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Anyone can contribute to The Underground. The process of writing for The Underground is very simple; send a short message to editor@the-underground. ca with your intent to join our writer’s list. Thereafter, every month, our content and online editors will send out a list of article topics (called skeds) for you to pick from. You don’t have to write for every issue – when you want to write is completely up to you. You can reply back to those emails and let the editors know which topic you want to write about. If you have an idea you would like to pitch to a section, just email the editor in question or catch them at our writers’ meeting. Our writers’ meetings are held 24 hours before skeds are sent out, so join us if you would like the first pick at articles. Information on our writers’ meeting is available with our publication schedule on our website.

We are a student publication and so, like you, we too have other deadlines and commitments to attend to. Please stick to the dates prescribed by your editors. Regular delays in your submission will be noted and in the case of frequent delays you will be placed under review and your opportunity to contribute to the publication in the future will be compromised. Additionally, if you fail to submit an article, you will be placed under review.

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Pick a topic you are interested in; don’t just write for the sake of writing. We provide plenty of opportunities for you to have a word with our editors regarding your writing style, topic or any other grievances. If you do not use the services we offer yet still send in weak articles, we reserve the right to not publish your work. Please allow at least 2 business days for our editors to get back to your inquiries, suggestions and comments. Again, we are students. You may direct any questions to editor@the-underground.ca.


CONTENTS

NEWS 6 WHERE IS MILLER LASH HOUSE? 8 NEW EATS ON THE BLOCK 9 MAKING (MORE) ROOM AT UTSC ARTS & LIFE 10 THE COMPLICATED LOOK: UNPACKING DEFACE 13 REPRESENTATION IN THE FASHION AND BEAUTY INDUSTRY FEATURE 14 DISMANTLING THE PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMIC SPACE 18 TAKING A STAND SCIENCE & TECH 22 FIGHTING FRIZZ 24 SUSTAINABILITY CORNER 26 GETTING THE ‘D’ SPORTS & WELLNESS 28 PROTECTING YOUR VALUABLES 29 UEFA CHAMPIONS LEAGUE 2015/2016 PREVIEW 30 MEMOIRS OF A TORONTO SPORTS FAN 32 THE CHEAT SHEET OPINION 34 THE RECLAIMING


“ W AL K I N Y O U R W A Y S , S O YOU WON’T CRUMBLE/ SO YOU WON’T CRUMBLE/ WALK IN YOUR WAYS, SO YOU CAN S L EE P A T N I G H T / W A L K I N Y O UR W A Y S , S O Y O U W I L L W A KE U P A N D R I S E ”

CONTACT THE UNDERGROUND 1265 MILITARY TRAIL, ROOM SL-234 SCARBOROUGH, ONTARIO M1C 1A4 (416) 287-7054 EDITOR@THE-UNDERGROUND.CA

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I’ve been growing alongside The Underground for three years and have seen how transformative this publication has been in unearthing new stories, exploring unconventional concepts and more importantly, how it functions as a vehicle and acknowledges voices that would otherwise go unheard. There’s power in acknowledgment. There’s power in knowing that your story will be heard, acknowledged, and accepted and when there’s a pushback to suppress that power, it can be frightening. Freedom of speech does not negate the consequences that tend to be accompanied with it, and this is especially important when the consequences have implications on the livelihoods of others. This is at the forefront of my mind with every cycle of production that myself and the editorial staff undergo. As journalists, and especially as student journalists, we have the responsibility to unpack issues that speak to how they affect us. At the same time, we are also responsible for staying aware of how our social positionality may shape how we do our jobs. And that’s a massive task. When I think about the purpose of platforms like The Underground, and what I believe it is supposed to be for students, staff and faculty, I strive to ensure my staff has that in mind and are staying true to that commitment.


EDITORIAL

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PHOTO EDITOR NOOR AQIL

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ARTS & LIFE EDITOR ZARIN TASNIM

ASSOCIATE PHOTO EDITOR IDIL DJAFAR

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NEWS EDITOR MARJAN ASADULLAH SCIENCE & TECH EDITOR KRISTINA DUKOSKI

GRAPHICS EDITOR ELIZABETH LIU PRODUCTION EDITOR RACHEL CHIN

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ONLINE PHOTO EDITOR SADIAH RAHMAN

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NEWS

7

WHERE IS MILLER LASH HOUSE? Marjan Asadullah, News Editor On UTSC grounds, one may notice how every part of the building has character, and operates with a different plan in mind. The expansion and modernization of some parts of the campus has not taken away from the surrounding landscape, all which makes this campus unique. One place that goes unnoticed is the Miller Lash House. The house is located in the Highland Creek Valley, right off of Old Kingston Road. The historic house is an example of art and nature with its distinctive craftsmanship. The house was at the center of the University of Toronto’s original estate, or Scarborough College, as it was known in 1963. Before the house was built however, it was Miller Lash who found the property, and became so drawn to the open space and nature that he bought it shortly after. A graduate of U of T, Miller Lash was a successful lawyer and businessman. He was also a relative of William Lash Miller, a scientist, after whom the chemistry building at UTSG is named after. Lash hired Edward B. Green Sr. to design the house, and it was constructed in 1913. The massive, 17-room house was used as the residence for the principal of Scarborough College when the campus first opened in 1965. After a period, the house became property of U of T, and now serves as a unique conference hall and event facility. If Miller Lash House is so significant to the uni-

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versity’s history and has been around longer than UTSC itself, why haven’t students or staff been able to access the space? Fran Wdowczyk, Director of Business Development and Special Advisor at UTSC, says that the house is a “bookable space for the university.” It is open to students and staff, but when special events are held, many times it is “unaffordable.” The problem is that students are on campus mainly from September to April, and during that time, not many students or faculty have the means to pay for expensive catering or booking large spaces for their events. The main revenue the house receives occurs in the summer, during wedding season. The house is popular amongst people looking for great spot for an intimate, country-style event. The house does not gain from student tuition, or other private means. “The house is simply not cheap,” says Wdowczyk. On top of the house’s uniquely historic characteristics, the Miller Lash estate was able to obtain a grant of $82,733 from the Canada Millennium Partnership Program, for restoration of the original estate. U of T Magazine reported that in January, John McKay, MP for Scarborough East, presented the grant to the Scarborough campus principal Paul Thompson and restoration coordinator Lyne Dellandrea. “The preservation of the Miller Lash House will provide the University of Toronto, and the community of Scarborough with recreational space in a natural, and historic setting,”

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McKay says. With the history of the house, as well as the renovations to restore and preserve the property, the cost of the house will certainly rise, making it even more financially difficult to book the venue for students and faculty at UTSC. However, Wdowczyk wants to change that. Wdowczyk and her team want to make the Miller Lash House more accessible to students and faculty. One proposition Wdowczyk has made is inexpensive catering. For example, Aramark, the same food company that caters to students and staff in the Marketplace, could offer their services to the Miller Lash House. This way, the two forces could combine to help cover costs. Wdowczyk has also suggested students bring their own dishes. This would also cut the cost of utilities and other supplies. Currently, there are several events that students can attend at Miller Lash House. One example is “Pub at the House” which takes place every Thursday during the summer. This event is an affordable way to have a good time because the menu items are all under $20 CAD. As well, this winter the Miller Lash House is presenting its first “Christmas in the Valley” show, which involves local vendor goods”. As one can see, Miller Lash House, and the people responsible for organizing events there, are moving towards making the space more accessible for UTSC staff and students.

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NEW EATS ON THE BLOCK Sharine Taylor, Editor-in-Chief Let’s talk about that dent in our wallets. You know the all too familiar one that seems to have left an impression after we purchase food on campus? Perhaps with the promise of two new vendors, Treats Express and Rex’s Cafe, this dynamic will change. Earlier in April, Treats closed down and went under renovations during the summer and earlier part of this year. However with the newly opened store, with a much different visual aesthetic, students can expect more options and an affordable cost. The location’s manager is Anam Malik, is a 26 year-year graduate from UOIT who frequented the campus and wanted to increase the diversity of food options available to students. “When I took over the restaurant, the Treats brand was bought out by the parent company and they wanted to revamp the menu, which I agreed with totally because I did not see myself [providing the same food as the former tenant]. At the same time, they wanted to fully renovate so with this new menu, we’re able to to offer a lot more choices”, says Malik. He continues, “We have halal, first of all, because that’s very important to a lot of customers..Then we have options for vegan people and vegetarians. One of my customers [told me], he can’t have any raw vegetables. We

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have raw vegetables but we also have steamed vegetables”. Malik is looking to expand the menu further by offering more cost efficient options. He has already kept in mind that students are looking for healthier alternatives and the upgraded menu offers smoothies as well. Already distributing and encouraging the use of coupons, he is looking to develop more ways to cater to student budgets. “Two perspectives on retaining your customers: one is service and one is pricing,” he says. “We were looking at making daily specials...I’m in the process of getting printed posters to do promotions every two or three weeks where we have six dollar sandwiches so...we are able to stay in touch with our clients and their needs and their desires”. Just below Treats is Rex’s Cafe, a new SCSU initiative. Open from 12-6 PM, the cafe offers students an assortment of pastries, coffee, espresso and hot chocolate. Front-of-House Manager Aysha Sidiq says the space was created for students to relax, come together, study and get drinks. Sidiq mentions that the cafe has board games as well, modelled after business like Snakes and Lattes. Though the hours of operations only occupy a particular time, certain drinks like hot chocolate, are available throughout the day. With these new additions on campus, located in the prime location of the student centre, hopefully students will be able to fill the gap in their wallets and stomach.

