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volume

10 number

Ta&e-off

42

UNIVERSITY

on intearated

studies

WLU emphasises by Andy

Tamas

Chevron staff

Uniwat has a new partner in the search for an alternative to the established form of education. Spurred on by a feeling that the role of the university should have a greater sense of community than at present, and encouraged by the presence of integrated studies here, a group of faculty, administration, and students at Waterloo Lutheran University has begun exploring the possibility of establishing something similar to IS there. Doug Woodley, a student in Aarne Siirala’s institutional pathology class, invited WLU administration president Frank Peters to talk on December 16th to the class about the mennonite community. When Peters had finished his presentation, he was asked if there were a way to implement a sense of community in the university similar to that shared by the mennonites. interested him, The concept and a long discussion of the possibilities ensued. The next day, Peters called a meeting of interested faculty and administration, and in a meeting attended by students discussed the need for implementing a program that would transcend normal university activity and begin to create a more coherent approach to education. Discussion is now underway to define goals for the program, and means by which they can be implemented. Peters says that a brief must be prepared by march, in time to present to

Fuculty

seek

Faculty at five Ontario universities are demanding sizeable pay increases for the 19701971 academic year. Increases range from 15 percent ot 22 percent of the present average salary. Inflation is the primary reason given for the large increases but profs also desire to bring their pay more into line with salaries of other educators and professionals. Present average salaries at uniwat are $8,000 for lecturers, $12,000 for assistant profs, $15,500 for associate profs and $21,000 for full professors. University of Toronto faculty are demanding 22 percent while York University profs want an 18 percent raise. University of Western Ontario is asking a 17 percent wage increase and Waterloo Lutheran expects up to 15 percent more. If granted, the pay boost would give an average salary at Toronto of $19,520, up from $16,000 at present. Average pay at York would rise to $15,930. York and Toronto are also bargaining for formal machinery to negotiate salaries and for arbitration to replace their right to strike. successful At Western a raise in salary will boost profs wages by 30 percent over two years.

the WLU senate at their spring meeting. He hopes to begin the program next fall. WLU history professor Chap Morrison and a group of students are basing much of their discussions on Survivd U., a recent article in Harper’s magazine. The article deals with a new approach to education needed to solve the problems of pollution, congestion, and nuclear war. Siirala’s class has been dealing with these concepts all year, and the need for a new program arose from the discussions in his class. Their approach differs slightly from Waterloo’s IS project, in that they are placing more emphasis on group activity, a pooling of resources and the formation of a community within the university, as opposed to Waterloo’s emphasis on individual development. “The mechanical problems of pollution and overpopulation and the ills of our society will be approached on two fronts,” said Woodley. “We will be very concerned with the physical solutions to these problems, and will deal with them from a mechanical approach.” “What we are more concerned with at this time though, is creating a bond, a communication within a group that will facilitate changes in thinking that are necessary before external, physical aspects of the problem can be solved.” WLU is thinking of enrolling about 30 or 40 people, with a possible increase to about 100. Just what form the program

pay

rise

Western student council president, Ian Brooks, called the wage demand at Western “extremely unreasonable” and suggested that if the increase is ap“there should be either proved, a 17 percent decrease in tuition fees to offset inflation and merit pay provided for students or there should be a 17 percent increase in marks for the same reasons. ’ ’ Most pay negotiations include a provision for merit pay. This is determined strictly by the merit of the work or research in which a faculty member is involved. For Uniwat faculty no results are expected until march when the provincial government * . scheduled to table its budgz containing proposed university operating grants. Prof Jim Leslie, chairman of the faculty’s salary committee, said consultations have started. Lutheran faculty have also submitted demands and begun negotiations. Faculty association president Jim Ford said university teachers have become more aggressive in their salary demands over the past few years. “These days with student radicals battering at the doors we should even ask for combat pay,” said Ford.

OF WATERLOO,

Waterloo, Ontario

tuesday

.

20 january

1970

group, not individual will take, whether it will resemble the IS structure here as a virtually autonomous department within the arts faculty, or a course with a broader-than-norma1 scope is not yet decided. “Obtaining a degree, or a credit from this project is incidental, ” said Woodley. “We’re more interested in doing something, in applying our potential than in gaining some sort of reward for our efforts. The question of credit for work done in the program is not one of the big points in our discussions at this stage.” What they are concerned with

is contacting as many interested people as possible, and talking out their ideas in hope of coming up with a coherent approach to their learning process. At present they envisage it as an autonomous group within the university consisting of students, faculty and administration. How this group is to fit into the existing matrix has yet to be determined. “We’d like to see a responsible group here, with -people sharing a learning experience and really applying themselves to the problems of society. We want to produce, to have

tangible results of our work within a year of the formation of the department.” said Woodley. “Our survival depends on our ability to achieve community, and that’s the exciting idea behind this program. Where is there a better place to start an ideasharing community? The university environment is very well suited for this sort of activity. They don’t intend to compete with the integrated studies program here but hope to share and pool activities in order to better achieve both programs’ goals.

X, ^

Pride of the pmfessoriate, Uniwat’s new faculty club was scheduled to open yesterday. taining the campus’ first liquor lounge, it is expected to become a popular spot,

Con-

Suspended McGiI/ students ignure senate .committee MONTREAL (CUP)--Eric Hoffman and Arnold August were back on the McGill University campus Wednesday distributing literature calling for the removal of retired general J.N. Chaudhuri from the McGill center for developing area studies The students charge that the centre, is a front for CIA-type research, intended to develop defenses against liberation struggles in Africa and Asia. They re-appeared on the campus in opposition to an administration suspension banning them from the campus until charges of assault brought against them last monday, january 12, are dealt with by the McGill senate and Montreal municipal court. They were suspended by administration dean of students C.D. Solin at the request of student society president Julius Grey, following an alleged attack on Steven Wohl and Frank Costi. The student society executive also barred several organizations active in the anti-Chaudhuri from the student union building. Solin was aware of the two students’ presence on campus Wednesday, but took no action.

Meanwhile, the McGill senate announced the members-four student senators and four other senators chosen at random-of the disciplinary commission which will deal with their case under a soon-to-be-amended McGill discipline code. The two accused refuse to recognize the legitimacy of the senate committee, terming it a “hangman’s crew”. August claims the support of at least 14 professors, including four on the McGill faculty union. MFU president Sidney Ingerman, while remaining “neutral,” said the issues of the suspensions and the anti-Chaudhuri campaign were on the agenda of the friday meeting of MFU. The anti-Chaudhuri campaign earlier this year brought an administration warning to the editor of the engineering society newspaper, and an invitation for August to attend a “discussion” with several administration officials. No date has been announced for the beginning of the discipline committee hearings. August and Hoffman face up to two years’ imprisonment when their trial on charges of assault begins January 30.


Talk over your future with the Bell employment repswhen they visit your campuson

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newcomers are either crazy. “power-tripping individuals, ” or cops. The newcomers have established themselves as the American Deserters co-op and have sought to destroy the previous work done with deserters. Chuck Gurling, one of the newcomers, reportedly waved a .38 calibre pistol around one day, saying, “All niggers and tommies should be shot. ” Undaunted, the ADC regulars are continuing their activities, including a hostel, regular weekly meetings, legal advice, support for self-determination for Quebec, and participation in demonstrations against the US aggression in Vietnam.

