faculty member science and the relative newne$s of Aberfoyle one mile north of the 401 which James Gunn notes in his science fiction. In his essay ‘The on Highway-6. It is open from 8:30 essay ‘Science Fiction and the of Science Fiction,’ on, on Friday, Saturday and SunMainstream’: “ Science fiction is at Publishing Pohl remarks that “the real birth of best subliterary”. day’ nights; Slaughterhouse proas a specialized vides an inexpensive-, opportunity Then, science fiction must also Science fictipn genre . . . occurred in April 1926, to see local performers in comfortcope with the highly technical critiable surroundings. The entrance cisms to which only it, among all with the first issue of ‘Amazing Stories, a science fiction fee entitles you to a chance at a free the; types of fiction, is vulnerable. An example of this difficulty, magazine’. Prior to that time, sf hot air balloon ride as well as a was confined mainly to the-. writings calendar of the upcoming month’s . which can be encountered by the Further information most careful writer in the field, is of H.G. Wells and Edgar Rice Bur- . performers. roughs. In contrast, sf today has can be obtained-by calling given by Thomas Scortia: “Some 821-6621. years ago physicist Sr. Sidney A. many more .outlets: paperbacks, hardcovers (especially novels and -terry- harding Coleman, in a talk before the Northwestern University Science Fiction Society, pointed out an amusing contradiction in the Famous Grey Lensman series by Dr. E.E. Smith. The faster-than-light spaceships of the Lensman series are powered by an “inertialess drive”, a devise that cancels the inertia of a mass and allows’instant acceleration or deceleration . . . .Dr. Coleman pointed out that a truly inertialess starship would be at the mercy of every collision with even a hydrogen molecule, forever. However, he had a ready solution for navigation, reasoning that the starship captain might reach his destination by applying well-known statistical calculations to predict the mean free path of the starship.” In order to help prospective writer% of science fiction avoid pitfalls of this variety, the book includes a chapter by Poul Anderson entitled The Creation of Imaginary

Worlds:. Handbook

The World and Pocket

Builder’s Companion.

This is a collection of odds and ends taken from astronomical science to give one some idea of how to go about constructing scenarios. i for sf stories.





the chevron


27, 1975


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I.Athena V-Balk ’


Canadian OVA Finals. They came up victorious upon defeating a Ukrainian Club team from Toronto in the finals and are now preparing for the Canadian Championship next weekend. In Quebec City they will battle another seven teams from across Canada. Congratulations and Good Luck!

IA -Taste * Of Germ any



The Athena volleyball team was of play in the fourth game and held the hosts of an exciting match the score steadfast at 15-l-2. The Schwerteragainst the fifth and determining game was an ,Turnerschaft Womens Volleyball ardent Idisplay of skillful interacClub. from West Germany, last tions by two unified forces. The Sunday evening at the Athletic Athenas held the lead at the beginning, in performances of harmony Complex. The West German team and poise with spiking and,blocking are a senior -club, maintaining players from ages fifteen to excelling like it ‘never has before. The pressure was on. Their*oppotwenty-three, and who on the average hold six years of experience. nents managed to catch up and tie They possess the. national rank the game at 13-13. With precise and poignant hitting, the Schwerterof third place in West Germany and Turnerschaft Club gained the their ,opponents, the Athenas, achieved third place in the Ontario necessary two points to be declared /the winners, after more than two Finals at Kingston last month. The ceremony -opened with the \ hours of play. playing of the Canadian and GerMaura- P&don played consistent, super-volleyball. She exeman anthems, this followed by pre‘sentations. A commemorative placuted 41 of 43 spikes, of which over que was given to the coach of the 50 per cent were not returned, and European team by Mayor Epp of blocked 20 of 35 balls at the net. Waterloo. Mr. Totzke then preIna Van Spronson made good 34 sented her with a silver Olympic out of 41 left-handed spikes. Five coin from the Athletic Department were ‘kills’ and 13 were ‘converts’. This is a name given to a spike and the University. The two teams exchanged crests and handshakes which is touched by the opposing team, but is not returned. A ‘kill’, for good luck. The international dual-&mon the other hand, is a strategically. promised of a maximum of five placed spike which is not touched by the opposing team. games with a win declared to the team who first accumulated three Murt Bryans played well in the game wins. . fourth game where she made 33 per .This match was not publicized in cent kills. Maria De Costa played a lastsweeks Chevron because it was most demanding game, where she not known for certain when it displayed her great agility and would be. It is unfortunate that composure on court. She averaged 30 sets per game, with an overall such excellent volleyball could not have been seen by more-it was setting percentage of 89. Jane indubitably the best exhibition Baker did consistently good defengame of the year. sive work along with teammate The first two games culminated Judy Rash. in easy victories for the West GerThe remainder of the Athena man team, by six and them eight bench were composed of Robbie points. In the third crucial game, Awde, Sue McTavish, Chris Rafthe Athenas cam: back hard to win, ‘ferty , Carolyn Latchford f injured 15-12. They improved their calibre Lesa Crawley and team manager, \


