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The Airport City The development of airports beyond a key piece of transport infrastructure is occurring worldwide. Airports are transforming themselves into ‘Airport Cities’ and in the process they are having a significant impact on local and regional economies. Airports are seeking to maximize non-aeronautical income from a range of activities including development industry, warehousing, hospitality, office buildings, accommodation, residential . Airside -Shopping mall concepts merged into passenger terminals • Retail (including upscale boutiques) • Restaurants (high-end as well as fast food) • Leisure (fitness, recreation, cinemas, even churches) -Logistics and Air Cargo

Landside -Hotels and entertainment - Office & Retail complexes - Convention & exhibition centers - Foreign trade zones - Time-sensitive goods processing

The Aerotropolis Spines and clusters of airport-linked businesses form along major airport arteries up to 30 km from the airport -Business parks -Logistics parks - Industrial parks -Wholesale merchandise marts -Information and communications technology complexes - Hotel, tourism and entertainment centres -Retail centres and wholesale merchandise marts -Large mixed-use residential developments


An aerotropolis is a metropolitan subregion where the layout, infrastructure, and economy are centered on a multimodal "airport city" . the Aerotropolis consists of an airport city and outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-linked businesses and associated residential development that feed off of each other and their accessibility to the airport. It is similar in form to a traditional metropolis, which contains a central city commercial core and commuter-linked suburbs.


Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam was one of the first to realise that their airport was no longer a transport hub but in fact had the potential to become an activity centre and economic generator for the region. With the introduction of on-site retail-ofice-hopitality accommodation-industry Schiphol. Airport transformed the area and now attracts rents greater than in down-town Amsterdam. In addition to the development with the airport, significant supporting businesses and infrastructure began to cluster around the airport and a greater range of businesses began to consider Schiphol Airport as a prime destination to do business. The ‘Airport City’, plus surrounding areas beyond the airport that were reliant on the airport created what is know today as an Aerotropolis. Major corporations set up their corporate headquarters around the airport and a significant positive economic impact to the local area and indeed the wider region was realised.

Schiphol Location

Administrative Policy And Development over years The more the airport expanded and renovated, the more it made an impact on the space around it. To begin with, this naturally took place because the surface area of the airport expanded significantly. Schiphol swallowed hundreds of hectares of land, particularly between 1957 and 1990, as Table 1 shows. 11Table 1. Total area of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol from 1920 to 2011 (in hectares). 1920 1938 1957 1965 1968 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011 76 210 700 1250 1480 1700 2000 2400 2678 2787 2787 The spatial effects of Schiphol’s spatial expansion, however, reached far beyond the airport’s fences. The airport emerged as a large-scale landowner, a project developer and a unique regional economic centre with exceptional opportunities for shaping and influencing the spatial environment in the Randstad and beyond. This transformation accelerated when the airport switched to a mainport strategy in the late 1980s. Schiphol endeavored to attract more and more firms and businesses by presenting itself as an appealing business location as well. In other words, Schiphol went into project development and real estate. And once again higher political and administrative powers provided the necessary backing. This was not surprising, however, because the applied spatial policies by the state and regional governments were focused on containing (and controlling) the unplanned spatial development around the airport Schiphol area. The involvement of the central and regional governments, through the application of land use policy and direct investments, would provide them not only witheffective instruments to guide the spatial and economic policies, but also in making profits from investment in land and real estate activities.

1930 - 1955 1930 Municipality

1945 - 1955 1945 Ministry of Spatial Planning,Transport Finance

Airline Company

1955-1970 1955 Canals

Existing neighbourhood

Airport Development and airport

Transport network



1970 - 1990

Hub and Spoke

Polynuclear urban formation 1955 - 1970

1945 - 1955

1970 - 1990 1970 Municipality

1990 - 2016 1990 Ministry of Spatial Planning,Transport Finance

Airline Company

1935 - 1945 Canals

Existing neighbourhood

Airport Development and airport

Transport network

Schiphol Development Plan Land use - 2025

Building figures in 1969 - 1985 -2005 Schiphol Terminal and ciy centre

Urban Fabric Current Situation

Urban Fabric 2025




Transport network

Max and min distance by road from Airport and urban centres

Missing reference File: D:\UTS _Master of Architecture\Coding density\PRODUCTION\Research\Schiphol 1970 map.pdf Sheet: 1or invalid

10km Primary route Secondary route Teritary route


GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY The average elevation of the airport is 3m below sea level with very few areas being above sea level. The area is guarded by dykerings all around surrounded by canal.


TOPOGRAPHY FLOOD RISK With majority of the land elevation being under sealevel, there is a high risk of the area being flooded. Therefore preventive measures in disaster risk reduction focused on flood resilience is adopted.

source: Creating water sensitive airports: in times of climate change Nanco Dolman

TOPOGRAPHY FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT Water system consistsof: -Open (blue) canalsand -Closed (red) canals forstorage and conveyance As well as pumpingstations fordischarge.

source: Creating water sensitive airports: in times of climate change Nanco Dolman

TOPOGRAPHY AIRPORT WATER SYSTEM Runoff water -Drainage system (collection + transport) -Ground water (seepage) -Surface water system (buffer + transport) -Pumping stations (discharge)

source: Creating water sensitive airports: in times of climate change Nanco Dolman

Bird Control greatly impact upon the impacts the vegetation around the airport. At Schiphol, the precautionary methods consist mainly of habitat management. These are: • exclusion of agricultural activities in the late eighties • adjusted mowing of fields (‘long-grass management’) • no dumps or landfills within 5-6 km of the airport boundaries • no berry-carrying shrubs in airport vegetation • trees only at a certain distance from airstrips • no coniferous trees in the vicinity -Habitat Management impact on vegetation -Longer grass and removing puddles making airport unattractive for birds -Exemption from Flora and Fauna Act, manage birds even by killing if the brid chasing is futile Golf hotel occupies significant area of green space around the airport city



Bird Control at Schiphol, Schiphol Amsterdam Airport

Bird Control at Airports, An overview of bird control methods and case descriptions October 1999 The Airport as a City, Drs. Pieter van der Horst MSc Berlage Instituut



source: php?id_projecte=7284&lan=es

Amsterdam Schiphol Airport Casestudy  
Amsterdam Schiphol Airport Casestudy