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NEWS

9

MAKING (MORE) ROOM AT UTSC RACHEL CHIN / THE UNDERGROUND

Marjan Asadullah, News Editor “All I need is a desk, a chair, and a damn outlet.” This is typically the thought that goes through one’s mind as they peruse the Bladen Wing, Humanities Wing, the Science Research building, and the library multiple times looking for study space. How is it that the university is ranked one of the best in the world, yet limited room for students, or even faculty, have been an ongoing and huge barrier? “It is absolutely ridiculous trying to find a study space on campus, especially during midterm and final season. I know everyone is frantically trying to do some final review of their notes before heading in to write their exams and I’ve often come across people just sitting on the floor, hallways, and stairwells and in between the library shacks. That’s not okay. Considering the amount of tuition students, especially [what] nondomestic students pay, I don’t think it’s too much to ask to find a chair and an outlet to plug your laptop in”, shares Mariam Nowroz, who is in her final year at UTSC. Perhaps one of the people Nowroz saw sitting on the floor studying was first-year student Lulu Gemma who when asked about her opinion on the topic had this to say: “I thought there would be somewhere where I could go no matter what. But a lot of times I end up going to the library and sitting in between the bookshelves.” UTSC, however, has invested a lot of time and money into trying to make space for students. Approximately 57, 748 square metres of new buildings were created in fall of 2015. The construction of the Instructional Centre, the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre, as well as the Environmental Science and Chemistry building was supposed to accommodate students’ needs and create this desired space. In an interview with Andrew Arifuzzaman, the campus’ Chief Administrative Officer, he shares, “We have, of all campuses University of Toronto has, the least amount of space. We have www. the-underground.ca

less space than what the standard is. We’ve gotten better than where we were six years ago, but there is still a space deficit. So that is why there is constantly construction going on. In the last five years, we have created the Instructional Centre, the Environmental Science and Chemistry Centre, and the Pan Am Sports Centre and now we’ve started the Highland Hall project. We have plans to grow and make additional space on this campus.” The master plan highlights new classroom and lecture hall space and new research facilities. The growth and expansion of residential housing to serve the large student body expects around “700 new beds and more space for students and a cafeteria, which will be open for the whole campus,” says Arifuzzaman. Creation of a hotel conference centre is also in the works, which will be located near the Pam Am Centre and Highway 40 to create a one way pedestrian street for students. The master plan additionally includes expanding the transportation hub near Ellesmere Road. Right now, the focus is on the Highland Hall project and completing that in the next 18 months. Arifuzzaman is confident that such a task can and will be completed: “We’ll have additional space and it’ll be better from there.” Arifuzzaman also explained that this year UTSC has been funded by the federal government by the SIF (Strategic Investment Funds) project that allows for the renovation of a number of the teaching and research space in the Science Wing. “Some of the labs there were vintage [from the] 60’s and we’re upgrading those labs. Alongside the Highland Hall project and the Science Wing renovation, we’re working with the library to see if they can create more space for students”, says Arifuzzaman. It is interesting to think that the very UTSC we know now will likely not look the same in the next five to ten years. Hopefully, as UTSC continues to expand, students will spend less time having to walk from one end of the campus to another in hopes of finding a place to study.

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10 A RT S & L IF E NOOR AQIL / THE UNDERGROUND

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AR T S & L I F E 11

UNPACKING

THE COMPLICATED LOOK:

Sharine Taylor, Editor-in-Chief This year’s first solo exhibition at Gallery 1265 was a special project for ARTSIDEOUT featuring works from fourth-year student, Andilib Sajid. Sajid, an English major with double minors in art history and film and literature studies, was recently awarded UTSC’s Departmental English Award for her Jackman Humanities Institute fellowship paper “Deface,” which she was able to actualize in the exhibition that shares the same name. In her work, Sajid explores themes of Muslim women identities and juxtapositional relationships. Sajid’s works are informed by her interests of medieval Islamic art history and its potential intersections with Byzantine art history. The installations functioned to disrupt ideas of spectatorship and agency while also embedding personal themes to interrogate the dynamics between subject and objects. The Underground (UG): Are you afforded opportunities to study your interests or are you bringing in your own knowledge and finding pieces from different courses? Andilib Sajid (AS): It honestly depends. I think with the literature in film minor, I get a bit of a chance to be more exploratory in the works that I’m producing. Critical theory and cinema, you don’t really have that but you have professors who try to integrate that into the way they’re teaching. It’s hard because U of T doesn’t want to fund the arts and neither does Canada, so I don’t get to explore [my] specific interests. Obviously they incorporate different civilizations in inwww. the-underground.ca

tro courses to show that they have breadth but you don’t really get that a lot. It’s hard because you don’t want just anyone teaching it. You want someone who knows the nuances of that specific discipline. There are courses on medieval Christian art but that’s because [that’s] a lot of what art history has come to be. UG: How was Deface an extension of themes that you explored during your fellowship at the Jackman Humanities Institute?

when I presented the paper was, [‘Why didn’t you] look at veils?’ I didn’t because that’s a whole other project. I was thinking maybe Deface the exhibit can work on intersections of identity; specific identities like Muslim identities and Muslim women and then taking that and translating it into the exhibit. Not so much the hood, but still [possessing] the idea underlying “Deface” the paper, which was objects that have the ability to intersect with identity in very complicated ways. [The veil] is something that a lot of people are trying to reclaim saying, ‘The veil is not oppressive because I’m choosing to wear this.’ It’s also something that becomes more complicated where you have states that are heavily invested in what women wear and are forcing the veil and that is something that I don’t think is necessarily empowering. It’s degrading. So I was looking at the veil in the exhibit and also just a larger understanding of the face, the body, how subjects and objects are orienting and embodying themselves, but how to assert agency and the ways in which it can be taken away from you. There were personal elements in that exhibit. For Deface, I was researching performance art. I’m not comfortable with performance art because I feel like you can do anything. It’s so ambiguous, sometimes it gets ridiculous. I was very hesitant and the subject of it all is very controversial. I didn’t want people coming to me and yelling at me because of the way that I was using veils. Someone might say, ‘You don’t wear it so why are you including it into your artwork?’ Even though they don’t understand Muslim identity is not something that can be homogenized.

AS: When they were asking me to draft the project description, I had to explain what “Deface” at Jackman Humanities Institute was about and then what Deface in this exhibit is. They overlap but there are some distinctions. With “Deface” as a research paper, it [started] from these photographs of tortured victims of empires and victims of state violence and then looking at like how a thing or an object, that might be seemingly mundane, plays a very important role in producing these images as iconic. With things like Black Lives Matter, the hood became this really important symbol that people are trying to now reclaim and politicize. With Abu Ghraib, when you have the hood as something that becomes enforced and inflicted onto victims of torture, that is something that we start identifying that person with. It was working with that, stemming from art and photographs, and the politics of looking at photographs, spectatorship and what this object comes to mean when it intersects with identity, power and then transferring that into a visual piece UG: You mentioned there were personal of work. One of the questions I was asked elements in the exhibition. Where else did NOVEMBER 3 - NOVEMBER 30, 2016

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you draw your inspiration from? AS: There’s a performance artist named Ana Mandieta, I like a lot of her works but she really incorporates her body into the way her pieces are read. Many of them have these intersections of her body and landscape or her body and different materials and the ways that she can use her body to convey something to a viewer. It’s really personal but it’s also very moving and vulnerable. For Deface I was interested in the idea of the psychodynamics of subjects and objects, the ways that we read bodies, situate them and visualize them. One of the pieces was kind of paying homage to her. Liminal was an outline I did on a sheet and then I had my partner trace my body with red paint and stitched that outline of a body onto another bedsheet. I thought it was very vulnerable but personal because these are domestic objects that experience so much of us in the ways that we use them. It was kind of playing on this idea of a body that is marked itself on an object but it’s not there; this idea of absence and presence. I think underlying a lot of this was ideas of uncanniness and death drives. When you see the outline you think someone killed themselves or [you think of] the way police investigations work. I thought a lot about her and then expressionist painters and the ways they’re using colour cause I wanted colour to be a big element in this. UG: How did the themes you explore disrupt space? AS: There were parts of the exhibit that I could tell was not foreseen by a lot of the people organizing it and was also something that, I guess, you wouldn’t expect from a student-run gallery or from a student. One of the pieces that I’m referring to was _______ (read: blank): the journal entry and the bed sheet came from an event that I was experiencing.