a. witruk

Renison . Tourney -.


Fuzz and team coach, Ms. Pat Davis. On the opposing team, Heidi Keil, the captain, was the outstanding player, ,making 36 of 4 spikes good. Christa Schubert ss” iked 27 of 32. Doro Schlueter set 85 per cent of the balls with an average of 24 sets per game. Her teammate, Ruth Holzhauser was quite impressive, when in one game she executed ten consecutive spikes. . The West German team is now

Photos by hden witruk

continuing their tour of Ontario and will play teams at McMaster, York and, the invincible Westerners. .-The Athena Volleyball team also has a lot to look forward to. The majority-of this team form the Ontario Volleyball ‘Association ‘A’ League. Last week this senior club travelled to Barrie where they-challenged other OVA teams for the Ontario Cha,mpionship title and a. chance to !go to Quebec for the



Eight Intramural teams from different universities in Ontario participated in Renison’s 7th Annual Basketball Tournament this past weekend. The small number of fans who attended were treated to some fine basketball for a price far less, than the cost of a night’s drinking. Once agai this year the trophy was captur P d by a visiting school: Bethune College from York University, who defeated St. Jerome’s ’ College in the final game, 63-61 in a triple overtime game on Saturday night. A see-saw battle which saw St.,Jerome’s up by 10 at half time only to be tied at the end of regula- . tion time. Bethune finally took the ’ lead for good-in the third overtime frame. Thomas had 16 for Bethune while Gatsos hooped 14. Birthday celebrant Dave Hoover‘ had 25% ’ points while Jim Davey scored 18. Davey was chosen the tournament’s most valuable player by a questionably astute panel of judges. He scored 69 points in three games fo.r a 23 point per game average. His superb rebounding and . .stellar defence kept St. Jeromes in the tourney when the going was a rough.



A year of new tournaments, A and B levels of play and increased co-ed participation saw numerous new champions and new records set. Unexpected and unrated teams rose from the ranks to emer d e as victors amongst stiff competition. Competitiveness was reduced in recreational leagues by eliminating standings and holding an open tournament regardless of record. New programmes such as fitness classes, badminton instruction, co-ed slow pitch, men’s softball tourney, English Squash and seven aside rugby tournament were initiated. Fourteen out of sixteen competitive activities in the fall had new champs. 3B Mech Eng captured the St. Jeromes softball tourney. Kin grabbed the A basketball title, St’. Jeromes took lacrosse and flag foot.ball while A hockey was won by E.S.S. Winter competitive activities again found many new champions drinking from the victory cup. Recreation captured the men’s volleyball trophy (which they kindly donated’this year). E.S.S., after taking B basketball in th fall defeated the Summer Rats in the winter to win A division. Ernie MacMillan’s Raiders are winter floor hockey champs after downing Recreation’s Last Chance team. The aging Kin faculty team-jogged their way to victory in the Ground Hog day rel_ay . The men’s Intramural athletic council reviewed and revised many policies pertaining to team activities and league rules. St. Jeromes once again has cap,.tured both Fryer and Townson points-awards followed closely by Kinesiology in both categories. L In closing, I would like to say ‘\ that involvement is the key to Intramurals here at U of W. There are hundreds of programmes, varying from archery to whitewater clubs. With such a wide range of activities you can’t afford not to get involved.

