Page 1

the RAM




TABLE of CONTENTS //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Editorial 1 protecting our cultural sites through technology: Geospatial Mapping 2 CULT I Insider 6 What is Minimalism? 8 Art Vision 10 Romanticism vs Realism under the roof of EYP 12 SpaceX, Elon Musk, and Modern Society 14 All the Others 16 Bullying Laws All Around the World 17 Technology in Our Lives 19 Mad Lips 20 Startup Companies and Our Future 21 Projected Faces 22


editorial What makes KOCFORUM18 unique? It is a youth forum that is built around the theme of protecting the cultural values whilst keeping pace with the developing technologies. Stark? Bold? Unique? Sure. A one and only event like this forum must be built upon a visual language that serves it with meaning and function. Starting from a brainstorm that existed within the borders of my sketchbook, then extending to every visual element of KOCFORUM18, the visual language has been built with care by the editorial team. Eventually, blue and grey were chosen to be the main colors of the forum because I was inspired by the image of a blue screen on a grey monitor that alludes to early 90s personal computers. That image grew exponentially on your badges, hoodies, welcome booklets and Instagram page. Since the theme of KOCFORUM18 was on adapting to developing technologies, the logo resembled an abacus. That is because, abacus is both the first computer ever invented and it is the first computer we interact as children. Thus, the logo is the best fit for an event where young individuals inquire concepts. This is a session where the hegemony of collective thought is observed.


Utkan Dora Öncül

Editorial Assistants Berk Tan Demirel Cem Üstandağ Oğuz Tuna Solaroğlu Talu Karagöz


Alara Değirmenci Arslan Ersagün Ersoy Ayça Kahraman Beliz Kül Can Kayalan Damla Yıldıztekin Ezgi Zeren Gökçe On İpek Akyol Jessica Aksoy Şevval Balaban Zeynep Aylin Ortanç

But also, the session media team fostered a hegemony of creativity. The vision called to journalists to experiment and take risks while wandering to fields of media, that they have never experienced before. They have all succeeded in pushing the boundaries of their comfort zone while still staying relevant to the session concept. Above all, they learned to collaborate among the same umbrella called KOCFORUM18 Media Team. Perhaps, I have created a temporarily existing media family whose memories will reach eternity. We aim to reflect our experience of KOCFORUM18 to your hands rather than documenting the session as an event. This is because creative storytelling within media reaches to an utmost value, in the age of digital dumpsites and sparklingly good phone cameras. Therefore, I invite you to commemorate the work of the media team. In addition, KOCFORUM18 itself was a very unique experience from an Editorial perspective. It was made special by you, the participants of the session. This publication that you hold in your hands is the final tangible element of the session. It is our final touch. Enjoy.




protecting our cultural sites through technology:

geospatial mapping


While modern skyscrapers are rising high in the skies of big cities, heritage sites dating back to 3500 B.C. are being damaged or even destroyed by a myriad of causes. It is disappointing to see how many countries are failing to protect their cultural sites from damages caused by, including but not limited to, natural disasters, weather changes, overcrowded tourist attractions, negligent visitors, wars and terror attacks. Geospatial mapping through various means from drones to tourist photographs has proven to be one of the most effective ways to document heritage sites and to preserve them based on the data collected.





network of publicly and privately owned satellites to capture aerial views of the sites to deliver imagery analysis and satellite solutions to relief and development organisations within and outside the UN system. [4] Similarly, The International Council of Museums (ICOM) used satellites to survey damage to ancient mausoleums in Timbuktu during the 2012 civil war in Mali and plans to use them to assess destruction caused by the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.[5] Intervention may not be possible in regions where conflict still rages, but satellite technology and image analysis can give the council enough information to raise international awareness, appeal to combatants on the ground and make a plan for rehabilitation once the fighting stops.

