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#1 WORLDWIDE BESTSELLER Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

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The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2


Copyright ŠMatthew Choy 23/05/13

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The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2


Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

The Art of Colonization, Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION Part 1 – Basic Introduction 1.1 WHAT IS THIS BOOK FOR? The basis of an empire came from colonization. Colonization is basically the growth of an empire, the essence to make it strong. It is also an art, where it must be executed with precision, or the empire will fail to capture the enemy state, or break down slowly, as the effort of the army is wasted. This book shall explain in a comprehensive manner of how colonization should be accomplished and other tips to help strengthen the empire. This book shall be for emperors, military use and for people to learn. Part 2 – Author notes 2.1 WHAT I LEARNT In this project, the most important point I learnt is how to distinguish a masterpiece from the sea of infinite stories. A masterpiece shall have an inner motif that shall engage the reader. However, this inner motif is not fixed. The motif shall change throughout the reader’s perspective. Such examples include the simple maturity. When I was first introduced to the Tempest, (a story that will play a pivotal moment in the book later on) all I could comprehend was simple themes such as brotherhood and trust. As I get closer to the story, I came into realization of the theme of Imperialism (explained in Chapter 3), which was a major theme in this book. All masterpieces include this ever-changing motif. On the more technical side, I learnt how to fully master the literature ultra-weapon, the P.E.E (Point, Evidence and Explanation). The P.E.E is a tool to magnify the text, helping the reader of the P.E.E to understand the inner motif of the particular text. With this tool, I managed to create a both comprehensive, yet simple essay in the book.

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Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

The Art of Colonization, Chapter 3 - IMPERIALISM In this chapter of the book, we will endeavor a relationship that can greatly benefit and empire in forms of trade, land and power. The concept is called Imperialism. A suitable definition of it can be along the lines of “A human and territorial relationship of a superior state controlling and taking advantage of a weaker state”. A true example of what is Imperialism can be read from the Tempest. This analysis of Imperialism in the Tempest will provide you an example of how true imperialism works in a smaller scale. We will soon ascend to another higher-scale imperialism example. The higher example of will be on the British Empire and Imperialism. The real-life example will truly benefit your understanding on Imperialism. Part 1 – Who is Caliban? 1.1 MONSTER OR MAN? Caliban is the very character in the Tempest needed to analyze that will express the hidden theme of imperialism in the play. To understand about how Caliban is the center of the imperialism theme in the Tempest, we must first know who he actually is. Throughout the play, Caliban is described as a half-fish, half-man deformed monster. He is first introduced in Act 1 scene 2, early on in the play. In this scene, Prospero was summoning Caliban to retrieve firewood for them. This scene was chosen, as it was the first introduction of Caliban. The first introduction is important, as it gives the reader their first impressions of Caliban, which can be said as the most influential. Caliban’s first appearance is a hugely strong image, and can never change in the reader’s perspective of Caliban. This perspective can be said to be the most accurate image of Caliban. The evidence supporting the monstrous appearance Prospero addressed Caliban as “A freckled whelp, hag-born” and “Hag-seed”. The keyword “Hag” portrays Caliban as a monster with no feelings, who can take a terrible insult. This is important as it gives the reader the sense of Caliban not be a conscious human, and able to inflict pain without guilt. This makes the reader at most case attribute Caliban as a stereotyped monster. Other sources referencing Caliban’s appearance are in scene 2.2, "I shall laugh myself to death at this puppy-headed monster" where Caliban mocked by Trinculo and in scene 5.1, he is also described to act like a monster, in addition to his appearance. "He is as disproportioned in his manners /As in his shape"

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Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