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the chevron

27, 1975

Address all letters to Chevron, Campus Centre. on a 32 or a 64 character spaced. A pseudonym may

Fairview slams ’ WWSM


The letter of the Waterloo-Wellington *Student Movement in response to a survey of the Canadian Left by the Fairview Col-I_lective is so full of inaccuracies that it demands a rebuttal. Firstly, libertarians are in favour of working-class parties and self-defence organizations. What we oppose is the control and domination of such organizations by elitist, authoritarian, self-serving factions like- the Maoist groups-CPC(ML), WWSM, and their U of W creation, the AIA. The totalitarian, undemocratic, and brutalistic nature of the Chinese and other so called communist regimes is a direct result of the disruption of working-class formations by Stalinists, and their idiot children, the Maoists. These tendencies consider themselves and their party as the embodiment, of revolutionary consciousness. Thus whatever builds the party advances revolution, and whatever doesn’t is irrelevant. For this reason, Maoists feel justified in disrupting or discrediting any struggle, so long as they walk out with a few new members. Maoism views the workers with distrust, and implicit contempt. Its doctrine states clearly that workers by themselves are incapable of correct political action. They need the imposed control of a Leninist party, because their consciousness is too “low”, too ‘,’ spontaneous’ ’ , too ‘ teconomic’ ’ . In the letter, it was Garged that libertarians were conspiratorial. I’d like to point out that anyone interested in democratic political action is welcome to any liber. tarian meeting, anytime. Unlike the Maoists, we have no secret closed meetings. We have no central committees to fashion the line of the day, We have no “mass united,fronts’ ’ , which are in reality puppets of the CPC(ML) hierarchy. The Maoists claim their membership is primarily proletarian, but that’s doubtful. A far more likely source is the children of middle-class homes. They,,are given a stereotype of the typical Communist by their parents and teachers. “These communists are joyless robots, without emotion. They all slavishly follow the dictates of their leaders. A communist talks in not sentences.” When these slogans, young people begin to look on their society critically, some actively seek out pro: Moscow reds. Imagine their surprise when they find that these communists walk, talk, and act like real people. Yost of the kids chalk the event up to experience. A minority cling to the State’s stereotype of a communist that most fits their preconceived ideas. These deluded individuals gravitate towards the group that fits the stereotype most-the CPC(ML). By the action of assuming the stereotype, Maoists provide the state with a living example to use, and uses it well. .Ask a worke-r to describe a person like a Maoist, and the words used will probably be “jerk, goof, shithead, asshole.” By propagating the state’s ,stereotype, Maoists discredit the work of the rest of the left. If Maoism didn’t exist, the state would have invented it. As displayed by the ‘letter, Maoists are pretty thrilled with their self-image of dangerous revolutionary desperados. Note

the. phrases “(Maoists have) sacrificed themselves for others”, and are “implacable foes of the bourgeoisie and the unswerving leader of the working-class”. This pitiful fantasy of standing athwart Canada, ordering about ttie masses of people with the flick of the fingers is a remarkable insight into the twisted personality of a totalitarian person. A few minor points o*n the peripheral distortions of the WWSM letter. It claims we slandered Norman Bethune. I don’t know where the hell they deduced that (probably the same place they discovered their leadership of the working-class), but the only group I know who slandered Bethune is the CPC(ML), by claiming that he’s a Maoist. Now, how can anyone belong to a faction long before that group existed issomewhat bewildering. Bethune died long before Maoism became a separate ideology. But,’ then, we don’t expect Maoists to be rational. As for Michel, a leader of the Paris Commune; by the time of the Commune, Marx was unknown, exceptin a small circle of intellectuals. Proudhon, the anarchist, was the dominant force in socialism. Thus, it’s to be assumed that Michel was too. But by the same reasoning that, Bethune becomes a Maoist, Michel becomes a Marxist. Maoists like Michel, so Michel must be as much of a Maoist as Bethune was. If that isn’t idealism, what is? Finally, what type of a revolution is a Maoist Revolution? The major crisis of today is the gradual loss of control by people of their future, and their communities. A real Marxist revolution would halt this trend. The hierarchical nature _of social structure-the arranging of one category of people over another-would end. In the work-site and in the community, the people involved would call the shots. In contrast to this, a Maoist state would compel all citizens to toe the party line, or else. The party would impose total control on society , including the working-class. The state would be perpetuated in all its panoply of power, perhaps even more repressive than the one we have now. Maoism’s revolution is no revolution at all. CPC(ML), WWSM, and the AIA have nothing to say to the Canadian people, especially the students of \* UofW. ‘,, . Mike