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// A common way of preserving ancient monuments is to safeguard heritage using digital means such as laser scanning to create 3D models. But sometimes these efforts come too late for heritage sites. While this approach often requires specialist imaging equipment, another approach is to use something that we already have in abundance: the effort, curiosity and holiday photographs of millions of travellers worldwide.[1] Curious Travellers, a project launched by researchers from the universities of Bradford, St Andrews, Nottingham Ningbo China and Birmingham, alongside international heritage consultancy MOSPA, aims to preserve a record of sites and monuments in 3D digital form, built not from specialist scans but from compilations of tourist snaps.[2] The crowdsourcing project takes tourist photos and videos and combines them with other freely available resources scraped from websites such as travel blogs and social media sources in order to create 3D models of ancient monuments and sites. The reconstructed content is placed in context using relevant survey data that describes the site and landscape to make the model as accurate as possible.




Protecting heritage sites becomes especially challenging in places of war and terror where putting feet on the ground to assess sites can threaten human life. Satellite imagery becomes the only source of objective information for areas affected by conflict or by natural disasters. [3] For instance, in the city of Aleppo, Syria that houses the remains of palaces, mosques and bathhouses dating back to the 10th century B.C., heritage sites have been threatened by the country’s ongoing civil war. To safely and precisely track the conditions of cultural heritage sites, experts are using satellite technology to monitor and protect endangered museums, monuments and other places of historical importance. UNITAR’s Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) leverages a

Moreover, there is growing collaboration between public and private groups involved in geospatial mapping. For example, Oxford archaeologist Robert Bewley has been leading an endangered archaeology documentation project called EAMENA that already has a large database of archaeological sites spanning from Mauritania to Iran. [6]Another project is Map Action, a UK-based humanitarian organisation that deploys mapping and information-management teams around the world to collect field data during humanitarian emergencies.[7] Non-profit organizations like Global Heritage Fund and CyArk are using high-tech tools like ground penetrating radar, LIDAR and drones to preserve heritage sites at a pace never seen before, and in remote corners of the world.[8]


In an age of heightened efficiency, innovation in the preservation industry is crucial. Age old processes which historically took countless hours and exhausted manpower reserves, are becoming easier than ever to complete, and complete quickly. We still document sites with hand drawings and archaeologists still uses shovels, trowels and brushes to excavate, but we have new tools today. Drones, 3D scanning, GPS, satellite imagery and rectified photography are helping experts document sites while modern materials and techniques are revolutionizing the conservation of structures. While recent advancements, such as the ability to rapidly and accurately collect and process large amounts of data, are allowing organizations to document, analyze, and ultimately preserve important heritage sites around the world, it is still essential for every world citizen to act responsibly and collaboratively when it comes to the protection of heritage sites as these technologies can maximise their impact only in the presence of a conscious community.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.



CULT I insider


The topic of CULT I is about the future of technology in education. Technology continues to become more and more a part of everyday life for us. Education is highly affected by the development of the technology. Computers, tablets, and phones allow fast and easy access to information resources. You all think that technology is really beneficial for education in students lives, just like CULT I Committee.


I believe that even technology has its negative side effects for education, it is important to have technology in our schools and in educational life. But we need to learn to use it more wisely by time.10606




I think that technology should definitely be involved in education since it has countless benefits such as making it really easy to access information, since when people print their lecture notes and documents related to school, a lot of paper is wasted. Thus, finding a way to put all these processes into an online platform is both good for nature and students since we are living in a digital age.


Personally I really think that technology is quite controversial so the usage of technology in education is especially quite controversial because there are many side effects of using technology. There is many advantages but it all depends on the culture and the country that it is being used in. For example in first world countries such as Norway, England, France, Germany is a lot easier, people already have that culture, they have that tolerance. Kids tend to study more, use it more for like educational purposes rather than people who live in the Middle East or like less developed countries such as like Bosnia and other countries like that. When it comes to using internet and technology because they haven’t had it before so they don’t really have the culture. They feel like they can abuse it more. So they play more games and do more things related to entertainment purposes.


ZEYNEP TUNA I think there should be technology in education because it provides lots of information to the students. We can reach the information faster. That’s why we should increase technology in education. We use technology everywhere, education is one of them.