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I went through an abusive event and the only way I could forget and remember it was to write it. My safety counsellor told me to start writing things down and I didn’t want to because when you go through trauma, well at least for me, I kind of get very mechanical and close up. I don’t always feel the need to translate what is happening mentally outside of myself, to externalize it. I had to explain the text that was written because it’s not clear at first until you get to the end and I guess you can sort of piece it together. I had to explain that to my teacher and people who where they cause they thought it was a narrative of about the mannequin. No, this is actually my experience of being defaced and being stripped of my agency and my ability to be, live and thrive in a healthy manner. Also, just the idea of what we think of performance artists as like white people who do all this weird shit and no one understands it. To bring your identity into that and into these spaces that are obviously dominated by whiteness was something that felt a bit disruptive and vulnerable. I’m not sure how it was received by everyone. It was the idea of—and this is something that gets spoken about in art and in unhealthy and healthy ways in Muslim communities— it’s like you’re allowed a certain amount of agency as a woman but once you start crossing boundaries and really expressing yourself the way you want to, then it’s not okay. How do we speak about these ideas and these conversations? That’s also something that was worrying me. You can own your identity to an extent but once it gets too personal, you start worrying about who’s reading this, who’s gonna talk about this...so there was that element. The idea that displaying Muslim identity onto walls and very explicit, bare and present, that felt a bit disruptive. I think a lot of people were pleased with it cause you don’t really assume that you will start mattering enough to be located in these

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spaces, I think that intrigued people...I was thinking a lot about like how do we combine my ideas of monstrosity, ugliness, pain, hurt and catharsis and embed it into photograph?...It just felt more empowering to have these unconventional portrayals. UG: What did you intend the takeaway be for gallery attendees? AS: I’m a very private person but this exhibit almost felt very open to me in some sense. I didn’t want to make art that was very detached from who I am so I just wanted that element in there. I have a diary entry written on a sheet and that was something that is directly connected to me as opposed to these other things more abstract in nature. Just the idea that of thinking about bodies and thinking about spectacle and visual economies, the way they read bodies, faces and things that make us feel uncomfortable. There were mannequins and they really freaked people out. One of the mannequins were also bandaged so there’s this idea of [wondering], ‘Is this supposed to be human?’. It’s not and that’s why it’s making us very uncomfortable and we can’t see them, which is also playing on this discomfort; the idea of this unreciprocated looking and trying to figure out what is underneath these things. You get those comments a lot where you look people who wear the hijab or burqa, people come up to them and say, ‘I want to see your face’, ‘Do you have hair underneath?’. There’s always this idea of wanting to strip and wanting to bare things to see them. No one realizes how politically embedded that can be. This idea of stripping layers is also an analogy towards understanding who you are as well. The idea of unravelling someone to find out who they are, getting to know them at their bare bones. I think that’s something that drives a lot of us towards ourselves and others.

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AR T S & L I F E 13 ELIZABETH LIU / THE UNDERGROUND

REPRESENTATION IN THE BEAUTY AND FASHION INDUSTRY Halima Farah, Contributor In an era where being “different” is pitched, marketed, packaged, and sold to the everyday consumer, it is not surprising to see the ways in which representation sells. Representation being a reflection of seeing yourself in various modes of mainstream media like art, literature and television. What representation for certain bodies looks like now is a little troubling. It begins with the next “new” hairstyle (bantu knots, cornrows or dreadlocks), the next “new” dress shirt to wear to Coachella (dashikis, abayas, or prayer caps and thobes), or the next “new” beauty trend of drenching your whole body, mind, and soul in coconut oil. These emerging trends are often the product of ideas, traditions, and cultures of people of color (POC) that have existed for years. In this past Kylie Jenner has been praised for her “fuller” lips; however, in the media, black women with fuller lips have seldom received the same level of praise. Ugandan model Aamito Lagum was recently featured on M.A.C Cosmetics Instagram page and was ridiculed in the posts’ comments section due to the size and texture of her lips in black lipstick. The responses she received on social media are proof that a double standard of beauty exists. As was shown, characteristics that shape some black women’s appearance (fuller lips) are only seen as beautiful when it is on an individual of another race -- in this case on the likes of Kylie Jenner. The idea of beauty standards being muddled by Eurocentrism is not a new concept. Reenas Mohamed, a third-year double major in political science and international development says that “As a person of color, I feel like a lot of times, society puts labels on me and my beauty. I’m always hit with, ‘Wow, are you mixed?’ Can my beauty not be unapologetically black, or do www. the-underground.ca

I have to be half-white to be considered beautiful?” This conversation doesn’t stop at race however. In an effort to have a more comprehensive discussion, one should note that able-bodied people are only ever shown in advertisements and commercials. An example of this is children’s retailer OshKosh B’Gosh refusing to feature Asher Nash, an infant living with down syndrome, in their latest casting call. When his mother submitted hisl, she was told by the company that they did not require any “special needs babies”. This type of discrimination is damaging because of the ways in which children with disabilities need to see themselves alongside other children. Asher’s mother went on to say, “Children with Down syndrome and other disabilities are incredible human beings, and we want OshKosh to want to help change the world’s perception.” The separation that OshKosh B’Gosh tried to cultivate showcases the growth that the media still needs to make so these situations do not occur. Nikita Singh, a health studies and anthropology major agrees with this point wholeheartedly. She shares, “You are told that inclusivity is promoted but there [are] quite a lot of boundaries to showcase how you should conform to societal norms.” Plus size industries are no different. Stores like H&M, Hollister, Abercrombie and Fitch and American Eagle have become stores that scarcely carry sizes that benefit individuals who wear plus size clothing, which is unfortunate if you really love the store’s apparel selection. NOVEMBER 3 - NOVEMBER 30, 2016

It has become a costly scavenger hunt to find clothing that fits properly. Heaven Tesfay, a thirdyear health studies major says, “They tell you, go and shop at ‘plus size’ stores...People have a clear divide. They tell you ‘Oh, I apologize, the biggest size we have is a 12, maybe you should try Laura… not petite though! You will not fit.’ It is interesting… [they] move to keep you out from what you would assume to be inclusive.” While we understand that there is lack of representation of diverse folks in the fashion and beauty industry, we have to first acknowledge the ones that have made strides to benefit and understand differing communities. Companies like Addition Elle, Forever 21, CoverGirl, Shea Moisture, Mixed Chicks as well as campaigns like Real Beauty/Self-Esteem projects by Dove showcase what happens when differences are embraced and celebrated rather than rejected and cast away. This is why, by understanding that not everyone is adequately represented in mass media, one is then able to shift the discussion to one of inclusion and diversity for those who have been left out of the conversation. By doing this, communities who have been plagiarized from will in turn reclaim their power -- even if big industries try to prove them otherwise. VOLUME 36, ISSUE 03


14 FE AT U R E RACHEL CHIN / THE UNDERGROUND

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F E AT U R E 15

dismantling the pedagogical

Academic

Space: a discussion on faculty diversity and inclusion training

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16 FE AT U R E

Zarin Tasnim, Arts & Life Editor

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or centuries, the academic space in Western countries like Canada, have been dominated and shaped by intellectuals that come from particular identities while others go unacknowledged. In recent years, disciplines like sociocultural anthropology, women and gender studies, media, and English literature have highlighted the often Eurocentric topics of discussion and research that centre the perspectives taught in courses. Moreover, having awareness of the positionality of educators and students in relation to the communities they inhabit is often brushed aside. As a result, lecture material discussed in class often lacks recognition of the oppressed groups. Furthermore, in a classroom setting, professors are in positions of power. This means that they are given a certain level of personal autonomy when it comes to selecting material for their syllabus. This can create certain levels of tensions that might exist within the student-educator dynamic. Tensions, if unresolved, might go range from a misunderstanding to acts of violence. Last month, psychology professor Jordan Peterson from the UTSG campus had refused to use non-binary pronouns to acknowledge faculty members and other students who belong to trans, gender-fluid, and two-spirited communities. It all started with a video Peterson posted on YouTube late September titled “Fear and the Law” in response to work that is being done to pass Bill C-16, which recognizes gender identity and expression as a human right therefore making hate crimes against the transgender communities illegal. In the video, Peterson expresses his dismay for the bill and says that he personally refuses to use pronouns like “they” because he does not understand folks who do not conform to the gender binary -- a binary that says one can only be either male or female. He also says that the gender spectrum (one’s no-