Unfriendly libraries Judy Downing (Feedback, The Chevron, March 14, 1975) has expressed the unfriendly, unhelpful, intimidating air of the campus’ two main libraries delightfully. I worked in both the Arts and EMS libraries for a total of three years, first as a student assistant and, later, as a full-time circulation staff member. I’ve been a library user, both as a student and as a researeh assistant for a total of five years. From this omniscient vantage point it seems clear to me that pleasant, helpful, we-like-you service would be fairly easy most of the time. In the Arts library the user is never right. The EMS library used to be a friendly sort of place but even it has become noticeably frosty over the last two or three years. One so .often feels chagrineg or frustrated after an interaction with-circulation staff. I’m sure there mJust be less nardy souls than I

1 /

the Editor, Please type line,,doublebe run if we

who are intimidated enough to cease trying to use the libraries altogether. I’d like to’ echo Judy’s sentiments, “ . . . We’re all in this together.“. It would be nice to feel welcome. WLU

Social9 ,worker -‘: \ retorts ..*

Sharon Genest Counselling Services

Support for Satii We wish


to urge




I wish ta. compliment Carolyn Sawyer upon her thought provoking article “Casework versus Social work” (March 14). I must confess that I have been guilty for years of assuming that a social worker/case worker were one and the same. I could kick myself for being so obviously stupid in stereotyping my own profession and I am grateful to Carolyn Sawyer for causing me to re-evaluate my own attitudes toward the “helping” profession. One thing that bugs me, however, is the complacency of too many students who demonstrated quite strjkingly at the last Municipal elections that even though they say they are concerned about society’s ills, they will not bother to get off their butts and vote for their own like-minded candi_dates. The democratic’ system with all its shortcomings is still, in .my opinion, the political vehicle through which we must effect ch,ange for the betterment of all peo/ ples./ I would very much like to read a further article from Carolyn Sawyer in which she can state quite positively how ,a “social worker” can work effectively toward change so that conditions of poverty and injustice no longer exist. In my own limited way I have tried to be more of a social worker than a case worker but at times I feel that the winds of change co-ming from myself are just a mass of hot air.


Gupta’s courses on Media and Culture and Cinema in Canada and Cinema and Culture in India should continue at Renison College. The undersigned have been enrolled in one or more of Dr. Gupta’s courses, and have found them most stimulating and exciting in our educational experience. We find the current dispute at Renison College as unfortunate and hope that it can be settled amicably in the best interests of the academic community. As a film-makeer and critic, professor _ Gupta presents an extremely valuable and unique point of view about the role of media and cinema in the mass culture in Canada and elsewhere. Many of the students enrolled in these courses have nominated him for 1975 OCUFA Outstanding Teacher Award for Ontario. A copy of the letter of nomination is attached. We sincerely hope Dr. Gupta’s courses can be continued to be offered through your college. _



Motly Gobin Baiba G6mes Harry Hansen Ross Wilson Susan Sinclair Kenneth Johnson Robert McCrea John Debione Joyce Ko6ns Helen MacKenzie Bill McCrea Norma Sen Gupta