However, its disadvantages should not be ignored. The biggest problem with using technology is how distracting it can be. Games, video, and music all distract students from what they are supposed to be doing with technology. Also there are a lot of bad things presented on the internet that the students can accessed such as violence, pornographic materials, and hateful things can all be accessed by students. Besides the unacceptable content, the internet is overwhelmed by the wrong information.This is especially a big problem when it comes to education because if students are seeking answers to a question, they could easily come across the incorrect answer and not realize it. Moreover, technology causes easier cheating for the students.They are able to simply search an answer to a question and instantly find the answer. The experiment that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) found that allowing students to use computers and the internet in classrooms substantially harms their grades The students barred from using laptops or digital devices in lessons did better in their exams than those allowed to use computers and access the internet. The researchers suggested that removing laptops and iPads from classes was the equivalent of improving the quality of teaching.The study divided 726 students into three groups. The control group’s classrooms were “technology-free,” meaning students were not allowed to use laptops or tablets at their desk. Another group was allowed to use computers and other devices, and the third group had restricted access to tablets. The researchers concluded that, “The results from our randomised experiment suggest that computer devices have a substantial negative effect on academic performance,” the suggesting that the distraction of an electronic device complete with internet access outweighed their use for note-taking or research during lessons.” For the future of the technology in education, we need to make sure that students retain the ability to problem solve and think for themselves.


what is minimalism?





Photography is a kind of thing to keep all the necessary objects together in the narrative. In other words, all unnecessary objects are separated from the photograph. We need to find objects that reflect what we want to tell, the content of the photo we want to tell. To describe the innocence of a little child, the photo is about the child and the child only. “What is Minimal Photography?” Minimal photography is the simplest form of photography. To describe your wish in the simplest way is to separate unnecessary objects from the photograph. People want to be fancy in their photos, thinking they need some objects and decorations. However, it is possible to look fancy by using mainstream objects. The resulting work is characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a deliberate lack of expressive content. When you are looking at a small screen minimalism works really well.

why do people prefer minimalism? According to the main purpose of minimalist art, we can not see any mess in the background so the object or person that requested to be taken in the photo frame can take the attention. Furthermore, doing this you will meet with the audience of the intended message in the easiest way. Besides all these, the photographer does not tire and it needs a low budget. A photographer who does not need extra information and technical equipment can easily attract community attention.



how to take minimalist pictures?

Step one: Take a person or an object and find a background (Make sure that background is not including any mess.) Step two: Choose an angle but it should be looking aesthetic and good looking like from the right, left or in the middle of the picture. Another important thing which must be checked is the lightning. You can follow the steps we used before for the angle. Step three: If you are sure about the angle you can take a picture to ensure that it is okay.

Step four: After you did all of these steps you can focus on details like posing, the contingency of the object/person with the background. Step five: Posting on the social media. You are done, enjoy your likes.

art visions



We aimed to enlarge the artview of the delegates by giving them a chance to create something that belongs to the organization.



romanticism vs realism under the roof of ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// EYP




Romanticism, a phenomenon that affected many art-relevant fields through the 18th and 19th century. The idea behind this culture is all about setting the target viewer’s feelings free. In various fields, every individual artist interpreted their inspirations under romanticism, and this movement gave uncountable also valuable works to our art-history. As a reaction to this reformist move, another crazy-hipster-shocking movement was invented, and it’s called Realism. Especially in literature, we can easily observe the difference, however it is totally not difficult to see the goods on other fields. As you, my lovely reader, can see some significant paintings of these movements. The painting on the left represents the romanticism in visual arts. This painting, Fisherman at Sea by JMW Turner from the year of 1794, including some wild waves through the sea painted with dark colors has this dark aura which can be considered as the happiness after some desperate events by the sunlight coming from the sky. In fact, this is the idea behind the romanticism movement, anyone can feel different things by looking at the same painting. Contrasting with the other painting, Young Ladies of the Village (the one on the right) by Gustave Courbet from the year of 1852, pictures a group of young women hanging around the meadow. Despite the fact that it really is a masterpiece, it closes all the doors for some creative comments on it. This is what realism is, right? I can hear you thinking about the connection between these movements to EYP, alright, keep reading.