MONTREAL (LNS)-The American Deserters Committee hasled by a handful of individuals who have sought to breakup the organization, has moved to a new office and is continuing its work to provide support and a political home for deserters. The problems began last fall when three new deserters came to Montreal. Acting in concert, they attacked the ADC for being “too political,” and took over the old Wolfe Street office to help deserters on purely “humanitarian” grounds. The ADC people, closely linked to the ADC in Sweden and to GI organizing projects in the United States, charge that the

Bell Canada

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as well as the coordination of quadrant councils. Other members of the council are : east-Brian Ward, Cathy Albers, Jane Chesterfield; west -Vic Neglia, John Koval, Ron Harris ; north-Bob Gauthier, Mike Eagan, Steve Brown ; south-Bob Leech, Robert Audas, Peter Tsar, Carl Weaver. South quadrant reps were acclaimed.

Jim Detenbeck emerged as the new Village council president in last thursdays election, narrowly defeating Andrey Lasichuk. The council, composed of reps

GRADS-TO-BE-IN: ENGINEERING

studies

A meeting to discuss hiring IS As well it is expected that of additional resource people there will be some discussion and the structure of integrated on the granting of degrees to studies has been scheduled for . IS students. thursday noon in humanities At present there is no formal 346. method by which a student may The meeting was called to petition the university for a discuss student-faculty party degree, nor is there a body to in decision-making, hiring and hear such petitions. firing of staff, and autonomy of The meeting may also hear the unit. Also slated for considsome written submissions on eration is the structure of meetchanges for the unit. The meetings, voting procedure, admis- ~ ing is open to any interested people sions policy, and a charter for on campus.

It-s always

believe that good work, initiative and ingenuity deserve recognition. That’s why an Alcan employee who seeks it will find that opportunities and responsibility grow in direct proportion to his interest and contribution. Not to mention more tangible rewards. In fact, it’s worth a trip to the Alcan recruitment office on campus to find out more. Especially if you’re interestecl in a good deal more than just a job. Alcan is on campus nest week, so come on over and chat a while. We’ve got the opening if you can cut it.

ations research, control of raw materials or products and any of numerous other areas. Thus, a large proportion of line and staff positions in Alcan Production Departments as well as Purchasing, Traflic, Systems and Perqonnel are held by science and engineering graduates. And we offer such graduates as much responsibility as they can handle. company and We’re a goal- oriented

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Loyola fold

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About 200 people turned out to “exercise their democratic right” thursday, even if it was only to pick a sculptor, -The humanities theater audience, composed of students, faculty, staff, and off-campus guests was given ballots to mark as Toronto art critic Barry Lord showed slides of representative works. The purpose of the exercise was to commission a sculptor to create a piece for the humanities quadrangle. Chairman of the works of art commission Muriel De Gre opened the session with a brief speech on art appreciation. She felt there were two typ‘es of people: those fine arts, who appreciate and those who litter the country side and write graffiti. Lord followed, disagreeing with De Gre’s denunciation of graffiti. He felt it was a valid

Groundhog

coming

Movies, dances, pubs, concerts and the usual sandbox stuff will take over the campus from the second of february to the seventh when Groundhog comes to Waterloo. Probably the best event of the week will be the return of Cap Au Vin, this year featuring folkblues singer Jerry Jeff Walker. The major concert of the weekend will bring Neil Diamond, Dion and the Flying Machine to the phys-ed building feb. 6. Semi-formals are usually dull stuff but this year it will be made interesting by the presence of the Greek Underground Armv,

,

art form since “no construction can take place without destruction”. Suspicion was raised over the fairness of the vote by students representing the Aryan ,Affairs Commission, a right wing anarchist campus group. The result of the balloting, where sculptors were rated from one to ten was -Sore1 Etrog, 189 ; Hugh Leroy, 90; Ron Baird, and Walter Redinger came third and fourth. A write-in candidate, Jersey Niedojadlo’ received 24 votes. Niedojadlo, whose work “The sun never sets” stands in the campus center, was given broadsheet publicity by the AAC group prior to the voting. The first four sculptors are now being contacted to determine availability and fees before one is commissioned.

soon

specially commissioned by the BSA to participate. The bands playing at the dances-Buffalo Grass on the third and Electric Prunes on the fifth-are certainly better than the usual friday night food services type groups. The sun will set on Groundhog weekend february 8 when Lucky Peterson, a blues group who supposedly eat razor blades and swallow fire between numbers entertains at the jock building. Special permission has been obtained from the jock administration to permit a fire in the gymnasium.

Democratic

meeting

MONTREAL (CUP)-Approximately 200 parents of Loyola students emerged from a meeting last Wednesday at McGill University sympathetic with faculty and student dissidents, but slightly confused over the issues involved in the current crisis at Loyola College. The two-hour session, sponsored by the Loyola and McGill english departments, was designed to mobilize public opinion against the Loyola administration’s firing of 27 faculty just prior to Christmas. The parents set up a committee

to continue looking into the Loyola affair, and were urged by college faculty to write letters to the college administration and the Quebec government expressing concern over the crisis. Both administration president Patrick Malone and academic vice-president Jack O’Brien refused to attend the meeting. Meanwhile, sources at Loyola said thursday that a Canadian association of university teachers report into the dismissal of .nuclear physicist S.A.Santhanam was’ expected to reach both the

INTERNATIONAL

picks

scdptor

college administration and the fired professor by friday. The report will not be revealed to the public until next week. The Santhanam case lies at the base of most of the conflict which has kept the Loyola campus simmering since September. Santhanam was dismissed without stated cause by the alljesuit board of trustees at Loyola. Students and faculty charge that the recent administration firings were aimed at purging professors who supported student efforts to gain binding arbitration by the CAUT in his case.

STUDENTS

ASSOCIATION PRESENTS

INTERlVATIONAL NIGHT * * * * * *

Fashions from over 20 countries Indian Classical dance ‘Ig be yawo - Nigerian wedding - Pakistani magic ‘ Jadoomantra’ Chinese folk dance Japanese ‘Koto’ solo

and many other cultural Friday

displays

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Jan 23 & Saturday

Jan 24

8.00 p.m. r in the Humanities Admission

$1.00

Tickets

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20 january

1970 ( lO:42)

727

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Surely

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The intramural jousting competition was won by Gord Willcocks of co-op (have cocks will.. . ) with Rick Cuipa second. Grant’ came get-thee-to-a-’ Hennery third. Bob Stevenson and Paul Camani-saw-ani-conquered were fourth and fifth respectively. Intramural volleyball and wrest-

B-ballefs

ling tourneys go this week. Get all the info from the office of the phys-ed department. That’s the office where they have the isolation policy for their secretar& who do ,their work between partitions and between coffeebreaks.

still in it

Basketball warriors remain in the running in the OQAA despite their two last minute losses to Mat and Western. Perennial league-leader Windsor lost to Guelph last week and then beat Mat on Saturday, leaving Western as the only undefeated team. The warriors play Western on the 31st of january and buses are to be organized to take fans to the game. The uniwat boys play in Toronto this Wednesday ‘night and are going to try to capitalize on the blues weakness at guard. The weakness arose with the voluntary. retirement of Larry “the spider” Trafford this past week. - On Saturday the warriors travel to Windsor for an important game. The lancers are led by all-star Chris Wydrznsky who looked good against Mat saturday. The next two home b-ball appearances will be exhibition games, for all you exhibitionists “S”

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(assorted sado-masochistic practices will be on display). This thursday they scrimmage the Niagara University freshmen and Fredonia on the 30th. And speaking of home games, the team appreciated the fan response of the new tradition and were disappointed that they didn’t win that one for the fans (and for any Gippers who happened to be in the crowd). (And speaking of home games, have you ever played, “Hide your sisters birth control pills”? ) Game time on Wednesday is 8:15 at York’s north campus against Toronto. (And another thing, why is it that the largest university in Canada must always do it on the road? )