Peter McGhee, executive director, Big Brother Association of Kitchener-Waterloo


the chevrons

by Keith Reynolds (CUP) Representatives of some of Canada’s wealthiest corporations are behind an organization which has just spent $18,000 on newspaper advertising opposing. a union which -is presently on strike in the Post Office. The union, the General Labour and Trades group of the Public Service -A% liance, is presently staging rotating strikes to back up their demands to be paid 90 pei cent of what similar workers outside the government receive. Ten years ago they rece?ved the same wages. The organization opposing them is the Citizens Coalition, the brainchild of Colin Brown, an executive of London Life Insurance. The ads they bought listed “ 10 things we could do about the strike at the Post ‘Ofmaking strikes ilfice ,” which included legal, turning the operation over to private enterprise and suing the Post Office for false advertising for their latest ad campaign which states “we have *one of the best postal systems in the world.” But some-questions have been raised about possible-false advertising by the Coalition itself. In their ad the Coalition calls itself the “National Citizens Coalition . . .A federal non-profit incorporation.” Glen Stanley of the Corporations Branch of the Department of Consumer and Corporate “Affairs in Ottawa, however, sa$ “all I can say for sure is that they are not a federally incorporated body,” nor were they on March 6 when the ads appeared in Canadian papers. The group has applied for incorporation and if they are.accepted the date of incorporation will be back dated to January 30, 1975. Incorporated ‘bodies are required to list their bylaws and directors names with the Department of Consumer Affairs in Ottawa. While the application is only being processed this information is held as confi-dential by the government. Stanley said the ad was definitely wrong, but the legal situation was unclear because nothing of this nature had ever happened before. Since the group is not yet incorporated, his section has no authority over it, he said. Gordon Charles of the Consumer Affair’s Misleading Advertising Section . said the department would be writing a letter to the group questioning their right to call themselves incorporated. Nothing else could be done, he said, because legislation allows his section to take action only against advertisements for a product or for a commercial business. ‘“By some stretch of the imagination,” he said, it might be possible to make the case that the ad .had a commercial purpose if the people promoting the ad ,were also promoting a commercial interest through the ad. The ad opposes government insurance. Colin Brown works for London-Life, a private insurance firm. Several other insurance firms are also represented on the group’s advisory board. , The ad also says that CP Air is better than Air Canada. Ernest Manning, former Alberta premier and a director of CP Air is also on the Coalition advisory board. Coalition vice-president’ Sarah Band confirmed from the Toronto headquarters of the group that the advisory board decides on ads to be used across the country., Coincidence of business and political in: terests of members of the group, tha>ould give Stanley a reason to act, will be tested only if Stanley receives a formal complaint. The Coalition lawyer R.B. Mathews admitted the claim to be incorporated in the ad was “technically wrong” and admitted he was “embarrassed” that the group had run incorrect- information. He said that he had contacted Consumer Affairs two.weeks ago and had been told the incorporation ,had gone through but could not remember who he had spoken to. He stressed he did not see the problem as being particularly important. Some people did see misleading statements in the Coalition ad as important. One was Richard Mackie, the business editor of the Ottawa Citizen. He said the ad “was written in a flippant tone more suited to an immature article in a high school newspaper than to a supposedly nation-wide’ comment on a serious labour dispute. “The advertisement used exaggerations and misleading statements to attack the government and the strikers. 1 .It presented easy over-simplified solutions to a complex problem that faces the govern-’



giby ‘.. ruiade

ments of many! countries, not just Canada. ’ ’ Mackie concluded: “The Canadian business community has enough problems putting across its viewpoint on various issues without appearing to be reactionary and inevitably anti-government. “An advertisement such as this can only lead the public to-believe that thin-king in the Canadian business community is 100 years behind the times. . .” The Ge.neral Labour and Trades Group did not feel the Coalition had acted responsibly, and questioned why they were fighting so hard to keep the employees relatively worse off economically than they were 10 years ago, while trying to portray the strikers as making unreasonable demands. Cliff Scotton, national secretary of the New Democratic Party also found partsof the ad questionable. The CBC, forexample, was cited as being less profitable than the privately-owned CTV, while no mention was made that the CBC operates in less profitable markets in order to bring television to most Canadians. He said the I purpose of the CBC is to provide broadcast service not to make money. Scotton also suggested ~that the ‘statement that private insurance firms gave car insurance more cheaply than government insurance was false. ’ If the Citizens’ Coaliti&‘s ads appear to have a right wing flavour it is not surprising. Colin Brown- admitted to Canadian Magazine in 1972, “you might say I’m-a very far right winger.” There are now so many socialists in Canada, he said during the interview, “the real revolutionaries are us right wingers.” Brown’s name has been in the news before the creation of the Citizens’ Coalition. In London, Ontario, several years ago he tried to organize a campaign based-on a program in Florida, which would anonymously provide a reward to people who

might anonymously turn in a pusher of hard drugs. Some people worried about the possibility of abuse of such a programme and one United church minister even went so far as to say “this type of spying for pay did not originate in Florida, it started in Nazi Germany.‘,’ Brown started his anti-socialist crusade in the early ’60s when he saw the advent of medicare as socialism’s thin edge of the wedge. Some questions were raised at this time about Brown’s actions since, Brown handled what he said was a small amount of --private medical insurance. His next project was to oppose changes in the Income Tax Act which would have seen corporations paying .a larger percentage of revenue to the coffers. He paid for newspaper ads across the country and asked readers to support his stand. Brown -says the campaign-was re4atively success; ful. He estimates that ,400,OOO Canadians wrote to their MP’s protesting the proposed tax changes. , The Citizens’ Coalition was formed to harness the king of sentiment roused through Brown’s ads, and since that time it has carried on campaigns through newspaper ads on several different subjects. Most ads have simply opposed wage increases for employees ‘in the public sector, but one of the most successful campaigns .was against raises in salaries for members of Parliament. During the last federal election the group also placed ads asking the leaders of the four major parties to make their positions known on several topics through ads which the Coalition intended to ‘run later. There was some suggestion at the time that the questions paralleled conservative party policy,.but only the New Democratic Party wrote a letter refusing to participate in the Coalition’s scheme. Brown himself has been very active in the Conservative Party in London, along with other notables such as John Robarts