When I was a delegate for the first time, all I thought about was improving my world-view and satisfying myself as a littlepolitician. But later on, I realized the fact that this place is not all about politics or that kind of stuff, it is also about humanrelations and self-realization. This is the point where the topic, Romanticism, walks to the stage. This organization has its veryown soul, and it is so wide that anyone can take something to themselves in a different class. According to my opinion, this a place where I can get amazed by the difference between everyone else’s ideas about the same topic. This is a place where I can impress people on the stage, as a delegate. Where I can get into arts, as a media team member. Where I can feel the emotions of happiness, stress, satisfaction and getting amazed at the same time.

On the other hand, everyone needs to get out of that Romantic aura and act more realistic sometimes -even more if you are an organizer. I have never been an organizer before, but according to my observations from my lovely organizer friends, you need to realistic more than anyone in a session if you are a member of the organization team. You can dream about all the notional acts in a session and get satisfied by every piece of your thoughts, however we all are tasked to do some stuff to make this event as inspiring as it can be. You need to keep up with your topic if you are a delegate and even more, you need to know every detail of it as a chairperson. Stuff gets serious during the GA. You need to be ready for every word that you will hear against of your work, and yeah that is the realistic part.

EYP is an organization where you can enjoy yourself in all the ways possible, and we are the members of one of the best unofficial sessions of Turkey and there is millions of ways to experience both romantic and realistic sides of it. I hope, everyone in this session whether they’re officials or delegates, love you all.



spaceX, elon musk, and modern society //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////



Curiosity, passion, irresponsibility, and marketability. These were at the center of the colonial expeditions of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. However, the scientific nature of these discoveries have not barred the invasive culture from committing mass atrocities or eradicating an entire species.[1] Most of these colonial explorations were conducted by private companies even though they had received government funding from European kingdoms at the time, and this has been a major difference between space exploration and colonial expeditions. However, with the rise of private space agencies— primarily Elon Musk’s SpaceX— the line gets more and more blurred every day.

SpaceX is a for-profit company, not a government agency, and while that may seem beneficial as it mitigates most of the bureaucracy surrounding NASA, it also brings in an immense focus on marketing—-with a ton of romanticism surrounding “Elon Musk” and “Mars Colonization”—and a low degree of government control. SpaceX is not just a company that launches satellites and works for scientific innovation, it has an impeccable presence in the eyes of the public and Elon Musk is simply a celebrity in the eyes of the American public. Elon Musk has over six million followers on Instagram while SpaceX has only two and a half million; this is mostly caused by how much of a romanticized public figure Elon Musk is. He reveals SpaceX projects the same way Apple reveals a new consumer product, gets into debates with other public figures (such as his feud with Facebook’s founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg on artificial intelligence) on scientific issues, and has been on TV countless times.


Musk’s statements about his whole-hearted intentions are sentimental and painted as the benevolent protagonist of a science fiction story. No matter what his intentions may be, this form of public presence is extremely dangerous for American society. Romanticism, whether it be about religion or science, always causes some form of violence and irresponsible behavior. One of Musk’s latest stunts, sending his beloved Tesla car to space,[2] may be completely useless and also harmful, considering the fact that a car is not built to be a sterilized dummy for rocket testing; in fact, it is extremely dysfunctional and may actually cause a huge biohazard for Mars. It is all symbolic and romanticized the same way an Apple phone would have a completely useless function—or dysfunction— that would cause public controversy surrounding the product, and therefore, free and effective marketing.