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“I still think that if Water100 plays their tough aggressive type of hockey they can beat Toronto! ‘* These words of encouragement came from the lips of Windsor coach Dr. Ccc Eaves, just moments after his last place team pulled the upset of the year, defeating the warriors 4-3 in Windsor. For Waterloo the game culminated a weekend of frustration. Not onlv did the warriors tie a weak Bowling Green team the night before but they have their first place relinquished position in the OQAA to the University of Toronto who defeated Western 4-l and clobbered Guelph 12-1. Friday night’s game against the Bowling Green falcons was. at times, fantastic. Playing in their new arena before over 3.000 screaming fans the falcons dominated much of the game .ind but for the outstanding {oaltending of Ian Scott would nost certainly have won by two jr three goals. It was an incredible game. ,anging from the colourful “foot,)a11 style” player introduction ‘0 the harsh realities of the aburd N.C.A.A. hockey rules. .Jmerican sports fans may not kiow a great deal about hockey but they enjoyed every minute of this one giving both teams a standing ovation at the end. IJrged on by their home crowd the falcons held a wide edge in the first period, out-

weLIST

shooting the warriors 17-4. It was amazing that despite this Bowling Green trailed 2-l and even the one they scored was a fluke which bounced in off ‘Savo Vujovic. Ian Scott played brilliantly, stopping no less than seven 2 on 1 plays, all of which could have resulted in scores. Bob Reade and Ian McKegney potted the Waterloo goals, both clever plays resulting from poor Bowling Green defensive work. The arena went wild when the falcons tied the score in the third. The warriors. who never played well but did manage to regain control of the game. were victims of a two man penalty - both defencemen. After Scott had made several spectacular saves a Bowling Green two on one finally worked. Under N.C.A.A. rules a ten minute sudden death overtime Both teams had was played. several good scoring chances but Bowling Green blew an excellent opportunity when Waterloo again had two men in the penalty box. Throughout one and a half long ulcer-making minutes the falcons swarmed around the warrior net but never were able to get that one good shot which was needed. The final buzzer ended a long night of Waterloo frustration. In addition to drawing 13 of 19 minor penalties (two for “offensive checking”) they saw the winning goal called back because a Waterloo player emerging from the penaltv box did not first go

back behind his own blue line before touching the puck. This was just one of many confusing NCAA rule interpretations that worked all game against the warriors. To make matters worse. one referee was American and the other a Canadian who was also unfamiliar with American college hockey. Saturday’s game in Windsor was only a slight improvement for Waterloo but the result was Windsor got lucky devastating. and squeaked a win to drop the warriors into second place in the OQAA. The warriors put a much greater effort into this contest but made the mistake of underestimating their opposition. Waterloo may have been undefeated and Windsor last in the league but the lancers were really fired up for the game and played consistent hockey throughout. Windsor is poor and even on an off day the warriors cannot help but dominate play. This they did throughout most of the game but in the last five minutes a sudden letdown allowed Windsor to score three quick goals and steal the win. Ken Laidlaw played well and led with two goals and an assist. On his first he came from behind the net, deked a defenseman by faking a pass to the. point, and fired a wrist shot past goalie His second was Don Bruner. a beautiful two on one, set up by Greg Stephton and Cam Crosby.

Quaff Nite

Bob Reade, who played a fine aggressive game, scored what should have been the clincher at the 14:02 mark of the third peqiod. Taking perfect passes from Laidlaw and Crosby, he beat Bruner cleanly and seemed to salt away the game. Windsor, however, came charging back to stun everyone in the arena with three quick goals. MacDonald narrowed it to 3-2 at I5:00, Cosgrove tied the score at 17:33, and McFadden, not to be outdone, netted the winner with just 59 seconds remaining. For Waterloo’ fans this is a hard defeat to accept, especially when one considers that Windsor has never been able to get within five goals of the black and gold. But such is the nature of hockey, particularly when every team Waterloo plays is charged up and gunning for an upset. “We may have spilled a little milk but we’re not going to tip the whole damned pitcher over.” Such was the feeling of coach Bob McKillop and he’s undoubtably right. Dave Rudge, a top forward, did not make the trip due to illness, and the effects of two games within 15 hours is hardly necessary to explain. Waterloo still has a good chance to finish first in the league (and what is more important?) but they must improve their efforts on road games. They get their first chance tonight in Guelph.

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T WAS IN EARLY 1968 when oil was discovered around Prudhoe Bay on the north-l ern arctic coast, that Alaska learned what real “outside intervention” was all about. In 1965, ‘66, and ‘67, four major companies-Atlantic Richfield Company (Arco), British Petroleum (BP), Humble, a Jersey Standard subsidiary, and Sinclair-leased acreage for oil exploration on the north slope, paying a total of 12 million dollars for leases now worth upwards of two billion dollars-or more than 150 times as much. On february 16, 1968, Atlantic Richfield announced that its Prudhoe Bay no. 1 drilling rig, located two miles from the shores of the Arctic ocean, had struck both oil and gas. Four months later, Arco’s Sag river no. 1 rig, several miles to the southeast, struck oil. In less than six months, a wilderness area the size of Massachusetts had been opened up to rapid development. In that time millions of pounds of equipment, fuel oil, pre-fabricated buildings, dynamite, people and food were flown in. Hundreds of miles of seismic lines had been run across the tundra, leaving permanent scars. And in a dramatic preview of the ecological disasters to come, a winter road was cut across the Alaskan wilderness to link Fairbanks with the slope. The road, which was open for one month before it turned into the longest man-made swamp in the world, was officially named the Walter J. Hickel highway. raised by conser- _ Any objections to this “boom” vationists and others whom oil men find unaccountably superstitious about Industrial Progress, received a ready answer: “There is oil out there. Somebody has got to get it out. You may not believe this, but it will be good for your town, good for the people.” These particular lines were spoken by James Stewart in a movie (made long before the Santa Barbara oil catastrophe) about the world’s first offshore drilling rig. But the same story has been given throughout history to every town and nation into whose land the oil industry has dug its iron claws: black gold will bring progress and prosperity. Yet the alaskan experience raises fundamental questions about this whole “development” process and the profit-oriented exploitation of resourcesquestions about the proper rate, purposes and forms of development, about who controls and benefits from it and by what right, and who really pays the price-questions about the heavy costs to life that do not show up on oil company balance sheets. These are the reservations that are obscured by the cliches of ���progress,” and overwhelmed by the euphoria of an economic “boom. >’ The $900 million paid to the state of Alaska at the September 10th oil lease auction was touted as a munificent offering on the part of the oil companies. In fact it was only a fraction of the land’s actual value. If prior lease sales are any indication, present value of this acreage is closer to $5 billion. Long-range value may soar as high as $50 billion within a decade. And while the state is now slated to receive a small share of ongoing revenues-a 12.5 percent royalty and a 4 percent severance taxcalculations by Gregg Erickson, a university of Alaska resource economist, indicate that the “state’s severance tax/royalty can be raised to the vicinity of 85 to 90 percent and still leave the oil companies a better than 10 percent rate of return.” The oil industries justify their profit by referring to the great risks they are taking in Alaska. But their claims are not terribly convincing. The journal Oil Week, in a much quoted statement, estimated that only five to ten billion barrels of oil were located in the Prudhoe Bay area. Yet over 50 percent of the Alaskan geology is acknowledged to lend itself to anti-clines, or oil-bearing structures. Interior secretary Hickel, a well known partisan of oil, himself Weisberg isan american free-lance writer. Credit to Fred Kemp, psychology department, who referred the Chevron to this article.