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tion of gender as fluid and not dichotomous) is incorrect. One of the overarching ideas that govern his disputes is his understanding of gender and sex, which Peterson says are not independent of each other. Since posting the videos, Peterson has organized rallies to advocate his views as an act of freedom of speech. This law mandates an individual’s right to express their opinion without the fear of government retaliation. Although it should be acknowledged that Peterson should be granted the opportunity to articulate his views and ideas, it is also important to understand the context behind this enactment. Many times, those who exercise their right to freedom of speech do so because they have been systemically rendered oppressed and powerless. For a professor who holds a position of authority to be speaking about the transgender and non-binary community that has been refused the basic right of being respected and to be acknowledged seems like an action of violence against their well being and safety. It is important to understand that practicing your right to freedom of speech should not prison those of others. Women’s and gender studies professor Donna Gabaccia teaches her class about the clear distinction between biological sex and gender identity. Her lectures reflect the scholarship that acknowledges that gender is a social construction and that in order to dismantle the rigid gender binary, one must think of gender as existing on a spectrum. Gabaccia says, “I don’t think cis-gendered (an individual whose gender identity matches what they are assigned to at birth) people really appreciate the levels of everyday harassment and violence that intersex, gender queer, homosexual people encounter on a daily basis. Their identity becomes an issue all the time for them - from walking down the street to any kind of social interaction. They have every reason to fear for their personal safety when they experience this kind of dismissive, resentful, response from their teachers. Does the university feel like a safe place to them

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afterwards? No it does not!” In his video, Peterson also says that those who do not identify with a particular gender have done so on the basis of ideological purposes. Feminist philosophy professor Lynda Lange says that she “[believes] that all research that involves human subjects has been subject to ethics review for quite a few decades now; however, I note that Professor Peterson’s views are not expressed by him as a subject of any research of his, nor does he reference any other research that would support his views. They appear to be just his own opinions. As such, he is free to express them, but he must accept that others -- whether individuals or institutions - are also free to challenge them and disagree. UofT has taken the position that this is a question of human rights -- in anticipation of a federal law that will almost certainly soon be enacted. Personally, I agree with the position of the UofT administration.” Peterson claims that there is a lack of evidence of non-binary people disregards many cultures that do recognize a third gender. In India and other parts of South Asia, ‘hijra’ is the legal term that refers to trans women in government documents and laws. When asked for her opinion, health studies and anthropology student Diane Hill says, “As an Indigenous student, situations like this can be problematic because our origins do not begin with gender binary or gender roles. I have learned from elders and speakers that our names and identities do not constrict us to the gender binary. There is a deep understanding of two-spirited people and notions of gender fluidity and the existence of spectrum as opposed to binary. In a lot of teachings for different groups, all beings are to be respected regardless of gender identity. I think this is an opportunity for UofT to include Indigenous knowledge into the world of academia.” These issues raised the possibility of whether or not professors and faculty members should receive equity and diversity training in order to be more aware of the differ-

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ent identities that students occupy in a given classroom. On campus, anti-oppression training sessions are offered to students through the Equity and Diversity Office. This year, the Department of Student Life has made it mandatory that all student clubs and organizations have this training before they are afforded certain on-campus privileges. When asked if this type of training is offered to faculty, all of the professors that were interviewed said that it simply does not exist. Anthropology professor Alejandro Paz says, “I think that systematic workshops that deal with these issues can help in many ways, but only to a point. First of all, it is very important that the university is giving these issues its support. Administrators are talking to trans and anti-racism advocates on campus, and hearing that they need this kind of support. It sends a message to everyone, and pushes us all to consider the kinds of privilege that afford us our positions. At the same time, we need vigorous public discussion about the kinds of discrimination and violence directed at trans people, as well as at racialized people, and we need to think inclusively about how to overcome that discrimination and violence. For this to happen, you have to include those most affected, not shut them out. That would seem obvious, and yet suddenly there are some who do not want to talk about their own privileges, and so they dismissively and erroneously call such inclusion a sort of “political correctness” or “radical left” politics. They want to shut down any public discussion, and unfortunately, however they understand their motivation, they are also fanning public expressions of hatred against trans and antiracist activists.” This issue of bringing in a formalized and structured training into consideration may change what kinds of perspectives are brought into discussion and how to navigate controversial issues. There are many instances where students feel as though the way professors handle topics may seem inconsiderate to groups of people. Fifth-year

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international development student Daniela Spagnuolo says, “In the classes I take, we talk about gender fairly often in my classes, sometimes with more consideration and complexity and sometimes with slightly less, but I will never forget one class where the professor, a white male, completely shut down all discussion in a lecture on gender and basically only presented his point of view -- on pink and blue slides. I think overall we need to engage more with the complexities of gender throughout the university from policy, to trainings, and within courses themselves. We can always and should always do better to make sure we create an environment for positive learning experiences within the university since this is the space in which we gain the skills, knowledge, and attitudes we will be bringing to our careers and beyond.” Philosophy professor Ronald De Sousa discusses another view on what type of training faculty members should receive. He says, “I think personal differences are far more important than cultural differences. I have very little patience with this idea that you give people trigger warnings. What happens is that everybody gets super sensitive and responds to everything as a source of a potential slur. We’re here to share ideas and look at different ways of experiencing the world and some of these might be extremely offensive, and in those cases we should be able to confront those views and say why we find them offensive and if so, be able to justify our response with reason -- if we can’t, we have to get over it.” He continues, “What I object to is [Peterson’s] incredibly ill-informed views about gender and sex. I also object to the way he describe his opponents’ views as ideological. His views are ideological and they don’t have any roots in any kind of objective, scientific research...These are exactly the type of ideas that I try to undermine in my courses. What distinguishes philosophy from any other subject is that in philosophy nothing is sacred. It seems to me that that’s the sort of training

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that anybody should receive. People should understand that in a university, we should expect diversity as ideas and also expect the diversity in our audience.” It is apparent that the power dynamics that exist between students and professors do more harm than good. Gabaccia shares that for her, “It’s really a simple issue for respect, even if that law or that policy did not exist. I can’t be an effective teacher if I have an adversarial relationship with my students. They are not asking me to teach material that I don’t want to teach, they are simply requesting that I address them with their preferred terms. Why wouldn’t I do that, as a teacher? Teaching is about communication, and communication requires mutual respect. There should a more dialogic approach of learning.” The dichotomous relationship between the professor as the “knowledge bearer” and the student as the subordinate learner creates a harmful interaction that still continues to be perpetuated in classrooms. The notion the teacher’s opinions are sacred and has more intellectual merit than that of the student has to be dismantled. The publicity and media attention that this issue has garnered makes us wonder if this is a narrative that is practiced in elementary schools and how those are dealt with. It is important to understand that professors may hold certificates that recognize their scholarly endeavours does mean they are experts at every aspect of academia. The pursuit of knowledge does not stop once an individual is acknowledged is a teacher of a discipline. As professor Gabaccia explains, a dialogic approach, in which student and professor learn from each other rather than maintaining a hierarchy might help resolve these tensions that have persists. It is about time that we discussed the power dynamics that exist between professors and students. This is a crucial thing to do in an effort to create spaces in which the opinions, experiences, and identities of both are recognized as valid and equally important.

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TAKING A

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A STAND

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“I’D RATHER DIE ON MY FEET, THAN LIVE ON MY KNEES.” Mexican Revolutionary, Emiliano Zapata

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Leal Coombs-King, Sports & Wellness Intern

n Aug. 26, San Francisco 49ers Quarterback Colin Kaepernick made his preseason debut against the Green Bay Packers; however prior to kick-off, Kaepernick was spotted sitting down during the national anthem. Since then he has been the recipient of large amounts of attention, both positive and negative. The athlete’s actions are indicative of his solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement and he is protesting because of the numerous acts of police brutality against unarmed Black folks in America, an unfortunate trend that garnered national attention with the killing of Florida teen Trayvon Martin in 2012. His actions quickly sparked outrage and confusion amongst Americans. Two days later Kaepernick explained why he sat down during the anthem saying, “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color.” He continued, “To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid-leave and getting away with murder.” Kaepernick has garnered praise and support from fans and athletes alike. On Sept. 1, Kaepernick continued his protest but this time was not alone when teammate and 49ers safety Eric Reid took a knee with Kaepernick during the anthem. Kaepernick decided to

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take a knee instead of sit in an effort to be more respectful to the military and their service. In response to the negative commentary that followed his decision to kneel, he said that “Once again, I’m not anti-American. I love America. I love the people. That’s why I’m doing this. I want to help make America better. I think having these conversations helps everybody have a better understanding of where everybody is coming from.” Other NFL players have supported Kaepernick including Seattle Seahawks cornerback Jeremy Lane , who on that same day, sat during the national anthem. “I just like what he’s doing and I’m standing behind him”, said Lane. A few days later, on Sept. 4, U.S Women’s national soccer team member Megan Rapinoe joined the movement, kneeling during the national anthem at a match between the Seattle Reign and Chicago Red Stars. As a member of the queer community, she says she understands “What it means to look at the flag and not have it protect all of your liberties,” and that “It’s important to have white people stand in support of people of color on this.” The trend trickled just north of the border and on Oct. 1, NBA players showed support for Colin Kaepernick’s protests as the Toronto Raptors joined arms and stood in solidarity during the national anthem prior to their pre-season game. Days followubg, they were joined by the Houston Rockets and the New York Knicks who also linked arms prior to their pre-season games. While many others have joined Kaepernick in his quest to raise awareness about the killings, some have opted out of participating for various reasons. NBA superstar Lebron James had this to say: “I think you guys know when I’m passionate about something. I’ll speak up on it, so me standing for the national anthem is something I will do, that’s who I am, that’s what I believe in. But that doesn’t mean I don’t respect and don’t agree with what Colin Kaepernick is doing. You have the right to voice your opinion, stand for your