This romanticized approach to marketing for SpaceX as dangerous creates a dilemma. On one hand, it creates a public understanding of space exploration that works much more faster and more efficiently than NASA ever has in its almostsixty-year-life. This efficiency cannot be ignored. However, the fact that space exploration is not a simple consumer product should be taken into consideration when evaluating SpaceX. Space exploration holds immense power in terms of resources and public interaction. It holds the power to establish new countries or completely disregard all of earth’s resources. While the expanding horizon is exciting, it is also dangerous if not handled properly, and SpaceX’s current attitude does not demonstrate responsibility or thorough consideration of sociological and ethical issues that will potentially arise within a Mars colony.


There are also countless hazards awaiting future cosmonauts. The longest time any person has spent in space is 438 days.[3] The shortest the trip to Mars has ever taken is 128 days,[4] which already is a quite long amount of time for any human to be cramped into a small spacecraft. When the trip back to Earth and the time it will take any for considerable progress on Mars colonization to be made is taken into account, this trip seems arbitrary and hazardous. It is likely that SpaceX is working to solve the countless issues including deadly space radiation, psychological issues and social complications, but the information is not public. SpaceX is working towards the expansion of the entire human race with extreme ambiguity about its future.


1. 2. 3. 4.



all the others



Even though people might think electric vehicles are relatively new inventions they actually go way back than you expect. They go before the millenials, before Gen X, even before simple USB flash drives. The most basic version of the EVs you know today, was invented in 1828 by a Hungarian guy named Anyos Jedlik. He put together an early type of electric motor -which is basically the basis for most electric vehicles today- and then created a small model car powered by that same motor. About a decade later, in 1834, this time a blacksmith named Thomas Davenport built something quite similar to what Anyos Jedlik did, it operated on a short, circular, electrified track. Although, truth be told two years before Thomas had built his track, another guy named Robert Anderson had developed the first crude electric vehicle.

But even though what they did was pretty significant for their times, none of it really mattered until the 1870s that electric cars actually became practical, as you could guess from the year it was built by the French and the English. It wasn’t until the 1890s that the Americans could find a way to come up with their own electric car. That time it was not an engineer either, but rather a chemist. After that, over the next years various automakers began making and distributing electric vehicles. By the 1900s electric cars were at their prime and were actually accountable for a third of all the cruising vehicles on the jet black asphalt road.

Quite frankly, the rest is history. Today with electric vehicles as a popular topic, and Tesla on the rise, Elon Musk on peoples’ minds everyone is waiting for the next innovation to be on sale. So next time you think of buying a new, cool, efficient electric car don’t forget to give props to all the names in history, all the people whose efforts have made it possible for today's manufacturers and innovative minds’ to do all of these amazing things. Remember Anyos, and Robert, and Thomas, and the other unsung names.

This 1896 advertisement shows how many early electric vehicles were not much different than carriages.


an electric vehicle built by an English inventor in 1884

bullying laws all around the world


Belgium Belgium has brought laws to sweep any violence, bullying and undesired sexual behavior in the workplace. With these laws, employers are responsible for the psychological health of employees, and managing all risks of stress, burnout or unacceptable behavior. Belgium is actively addressing the problem of a growth in cyber bullying and is working on advances anti-bullying laws.


France France refers to bullying s moral harassment and defines it as “repeated acts leading to a deterioration of the working conditions that are likely to harm the dignity, physical or psychological health of the victim or his/her career.”


Belgium is actively addressing the problem of a growth in cyber bullying and is working on advances anti-bullying laws.

Sweden is the first country ever with laws that prohibit all kinds of bullying in the workplace. One of the laws require employers to immediately investigate and counter any instances of bullying as they arise, but also aim to resolve the problem through dialogue.

United Kingdom

South Africa

Cyber bullying itself is not a criminal offence in the UK, however there are many laws that can be adjusted to cyber bullying. Also in the workplace, bullying isn’t against the law, while harassment is.

In South Africa, children under the age of 18 can also approach the courts without their parent’s knowledge. In 2013, the country has published wide-ranging labour laws to combat harassment in the workplace.



In schools, each state or territory forms its own set of anti-bullying policies and in the workplace, individuals are encouraged to first try to resolve the issue through the organisation’s harassment policy. If this doesn’t resolve the problem, however, it’s possible to seek help by taking it to the Fair Work Commission.