730 the Chevron

put the Alaskan reserves at about 100 billion barrels. This tremendous oil strike opens up the most perilous prospects for the alaskan eco-system. No other industry could pose such a comprehensive threat to the wilderness environment of Alaska. No other industry can amass such large amounts of capital, or is so highly favored by tax laws. No other industry affects its environs as completely as does oil- its exploration, extraction, and transportation. The significance of alaskan oil .development extends far beyond Alaska itself, carrying grave implications for our ecological well-being in its broadest sense, from the ongoing eco-catastrophe of ou;’ decaying, choked, polluted cities to the severe distortion in the allocation of basic global resources that american power imposes on the world. But to fully grasp these wider implications, one must first consider what the oil development means for ecology in the narrower sense, in the wilderness environment where the oil was found. F OIL IS A UNIQUELY devastating ecological enemy, Alaska is also a uniquely vulnerable victim. Until a very few years ago, Alaska remained essentially untouched by technological civilization. All of the organisms within its vast eco-system worked in complex and delicate symbiotic relations, species having survived and adjusted in accord with their ability to achieve symbiosis. Modern industrial society, on the other hand, works toward individuation and competition, toward conflict and instability. In the extreme but relatively stable and regular conditions of the arctic, the web of life-supporting relationships depends on the slimmest margins of sustenance. The slender food chains and parsimonious life-cycles afford little tolerance for disruptions in the pattern of balance. The slightest manipulation of the life support system, the alteration of a bird migration, the pollution of a river, the noise of an airplane, all have incalculable unanticipated consequences. That is what makes this unique and irreplaceable eco-system so utterly fragile and so vulnerable to the careless intrusions of industrial man. In natural systems, the discarded and unused substance of one organism becomes the energy of another. With our consumption cult and profit-oriented technology, we seek to abrogate that rule, manufacturing and depositing waste with abandon. Industrial man’s mania for waste is particularly disastrous on the alaskan tundra, where debris survives intact longer than it does any other place in the world. Orange peels last for months, paper for years, wood scraps for decades; metal or plastic is practically immortal. The reason for this longevity is that arctic eco-systems are not prone to ’ ‘biograde, ” i.e., to decompose matter. Because of the extremely slow decomposition rate, and the slow healing capacity of the mat of vegetative cover called tundra, the littering and desecration that normally take years in other parts of the world can happen almost overnight in the arctic. Damage to the tundra is irreversible. This blanket of surface vegetation is a protective covering that insulates the deep layer of permafrost below. The permafrost, a mass of gravel, ice and mud that begins about a foot beneath the surface and extends downward a thousand feet or more, remains frozen throughout the year, providing a solid ground beneath the tundra. But when the cover is stripped away, the permafrost melts, leaving an open, unhealing wound of mud, slush and water that tends to drain away, undermining the- stability of large areas of the surrounding earth. There is little in the record of the oil development so far to inspire confidence in the future. The Hickel highway fiasco-Hickel’s last official act as governor-was only a hint of disasters to come. The road was to provide access to the slope in winter when shipping is blocked and supplies must be flown in. It was a risky project at best, but the route was laid ,in what were obviously the worst areas, those with soils having the highest ice concentrations. When the ice broke up as summer approached, the permafrost melted and water from

the adjacent land poured onto the roadbed, where it remains today. Hickel’s response to critics was: “So they’ve scarred the tundra. That’s one road, 12 feet wide, in an area as big as the state of California. ” Years ago the extraction of any resource meant the establishment of a technological enclave, isolated for the most part from its surroundings. That at least was the model. Today oil extraction brings with it a whole supporting complex of advanced technology-“advanced” indicating that it is less restricted by or adapted to the natural environment and more able to impose its imperatives on the landscape, leaving it to nature-to attempt to restore the ecological balance. HE PRIMARY CHALLENGE to the industry in this respect is transporting the oil to market once it is brought up from the ground. Roughly half of what the industry will spend exploiting alaskan oil will go to providing transportation for it. Plans are well underway for the construction of the transAlaska pipeline systems (TAPS). This $900 million pipeline will run from the north slope some 800 miles across the alaskan interior down to Valdez, an ice-free port on the pacific southern coast. Described by the contractors as the “largest single construction feat in the free world,” the pipeline will eventually transport some two million barrels of oil per day, at a temperature of 150 degrees - 170 degrees. If placed underground, the builders admit that the line would melt all permafrost within a 25-foot radius. The actual pipeline trunk involves some 20,000 acres of land, but the roots necessary to support the venture will require another 7 to 9 million acres, accommodating 5 to 12 pumping stations, several landing fields, camp and administrative sites, microwave stations and access roads to the pipeline. As noted in testimony given before the department of interior hearing in Fairbanks last august. “The construction and operation of a large, buried, hot (the oil must be heated to flow freely) pipeline in permafrost regions has never been done anywhere in the world.” Of the many elements of arcticadevelopment. none has as great a potential for gross disturbance of the entire eco-system as does this pipeline. Laid upon a ten-foot bed of gravel (gravel taken from river beds, thus upsetting spawning and other cycles), it will almost certainly generate vast problems for soil stability in the

T

P permafrost-both because a: ardous to the delicate bal; varying ice contents of the specifications for construe I erosion, subsidence and stre environs are critical. Animal tive cover for food and oxyg ante is to intervene in the lift of the entire biological chain Wildlife patterns can be c! number of ways. The mere 1 the pipeline itself would con rier to the region’s 400,000 ca grations that are an integra of their life. To interfere wil invites a repetition of the fat% This is only the beginning. the so-called “corridor con which TAPS is encouraging ways, material storage ten ments-and thus the inevit which follow such corridors. line, then, is to talk about c-) velopment, gross dis turbans the basic interference with r of the arctic.

age of the Manha weight-ton super tanker th: through the arctic ice pack the United States to Point west of the Prudhoe Bay oi’ j oil tankers three times-as la cal behemoths-which in the operations spew oil slick bil; -II their wake-will cut a pa through more than a thousans Over and over the oil indu: “No one could reasonably million ton spill on the Dt


Exploitation of Alaska by american big business, coupled with recent discoveries of oil in the the Yukon by Canda’s Imperial Oil threaten the entire ecological future of the Canadian north and ultimately, the world. There is no time to lose in establishing rigid guidelines for northern development.

t the world.

zrvention is hazu-id because the ,equire differing The dangers of the surrounding upon the vegeta1 upset that balorting processes arctic. ed in an infinite al obstruction of : a perilous barblocking the minescapable part ageless process 3 buffalo. ;ide the pipeline, of development ring roads, railnd small settleorms -of sprawl k about the pipemile strip of deco-systems) and ife-giving cycles Fagerness to get -it of Alaska to 3 legendary voyhe 115,00@dead:essfully passed he east coast of w, Alaska, just )rders are in for hese technologi3of their normal exhaust wastes major disruption ; of the arctic. ds up repeating. expected”: the e beaches; the

splitting open of the Ocean Eagle in the San Juan harbor ; the collision which poured 30,000 gallons into the waters off the Cape of good hope; or the spill from the Torry canyon “whose captain ran her onto a well-marked granite reef off England in broad daylight, causing the biggest shipwreck and oil pollution ever. ” Or Santa Barbara! Such “unanticipated hazards” mark the operations of the petroleum industry daily. And to add to the peril, the petro-chemical industry is considering transporting pesticides (a by-product of crude petroleum) in similar large tankers. We are told that if the Torrey Canyon had been carrying pesticides rather than oil, the effect of such a shock could have abruptly terminated the production of oxygen by photosynthesis in the entire North Sea. Ted Stevens, appointed U.S. Senator in 1968 by then Governor Hickel, in a speech before a meeting of the American association for the advancement of science last August delivered a searing attack upon the ecologists who had come to discuss the oil development. After deriding out-of-state visitors as carpet-bag conservationists, he pulled out a dictionary and referred to the definition of ecology: “Ecology deals with the relationships between living organisms. ” “But,” exclaimed the senator, “there are no living organisms on the north slope. ” Among the living organisms in Alaska which state officials would rather not think about are the native Eskimos, Aleuts and Indians, whose land the U.S. “bought” from Russia a century ago, and who still make up a sixth of Alaska’s 272,000 population. According to the statehood act of 1958, 140 million acres of land were to be returned to the natives over a 25-year period. Years passed and the alaskan native came to see clearly that the only way the white man could be made to live up to his 1958 “bargain” was through pressure. In 1966 the movement for native power coalesced into the alaskan federation of natives, and their demands were‘formulated in the Alaska native land claim bill. In important respects, it was already too late. In 1964 the state, realizing that the north slope was a potentially rich oil reserve, and that native pressure was mounting, applied to the federal bureau of land manage’ment (BLM) for the two million acres lying along the arctic coast in the Prudhoe Bay vicinity. Although the land was a traditional hunting and fishing ground for the Eskimos, the state application claimed that it was free of aboriginal use and occupancy. The BLM then proceeded to publish notice of the state’s intent in Jessens Weekly, a small mimeographed newspaper with irregular circulation. Thns, as alaskan journalist Jan Bender comments, “The burden of proof was placed upon people who could not be expected to untangle the legal phraseology, who might not even have seen