thmciay, rmi~h +27,+975 the former premier of Ontario. Robarts was . also until recently on the advisory board of the Coalition. He left the board after people questioned his political role with a group that was attacking the wage requests of Ontario civil servants. -. But now Brown claims that even-the Conservatives are moving too far to the left. In a kit which Brown sends out to prospective Coalition members, several pieces stress the glories of free enterprise, 1 suggesting that government services which protect people from the worst aspects of a failing economy are destroying initiative. In an article by Brown decrying the similarities between socialist Sweden and Canada (from Viking to Robot) he makes known what he thinks of two other Canadian political parties. “The present situation-in Sweden is incredibly similar to Canada’s. Substitute for the Liberals the Social Democrats, who are held in power by the vote of the Communists -as the Liberals are by the New Democratic Party in Canada,” he says. Brown takes pride in the fact that the money to finance the ads come from “the little guy”. He claims that of all the donations received none were for over $100. But since the Coalition releases no names or figures it is difficult to tell where the money is actually coming--from. Even the Toronto Globe and Mail criticized the Coalition in 1974 for their refusal to name their supporters, arguing that democracy was partly the right to stand up and be counted. $ If the Coalition members did stand up and be counted it would be found that not all the members were the little guys *Brown spoke of. Brown himself sells $3 million a year worth of insurance for London ‘Life and estimated his personal wealth in 1972 as be;-& between $500,000 and $750,000. romotional material Brown sends to r- . jective members he also includes five replies he received from a letter he sent to 1,000 people asking each for $100 to start the Coalition. Two of the “little guys” who replied were former chairmen of MacMillanBloedel and DuPont of Canada. Two other replies came from former premiers Ernest Manning of Alberta and John Robarts of Ontario. The advisory board of the Coalition has included men who between them represent Goodyear Tire, Canadian Pacific, Brascan (a company with ties to the right wing Brazilian government and former Canadian cabinet ministers), the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, the Bank of Montreal, the Toronto Dominion Bank, _ MacMillan-Bloedel, Royal Trust, Crown Trust, Canada Trust, Power Corporation, Bell Canada, Avco, Stelco, Canron, Abitibi Paper, Holiday Inns, eight insurance companies, seven advertising agenties, Trizec (Canada’s largest development corporation) and 57 other c-orporate interests. While the Coalition has claimed poverty in its ads and requested money from its readers, the Financial Post Suqvey of Industrials for 1972 indicates that the combined assets of 39 companies represented on the board came to 52 billion, 46 million and 58.2 thousand dollars, not counting the insurance companies. The resources of the insurance companies comes to another 12 or 13 million, according to a researcher for the newspaper, Old Mole which has carried stories on the Coalition. Many companies, Brown says, have also provided tax-deductible services to theCoalition free of charge.. Despite the vast resources behind the Coalition, the organization is trying to give the impression of a grass roots assembly of . little guys upset by government* waste and spending and the reduction of incentive in Canadian society. The ads try to get Canadian wage. earners to support programmes aimed at hurting other Canadian wage-earners. In the general trades ad of the public service. I alliance for example the Coalition is attacking wage demands that would only give the workers 90 per cent of what others are earning outside the government. J But no matter how absurd or phoney the issues raised in the ads the governments in Canada may do some serious listening. A chunk of the money from corporations behind the Coalition goes to the Liberals and Conservatives in every election. And with new regulations concerning election expenses a group like the Coalition, which I could advertise outside the binds of spending limits, could be very interesting indeed to a political party that was willing to listen to Brown’s revolutionary right wing‘views.