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opinion and he’s doing it in the most peaceful way I’ve ever seen someone do something.” Raptors head coach Dwane Casey understands how important it is to speak out and protest against injustice. CBC reports indicated that he said, “I’ve lived it, I know it, I know how (the players) are feeling, what they’re going through, what they’re seeing... Some people got upset because they thought it was disrespecting the police. It’s just to continue the conversation. I would argue those incidents needed to be talked about, and what better way for society to understand it than through sports?” Though not everyone agrees with Kaepernick’s method, it’s important to focus on the reason why he is doing it in the first place. He is doing it because the reality is that terrible things are happening to Black people at the hands of the police both in the U.S and Canada. What is even worse is that justice is not always given to the victims and their community. The topic of race is America is a contentious issue. It’s no coincidence that Black and Latino men have been disproportionately targeted and represent 59 per cent of people who have been incarcerated. But with increased access to video-recording technology, we now have the power to capture footage and put it up on the web. To put it simply: the issue can no longer be ignored, or can it? A video surfaced of Alton Sterling, a Black male who was tackled by a police officer, brought to the ground, and shot in the back multiple times. Many thought this would show that the officer had murdered an unarmed man and justice would finally be served for a victim of police brutality. Unfortunately, this justice never came. Kaepernick thought enough was enough and decided to take a stand, or rather a knee, and was met with criticism, hatred and unwarranted attention -- attention that should have been focused on the fact that police brutality has claimed the lives of Black bodies such as Trayvon Martin, Alton Sterling, Sandra Bland, Michael Brown, and countless others. Supermodel Kate Upton condemned

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Kaepernick’s protests saying, “In my opinion, the national anthem is a symbolic song about our country. It represents honouring the many brave men and women who sacrifice and have sacrificed their lives each and every single day to protect our freedom.” She continues, “Sitting or kneeling during the national anthem is a disgrace to those people who have served and currently serve our country.” Folks with similar viewpoints as Kate Upton agree that Kaepernick’s actions were disrespectful; the irony is that Kaepernick was only exercising his First Amendment right. A right, one should add, that gives him the agency to kneel or sit as he so pleases. There is no denying that Kaepernick was a role model to many before his protest. The only difference is that now he has managed to solidify himself as a person young people can emulate. Kaepernick’s actions have positively impacted the lives of young people, namely the football team at Garfield and Laguana High School who followed Kaepernick’s example by kneeling during the national anthem at their respective games. Many think Kaepernick is out of his depth and is acting out as a self-serving stunt. ESPN Analyst Trent Dilfer commented on Kaepernick’s actions saying, “You are a back up QB, stay in your place.” But as Kaepernick said, “This is bigger than football.” The common implication of being a Black athlete in sports is a “plantation mentality”, where owners and higher ups in the league try to benefit from the success of the teams or individuals without ever really considering them as equals. Of course athletes do get salaries but they are drops in the ocean compared to the amount of money the league and owners make. Consider the comments former Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling made in 2014 to his then girlfriend: “Don’t bring black people to my games.” Sterling said this after his then-girlfriend posted a picture with NBA legend Magic Johnson. At the time, the Clippers team featured many Black players including head coach Doc Rivers. These remarks, naturally, sparked severe

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controversy. It was apparent that Sterling only wanted Black people at his games if he could make a profit on them. When the team found out about the comments they held a silent protest. They gathered at center court before Game 4 against the Golden State Warriors, took off their Clippers warmup shirts and left them there. They flipped their red shooting shirts inside out, thus no longer displaying the Clippers name or logo. During the game, players wore black armbands/ wristbands and black socks. The NBA came down hard on Sterling, but they were put in a position where they had no choice. The League banned Sterling for life and fined him $2.5 million which went to organizations dedicated to anti-discrimination and tolerance efforts. Many praised Commissioner Adam Silver and the league for cracking down and condemning those actions; however, while the Clippers organization suffered, the NBA thrived. This raises the question, are players only allowed to protest when a team or the League can benefit from it? WNBA teams and players were fined for donning black t-shirts with the hashtags “#BlackLivesMatter” and “#Dallas5” this summer. When the fines were announced WNBA president Lisa Borders told press, “We are proud of WNBA players’ engagement and passionate advocacy for non-violent solutions to difficult social issues but expect them to comply with the league’s uniform guidelines.” Before the fines were revoked players tweeted their discontent with the league’s decision. Tina Charles tweeted: “I refuse to be silent @ WNBA” Mistie Bass tweeted: “Don’t say we have a voice and then fine us because we use it. #notpuppets #cutthestrings”. The fines were later revoked around the same time NBA Commissioner Adam Silver voiced support for the players and teams. Borders, being a Black woman, has a tough challenge of supporting her fellow Black women but having to keep the state of the league in mind as the WNBA as not as big as its NBA counterpart. As an athlete one is expected to be a role model for their community. One is ex-

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pected to help make that community better and use their status to help others while at the same time speak out about issues they are passionate about. But for Black athletes, speaking out on topics that you think are important is an act that is often condemned. Black athletes are expected to show up to community programs like NBA Cares, smile, take pictures with children, look into the camera, and read whatever is on the cue cards. We often forget that athletes are real people and not simply idols that we look up to. Why are Black athletes belittled for using their platform to talk about the gritty conflicts in their community? There are pressing social issues that are not pretty and that need attention. It’s becoming more clear that athletes, especially Black athletes, are pushing the boundaries of self-expression in regards to social and political issues in which they are typically not encouraged to speak on and that is a historical fact. In the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, after the 200 metre finals, medalists Tommie Smith and John Carlos wore badges from the Olympic Project for Human Rights as well as black socks and black gloves. During the national anthem, both individuals raised their fists as a Black power salute and a human rights salute. As a result, Smith and Carlos were stripped of their medals, forced to leave the Olympic village, and received countless death threats when they returned home. And this was all because they were Black athletes who decided to show solidarity for a topic that was important to them. Whether you think Kaepernick is wrong or right in his methods, it’s hard to ignore his message. The reality is that there are issues that athletes should be allowed to talk about and the four walls that athletes were once expected to remain in are breaking down, earning them the freedom to speak on the social and political issues that they deem important. From the infamous 1968 Black power salute to Kaepernick’s present day campaign, Black athletes have been stirring up the world of American Sports and Politics for years. And since then, in the words of Aubrey Drake Graham, nothing was the same.

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FIGHTING

FRIZZ

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Sarah Siddiqi, Contributor People with who are looking to deflect the weather from altering their hairstyles are no strangers to detangling serums, antifrizz sprays, and leave-in conditioners. They can spend up to two hours trying to control their hair, only to realize that the minute they step out the front door, they will be greeted by their arch-nemesis: frizz. In order to combat frizz, it is important to understand why it happens. In other words, what is the science behind frizzy hair, and how can it be prevented? Understanding the science behind frizzy hair is the first step to successfully taming it. When the air is humid, there are high levels of hydrogen present. Keratin, a protein in human hair, has a chemical reaction with the hydrogen in the air. The protein and water molecules in the hair form bonds with the airborne hydrogen, causing hair to curl and become frizzy. Hair is porous, so it readily absorbs moisture. This is why, the quantity of moisture the hair absorbs is indicative of the weather. Aliya Shafi, a second-year student says, “My hair becomes most frizzy when the weather is very humid or windy.” Shafi describes her hair as straight and black; not coarse, nor thin, and fairly silky. Lakshmijaa Asokan, a first-year student, says that her hair becomes most frizzy “When it’s humid outside, or when it’s raining.” Asokan describes her hair as curly/wavy and short, although she often straightens her hair. This indicates that a multitude of people experience problems with frizz, despite the texture of their hair. Keratin in the hair is negatively charged, whereas shampoos also contain negative charges; and therefore, the repulsion of like charges result in frizz. The hair is comprised of several layers, and also contains sulfur atoms, which contribute to the strength of the hair. The sulfate bonds do not contribute to frizzy hair, however, the hydrogen bonds are responsible for the temporary shape of the hair. When hair becomes wet these hydrogen bonds break, and slowly reform as the hair dries. If hair becomes too dry,

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due to chemical or heat damage, it forms more hydrogen bonds with the keratin. The hair kinks and swells until it eventually disrupts the cuticle; as this occurs all over the head, hair becomes curly and frizzy. The shape of the hair cuticle determines hair type. People with very silky straight hair have a round cuticle, those with wavy hair have slightly less rounded cuticles, and individuals with curly hair have an oval or elliptical-shaped cuticle. As the cuticle shape is disrupted, the hair starts to curl and become frizzy. Although there are several reasons why frizz occurs, there are many products available to help fight it. Shafi suggests using “Lots of conditioner, hair oil -- like Moroccan oil, and use a baby oil mask occasionally.” Asokan recommends “Argan oil, anti-frizz creams, or curling mousse to enhance and tame curly hair.” When deciding which conditioner to use, it is important to look for two things: amino silicones and cationic surfactants. Amino silicones allow silicone to stick to the hair, and this helps to fight damage while conditioning the hair. Cationic surfactants are positively charged, and neutralize any static in the hair. When these two ingredients are combined, they add weight to the hair, protecting the hair from damage and frizz. Shampoo also contributes to static in the hair, and so to reduce frizz, sulfate and alcohol-free shampoos can be used. Shampoos that contain sulfates cause hair to become dry which causes the strands to absorb more moisture from the air. Alcohol causes the hair cuticle to swell which therefore contributes to frizz. Some sulfate and alcohol-free shampoos to try include, Macadamia Oil by Marc Anthony, as well as Evercrème and EverStyle by L’Oréal. Using these products will help to prevent further damage caused by frizz. It is important to understand the science behind frizzy hair, so that it can be more effectively treated. Although the effects of frizz cannot be completely eliminated, there are products available to help reduce their prominence. By using specific products like a hair mask and reducing exposure to straighteners/ curling irons, you can prevent the damage that leads to frizz.