the notice in the first place, and whose knowledge of the far reaching consequences of that simple small print notice might be said to be minute.” The north slope case was typical; the attitude of most white alaskans is. little better than colonial. So it is not surprising that the native claims have suffered continual erosion in the hands of all levels of government. In the first compromise the natives settled for 80 million acres; they were then forced down to 40 million acres. Walter Hickel now suggests 27 million and the governor, Keith Miller, suggests 13 ‘million acres-out of the total of 365 million in the state-3.6 percent of the land for a sixth of the population, when rightfully they own it all. It is safe to assume that the empires of oil will wield their vast power to delay a native settlement. For if significant portions of the state were in the hands of the natives, the oil combine would have to deal with them rather than the state, and they are potentially much less willing accomplices in the rape of the land-as evidenced by their picketing at the lease sale. But the critical ‘importance of the oil industry’s political power in alaskan development is most clearly revealed in an enormous irony: it is only the industry’s ability to use government regulation to rig the american oil market that assures the profitability of exploiting alaskan oil in the first place. It is, in other words, the artificial overcharges imposed on consumers, rather than its intrinsic economic profitability, that is underwriting the current rapid development of Alaskan oil and the environmental disruption that goes with it. ‘HILE THERE ARE STIRRINGS of opposition to what is happening in Alaska, they are largely isolated and, consequently, impotent. Many legislators told me privately that they thought the oil lease sale should have been postponed but were afraid to say so publicly for fear of losing re-election. In Alaska, as elsewhere, the tremendous power of the oil industry over social development grows not only from its impressive ability to dictate government policy, but also from the extent to which patterns of development are set autonomously by the “private” operations of industry. It is the general void of public policy that gives industry a free hand to shape the future in terms of its private priorities, unchecked by public interest or authority. When government does intervene (usually under the influence of industry anyway), it is merely responding to the reality that industry has created. There is virtually no public policy governing the pattern of social growth on the alaskan frontier; there is no involvement by the people of Alaska or of the rest of the country, no informal advocacy

by Barry Rampart,

Weisberg. Abridged january 70.

from

procedure by which to evaluate what the oil companies are doing. As a result, oil exploration and production proceed in Alaska without any projected land use plan, without any legislative priorities for growth. There exist no uniform codes for oil and mineral exploration, no systematic efforts toward the preservation of wildlife populations, nor any air or water quality standards to speak of. This abdication of public discretion is not an accident. David Hickok complains, “Both industry and government are deliberately preventing the operation of a public forum until after the important decisions are made.” The problem, then, is not that our current situation results from no planning, for clearly the oil companies have a very keen sense of plan and purpose. It is rather that the plans which do exist are created and executed without public scrutiny or control. The coming of the oil empire to Alaska brings with it the vast support operations of railroads, airlines, communications networks, new towns, urban growth and the like. Requiring highly skilled labor, these operations will not draw primarily on either natives or local whites. Consequently, entire communities of technically skilled men will be brought into Alaska: 5000 on the slope, 3000 for thepipeline, 1500 at Valdez, hundreds more administrative persons in Anchorage and Fairbanks-all of them requiring housing, food, and related services. What will happen when initial construction of the new industry is completed and they leave? What will be the effect on the economy when some 10,000 people who have been disbursing enormous amounts of capital pull out in one year? The initial boom-town profits to local businessmen and landholders will give way to the ghost towns that followed the gold rush. The oil rush economy does not build for posterity. Already the landscape of Alaska isdominated by a crude mix of the worst Texas gulf coast and Southern California plasticity. Housing is composed almost entirely of imported pre-fabricated units or trailers. A ticky-tacky frontier bar atmosphere permeates every alaskan town. Within a very short time oil has penetrated all aspects of the Alaskan economy. In terms of outright ownership, the industry is gobbling up local business interests at a rapid rate. The income of hotels, restaurants and airlines depends upon the oil companies. The universities are in their employment.

port

HE HEADLONG RUSH OF ALASKAN development is part of a momentum chat completely contradicts our knowledge about the capacity of the earth to sup-us-namely, that the resources of the earth * continued

tuesday

over

20 jaiwary

page

7970 le10,42)

731


Summer * from previous page

Plans

Include

Expo '70?

are fixed; that, rather than continuous growth merely to accommodate the increasingly false consumptive needs of an increasing number of people, growth must be directed to achieve very specific public priorities-priorities which are determined by the kind of life-styles which neighborhoods and regions determine are best for them. Limits must be set. Development as it now proceeds minimizes the alternatives open to people, increasing the uniformity and standardization of life. It locks us into patterns over which we have little knowledge or control. It is not enough merely to slow down in Alaska, as a New York Times editorial of november 10 argued. Development as it proceeds on the north slope, and on countless other frontiers of american industry, must be curtailed. Until such time as the american public has adequate time and information to evaluate and assess the total costs of industrial development to all the people affected by it, development and the myth of growth must be curtailed. Rational resource consumption and recycling alone would eliminate the need for any further oil extraction on the face of the earth. While the population of the world is expected to double in 35 years, it will consume resources at not twice, but five times the present rate, producing a scarcity in food and fossil fuels that will be the major source of friction in the coming decade. This results directly from consumptive patterns generated by the United States. It is the disequilibrium between man and nature, not the biologic process of procreation, which is at the root of the population issue. To cope with population is first and foremost an issue of coping with the current American imperialist consumption of 70 percent of the world’s resources by less than 7 percent of the world’s population. The largest single consumer of crude petroleum is the american military-those who are with defending this squandering of other people’s resources. ‘Alaska is key to their continued world supremacy. As America shifts in southeast Asia and throughout the world to air power rather than ground forces, the military appetite for oil will grow and will seek stable sources. Walter Levy, known as the dean of U.S. oil experts, points out, “A world power which depends on potentially reluctant or hostile countries for food and fuel that must travel over highly vulnerable sea routes is by definition no world power.” While we “own” major portions of mid-east reserves already, the transport of this oil is in constant jeopardy, as the closing of the Suez in 1967 showed. And domestic production, aside from Alaska, is projected to fall behind consumption at an increasing rate in the next few years. Alaskan reserves will stabilize the strategic military supply of crude oil. Moreover, as America prepares for the rearmament of Japan to help Police Asia, treaty negotiations are already being pursued in Washington to provide Japan with a stable oil flow from Alaska in exchange for military and trade arrangements. What Americans must realize is that the destruction of our life support systems will not be halted through our individual refusal to drive cars or use pesticides. As is evidenced by the alaskan oil rush, development no longer proceeds along enclave lines, but is comprehensive in impact and scope, so that conservation efforts which act to preserve wilderness enclaves as parks or wildlife refuges will in the end lose those areas to the all-inclusive effects of air pollution, noise, and pesticides. The oil industry, virtually a world government, presides over an economy organized toward the destruction of life. Its power must be broken, not merely circumvented. The avenues of oil must be reached at their point of production, not merely in our own individual use. Continued rapid development such as that in Alaska can only work for the forces of exploitation and greed. Time must be had to examine and consider every aspect of the development process, to create a comprehensive democratically determin, ed land use policy, to devise environmental regulatory agencies with adequate means of enforcement, to develop new forms of revenue sharing and community control over economic growth, to relearn our inclinations toward nature and our relationship to people unlike ourselves. While this must happen in Alaska, it must, also happen on a national and global level. For clearly the powers that shape the fate of Alaska are rooted in places far distant from that beautiful land. We must slow down. We must come to enjoy the world gently, remembering that this fragile earth is more to be admired than used, more to be cherished than exploited. Alaska teaches us that there are men for whom this is impossible. They must be stopped. Not for their sake, but for ours.