Caliban however, is also argued to be more of a man then monster. The most simplest, yet intriguing prove of the civilized part of Caliban comes from the fact he can speak. The example of Caliban speaking is "You taught me language, and my profit on't / Is I know how to curse” This example of Caliban speaking complexly in scene 2.2 expresses that he is highly educated in forms of human communication. Furthermore, in this scene he was talking to Prospero and Miranda, applying that they were the one that educated Caliban. The idea of the reason why Prospero educated Caliban will be described in the next section. In addition of being capable to speak, he can use his speaking skills to describe true beauty, a dilemma that made spokesmen in all ages confused. The speech in scene 3.2 describes the island’s beauty. I chose this scene because this can be said as the longest speech in the entire Tempest. This speech is elongated because Shakespeare wants to emphasize the hidden meaning in Caliban. "Be not afeard. The isle is full of noises, Sounds, and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments Will hum about mine ears, and sometimes voices That if I then had waked after long sleep Will make me sleep again; and then in dreaming The clouds methought would open and show riches Ready to drop upon me, that when I waked I cried to dream again"

The phase “The clouds methought would open and show riches”, suggests that Calibanis capable of not only described the true beauty of the island, but also be the only character that appreciates the island itself. Prospero and Miranda treat it as a prison, while all the Sicilians consider it as a barren land. The appreciation of the island also makes Caliban more human-like, as he understands that he must take the island for granted. This makes the reader feel that the island is truly Caliban’s home, suggesting that Prospero stole it for him. This idea is also the center of the imperialism theme in the Tempest, as explained below. Another prove of the humanity in Caliban comes from the fact that he can think for himself, and plan a rebellion. The quote supporting this idea is from the scene 3.3, where Caliban complained to Stephano on Trinculo mocking him. “Lo, how he mocks me! Wilt thou let him, mylord?” The use of “mylord” suggests that Caliban can also flatter a person, an extremely complex human skill. This is important, as it confirms that Caliban has the mind and thought of 5


Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

humans. This makes the reader give a sense of intelligence to Caliban, afflicting him to a more humane yet more deceiving character. In my opinion, I conclude that Caliban is born monster, and will always be a beast. On the other hand, he can learn the ways of men, and therefore, his mind will be human. Part 2 – The link of Caliban and Imperialism 2.1 ANTAGONIST? Caliban’s attack on Miranda, his rebellion and his devious yet brash character can give him the title of the main antagonist in the Tempest. However, in a more in-depth thought, he is not completely evil and his actions can be traced back as the basic actions of an animal and the thinking of a human. Firstly, his attack on Miranda was completely by nature. As a monster in appearance and by being, it is natural for him to attempt to reproduce, maintaining his species. This natural characteristic was so habitual for beasts, Caliban showed no remorse or guilt on his attack on Miranda. The quote supporting this idea comes from Caliban’s speech to Prospero in Scene 1.2. I chose this scene because this speech gave Caliban his first impression of an antagonist. “Oh ho, oh ho! Would ’t had been done! Thou didst prevent me. I had peopled else This isle with Calibans.”

The phrase “Would ’t had been done!” suggests that he was not at all guilty of his wrongdoings, and would clearly attempt another try if he had a chance. This can show his beastliness and associate him into more of a brutish animal. The use of multiple exclamation marks can also suggest his brusque manner. These two points will give him an atrocious character. The reason is because even though he did something very disgraceful, he gives no sense of remorse, and even rudely congratulates himself for trying. On the contrary, this can also express nativity, naivety and innocence. The reason is because Caliban is so certain that he must continue his race at all cost. He does not know of social customs, or true love, as he was never in a relationship before. In addition, this idea can express that Caliban is an extremely lonely character, without a good upbringing from his witch mother Sycorax, and reliable friends, as he lived in the island himself. In conclusion, this can make the reader feel that Caliban is a strong-willed character, who wants to keep his population at all cause. This can also exaggerate Prospero’s power, as even the mighty Caliban can get enslaved by him. Readers can also feel sorry for Caliban, as his loneliness and his enslavement. This is important as it gives Caliban an inner self of loneliness, sadness and embarrassment from slavery. This new ego in Caliban gives way to a new image representing all victims of imperialism (explained in the next part). 6


Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

2.2 WHY IS CALIBAN AN INNOCENT VICTIM OF IMPERIALISM? Now we understand the definition imperialism, and the nature of Caliban, we can now move on to imperialism in the Tempest. Firstly, the most important link between Caliban and victims of imperialism is the similarity of the loss of their territory. The island in the Tempest was originally Caliban’s legitimate land. Prospero arrived and took the island from him. The quote supporting this idea is from Act 3 Scene 2 - “As I told thee before, I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island.” This is where Caliban talks to Stephano about his fall of the island. This scene is important, as Caliban introduced himself directly as a slave to Stephano, applying that he cannot do anything about his enslavement, much like many victims of Imperialism. The key phase “cheated me of the island” suggests that Prospero used his knowledge and cunning to exile Caliban out of the island. This also suggests there were no primary struggle for the island directly when Prospero came. In addition, this shows that Caliban is either unaware of Prospero’s scheme, or less intelligent than him. Furthermore, the repetitive and secondary sentence structure of “a tyrant, a sorcerer” suggests that Prospero is already a tyrant, and his status of a sorcerer is only his secondary status. The only difference of Caliban and Prospero is the magic Prospero wields; suggesting Caliban is an equal, giving Prospero no right to rule over Caliban. This makes the reader feel that Prospero is the true antagonist, which is explained more detailed later. The theme of Imperialism can be completely expressed in this quote, as Prospero uses his magic, which represents superior technology in real life to conquer Caliban, an equal human being and his territory. This is very similar to other imperialism examples. Such example includes Columbus accidently going to the Americas, and claiming that the Bahamas Archipelago is under the Spanish crown, renaming it San Salvador. A vast majority of native locals in the Bahamas Archipelago was soon converted to slaves because of the Spanish superior firearms to their basic clubs. In the Tempest Prospero was not meant to arrive on the island, and once he was in the island, he used his superior magic to take control of the island and enslaved Caliban. In conclusion to this point, Caliban is an innocent victim of imperialism because he is in the lower end of the power scale between himself and Prospero. His land and his freedom are under the control of Prospero directly following the definition of Imperialism - “A superior state controlling and taking advantage of a weaker state”

2.3 A MORE DETAIL ANALYSIS OF IMPERIALISM IN THE TEMPEST 7


Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

There is a great deal more of subtle themes of imperialism in the Tempest; most of them situated in the analysis of Caliban and Prospero. Firstly, the ability of speech in Caliban not only proofs he can think as a human, but again gives another enthralling question of why Prospero bother teaching him language in the first place. The reason is because Prospero need a way to communicate to Caliban. This speech relationship is important in the theme of imperialism because an easy communication form is essential for trade or even enslavement. The quote supporting this idea comes from Scene 1 Act 2. “Abhorrèd slave, Which any print of goodness wilt not take, Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee, Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour One thing or other. When thou didst not, savage, Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known”.

I chose this quote because it tells us what Prospero taught Caliban before he was enslaved. This is important as it gives a different view of the way Prospero treated Caliban. In this perspective, he is not enslaved, and does not know of Prospero’s power. The key phase “but wouldst gabble like, A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes, With words that made them known.” suggest that Caliban is completely savage without the speech. He also needed to understand what Miranda and Prospero wants. This understanding is extremely interlinked with the fact the Prospero needs Caliban to understand him for his daily needs. Prospero needs Caliban to learn of his ways, to prepare Caliban for his life in servitude. This need of Caliban is once again revisited in a dialogue between Prospero and Miranda. "We cannot miss him: he does make our fire, / Fetch in our wood, and serves in offices / that profit us"(1.2.311-13).

I chose this particular speech as it was the most honest moment of Prospero. The reason is because Prospero is explaining what the use of Caliban to them, and why not he just murders him in the first place to his closest member, Miranda. The need of a labor slave is another direct trait to economical imperialism, and why imperialism is so beneficial to an empire. All superior territory needs a group for industrial labor to build the territory’s economy. Without Caliban, Prospero is nothing. He cannot compare his power to anybody. Another major point where Imperialism is important to colonization comes from the spread of cultural tradition and knowledge. When Prospero arrived on the island, he taught Caliban how to speak his language. On the contrary, Caliban taught Prospero important tips of survival. This trade also reflects that Caliban is in the lower end of power.