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24 S C I E N C E & T EC H RACHEL CHIN / THE UNDERGROUND

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SUSTAINABILITY CORNER: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Taylor Lambie & Nivetheka Sathyaseelan, Contributors By now, many of you may have heard of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but how many of you are aware of what they actually are, and where they came from? The UN SDGs are 17 goals that encompass 169 targets, established by the UN, after many of the targets in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were missed. The MDGs were a group of eight goals created and adapted by the members of the UN in 2000, who had a deadline set for 2015 in order to ensure they were met. It was an attempt to address major issues and inequalities facing the world, such as to eliminate extreme poverty and achieve universal education; however, as 2015 drew closer, it became clear that these goals were not being fully met. Consequently, the UN went to work to create the new Sustainable Development Goals, which were adapted in 2016, and have a deadline of 2030. If we failed to meet the eight goals of the MDGs, then why do we need 17 new goals? Are they really any better? The answer to such questions are hard, and there are varying perspectives on it. Some argue that the SDGs are better, simply because of how they were created. There is a common belief that the MDGs were created in the basement of the United Nations by a group of men. The SDGs involved universal consultation in order to really understand what everyone wanted to see in this new set of goals. This demonstrates how the SDGs are more inclusive of everyone than the MDGs, especially since these new goals are meant for all countries to achieve, and not just developing countries. In addition to being inclusive, another strength of the SDGs is that they target the root causes of social inequalities faced by the world. This is an important aspect because it means greater attention is being given to how social inequalities are reproduced within society, as well as giving attention to the sources that cause these social inequalities in the first place. Ultimately, this means that the SDGs are trying to eradicate these inequalities, so that development and progress can flourish. Another great strength of the SDGs is that all the goals are interrelated: this means that progress in one goal will mean

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progress in another goal. As mentioned earlier, the 17 SDGs also encompass 169 targets to measure progress within each goal. Compared to the MDGs, the SDGs are more measureable thanks to these targets. Despite the appeal of the SDGs determination to reduce the social issues facing our modern world, many people argue that there is still room for improvement in the development and execution of the SDGs. One of the major critiques of the SDGs is that there are too many goals and too many targets. Wouldn’t there be more potential for success if there were fewer, more specific goals? It can be said that the SDGs are interrelated, which makes completing them more attainable, however, some people counter this by arguing that the goals cannot be achieved simultaneously. The SDGs present an emphasis on economic growth instead of human development. How can you possibly promote environmental improvements when the goals are promoting economic growth, which has a historic link to environmental degradation? Other questions surrounding the SDGs include, who will pay for it, and can they really be achieved if they are not legally binding? As there is no international governing body, there is no one holding countries accountable for working towards the completion of these goals. The biggest critique of the SDGs may be the lack of definition within them, as well as defining the concept of sustainability. The term sustainability is embedded within the 17 SDGs, but what does it mean, and why is it an important concept within these goals? To be sustainable means to preserve what we have, so that it can exist in the future. One of the main overarching goals of the SDGs is to sustain development and progress within all countries. This is why the SDGs are so diverse, have measurable targets, and focus on the root causes of social inequality. The SDGs are so important to us now because these 17 goals are going to shape our current policies and mandates, internationally and locally, for the next 15 years. In other words, these SDGs will be playing a crucial role in how future decisions will be made, whether you support them or not. As students, you might be asking what can we do? Get educated on the goals and advocate for one that you are passionate about at a local or even international level.

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GETTING THE ‘D’ Kristina Dukoski, Science & Tech Editor The taste of your favourite refreshing drink has long dissipated from your palette, the chlorinated water has long evaporated off your skin, and the tan has long faded leaving glimpses of your original pigmentation behind. Winter is coming. Are you ready for it? Even if you are, science says that your Vitamin D levels are not. Canadians should be concerning themselves with fulfilling their daily quota of the ‘sunshine vitamin,’ which Health Canada recommends to be 1300 mg for children 9-18 years old, and 1000 mg for adults 19-50 years old. An article released by the Vitamin D Society of Canada on Aug. 3 firmly urges that Canadians make changes, following the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in the United Kingdom’s recommendation for inhabitants of the UK to increase their own intake: “Much like the UK, Canada shares the same sunshine limitations, which means because of the northern latitude of both countries, Vitamin D producing sunlight can only be captured by our skin between the months of May and October.” This means that from (roughly) November to April, our bodies do not extract as much of the vitamin from natural sunlight, leaving us traversing a slow decline into deficiency. Dr. Susan Whiting, a professor of nutrition and dietetics at the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan, and a member of the Vitamin D Society of Canada, explains the current condition of the two countries saying, “Canada implemented fortification and, after adopting several strategies, what we have today is: milk and margarine (mandatory), plus (the allowance) of some foods (that)

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add Vitamin D… This gives us a 200 IU average intake. It does not meet the current RDA of 600 IU but keeps most -- 93 per cent -- of Canadians above the cut-off for risk of severe deficiency. In contrast, the UK has not allowed much fortification, has ignored Vitamin D these past decades, and so has [a quarter] of the population at severe risk.” Canadians have taken steps in the right direction, but we are still sub-par. Fortunately, we are citizens of an incredibly accommodating country which means that there are ways to keep ourselves healthy during the long winter months. Dr. Whiting expands on some alternative sources of Vitamin D aside from natural sunlight. “There are only three sources of Vitamin D: food, sun, supplement. In winter, a supplement is essential. One could recommend eating oily fish -- salmon, etc.-- more often; (this is) pricier than a supplement, but (it) offers omega-3 fats which are good too.” Whiting mentions, “Alternatives include: tanning salons that understand Vitamin D synthesis and use bulbs for synthesis -- Note: UVB burns, so some salons use UVA bulbs which would not promote synthesis. Taking a trip south (would be ideal), but hardly cost-effective compared to a $10 supplement.” Whiting also supplemented these suggestions with a fascinating fact about our skin’s reaction to tanning: “Tanning occurs to prevent UVB entering top skin layer and so the body begins to adapt to the increased UVB. One cannot ‘overdo it’ with UVB in terms of making too much Vitamin D as there are mechanisms in the skin to prevent this. (It is) very interesting how we can self-regulate skin synthesis.” The sunshine vitamin is an extremely important cog in the complex mech-

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anism that is the human body. According to the professionals that contribute to the medweb resource ‘Healthline,’ Vitamin D regulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorous, which contributes to bone development and immune system functionality. Whiting provides an in-depth explanation of the role Vitamin D plays in terms of calcium uptake. “Vitamin D does a lot of different actions as it’s a gene activator. In the intestine it increases production of proteins that allow for calcium absorption to be highly efficient. It also has direct action in bones for bone remodelling and in the kidney to regulate excretion of calcium and phosphate (the other constituent of bone mineral),” she says. A Vitamin D deficiency puts people at risk for bone abnormalities such as osteomalacia or osteoporosis, both which are characterized by the weakness and brittleness of bones. Because of the vitamin’s ties to proper immune functioning, a deficiency can also increase chances of developing multiple sclerosis, heart disease, and influenza. Along with exploring its direct impact on bones and immune systems, Healthline also highlights that Vitamin D also regulates mood, thus warding off deviations such as depression. “Scientists found that people with depression who received Vitamin D supplements noticed an improvement in their symptoms,” they said. Aside from the plentiful psychological benefits, another great side effect of keeping your levels in check is maintenance of a healthy weight! The benefits of obtaining enough of the sunshine vitamin are unquestionable; the sooner we adapt and make changes in our lifestyles, the longer we will be able to enjoy healthier days.