Join IVCF

in an Orient

Tour

THE MOST

July 29 - August 19, 1970 $1,299.00 all inclusive from (Vancouver) Write: Dave B. Dueck University of Winnipeg Winnipeg 2, Manitoba

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Geologists Grads, Grads and foreign Geological

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We invite you to arrange Graduate Placement Office

THE INTERNATIONAL

EAST

an interview on JANUARY

4th

through the 26th, 1970.

STUDENT ASSOCIATION

c h a r g e d

PRESENTS

THE

INTERNATIONAL NIGHTS featuring

Display of international fashions Folk Songs & Folk Dances Drama and other Cultural items

From

All parts

of the

world

on

Friday Jan. 23rd and Saturday Jan 24th In the humanities Building Starting each night at 8.00 p.m.

Admission:

TAKE NIGHT:

($1

$1.50

ATOUR ATTEND

Theatre

for members)

AROUND THE WORLD THE INTERNATIONAL

IIN ONE NIGHTS

Tickets are available at: The Theatre of the Arts Box Office (2 126) Student Federation Office (2405) I.S.A. office At The Door and with I.S.A. Executive

Ade Onibokun Publicity Secretary Members.

(32 56)


The Band

Or

For Sale

Honest

blues

with

by Bruce Steele Chevron staff

Okay! Let’s get it out of the way, fill the slate at the beginning. I went to the 7pm concert of The Band in Guelph friday night and enjoyed it immensely. I may be one of the few who really did, as The Band is not a group that overwhelms you. And that’s a good place to start this totally invalid literary examination of an unusual group of musicians. The Band is not a “stoned” group. If anything, the group is an honest, simple aggregation of musicians I would prefer to see in a dingy nightclub with a bottle of wine in front of me. They are neither loud, showy nor aggressive on stage, and there is no announcement of numbers, no waving of arms or Oscar winning soul acts. Jimmy Page fans just wouldn’t dig them. What does come out is a quiet, together presentation of the music on Sig Pink and The Music (the groups two Capitol albums). The balance is understandably “out”. The piano wasn’t nearly loud enough in The Weight simply because they don’t have enough audio equipment to amplify the instrument properly. But the notes were there. All the time. I suppose I’m a bad person to review a concert, simply because I take things into account, check to see if a group plays the notes the record says they can (many groups can’t) and listen for vocal quality. The Band passes. They don’t seem to dig doing concerts. So why do they do them ? Well, when you sign a recording contract, the idea (as far as management and pro-

Dylan

touch

RENT

moters concerned) is to sell records.. Imake money. And maybe all you want to do is sit in your farm in Woodstock, New York, and write and record music, but, baby, concert tours sell records. And the more records you sell, the longer you have the recording contract and the longer you have the bread to go back to that place in Woodstock and write. It’s all part of the wheel. Some groups dig the circuit, The Band doesn’t. The Band plays the notes, and well, technically. There is no great outburst of emotion because it’s not that kind of music. It’s simple, honest countryblues, classical and church influence, touch of delta touch of Hawkins, big touch of Dylan.-Pick it out, it’s all there and more, if you want to play the analysis game. , The lyrics are not deep, the vocals are well executed although no one in the group has a “good” voice. Harmony is strong and full. Everyone knows their part. It’s honest (there, I’ve said it again), it’s simple (repeat) and it is good. It’s music written by people meant to be played for fun and for friends. I don’t believe in reciting what they played, who opened the concert of what the hall was like. If you weren’t there, you don’t need to know. Concert reviews in general anger me greatly, and if you saw the concert and disagree with what I’ve said, I can understand. I don’t claim to know music-1 just claim to know what I like and why. Just opinion, man. Someone has to fili space, and I guess it might as well be me.

/

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.__l_l. --.._....._-.. Most of the crowd at saturdaJ!‘s Gclleral audience reaction could

Stoned

Stoned Session seemed best

be described

pretty as blah.

unexcited

by the whole

scene,

You can afford

Session

~ouci sounds

but little

by Ian Smith Chevron staff

has come and The so-called stoned session gone. If you missed it, don’t fret, it wasn’t especially entertaining or trippy. Except for Lighthouse, Nucleus. Collectors and McKenna Mendelson, the day was a complete and utter washout. The only thing that was more common than the cry of “wannacop, wannacop” was the yawns. Eli, Manchild, Copper penny. and Neon rose followed the tradition of drum solos, lnna-gadda-da-widas, and over-amplified instrumentations that separate the musicians from the shit played by the boy next door with the Simpsons-Sears guitar. Lighthouse played a superb set, combining jazz and rock in a thunderous sound that was refreshing after the garbage that went before. They were the only good act of the afternoon. We were well into the evening before Nucleus made it on stage. Combining a new chick singer with a janitor who sang give peace a chance, they broyght the crowd together for the first time since Lighthouse exited. Collectors came next, tight, crisp, and well-

Liberal

arts lecture

music

rehearsed. They were very convincing, and came off stage leaving no one doubting their talent. After numerous setbacks, ( equipment hassles, etc. ), the showstoppers, the Mckenna Mendelson mainline, presided over stoned session ( “why not call it marijuana party?” remarked skip prokop). They really did it to us, with deep, dirty, ugly blues. Pity it was their last performance together, our loss. J As for minor things, there was a minimum of static from the blue meanies, maximum crowd was reported to be 3,500, the hot dogs were lousy, and the accoustics, super-terrible. The lack of enthusiasm was a result of the lack of vibes in the crowd. T-he v i bes were ca ncelled vibes leaving just a blah feeling out by the evil behind. <The bikers, the fiat chicks, and the drunks in square suits looked really out of place. So, that was the stoned session. Mckenna Mendelson Mainline and Lighthouse in a photofinish, with the Collectors a close second. Nucleus was third, and the rest merely also-rans. The booby award goes to the crowd for having the potential to create a good thing, and failing to do so.. .

series

Number

new snow tires is year Example: ew 77544 ‘Snow Grip’ 2Q.95 Installed at any time. Removed, f&e of charge in the spring. Get yours now.

2

“Thirty years of writing in Canada” by professor Hugh MacL ennan, novelist, Tuesday january. 20 at 3pm in the humanities buildSponsored by the arts faculty, ing theater. arranged _ _,_L - %_ L of English _I-L-s_*W .“y_j . I by the department tuesday

20 january

I .

79X2 (~7.0&)‘233

I I


HOWww

rock and Lro .I music a reflection of the practical cultural activitv of youth? T .

J

.

.