I Y./t,

the chevron




-. But neither the students’ council culty can establish a course union up to the students in the various ments. All told, a course union’s depends on the desire of students succeed in the department.

nor fafor it’s departsuccess to see it

History shows

wCourse unions, arzy hope? / \ / Dissatisfied with university education? Tired of dreary and seemingly pointless lectures? Well, before you drop out or become overly cynical, there’s a way to counter tedious learning situations, provided you’re willing to let your personal life run amok and fail all your courses to boot: form a course union with simi1ar minded malcontents. But what is a course union? A course union is a means by which: stu’ dents can express their concerns in an organized manner: students can improve the academic content of a given discipline; students can push for smaller classes, closer student-faculty contact, innovative subjects, relevant texts, studentcentered teaching and parity on departmental committees. So by initiating course unions, students can ameliorate their learning process and assume greater control over their academic careers. \ Students will also be enabled to critically view the nature of their courses and implement course evaluations to better assess the quality of various subjects which -in turn, will enhance the level of teaching excellence as well as encouraging dther necessary reforms at the departmental level. In addition, students can use course unions to ensure that they receive fair treatment in academic grievances.

What to do? However, it is one thing to laud-over the effectiveness of course unions and quite another to start them. So how does one go about initiating them? First, one must deal with the state of confusion that prevails among students about course unions, before even trying to, implement them. This state of confusion can be attributed to four factors: (1) course unions are generally unknown to students; (2) course unions, in the past, have been used as a mechanism to fill openings ofi student re,presentation on various departmental committees; (3) students have little experience in collective decision-making bodies; and (4) existing educational constraints prevent the attitudes that need to emerge so as to allow the building up of viable course unions. After dealing with the above, one can then start a course union: gather together 2r interested students in a’given department to draw up a plan to implement a course union geared to the specific slfuation; convene a general meeting and present the plan to elicit discussion and possible criticisms of the status quo; steer the discussion away from just being a grievance session and begin to talk about the nature of education, the decision-making process of the de-

partment and possible alternatives; and avoid talking about formal details of structuring a course union for to do so will endanger the ultimate goal as students will first have to reach a concensus on what is wrqng in their department. Once the students can cogently a&culate their concerns regarding the department, one can assume that a base is evolving among the constituency. In order to further the development of that base, the following points should be borne in mind; a coherent critique of the department which should include an appraisal of the content of the courses and the decision-making process; immediate action on the issues voiced by the majority of students (i.e. students can get involved-in course critiques); and the course union must make its decision collectively and structure itself democratically, in order to have any effect in .bolstering effective decision-making in. the university. Moreover, the course union must have a leadership or a “core group” as it will not arise spontaneously out of a given situation. This core group can be found by recruiting individuals already involved in departmental committees, clubs or organizing events and those who appear to be concerned about issues (i.e. the ones who/attend special lectures and speaking forums). Needless to say a course union must be run by students and be autonomous which will insure a base that in turn, will help it exercise power within a given department.

Students’ council .and , the course uriiohs Toe get assistance from the students’ council, a courseunion must adhere to a set ’ of guidelines. One of the main guidelines would be that the course union strive to increase student involvement and interest in the particular disciplme. It would also provide a forum where students could express their views. Inaddition, it would act as a liason bet-, ween students and faculty in a given department. The course union would also aid in investigating the grievances of students with their academic lives. The course union would seek to bring about open-decision making and parity student representation at the departmental level. In order to facilitate feedback to the course union members, a structure would be set up-involving a number of student representatives who would prepare reports for genera1 meetings. Apart from participating in the im$lementation of a course evaluation in its area, a course union would $lay a greater role in devising the curriculum of the department as a whole.

History has shown that fundamental educational change can’t be legislated at students’ council meetings nor can it be done by backroom politicking on the part of student politicos. It can only happen at the departmental level where the decisions that. affect the classroom atmosphereLi are I made. In a year end report to students council, former Federation of Students vicepresident Dave Robertson averred: “From my experience it appears that decisionmaking at the university is a two-foldprocess. It happens at an informal level: the department chairman and a few of his collegues, the dean and a few of his friends, and the president and a few of his advisors; and at a formal level hierarchical: the varij ous committees, the faculty councils, the senate and the board of governors.” So it is necessary that students’ council help in every way possible the establishment of course unions at the departmental level, where they can pressure incipient decision-makers into making concessions to students. For, as Robertson states: “I believe the area to do this (i.e. increase the potential for academic reform) is at the departmental level, the base of the formal university hierarchy and the area in which the informal decision-making network has predominance. I am.advocating the development of course unions where students in a given discipline can come together to discuss areas of mutual concern and create a strategy whereby they can get involved with their department to a degree that they can exercise control.” “It is important to note that in many cases it is at the departmental level that budget -preparation begins. It is also the area where discussion of the curricula begins, as well as the development of hiring and firing and a number of other topics that directly affect students lives.“, Robertson then goes to assert that only ’ at the departmental level can the real democratization of the university occur; .