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28 S P OR T S & WELLNES S ELIZABETH LIU / THE UNDERGROUND

Anne Ebenesar, Contributor Cancer, in some shape or form, affects us all, regardless of race, age, sexuality, or socio-economic status. Cancer is a collection of diseases that starts with the body losing control over a regular functioning cell, causing it to divide at a much faster rate than normal. Annually, 12.7 million people are diagnosed with the disease. Cancer can start with any cell of the body, therefore, it can take on many different forms, some more dominant than others. Prostate cancer is a pestilential tumour found within the prostate and is the most common type of cancer found within the Canadian male population. It is characterized by the uncontrollable growth of the prostate cells, resulting in abnormal formations. The prostate is a male reproductive gland found between the bladder and the penis. Running through the centre is the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. Who is susceptible? The obvious answer here is males, as the prostate gland is exclusive to their biological anatomy, but the question is, which ones, and how? There is no single cause of prostate cancer, but there are circumstances for this disease to occur in some rather than others. The risk of getting prostate cancer increases with age; thus, men over the age of 50 are more likely to be di-

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agnosed with prostate cancer. As a university student, you might be wondering why you should care? You may be well away from the age of 50, but by taking preventive measures now, you can reduce the likelihood of prostate cancer. While there is no unquestionable strategy to avoid prostate cancer, however, there are many ways young men can protect themselves and reduce the risk. Of course, a healthy diet should be important to everyone, for a variety of reasons. This practice is also key in the prevention of prostate cancer. Those who sustain a high-fat and low-fibre diet, are at a larger risk of prostate cancer. Through research, it has been found that saturated fats may lead to an increased production of testosterone, and this would aid in the growth of prostate cells. Saturated fats can be found in a variety of foods, including whole-milk products, processed foods, and fatty portions of meats. Some ways in which to reduce the amount of high-fat foods you eat include cooking with leaner cuts of meat, picking low-fat or reduced-fat dairy products, and eating fish. Certain fish, such as salmon and tuna, contain omega-3 acids, which are linked to the reduction of prostate cancer. Choosing a low-fat diet also allows for weight control, which will help fight other diseases that may arise from obesity. This one may seem too simple, but it’s true! Studies show that regular ex-

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ercise significantly hinders progression and development of the disease. Adding physical activity to your daily lifestyle not only decreases your risk of prostate cancer, but it also helps you lead a better lifestyle in general. Start small by using the stairs instead of the elevator, and if possible, walk to campus. Utilizing TPASC is also a great way to incorporate exercise into your daily routine because of how accessible it is to all students enrolled for the semester. Men with a family history of prostate cancer are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with it, making this preventive measure incredibly important. Checking as early as possible for any symptoms of prostate cancer will reduce the chances of late detection. Prostate cancer can be detected through testing blood samples for ProstateSpecific Antigens (PSA’s), through a digital rectal exam (DRE), both of which can be done by your family physician. ProstateSpecific Antigens are usually at a heightened level for men who test positive for prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a terrible disease that affects the lives of many men across Canada. By taking the necessary precautionary measures noted above, one could have an easier time detecting the disease in its earliest stages. Take some time out of your day and look over your diet and daily fitness regime. Lastly, make sure you schedule an appointment with your doctor to make sure you’re good and healthy!

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SPO RTS & W E L L N E SS 29

UEFA Champions League 2016/2017 Preview: Who Will be Crowned Champions?

RACHEL CHIN / THE UNDERGROUND

Temi Dada, Sports & Wellness Editor FC Bayern Munich (Germany) Manager: Carlo Ancelotti Games Played: 3, Won: 2, Drawn: 0, Lost: 1 For most of last season, the reigning Bundesliga champions were considered the best team in the Europe, which is codeword for best team in the world. The champs was cruising past other teams with ease both in the domestic league and in Europe. Robert Lewandowski (last season’s golden boot winner with 30 league goals) scored almost every game, then-new signee Douglas Costa and French youngster Kingsley Koman quickly became revelations and thenmanager Pep Guardiola seemed to casually experiment every attacking formation known to man with different players while getting away with. Injuries to star wingers Frank Ribery and Arjen Robben did not stop them from annihilating teams. They were on-course to win their fourth consecutive Bundesliga title and looked like they were going to add a sixth Champions League title, until they got knocked out semi-finals last season by Atletico Madrid by the away goal rule. This season they still look as formidable as ever, with some changes. Serial winner, Carlo Ancelotti was hired earlier this year after the departure of Guardiola to Manchester City, they also bolstered their midfield with this year’s Golden Boy Winner, Renato Sanches. For a team that already boasts six World Cup winners in their starting 11 with world class players like Lewandoski, Costa and Ribery, it is safe to say that they have the deepest squad in the competition this season. As fate would have it, Atletico happen to be in the same group as Bayern in the group stages (Group D) alongside FC Rostov and PSV. Besides Atletico—the only team to beat Bay-

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ern this season—the group seems as an easy kill for the Bavarians. The German champions look as dominant as ever, especially in their 4-1 thrashing of PSV on Matchweek 3 and they have the quality to go all the way in the tournament. FC Barcelona (Spain) Manager: Luis Enrique Games Played: 3, Won: 3, Drawn: 0, Lost: 0 This is the only team thought to be on par with Bayern or some might have argued to be better than the Bavarian outfit last season. The dreaded South American trio of reigning Ballon d’or winner Lionel Messi, superstar Neymar da Silva Jnr.who led the Brazilian team to its first ever Olympic gold medal and this season’s European golden shoe holder Luis Suarez were scoring goals for fun last season, scoring a combined 130 goals and breaking their own record of 120 which they set during the previous season. The Blaugrana played brilliant football last season and through the group stages. During the first knockout games, it looked like they could be the first team to successfully defend a Champions League title in the history of the competition. Unfortunately, they were handed a premature exit in the quarter-finals, courtesy of Atletico, once again spoiling the party. This season though, the team still looks stronger after a successful summer transfer window, with the likes of Lucas Digne, Samuel Umtiti and Paco Alcacer joining the fold. With three straight wins in Group C, including the resounding 4-0 win over Pep Guardiola’s Manchester City on Matchweek 3, the reigning La Liga champions looks like a formidable force and are one of the favorites to win the title. Real Madrid C.F. (Spain) Manager: Zenedine Zidane Games Played: 3, Won: 2, Drawn: 1, Lost: 0

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Nobody could have written a better story for the Los Blancos last season, they won their eleventh Champions League trophy, the most in history, at the cost of bitter rivals and famed giant killers who seemed to run out of luck, Atletico Madrid, for the second time in three years in club’s history, had the legend Zenedine Zidane have his first year as a first team coach. Many might question their journey to the finals because they got more favorable draws than other rivals but nevertheless, they are this season’s defending champions. The team endured a quiet summer as bringing Alvaro Morata back from Juventus and selling Jese Rodriguez was their only involvement in the transfer window, but their returning stars are rejuvenated, especially star player Cristiano Ronaldo who won the Euros with his country Portugal. After an initial shaky start, Madrid seems to be getting into their rhythm with two wins and a draw, sitting second and level on points with group leaders, Borussia Dortmund in Group F. Juventus F.C. (Italy) Manager: Massimiliano Allegri Games Played: 3, Won: 2, Drawn: 1, Lost: 0 Juventus gained a lot of attention over the summer when they sold French star Paul Pogba for World record fee of £89.3 million to Manchester United and then purchased Serie A top scorer Gonzalo Higuain for £70 million. It was a busy summer for The Old Lady, they still acquired Dani Alves from Barcelona, Miralem Pnajic from AS Roma and Mehdi Benatia from Bayern Munich. The 2015 Champion League finalists are looking to win their sixth straight Serie A (domestic league) title and their third Champions League title and with what looks like their best squad in years, this might be their best chance.

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30 S P OR T S & WELLNES S

m e m o ir s O F A to ron t o sport s fa n Raghad A.K, Contributor Sports play a huge role in many Torontonians connection and pride to the city with the city’s sports fans being the most passionate; however, being a sports fan in Toronto has its ups and downs as much as there are thrills and pains. Despite all of that, Toronto fans will stand behind their team no matter if they win or lose. Three popular sports teams in Toronto are the Maple Leafs (our hockey team), the Raptors (our basketball team) and the Blue Jays (our baseball team). The teams attract a lot of sports fans from within and outside of the city however, the experience of being a sports fan of a Toronto team varies from one to another. Sometimes it can be heartbreaking and painful, but that does not take away from the excitement and the joy of watching an exciting sports game, and supporting our different teams. Tito Ku, a computer science student says, “I enjoy being a Toronto sports fan because as of the last two years, seeing the Raptors get to the Conference Finals and seeing the Blue Jays make it to the playoffs has made me proud to say ‘I am a Toronto sports fan.’ I find it hard to expect us to win the titles out of nowhere, so I take the small victories as progress towards an eventual title.” Since the Maple Leafs, Raptors, and Blue Jays are the most popular Toronto sports teams, not many Torontonians know about Toronto FC, the Major League Soccer (MLS) team. This team seems to be attracting more sports fans year after year, especially after making headlines last year, when they reached the MLS playoffs for the first time in franchise history. Harpreet Dulku, a political science and psychology student says, “It is fun to be a Toronto sports fan because for me there is pride in our city being recognized around the world. When the Toronto Raptors, Toronto Maple Leafs, or the Toronto Blue Jays get recognized on the news in other countries, I get a sense of joy because our city is being noticed by others around the world. This