/

HIS TIME WAS the most acute in the development of the youth culture. With few exceptions (noted above), the level of consciousness was at the level of individual conciousness (which is why the kinds of inroads that Chuck Berry was making were very important). The social problems were internalized which led to a false analysis which suggested false solutions. If one, couldn’t “make it” (sexually, socially, etc. ), it was his own fault and not the system’s. In other words the connections between seemingly “individual” problems of “adjustment” and an exploitative and oppressive social system had not been made. The bourgeoisie re-enforced these attitudes in order to market the mass personality. This type of internalization usually resulted in tremendous feelings of guilt and impotence and frequently manifested itself in self-destructive tendencies (hard drugs, motorcycle and auto races and stunts, gang fights, etc. ). Compensation usually took the form of a facade of toughness (e.g. the Cheers “Black Denim Trousers and Motorcycle Boots”) and rebellion against authority. Although the youth culture did involve youth from the whole new working class ( and even in rare cases bourgeois youth), it was primarily among working class youth working in factories, the armed forces, or preparing in high school for the same, and among black youth (often unemployed and unemployable) that these characteristics manifested themselves most acutely. This is perhaps due to the fact that they were born into violence and tension-the factory, the family (where the social relations were already strained by the working conditions of the parents, usually resulting in extreme authoritarianism ), and the school (where it wasn’t the dunce cap but the fist), etc. The violence which characterized the rebellion took many forms (some mentioned above ). On the one hand much of it was channelled in the right directionsnamely, toward the institutions that were immediately oppressing them. Property (theft and vandalism were extremely common ). the family (constant parental disagreements ), the educational system (as objectified in the principal or teacherwho would be called names, fought with, spat upon, etc. ) and even the police and officers in the armed forces came under attack. But, on the other hand, there was no overall social analysis which meant that much of the violence was misdirected (against each other) and in this sense, it is understandable that many of the hardiest participants in this “rebellion” are now policemen. A sense of community was developing which was important but it was a community that was in many cases, organized around false issues, and therefore one that was very easily controllable. The individualism, inarticulateness, guilt. etc. were objectified in some of the Marlon Brando in the 50’s “heroes”.

“Wild ones” was such a hero. James Dean was another. He was the existential hero/ anti-hero who saw sham and phoniness for what it was. He experienced in his own life, as well as on the screen, the social problems. that youth was confronting-but again, it was on an individualistic internalizing basis. James Dean presents an interesting counter to the bourgeois art critics who consistently demean youth and working class people because they have “inferior tastes.” In James Dean, youth was able to identify authenticity and relate to it, albeit on an individualistic level, in terms of their own lives. Another 50’s hero was Elvis. His major contribution to the developing culture was the emphasis on sexuality (though well controlled). His negative contributions however, surpassed his positive one. That is, Elvis Presley served first of all as excellent testimony to the individualistic ethic-that in this society, any poor boy can make it. The message was well presented, and most of Elvis movies used this as a theme. Consumerization grew tremendously in the late 60’s. One almost had to belong to some sort of singing group, own’ an electric guitar, and amplifier, in order to maintain social acceptance. New needs were created and met within the dominant structure of advanced industrial capitalism. Moby Grape put it well in song when they said : “Can I buy an amplifier On time I ain’t got no money now But I’ll pay before I die.” Although rock and roll was the dominant popular musical trend in the 50’s, there were a number of other cultural/ musical thrusts that should be mentioned. First there was the Ginsberg/Kervac which was essentially the phenomenon, working class angst at an intellectual level. Their rebellion took more creative forms. Instead of beating up a school teacher, they dropped out, took head drugs, read and wrote poetry and hit the road. They emphasized spontaneity and naturalness in the face of artificial mass culture. But there was no in-depth criticism and no analysis. , Second, there was the urban blues, which did not gain any real interest until the sixties. Third was the other “popular” musical form-namely country and western. C & W like rock contained many contradictions. On the one hand, its roots were honest, straight forward and human, (as in the original Jimmie Rodgers and Hank Williams) ; but, on the other hand, much of it had been perverted by C & W entrepreneurs and turned into a commodity-all form and no content. The two other musical thrusts at the time were to end up as the continuation of the youth culture of the 50’s and the roots for the youth culture of the 60’s-folk music and the protest music of the old left. As the content of rock and roll began

to take on quasi-progressive overtones, new forms began to develop. Youth was beginning to search for newer and more meaningful types of cultural and social relations. In the late 50’s “ordinary” rock and roll had reached perhaps its all time low, both in form and content (Chuck Berry was in jail, and Little Richard had found religion). The best rock and roll music at this time had its roots in C & W and took on the forms called “rock a billy” and “texmex”. The Everly Brothers and Buddy Holly are the two best examples. Both were able to convey an honesty and straightforwardness in form and content which was opposed to the “rock” that was getting all the hype. Their music also revealed an appreciation for language and message. Parallel with this was the emerging of Hollywood folk ‘music-the Brothers Four, the Highwaymen, Christy Minstrels, Chad Mitchell Trio, Kingston Trio, etc. A new form was evolving-but again in the way in which it could easily be used to channel and control. The music of these “folksingers” was semi-hip, sometimes funny, but rarely subversive and the artists _ themselves were neat, clean and certainly American. The music lords were also busy locating and grooming clean-cut “rockstars” in an attempt to keep the heat off. This was originally done by the smaller record companies, but soon became a big-business practice. Fabian and Frankie Avalon were what they came up with. This type of plastic rock and roll star did take with some of the more unsophisticated elements of the youth culture. But ever-increasing numbers of youth were demanding more from the artists than Fabian’s “I’m a tiger.” Those who rejected this plastic package deal sought meaning in the newly emerging forms. The contradiction in the development of the education industry-namely that some real understanding of the nature of the beast was beginning to grow-coupled with some of the above cultural developments helped develop the base for the liberal bourgeoisie to start making moves in the late fifties which culminated in the election of Kennedy in 1960. While a majority of the youth culture stayed with rock and roll, many especially working class students who attended the more northern liberal universities, as well as what Martin Sklar calls the non-academic intelligentsia-free lancers, detached artists, etc., took to this form-folk music. In conjunction with their distaste for “mass culture”, they were rapidly becoming aware that the abstract ideals of the U.S.-freedom, justice, equality, etc. were not I being realized. This problem was very conveniently located in the south. It was at this point that some liaison between the folk culture and the remnants of the old left began to develop-that is the youth culture was taking on some overt political content. The new musical forms beginning to emerge in the late fifties/early sixties,

reached out to a rediscovery of new cultural roots. The folk songs themselves were usually either original folksongs ( “Barbara Allen’) or some type of social comment (Phil Och’s Talking Birmingham jam). The form was the traditional folk form and the consciousness was the traditionai liberal one. One of the new young folk artists who was able to break through both of these restrictions was Bob Dylan. Dylan’s development from the early 60’s to the present, parallels development of the consciousness of the youth culture and the concomitant development of the new left. In this sense, Bob Dylan was making history and history was making Dylan. Dylan’s move to the east was primarly a result of his disenchantment with the bourgeois mass culture of the Hibbing. Minnesota working class and petite-bourgoisie. His own history was one of a constant search for new cultural (musical) forms. He therefore came as an eclectic -well-steeped in almost all the musical strains of the 50’s. He had a strong feeling for the blues, country and western music (particulary Hank Williams) and the best of the 50’s rock and roll. His folk hero Woodie Guthrie, who represented perhaps the best of the old left folk tradition (“This guitar kills facists”, was a Guthrie motto). But Dylan, himself, along with the other young people, was developing a new genre-a genre struggling not only against the bourgeoisification of popular music and culture, but also against the old folk forms themselves. This new form was the urban folk culture. During the early stages in the development of this cultural movement Dylan and other urban folk artists seized upon both the traditional forms and content. Dylan, for example affected a style and performed and recorded much in line with the originals, leaving some room for subjectivity in interpretation (as in Dylan’s version of Blind Lemmon Jefferson’s “See that my grave is kept clean”) Dylan, however, along with some of the other folk artists had a tremendous sense of folk history. He was aware of the con. tradictions of the society and the limitations of confining oneself to a musical style that was historically obsolete in both form and content. About his subsequent move to more topical music, Dylan said in a letter to Dave Glover :

singin’