China has hard-boiled anti-bullying laws, and is especially aggressive in its attempts to tackle cyber bullying. The country recently released a law, requiring people to register with their real names on the internet. With the law, tracking down individuals has become more easy for the government, therefore pressing over an authority on what people post or send each other online.



Japan released a law in 2013, requiring schools to adress bullying and report incidents immediately.The country has no specific laws to adress any bullying in the workplace. But there are laws in place regarding harassment, assault and similar that can be enforced.

Philippines has wide- ranging provisions to protect children from any kind of abuse. The laws command all private and public schools to have a bullying prevention program that include staff and students at all grades. Withal, workplace bullying is far less refined.

Singapore Singapore has criminalized cyber bullying both in workplace and schoolyards, in 2014. Any sort of assault, harassment and stalking are illegal and resulting in a fine of up to 5,000 dollars or one year in jail. Repeated crime faces 10,000 dollars or a jail term of two years.




technology in our lives



Technology is defined as “the study and knowledge of the practical, especially industrial, use of scientific discoveries.” As every new idea leads to a discovery and a new use of technology, many new technological devices being produced every single day. Acknowledging that we are at a digital age, we can reach any information we want in a matter of seconds. What could be better in reaching information instantly than a device located just on your pocket? are affected by these technological devices. Although quite useful, technology has various effects on teenagers that they should be aware of. First of all, Technology is present even in the simplest tasks. It goes unnoticed, but technology is used every second from the devices we use to the clothes we wear. However, technological devices take up a lot of our time and they are used more than realized. Technology is extremely addictive and unfortunately many teens are addicted to it. Almost all teens who have access to the internet cannot go for a day without using it. Teens are slowly becoming more and more impatient since they cannot keep up with the speed of technology. we had. We are suddenly defined by the things we post or the number of our followers. But what we choose to share with the world is not who we are because these little extracts of our personalities are only the tip of the iceberg. It is believed that our social media accounts makes us closer to each other when in reality, it creates a barrier between us. In an age where teenagers get to know and judge each other based on the internet, being open-minded is quite important. Because even though the general bias is that teens are closer to each other thanks to technology, they are getting further apart from who they really are and who they want to be, portraying an image of themselves to appeal to others.

The technological device used the most are smartphones. They are one of the most important and efficient inventions that have contributed to people in their everyday lives by means of communication, visual documentation and information. Communication has developed immensely since the invention of smartphones because texting, video chatting and social media have brought it onto a whole new level. But perhaps, we should not consider how fast we can reach each other but rather how we

Teenagers get so used to getting what they want, whenever they want. Unfortunately, desires are not fulfilled that easily in real life. These unrealistic expectations that cannot be kept up with, easily upsets teens. Another negative effect is produced by social media. Social media plays an important role in teenagers’ lives where they use different platforms to express themselves on. However, as teenagers we tend to hide behind our social media accounts, constructing an unreal image of ourselves while trying to fake the life we wish

Although these effects of technology might be overwhelming, they are not supposed to convince anyone to stop using technology. Technology is among us and will always be in our lives. However, if teenagers are aware of all of the effects of technology, then it can be used efficiently. Technology can serve humanity its purpose best with the awareness of teens.