‘Paper structures’ -


However, one must be wary of setting up structures which are, according to former Ontario Federation of Students researcher Craig Heron, “paper structures with little or no student support which collapsed quickly when their executives disappeared. ’ ’ Therefore, students’ council must be ready to help students build viable and effective organizations in their departments to meet their own concerns, and not to establish bureaucratic bodies in each department. For whatever the outcome, it is up to students to define their needs at the -Idepartmental level. Another problem which one can en- , counter-with c,ourse unions is the question of regeneration. For each year the leadership tends to change and as a consequence the course unions must start from scratch. To tackle this problem, the students’ council at the University of Toronto called ’

informal weekly meetings of 20 to 30 peopfe who had been involved in the course unions the previous year, to exchange their experiences and begin to diS.cuss’the potential for autumn programmes. These meetings began in August and once classes began they became less frequent. These meetings provided an unstruc, tured working group with the course union people who had similar problems and goals. Another way to bridge the continuity gap caused by the problem of perennial turnover, is for the students’ council to publish a newsletter devoted solely to course unions. Such a measure would better the exchange of ideas between the course unions’ executives and improve communication between the executives and the membership. The students’ council at the University of Toronto, in 1969-1970, started two monthly newsletters-one in the natural sciences and the other in the social sciences and humanities-to provide a means for reporting news and events within the h various disciplines. This method of communication might motivate hitherto “apathetic” students to partake in the “action” and thus help resolve the question of finding new recruits to carry on with the tasks of course unionism. The newsletter could also feature research material on-education and act as a forum for focussing on problems, issues and pedagogical, alternatives. In addition, course unign executives must meet on an informal basis to confer on their problems and experiences. and to work together for increased student participation on the departmental committees. So to be effective and to lend some semblance of political direction, course unions must push for parity at the departmental level. But apart from working for reforms in their own disciplines, course unions must organize interdepartmentally to exchange ideas and to play a gre&er role in the community as a whole. Course unions have to examine the university’s and to a certain extent the department’s roles vis-a-vis the community, in order to prompt discussion among students regarding the nature of their subjects and the underlying reasons as to why the academic content is alien to the realities of the world. One ready example which can show the schism that has developed. between the public and the universities is the almost , .total indifference to the dire financial pressures facing iost-secondary education in an era of dwindling government grants and raging inflation. Therefore, course unions can act as a means to articulate student opinions in the field of educational reform at the classroom, department, college, university and high school levels..Once articulated, the public might become aware of the hierarchal nature of universities an ci the effects on the academic lives of students whose creativity is stifled by redundant and boring lectures divorced from societal is,sues. In short, the course union has an important role to play as a liason between stu-’ _, dents and faculty in a department, as a body to investigate student grievanges and ’ carry out course critiques, as a structure to articulate stud&t concerns with regard to academic reform. -john


, I

Member: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by members of the workers union of dumont press graphix (CNTU) and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of waterloo. Content is the sole responsibility of ,the chevron editorial staff. Offices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-l 660, or university local 2331. tralala, pretty much the usual crowd produced this muddle with just one lap to go. perhaps some people will be e\ien more interested in putting this paper out, thus diluting the melodramatic scene of diane ritza, michael gordon, randy hannigan, john Stafford, neil docherty, glen dewar, hirsute terry harding, stan gruszka, helen witruk and sister. jm.





the chevron




27, 1975


.r.,Falling in ZcnWtvi I-_, ihe kheimon?



will you .miss it?


We-hope not, because the chevron 5 will not be - _I -automatical,ly sending copies of the paper to co-op students or to regular students during the sum-mer. This .is due to the high cost of mailing and labour(itf . , cost $9,000 to send chevrons out last year). However, if you cannot sleep at nights without the weekly rag, send your name and summer address ’ i. by inter-office mail to the chevron. _ i - Names must be submitted by April’ 15 Randy., __.. Hannigan - -’ 1 I Terry Harding Board of Publications l

Amid scenes of riot and disorder college big-wigs congregate to assign marks for the year.


ricula, another on decision-making processes, the third group will con- sider the school’s integration of the school with the surrounding co...

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