“#l-m and writin’ what‘s on mY own mind nowWhat’s in my own head and whats in my own heart/in singin for me an a million other me-s that’ve been forced to’gether by the same feelingNot by no kind a side Not by no kind a categoryPeople hung up an’strung outPeople frustrated an*corked in an’ bottled upPeople in no special form of field age limit or class/ can’t sing *red Apple Joice’ no more I gotta sing ‘Masters a war II can’t sing ‘Little Maggie * with a clear head/ gotta sing Seven curses’ instead/ can’t sing ‘John Henry’ I gotta sing ‘Hollis Brown’/ can’t sing ‘John Johannah’ cause it’s my story and my peoples’storyl.gotta sing ‘With God on my side’ cause it’s my story and m y peoples storyI can’t sing The girl I left behind’ cause I know what its like to do itBut don’get me wrong nowDon’ think I go way out a my way-not t’sing no folk songs. That ain’t it at allThe folk songs showed me the way They showed me that songs can say some’ thin’human’To be continued

by Joe

Ferrandino,

abridged

from

A history of rock culture,

PO 734

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january

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True, we didn’t tie the knot in mississippi and we didn’t pull the trigger in Vietnam-that is, we personally-but we’ve been standing behind the knot tiers and the triggers pullers too long. Ellen, one of the Mississippi Summer Project volunteers,

As for conforming much of that.

outwardly,

and living your own life inwardly,

I do not think

Henry David

When government enforcers.

becomes

1964

Thoreau,

1850

the law breaker then the people become the law H. Rap Brown

There are times when order must be maintained tained.

because

order must be main-

Gra yson Kirk, former president of Columbia University, 1968

We can’t have education without revolution. We have tried peace education for 1900 years and it has failed. Let us try revolution and see what it will do now. Hellen Keller,

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Whatever one goes In this civilized world, one always finds the same set-up. The little man, the man who does the dirty work, the producer is of no importance, receives no consideration and is always being asked to make the greatest sacrifice. Yet everything depends on this forgotten man. Not a wheel could turn without his support and co-operation. It is this man, whose number is legion, who has no voice in world affairs... he knows that he has been robbed and cheated from time immemorial. He is suffocated with all this bitter knowledge. He waits and waits hoping that time will alter things. And slowly he realizes that time alters nothing, that with time things only grow worse. One day, he will decide to act. “Walt!” He will be told. “Wait just a little longer.” But he will refuse to wait another second. Henry Miller, 1947

They <et up the courts; they set up the police; they set up the army; they set up an educational system; they set up the newspaper; they set up all the apparatus to brainwash and to keep in subjugation. If we’re going to be free, and we will not be fully free until we smash this state completely and totally.,. no people in this world have ever achieved independence and freedom through the ballot or having it legislated to them. They got their freedom through struggle and through revolution. William Epton, 1964

Some people ask me if there is a chance of a police state in America. Well don’t ask an upper middle class American, but ask any student who has been in a demonstration or a black who has lived in a ghetto-we are in an unabashed poltce state. If we don’t dissent, the police state will tie the noose tighter and tighter on us all. Dr. Benjamin Speck, 1969

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When the music’s over Few of the freaks in the love and peace movement realize the contradictions present within their “cultural revolution”. They perceive themselves as free yet fail to see how restricted they are by the forces from which they claim to be liberated. Look at the typical rock concert for example. To listen to their favorite groups they gladly buy high_ priced tickets from promotors with little or no interest in the music being played. While denouncing the class structure of society thei willingly submit to an arbitrary caste system: the more money you have the more upwardly (frontwardly? ) mobile you are. It’s a simple’ case of supply and demand economy: the freaks create a demand and the promotors and organizors supply it at whatever price the market will bear. The groups are also to blame. The Rolling Stones recently marketed the “revolutionary” messages of Street fighting man and the like across America for over $l,000,000. Individual concert tickets were as high as $12. As prices demanded by the groups increase the cost to the people goes up. When this cost becomes too high, the supply is lostwitness the demise of the Rock

Pile in Toronto. Part of the small concert halls’ downfall is the inability to accommodate a large enough market. The logical move is to acoustically inferior buildings which will hold many times more paying customers. Quality plummets, profits soar and the promotors laugh all the way to the bank. The next step is the pop festival. When you are penned up inside a race track with four hundred thousand others, a half mile from the stage, the only visible or audible action is created by the people, not the band. And the promotors only charge you ten bucks for the privilege of doing your own thing. A frightening addition to the pop festival culture is the willingness of both Canadian and American government to assist or sponsor the events. What better way to keep the kids out of the streets and help them forget about the mindless roles in a self centered society. Let them lie around stoned at a “peace festival” somewhere out of harms way.

A culture which rose in defiance of a profit motivated society has been taken over, packaged, and sold to its creators. by the very people it tried to oppose.

member: Canadian university press (CUP) and underground press syndicate (UPS); subscriber: liberation news service (LNS) and chevron international news service (GINS); published tuesdays and fridays by the publications board of the federation of students (inc.), university of Waterloo: content is the responsibility of the Chevron staff, independent of the federation and the university administration; offices in the people’s campus center; phone (519) 578-7070 or university local 3443; telex 0295-748; circulation 12,500 Chairman board of publications - Geoff Roulet _ Moving right along with little happening but striving enthusiastically, the staff collective humbly presents, . .themselves: Jim Bowman, Ross Bell, Jim Klinck, Gary Robins, Bob Epp, Glenn Pierce, Bill Aird, Peter Marshall, Cyril Levitt, Pete Wilkinson, Brenda Wilson, Phil Elsworthy Alex Smith, Bill Sheldon (missed last week but not forgotten), Wayne Bradley, Rob Brady, Gerri; Huvers, Bryan Anderson, Gabriel Dumont, Mike Corbett, Al Lukgchko, Rufus the radical reptile Andre Belanger, Allen Class, Jeff Bennett, Una O’Callaghan, Karl Marx, Andy Tamas, Eleanor’ Hyodo, Larry Burko, Kathy Dorschner, John Nelson, Doug Minke, Bryan Douglas, MacRae ha5 departed, his mind full of wonder and amazement at what he beheld when he was among us, as usual there’s a whole bunch of people we forgot like Craig Te!fer and Ted Pimbert, Saxe is coming if anyone’s interested (didn’t think so), and don’t forget the staff meetin?: last night at 8 pm.


SPEED READING Communications Services is again presenting EFFICIENT READING at the University of Waterloo. The fee is $47.00 which includes all books and materials. The course consistsof ten 1 l/2 hour weekly lectures, There are four separate classes to choose from:

Class Class Class Class

1 begins 4 p.m. Tuesday Jan. 27 in Eng. IL 2 begins 7 p.m. Tuesday Jan. 27 in Eng. II, 3 begins 4 p.m. Wed. Jan. 28, in Eng. Lect. 4 begins 7 p.m. Wed. Jan. 28, in Eng. Lect.

Applications are invited for the position of EDITOR of Compendium for the remainder of the 1969 - 70 term.

Rm1313 Rm1313 Rm 205 Rm 3%

To register, see Helga Betz in the office of the Federation of Students, Campus Centre ; for additional phone ext. 2405.

Applications should be submitted to the chairman, Board of Publications by Wednesday, Jan. 28, 1970 The position is sakwied

information Fed. of Students

Board of Pubs

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1969-70_v10,n42_Chevron