mad lips



After their ________ experience at koc forum, the main team and the officials team decided to ________ at Hawaii. After _____ hours of flying, While the chair of EMPL, Arif was in a ________ sleep, he started to feel slight vibrations. At first, he couldn’t understand the reasons, but then he saw a ________ tall ________ in front of him. He immediately yelled ________!! Next to him was his journalist, Zeynep. His ________ screams woke her up. When she saw the ________ tall ________ , because of her ________ personality, she immediately stood up and did a ________ on the ________. The monster was now lying on the ground, but then the President noticed something on the monster: A shiny silver zipper! She told ________ to come over. When ________ opened the zipper, it was ________ who was just trying to prank Arif. When the chair of FEMM, Yavuzhan learned about this hilarious story in his business class seat, he offered ________ a ________. He was having the time of his life. When the officials team landed on Hawaii, they saw ________ in a tiny red bikini. It wasn’t going to be the most bizarre thing they saw in this island. When they arrived at the hotel, they realized Dora was waiting for them in the lobby. He surprised his team members with some ________! They were all so happy. But something was wrong. Why was Dora here? The answer was quick and simple: to explore the island! After settling in their rooms, ________ decided it was time for a nice swim at the ocean. But as ________ started getting closer, (s)he realized the ocean was ________, fading into ________. But everybody in the main team were already swimming and enjoying the beautiful waters of Hawaii. So ________ started running towards the sea. When ________ finally made it to the sea, s(he) woke up with a ________ on his/her ________

THE WORDS 1. an adjective 2. a verb 3. > 10 4. an adjective 5. a number > 200 cm 6. a monster 7. an exclamation 8. the same number > 200 cm 9. the same monster 10. A vice president 11. The same vp 12. an official 13. an official 14. a beverage 15. an official 16. a spicy food 17. a main team member 18. the same main team member 19. an ugly color 20. another ugly color 21. the same main team member 22. the same main team member 23. a big animal 24. a body part

startup companies and our future




Startups are lack over Europe even though it is a popular concept in the world. China, USA, and Canada take the lead to the digitalized start-up firms. The gap between Europe and these countries are getting larger in every day and entrepreneurs have no incentive to start up a business in Europe. Two main discouragements for European entrepreneurs are lack of finance and more critical regulatory and administrative burden on entrepreneurs. First of all, lack of finance influences both starting up a new business and scaling up. According to a survey done in 2014 as seen in figure below, 21% of participants complains about lack of capital. The cost of starting up a new business, especially digitally, usually is cheap in the world. Therefore, instead of focusing on how to raise money for entrepreneurs, it would be more logical to analyze the cost of production and decrease. Also, the European Member States live under the policy of European Single Market, which the explanation is given above. Systems of this single market are very complicated, and it makes entrepreneurs to start-up outside of EU. Firstly, taxes are very high according to countries like China. Start-ups, especially in e-commerce need to comply with 81 different VAT-regimes in each EU-market. Tax compliance in the Single Market has become a significant cost factor. Business Registration and other administrative procedures is another big concept. Compliance with regulatory procedures in other European markets is complicated as national administrations often do not offer online identification and trust systems for remote execution. The serious problem of startup failure is addressed by various institutions of the EU that focus on reducing unemployment in the Member States, and numerous others that call for attention to the importance of support for newly emerging businesses. Initially, European Parliament Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) can be considered a key actor as it works to increase employment levels in the EU. The Council is responsible for setting annual employment guidelines that Member States take into account. The Employment Committee (EMCO) of the European Commission is also an important key actor in terms of addressing the issue of unemployment in Member States, as it forms the advisory committee for the ministers in the EPSCO. To continue, The Executive Agency for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (EASME) acts as a key factor by managing and implementing several essential EU programs aiming to increase the success of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s), such as a substantial part of Horizon 2020, the EU Framework for Research and Innovation, incorporating important support plans including the SME Instrument. The Executive Agency for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises aims to increase the success rate of enterprises across Europe by promoting healthy competition and innovation. The European Investment Bank (EIB) is the bank representing the interests of the European Union Member States. One of the main areas of focus of the EIB is access to finance by small businesses, in an aim to reduce startup failure.

Works Cited

All in all, in order us to sustain our creativity and work done we should support • the startup companies. Those companies could have problems which may be • dissolved. I wish that those problems are solved by the committee of EMPL. •



projected faces



Taking eccentric photographs by lighting up people’s faces using projection and colorful images.



///////////////////////////////////////////// //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


the RAM - KOCFORUM18 magazine  
the RAM - KOCFORUM18 magazine  

This is the official publication of the KOCFORUM18 media team to creatively support the academic content of the conference. Enjoy the read!