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gives everyone an opportunity to know how we are and our culture, diversity [and the] fans in Toronto.” Last season both the Raptors and Blue Jays advanced to the playoffs in their respective leagues, both teams playing hard until the final four. The Raptors lost to the Cleveland Cavaliers during the Conference Finals and the Blue Jays lost to the Cleveland Indians in the American League Championship Series (ALCS). Toronto sports fans supported these two teams all the way to their last games, and will continue to support them when the new season begins. David Kagan, a computer science student and Blue Jays fan says, “It is fun to participate in our local sports teams because it brings us together. I enjoy going out with my buddies to a bar and watching the games. Especially when our team scores and the entire bar lights up with cheers and chants. Hopefully one day we will take first place.” Toronto Maple Leafs fans are always there behind the team through everything and every year they hope that our hockey team can make the playoffs. Leafs fans remain optimistic, with all the changes that have occurred in the team, including coach Mike Babcock who is in his second season coaching, and rookie Auston Matthews who scored not one, but four goals in his NHL debut. This will definitely be an exciting season for Leafs fans. Sometimes it can be heartbreaking to a be a sports fan in Toronto especially when a lot of our teams were so close to advancing to the next round but unfortunately the result of the game was not what we were expecting. Especially with the Blue Jays last year and this year when they lost in the ALCS. It is heartbreaking when as a fan you know this team and the players did all they can but it is just not enough. Also it can be heartbreaking one a player who plays for a Toronto sports team gets traded to another team and they end up doing a lot better there in that city than they did in Toronto. Of course we are happy for them but wish that could happen here. Overall I am proud to be a sports fan in Toronto.

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VOLUME 36, ISSUE 03


SPO RTS & W E L L N E SS 3 1 NOOR AQIL / THE UNDERGROUND

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3 2 S P OR T S & WELLNES S

THE CH EAT S H EET: HOW TO BALANCE LIFE AT UTSC WITH THE GYM Bogdan Stanciu, Contributor It’s hard enough dealing with school, let alone juggling a social life, a part time job, or a significant other. So how is a student supposed to find the time and keep committed to working out without going crazy? I interviewed three dedicated students who’ve made going to the gym a habit that they’ve sustained for years. Even when their lives have been at their most stressful, they’ve still found the time to squeeze in a great workout. Gaby Zhou is a fourth-year psychology student who has been lifting for two and a half years and has become a successful powerlifter. In the past, Zhou also competed and placed at several competitions. Her journey started at the end of her first year. She shares, “I knew I was paying for the membership, and I thought that I might as well use the services, so I went to the gym. At first it was really intimidating but I started seeing progress and ever since, I’ve continued lifting” Consistency, and sticking to it can be hard. For some people, they rely on friends and gym buddies to motivate them, but for Zhou, it was the opposite which resulted in her finding a good rhythm. She shares, “I wasn’t relying on anybody else to go to the gym, I just went by myself and told myself ‘I have to work out [for] x amount of time every single day.’ “ Consistency also means striking a balance. Ike Anudu, a fifth-year human biology and psychology student, has been working out for three years. “It’s about balance. Everyone has their hobbies and things they consider fun. I’m in my zen mode when I’m at the gym.” Anudu started working out in the summer of his second-year with a friend. After his friend moved back home at the end of the summer, he started to find his own groove, and make each workout his own. “[My friend] was like the training wheels, and when he left for the summer, I had the knowledge to start going on my own and start discovering what works for me.” Commitment to the gym doesn’t

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mean having to set aside a huge chunk of your day just to work out. For Zhou, making time is about setting a schedule. She says, “I plan everything ahead of time. I know I have an X amount of time to put towards working out, so I know I’m going to lose two hours a day, so with the rest of my hours I focus on school and work. I try to make those three things my focus.” A training schedule doesn’t have to be structured and planned out. Adam Darrah is a fourth-year journalism student, who works 30-40 hours per week as a personal trainer at TPASC. Darrah still finds time to get in his three to four workouts each week. “We all have the same 24 hours. I don’t care how busy you say you are, we all have things in our lives, and if you choose to make it a priority, you will find time for it.” says Darrah. You will also find that exercising will help you put more more quality effort in your school work. For Zhou, it’s usually school work that makes her tired mentioning, “I escape my assignments and work by going to the gym. It clears my mind, and it helps relieve stress.” Burning out is a problem, and that’s why balance is so important, not just with working out, but with everything from school to dieting.“I’m human -- sometimes I crave something with a little more sugar, so a small pack of sour patch kids or cherry blasters. You don’t have to be perfect. That’s why many people get burnt out. They think, ‘I have to do this seven days a week for three hours a day, but it gets overwhelming and stressful. Don’t strive for perfection, strive for consistency,” says Darrah. The biggest step is always commitment, and Anudu has one piece of advice for those who are struggling to commit: “If you want to make a difference in your life, then my advice to you is to be patient. People stop coming to the gym after a month because they’re not seeing results. And I feel that’s because they’re not patient.” In other words, be kind to yourself. Take the time you need to do what you have to and schedule yourself accordingly. You’ll find your rhythm in no time.

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VOLUME 36, ISSUE 03


SPO RTS & W E L L N E SS 3 3 IDIL DJAFAR / THE UNDERGROUND

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34 OP I N I ON NOOR AQIL / THE UNDERGROUND

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OPINION 35

THE RECLAIMING Tianna Henry, Contributor In the last couple of years, we’ve seen debates and protests across North America that have sparked outrage about race and race relations. I am asked this question so often: “What are you guys so angry about? Martin Luther King didn’t die for this.” Instead of rolling my eyes, and criticizing them for their ignorance, I recite the words of Malcolm X: “Don’t be in a hurry to condemn because he doesn’t do what you do, or think as you think. There was a time when you didn’t know what you know today.” Educating yourself and informing others is essential to the objective of those who wish for equity. To do this, I proceed to ask myself, what are we so angry about? Black people throughout the world have been taught to assimilate and conform to Eurocentric beauty standards. We are taught to forgo our individualism and culture in order to survive in white supremacist societies. I can recall many instances where I was confused about my Blackness. I’d look to my right, and I’d see an array of white women on magazine covers. I’d look to my left, and I’d see a lack of diversity on my television screen. I’d look forward, and see my reflection, not sure whether to love or loathe myself. Instead of believing that I was beautiful, I picked up chemical relaxers and a straightener. Little did I know, even with multiple products in my unruly hair, I would never be truly able to assimilate. Who I truly was was inescapable. Dami Kolade, an anthropology student at UTSC shares that “It’s hard to love yourself when your true self is not accepted. There’s nothing I can do about who I am. I need to love my lips, my dark skin, my body.” Kolade adds, “We’re getting to a point where Black people are starting to love themselves, regardless of what people think.” There’s a certain confidence that

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is rising among our young, Black generation that I am proudly taking part in. Social and musical platforms have given Black people the representation that is sorely lacking in mainstream media. Pages on social media, like Twitter and Instagram, specialize in showcasing Black people and their diversity, and are giving communities the courage to rise above microaggressions and racism. At this point, it’s hard to stop myself from commenting ‘YASSSSS’ on every carefree photo that my friends, and various pages’ post. It’s beautiful to see people loving themselves. By denying inferiority, we can create opportunities for people of color that might not have existed. Musical artists like Solange have also contributed to showcasing the pride of Blackness. With her new album A Seat at the Table, she both educates and converses with her audience about self-love and acceptance. Despite the backlash from those that can’t seem to understand the social uprising of Black people, we continue to fight back and create new opportunities for ourselves. This sort of rebellion is becoming an essential part of our activism. By simply showing pride in where we come from, we display our unwillingness to conform. Social initiatives have played a huge part in my self-reclaiming. One of the best things I have personally done for myself was cut off all my processed hair. After watching countless YouTube videos, and seeing posts online about the benefits and versatility of going natural, I knew that the ‘Big Chop’ was the next step to figuring out who I was. Although I was reluctant, in March of 2015, I picked up a pair of scissors and snipped away. For me, choosing to go natural was the closest I could get to being myself, and up to this day, it serves as a reminder that people are lovely and magical, just as they are. Nowadays, a familiar voice constantly echoes through my head saying, “You’re beautiful”, and this time, I believe it.

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The SCSP is hiring a CRO for upcoming by-elections! The Scarborough Campus Students’ Press (SCSP) is hiring a CRO for the upcoming Board of Directors by-elections. The SCSP oversees production of The Underground and Scarborough Fair at UTSC. Applicants should have: - Strong leadership, organization and communication skills - In-depth understanding of the SCSP’s by-laws and constitution - Ability to manage time effectively - Previous experience as a CRO is an asset.

TO APPLY send a resume & cover letter to editor@the-underground.ca


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