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Copyright ©Matthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

The quote supporting this idea comes from Act 2 Scene 2, where Caliban argues with Prospero the importance of language. This scene is significant because it is one of the first speeches of Caliban, giving it an important first impression. "You taught me language, and my profit on't / Is I know how to curse”

The key phase “and my profit on't / Is I know how to curse” suggests that Caliban does not need to learn language, and treat it as a burden. This also hints of Caliban’s indifference to new cultures therefore leading to close-mindedness. On the contrary, Prospero seems to accept Caliban’s knowledge of the island, relying on it to survive. The quote supporting this idea is - And showed thee all the qualities o' th' isle, The fresh springs, brine pits, barren place and fertile. This is important as it shows the open-minded quality of Prospero, that reflects into Imperialism, because Prospero represents the superior state that took advantage of the weaker territory. This makes the reader feel that Prospero easily took advantage over Caliban, as he is stronger both in power and mind. Lastly, the final proof of the imperialism theme in the Tempest comes from the fact that Prospero is more powerful than Caliban The quote supporting this idea comes from Act 1 scene 2. I chose this quote as it gives a very in-depth personality analysis of Caliban and Prospero. Water with berries in ’t, and teach me how To name the bigger light, and how the less, That burn by day and night; and I loved thee-

The uses of the hyphen suggest Prospero is always in power, because he interrupted Caliban in speech. This shows that Prospero is always in power, even in the simple process of communication. This is important because it reflects on true imperialism, where the weaker state cannot say unwanted ideas. This can make the reader feel Prospero is truly the antagonist, and Caliban will soon become a mindless slave, similar to all the victims of Imperialism. 2.4 CONCLUSION To summarize everything said on this topic, the Tempest can represent pure political Imperialism. Prospero is the superior state taking advantage and controlling the weaker state Caliban. Forms of trade, cultural expansion, and uneven power are also shown. The importance of Imperialism comes from the fact it is how most empires become extremely powerful. A suitable example is the British Empire. The British Empire conquered a quarter of the known world at its peak, all due to the process of imperialism. It is also important to real-life education as we must try to stop imperialism, as many negative attributes such as 9


Copyright ŠMatthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

slavery and taking advantage of people’s labor. I chose it as it taught me a lot of different political and moral lessons. It was extremely interesting, and I got to practice lot of reading and writing skills. I think this analysis of the Tempest is extremely successful. The next topic we are going to explore is still imperialism, but in a more real-life aspect. Prepare for the might of the British Empire!

IN THIS VERSION, THE CHAPTER ENDS HERE

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Copyright ŠMatthew Choy 23/05/13

The Art of Colonization Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project Version 1.2

The Art of Colonization, Chapter 28 - BIBLIOGRAPHY TITLE PICTURE FROM: oceanexplorer.noaa.gov CHAPTER 3, IMPERIALISM SOURCES Yahoo Forum, Yahoo.co, 2005, viewed from 15/02/13 http://voices.yahoo.com/shakespeares-caliban-colonial-world-view-205276.html Reginald Shepherd.blogspot, Caliban to the Audience, viewed from 15/02/13 http://reginaldshepherd.blogspot.hk/2007/08/caliban-to-audience-tempest-as.html Shakespeare About.com/Caliban in the Tempest, viewed from 15/02/13 http://shakespeare.about.com/od/thetempest/a/Caliban-tempest.htm Duke.edu/English, Sophistication versus Savagery, viewed from 15/02/13 http://sites.duke.edu/english90as_03_f2010/2010/11/24/sophistication-versus-savageryhow-education-defies-distinction/ First year Barnard.edu/Shakespeare/Caliban , viewed from 15/02/13 http://firstyear.barnard.edu/shakespeare/tempest/caliban Shakespeare-online.com/Hudsonarielcontrast, viewed from 15/02/13 http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/thetempest/hudsonarielcontrast.html Sparknotes.com, Shakespeare the Tempest, viewed from 15/02/13 nfs.sparknotes.com/tempest/

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The Art of Colonization  

Year 8 Tempest Inquiry Project